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Sample records for arabidopsis sterol carrier

  1. Analysis of Vascular Development in the hydra Sterol Biosynthetic Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Margaret; Clark, Nick; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Background The control of vascular tissue development in plants is influenced by diverse hormonal signals, but their interactions during this process are not well understood. Wild-type sterol profiles are essential for growth, tissue patterning and signalling processes in plant development, and are required for regulated vascular patterning. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we investigate the roles of sterols in vascular tissue development, through an analysis of the Arabidopsis mutants hydra1 and fackel/hydra2, which are defective in the enzymes sterol isomerase and sterol C-14 reductase respectively. We show that defective vascular patterning in the shoot is associated with ectopic cell divisions. Expression of the auxin-regulated AtHB8 homeobox gene is disrupted in mutant embryos and seedlings, associated with variably incomplete vascular strand formation and duplication of the longitudinal axis. Misexpression of the auxin reporter proIAA2∶GUS and mislocalization of PIN proteins occurs in the mutants. Introduction of the ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutation partially rescues defective cell division, localization of PIN proteins, and vascular strand development. Conclusions The results support a model in which sterols are required for correct auxin and ethylene crosstalk to regulate PIN localization, auxin distribution and AtHB8 expression, necessary for correct vascular development. PMID:20808926

  2. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ(7-Sterol-C5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7, Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase (DWARF5 and Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1 show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh L.

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    Daniele Silvestro

    Full Text Available Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of Δ(7-sterol-C(5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7, Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1 and Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase (DWARF5 were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase and Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas Δ(7-sterol-C(5-desaturase was clearly detected in lipid particles. These findings raise new challenging questions about the spatial and dynamic cellular organization of sterol biosynthesis in plants.

  3. Binding of 7-dehydrocholesterol to sterol carrier protein and vitamin D3 effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was confirmed that deltasup(5,7)-sterol delta7-reductase activity was suppressed by cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the enzyme system consisted of microsomes and sterol carrier protein (SCP). The enzyme activity was significantly decreased in the combination with microsomes obtained from either vitamin D-deficient or vitamin D3-treated rat liver and with SCP obtained from vitamin D3-treated rat. It was also demonstrated by the binding assay of the dextran-charcoal technique that 7-dehydrocholesterol binding to SCP could be specifically displaced by vitamin D3. The inhibition of cholecalciferol on 7-dehydro-cholesterol binding to liver SCP was confirmed to be non-competitive inhibition. (auth.)

  4. Plasma membrane lipid-protein interactions affect signaling processes in sterol-biosynthesis mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Henrik eZauber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane is an important organelle providing structure, signaling and transport as major biological functions. Being composed of lipids and proteins with different physicochemical properties, the biological functions of membranes depend on specific protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. Interactions of proteins with their specific sterol and lipid environment were shown to be important factors for protein recruitment into sub-compartmental structures of the plasma membrane. System-wide implications of altered endogenous sterol levels for membrane functions in living cells were not studied in higher plant cells. In particular, little is known how alterations in membrane sterol composition affect protein and lipid organization and interaction within membranes. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the plasma membrane protein and lipid composition in Arabidopsis sterol-biosynthesis mutants smt1 and ugt80A2;B1. smt1 shows general alterations in sterol composition while ugt80A2;B1 is significantly impaired in sterol glycosylation. By systematically analyzing different cellular fractions and combining proteomic with lipidomic data we were able to reveal contrasting alterations in lipid-protein interactions in both mutants, with resulting differential changes in plasma membrane signaling status.

  5. Characterization of Arabidopsis sterol glycosyltransferase TTG15/UGT80B1 role during freeze and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K; Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Shalini; Singh, Ruchi; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases regulate the properties of sterols by catalyzing the transfer of carbohydrate molecules to the sterol moiety for the synthesis of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides. We have analyzed the functional role of TTG15/UGT80B1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in freeze/thaw and heat shock stress using T-DNA insertional sgt knockout mutants. Quantitative study of spatial as well as temporal gene expression showed tissue-specific and dynamic expression patterns throughout the growth stages. Comparative responses of Col-0, TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines were analyzed under heat and freeze stress conditions. Heat tolerance was determined by survival of plants at 42°C for 3 h, MDA analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence image (CFI) analysis. Freezing tolerance was determined by survival of the plants at -1°C temperature in non-acclimatized (NA) and cold acclimatized (CA) conditions and also by CFI analysis, which revealed that, p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored plants were more adapted to freeze stress than TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant under CA condition. HPLC analysis of the plants showed reduced sterol glycoside in mutant seedlings as compared to other genotypes. Following CA condition, both β-sitosterol and sitosterol glycoside quantity was more in Col-0 and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines, whereas it was significantly less in TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutants. From these results, it may be concluded that due to low content of free sterols and sterol glycosides, the physiology of mutant plants was more affected during both, the chilling and heat stress. PMID:26382564

  6. Effect of sterol carrier protein-2 gene ablation on HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Stephen M.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Kerstin K. Landrock; Martin, Gregory G.; Huang, Huan; Ross Payne, H.; Johnson, Jeffery D.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Although HDL-mediated cholesterol transport to the liver is well studied, cholesterol efflux from hepatocytes back to HDL is less well understood. Real-time imaging of efflux of 22-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol), which is poorly esterified, and [3H]cholesterol, which is extensively esterified, from cultured primary hepatocytes of wild-type and sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) gene-ablated mice showed that 1) NBD-cholesterol efflux w...

  7. Studies on the mode of action of sterol carrier protein in the dehydrogenation of 5-cholest-7-en-3 beta-ol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterol carrier protein (SCP) promotes the microsomal dehydrogenation of 5-cholest-7-en-3 beta-ol (lathosterol) to 7-dehydrocholesterol. This promotion occurs whether the substrate is exogenous or preincorporated into microsomes. Similarly, SCP promotes an intermembrane transfer of lathosterol from one microsomal population to another. Here the authors present evidence for an SCP-mediated collisional interaction which results in the intermembrane transfer of sterol substrate and excludes a conventional substrate-carrier mechanism for SCP. Radioactive carboxymethyl SCP is shown to bind to microsomes and to anionic phospholipids but not to phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of microsomes with trypsin, but not with phospholipase A2, reduces SCP binding. Binding studies with small molecules substantiate the identity of SCP with Z-protein

  8. Characterization of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene and ligand-bound protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, David H.; Vyazunova, Irina; Lorch, Jeffery M.; Forest, Katrina T.; Lan, Que; (UW)

    2009-06-12

    The sterol carrier protein-2 like 3 gene (AeSCP-2L3), a new member of the SCP-2 protein family, is identified from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The predicted molecular weight of AeSCP-2L3 is 13.4 kDa with a calculated pI of 4.98. AeSCP-2L3 transcription occurs in the larval feeding stages and the mRNA levels decrease in pupae and adults. The highest levels of AeSCP-2L3 gene expression are found in the body wall, and possibly originated in the fat body. This is the first report of a mosquito SCP-2-like protein with prominent expression in tissue other than the midgut. The X-ray protein crystal structure of AeSCP-2L3 reveals a bound C16 fatty acid whose acyl tail penetrates deeply into a hydrophobic cavity. Interestingly, the ligand-binding cavity is slightly larger than previously described for AeSCP-2 (Dyer et al. J Biol Chem 278:39085-39091, 2003) and AeSCP-2L2 (Dyer et al. J Lipid Res M700460-JLR200, 2007). There are also an additional 10 amino acids in SCP-2L3 that are not present in other characterized mosquito SCP-2s forming an extended loop between {beta}3 and {beta}4. Otherwise, the protein backbone is exceedingly similar to other SCP-2 and SCP-2-like proteins. In contrast to this observed high structural homology of members in the mosquito SCP2 family, the amino acid sequence identity between the members is less than 30%. The results from structural analysis imply that there have been evolutionary constraints that favor the SCP-2 C{alpha} backbone fold while the specificity of ligand binding can be altered.

  9. Plasma membrane lipid–protein interactions affect signaling processes in sterol-biosynthesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Zauber, Henrik; Burgos, Asdrubal; Garapati, Prashanth; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important organelle providing structure, signaling and transport as major biological functions. Being composed of lipids and proteins with different physicochemical properties, the biological functions of membranes depend on specific protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. Interactions of proteins with their specific sterol and lipid environment were shown to be important factors for protein recruitment into sub-compartmental structures of the plasma membrane...

  10. Auxin influx carriers control vascular patterning and xylem differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Norma Fàbregas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Auxin is an essential hormone for plant growth and development. Auxin influx carriers AUX1/LAX transport auxin into the cell, while auxin efflux carriers PIN pump it out of the cell. It is well established that efflux carriers play an important role in the shoot vascular patterning, yet the contribution of influx carriers to the shoot vasculature remains unknown. Here, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to decipher the role of auxin influx carriers in the patterning and differentiation of vascular tissues in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Our theoretical analysis predicts that influx carriers facilitate periodic patterning and modulate the periodicity of auxin maxima. In agreement, we observed fewer and more spaced vascular bundles in quadruple mutants plants of the auxin influx carriers aux1lax1lax2lax3. Furthermore, we show AUX1/LAX carriers promote xylem differentiation in both the shoot and the root tissues. Influx carriers increase cytoplasmic auxin signaling, and thereby differentiation. In addition to this cytoplasmic role of auxin, our computational simulations propose a role for extracellular auxin as an inhibitor of xylem differentiation. Altogether, our study shows that auxin influx carriers AUX1/LAX regulate vascular patterning and differentiation in plants.

  11. Distribution of sterol carrier protein2 (SCP2) in rat tissues and evidence for slow turnover in liver and adrenal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterol carrier protein2 (SCP2) has been implicated in the regulation of the terminal stages of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, and in sterol utilization for adrenal steroid hormone and hepatic bile acid synthesis. In the present studies, a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay, using [125I] SCP2, has been developed. Highest levels of SCP2 were found in rat liver with progressively lower levels in intestinal mucosa, adrenal, kidney, lung and testis. SCP2 levels were low or absent in heart, brain, skeletal muscle and serum. Liver SCP2 was largely (44%) associated with the microsomal fraction, while in adrenal, 46% was associated with mitochondria, a distribution which is consistent with the proposed roles for SCP2 in these tissues. Levels of SCP2 in AS 30D hepatoma cells were only 5% of those in normal liver. In liver there was no indication of diurnal rhythm of SCP2 in the cytosol and only slight variation of the microsomal SCP2 levels. Fasting has only slight effects on SCP2 concentration of rat liver microsomes and cytosol. Neither ACTH nor cycloheximide treatment of rats had a significant effect on SCP2 distribution in the adrenal. In general, these findings indicate that SCP2 has a low turn-over rate

  12. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ7-Sterol-C5-Desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), Δ5,7-Sterol7-Reductase (DWARF5) and Δ24-Sterol24-Reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh) L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Daniele; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Schaller, Hubert;

    2013-01-01

    Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown to con...... clearly detected in lipid particles. These findings raise new challenging questions about the spatial and dynamic cellular organization of sterol biosynthesis in plants....... contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map of...

  13. Studies on the synthesis of sterol carrier protein-2 in rat adrenocortical cells in monolayer culture. Regulation by ACTH and dibutyryl cyclic 3',5'-AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ACTH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt2cAMP) on the synthesis of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2) have been studied in rat adrenocortical cells in monolayer culture. Radiolabeling of total cellular proteins with [35S]methionine and immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against rat liver SCP2, followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography, showed a 3-4-fold increase in the rate of synthesis of SCP2 in cells treated for 48 h with ACTH (1 microM) or Bt2cAMP (0.1 mM). The induction of SCP2 synthesis depended upon the concentrations of ACTH or Bt2cAMP with an ED50 of 8 and 100 nM, respectively, and increased linearly with time between 12 and 48 h of treatment. Immunoprecipitation of SCP2 synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte in vitro translation system programmed with RNA isolated from cells treated with ACTH or Bt2cAMP revealed increased synthesis of SCP2 compared to RNA from control cells. The immunoprecipitable rat adrenal SCP2, synthesized in a cell-free translation system, showed mobility corresponding to Mr of 14,400 upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was clearly larger than immunodetectable SCP2 synthesized in cultured adrenal cells (Mr = 11,300). The electrophoretic mobilities of rat liver SCP2 synthesized in cultured cells and in a cell-free translation system were the same as the respective forms from rat adrenal

  14. THAP and ATF-2 regulated sterol carrier protein-2 promoter activities in the larval midgut of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Fu, Qiang; Hong, Huazhu; Schwaegler, Tyler; Lan, Que

    2012-01-01

    Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream -1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the -1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the -1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled -1.6/-1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP) and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between -1.6 to -1.3 kb 5' upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression. PMID:23056538

  15. THAP and ATF-2 regulated sterol carrier protein-2 promoter activities in the larval midgut of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

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    Rong Peng

    Full Text Available Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2 in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream -1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the -1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the -1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled -1.6/-1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2, antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between -1.6 to -1.3 kb 5' upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression.

  16. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

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    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  17. Insights into the mechanisms of sterol transport between organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmin, Bruno; Antonny, Bruno; Drin, Guillaume

    2013-09-01

    In cells, the levels of sterol vary greatly among organelles. This uneven distribution depends largely on non-vesicular routes of transfer, which are mediated by soluble carriers called lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). These proteins have a domain with a hydrophobic cavity that accommodates one sterol molecule. However, a demonstration of their role in sterol transport in cells remains difficult. Numerous LTPs also contain membrane-binding elements, but it is not clear how these LTPs couple their ability to target organelles with lipid transport activity. This issue appears critical, since many sterol transporters are thought to act at contact sites between two membrane-bound compartments. Here, we emphasize that biochemical and structural studies provide precious insights into the mode of action of sterol-binding proteins. Recent studies on START, Osh/ORP and NPC proteins suggest models on how these proteins could transport sterol between organelles and, thereby, influence cellular functions. PMID:23283302

  18. Male Sterile2 Encodes a Plastid-Localized Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Required for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Shanklin, J.; Yu, X.-H.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Zhang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Male Sterile2 (MS2) is predicted to encode a fatty acid reductase required for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Transient expression of MS2 in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves resulted in the accumulation of significant levels of C16 and C18 fatty alcohols. Expression of MS2 fused with green fluorescent protein revealed that an amino-terminal transit peptide targets the MS2 to plastids. The plastidial localization of MS2 is biologically important because genetic complementation of MS2 in ms2 homozygous plants was dependent on the presence of its amino-terminal transit peptide or that of the Rubisco small subunit protein amino-terminal transit peptide. In addition, two domains, NAD(P)H-binding domain and sterile domain, conserved in MS2 and its homologs were also shown to be essential for MS2 function in pollen exine development by genetic complementation testing. Direct biochemical analysis revealed that purified recombinant MS2 enzyme is able to convert palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein to the corresponding C16:0 alcohol with NAD(P)H as the preferred electron donor. Using optimized reaction conditions (i.e. at pH 6.0 and 30 C), MS2 exhibits a K{sub m} for 16:0-Acyl Carrier Protein of 23.3 {+-} 4.0 {mu}m, a V{sub max} of 38.3 {+-} 4.5 nmol mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency/K{sub m} of 1,873 m{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Based on the high homology of MS2 to other characterized fatty acid reductases, it was surprising that MS2 showed no activity against palmitoyl- or other acyl-coenzyme A; however, this is consistent with its plastidial localization. In summary, genetic and biochemical evidence demonstrate an MS2-mediated conserved plastidial pathway for the production of fatty alcohols that are essential for pollen wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

  19. Sterol metabolism of insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.; Wientjens, W.H.J.M.

    1967-01-01

    This article surveys the present knowledge of the sterol metabolism of insects. It is emphasized that a high degree of purity of the dietary sterols and the climination of the influence of symbionts are essential to present ambiguity in interpreting results. It is pointed out that a sharp distinctio

  20. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2011-03-24

    Deposition of ammonium (NH4 +) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH4 + is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Sterol synthesis in diverse bacteria

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    Jeremy H Wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc, which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from 5 phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult

  2. Arabidopsis TT19 Functions as a Carrier to Transport Anthocyanin from the Cytosol to Tonoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Sun; Hong Li; Ji-Rong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are synthesized in the cytosolic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but dominantly accumulate in the vacuole.Little is known about how anthocyanins are transported from the ER to the vacuole.Here,we provide evidence supporting that Transparent Testa 19 (TT19),a glutathione S-transferase (GST),functions as a carrier to transport cyanidin and/or anthocyanins to the tonoplast.We identified a novel tt19 mutant (tt19-7),which barely accumulates anthocyanins but produces a 36% higher level of flavonol than the wild-type (WT),from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenized seeds.Expressing TT19-fused green fluorescence protein (GFP) in tt19-7 rescues the mutant phenotype in defective anthocyanin biosynthesis,indicating that TT19-GFP is functional.We further showed that TT19-GFP is localized not only in the cytoplasm and nuclei,but also on the tonoplast.The membrane localization of TT19-GFP was further ascertained by immunoblot analysis.In vitro assay showed that the purified recombinant TT19 increases water solubility of cyanidin (Cya) and cyanidin-3-O-glycoside (C3G).Compared with C3G,Cya can dramatically quench the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of TT19 to much lower levels,indicating a higher affinity of TT19 to Cya than to C3G.Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis also confirmed physical interaction between TT19 and C3G.Taken together,our data reveal molecular mechanism underlying TT19-mediated anthocyanin transportation.

  3. Intracellular Sterol Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mesmin, Bruno; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    We review the cellular mechanisms implicated in cholesterol trafficking and distribution. Recent studies have provided new information about the distribution of sterols within cells, including analysis of its transbilayer distribution. The cholesterol interaction with other lipids and its engagement in various trafficking processes will determine its proper level in a specific membrane; making the cholesterol distribution uneven among the various intracellular organelles. The cholesterol cont...

  4. Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols

    OpenAIRE

    Weete, John D.; Abril, Maritza; Blackwell, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Background Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Δ5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. The...

  5. SUPLEMENTASI STEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM (Triticum sp. PADA MARGARIN (Supplementation of Margarine with Wheat Germ Sterol

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    Sri Anna Marliyati1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Margarine is a water in oil (w/o emulsion product which is widely used for household cooking and baking industry. Consuming of margarine, which contains trans fatty acid may cause health problem due to the increase of LDL cholesterol. Since margarine is also a good carrier of phytosterol which prevent the absorption of cholesterol, there is a possibility to formulate a healthier margarine. In this research formulation and characteristics of products was investigated. The research work consisted of two steps: (1 supplementation of wheat germ sterol into margarine (two methods and (2 analysis of physical, chemical characteristics and hedonic score. Parameters of physical characteristics were melting point and emulsion stability, whereas chemical characteristics were water and oil contents. The hedonic test was carried out based on product’s color, odor, taste, texture, and spreadability. Results showed that method II of supplementation produced better margarine than method I, in which the concentration of sterol in the margarine was higher with a melting point similar to that of control, better emulsion stability, and higher hedonic score. Supplementation process was carried out by mixing sterol into fat phase melted at 50 0C, followed by mixing with aqueous phase at 4 0C. Sterol used for method II was extracted using mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol at the ratio of 1:2 (v/v, which was resulted from previous experimentation.

  6. A search for mosquito larvicidal compounds by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2, through computational screening and docking strategies

    OpenAIRE

    R Barani Kumar; Shanmugapriya, B.; Thiyagesan, K; S Raj Kumar; Suresh M Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sterol is a very vital compound for most of the insects and mosquitoes to complete their life cycle. Unfortunately mosquitoes cannot synthesize the sterol, it depends on mammals for the same. Mosquitoes take the sterol from the plant decays during their larval stage in the form of phytosterol, which is then converted to cholesterol for further growth and reproduction. This conversion occurs with the help of the sterol carrier protein 2(SCP2). Methods: Mosquito populations are cont...

  7. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  8. Arabidopsis acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase AAE15 with medium chain fatty acid specificity is functional in cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Hudson, Elton P.; Fulda, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are potential hosts for the biosynthesis of oleochemical compounds. The metabolic precursors for such compounds are fatty acids and their derivatives, which require chemical activation to become substrates in further conversion steps. We characterized the acyl activating enzyme AAE15 of Arabidopsis encoded by At4g14070, which is a homologue of a cyanobacterial acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS). We expressed AAE15 in insect cells and demonstrated its AAS activity with medium chain fatty ...

  9. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra; Appelqvist, Lars-Åke

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The...

  10. ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE2 and 3 Are Responsible for Making Omega-7 Fatty Acids in the Arabidopsis Aleurone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fiona M; Munoz-Azcarate, Olaya; Kelly, Amélie A; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids (ω-7s) are specifically enriched in the aleurone of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We found significant natural variation in seed ω-7 content and used a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population to fine-map a major quantitative trait loci to a region containing ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE1 (AAD1) and AAD3 We found that AAD3 expression is localized to the aleurone where mutants show an approximately 50% reduction in ω-7 content. By contrast, AAD1 is localized to the embryo where mutants show a small reduction in ω-9 content. Enzymatic analysis has previously shown that AAD family members possess both stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP Δ(9) desaturase activity, including the predominant isoform SUPPRESSOR OF SALICYLIC ACID INSENSITIVE2. However, aad3 ssi2 aleurone contained the same amount of ω-7s as aad3 Within the AAD family, AAD3 shares the highest degree of sequence similarity with AAD2 and AAD4. Mutant analysis showed that AAD2 also contributes to ω-7 production in the aleurone, and aad3 aad2 exhibits an approximately 85% reduction in ω-7s Mutant analysis also showed that FATTY ACID ELONGASE1 is required for the production of very long chain ω-7s in the aleurone. Together, these data provide genetic evidence that the ω-7 pathway proceeds via Δ(9) desaturation of palmitoyl-ACP followed by elongation of the product. Interestingly, significant variation was also identified in the ω-7 content of Brassica napus aleurone, with the highest level detected being approximately 47% of total fatty acids. PMID:27462083

  11. Lysine(63)-linked ubiquitylation of PIN2 auxin carrier protein governs hormonally controlled adaptation of Arabidopsis root growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leitner, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Tomanov, K.; Retzer, K.; Pařezová, Markéta; Korbei, B.; Bachmair, A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Luschnig, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 21 (2012), s. 8322-8327. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PLASMA-MEMBRANE PROTEIN * EFFLUX CARRIER * INTRACELLULAR TRAFFICKING Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  12. HPLC analysis of plant sterol oxidation products

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmo, Suvi

    2008-01-01

    Increased interest in the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols has led to development of plant sterol-enriched foods. When products are enriched, the safety of the added components must be evaluated. In the case of plant sterols, oxidation is the reaction of main concern. In vitro studies have indicated that cholesterol oxides may have harmful effects. Due their structural similarity, plant sterol oxidation products may have similar health implications. This study concentrated on...

  13. A new sterol glycoside from Securidaca inappendiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Yang, Xue-Dong; Xu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Zhong-Mei; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2005-08-01

    From the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata, one new sterol glycoside securisteroside (1) has been isolated, along with two known sterols, spinasterol (2) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-spinasterol (3). The new sterol was characterized by chemical and spectrometric methods, including EIMS, FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:16087640

  14. Two fatty acid desaturases, STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Δ9-DESATURASE6 and FATTY ACID DESATURASE3, are involved in drought and hypoxia stress signaling in Arabidopsis crown galls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Joern; Faist, Hanna; Saupe, Stefanie; Lambertz, Sophie; Krischke, Markus; Stingl, Nadja; Fekete, Agnes; Mueller, Martin J; Feussner, Ivo; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    analysis of SAD6 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli failed, SAD6 was ectopically expressed in the background of the well-known suppressor of salicylic acid-insensitive2 (ssi2-2) mutant to confirm the desaturase function of SAD6. All known ssi2-2 phenotypes were rescued, including the......Agrobacterium tumefaciens-derived crown galls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain elevated levels of unsaturated fatty acids and strongly express two fatty acid desaturase genes, ω3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) and STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Δ9-DESATURASE6 (SAD6). The fad3-2 mutant...... with impaired α-linolenic acid synthesis developed significantly smaller crown galls under normal, but not under high, relative humidity. This strongly suggests that FAD3 plays a role in increasing drought stress tolerance of crown galls. SAD6 is a member of the SAD family of as yet unknown function...

  15. Non-vesicular sterol transport in cells

    OpenAIRE

    Prinz, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Sterols such as cholesterol are important components of cellular membranes. They are not uniformly distributed among organelles and maintaining the proper distribution of sterols is critical for many cellular functions. Both vesicular and non-vesicular pathways move sterols between membranes and into and out of cells. There is growing evidence that a number of non-vesicular transport pathways operate in cells and, in the past few years, a number of proteins have been proposed to facilitate th...

  16. Multiple Functions of Sterols in Yeast Endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Heese-Peck, Antje; Pichler, Harald; Zanolari, Bettina; Watanabe, Reika; Daum, Günther; Riezman, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Sterols are essential factors for endocytosis in animals and yeast. To investigate the sterol structural requirements for yeast endocytosis, we created a variety of ergΔ mutants, each accumulating a distinct set of sterols different from ergosterol. Mutant erg2Δerg6Δ and erg3Δerg6Δ cells exhibit a strong internalization defect of the α-factor receptor (Ste2p). Specific sterol structures are necessary for pheromone-dependent receptor hyperphosphorylation, a prerequisite for internalization. Th...

  17. Sterol Methyl Oxidases Affect Embryo Development via Auxin-Associated Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Sun, Shuangli; Nie, Xiang; Boutté, Yohann; Grison, Magali; Li, Panpan; Kuang, Susu; Men, Shuzhen

    2016-05-01

    Sterols are essential molecules for multiple biological processes, including embryogenesis, cell elongation, and endocytosis. The plant sterol biosynthetic pathway is unique in the involvement of two distinct sterol 4α-methyl oxidase (SMO) families, SMO1 and SMO2, which contain three and two isoforms, respectively, and are involved in sequential removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. In this study, we characterized the biological functions of members of the SMO2 gene family. SMO2-1 was strongly expressed in most tissues during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) development, whereas SMO2-2 showed a more specific expression pattern. Although single smo2 mutants displayed no obvious phenotype, the smo2-1 smo2-2 double mutant was embryonic lethal, and the smo2-1 smo2-2/+ mutant was dwarf, whereas the smo2-1/+ smo2-2 mutant exhibited a moderate phenotype. The phenotypes of the smo2 mutants resembled those of auxin-defective mutants. Indeed, the expression of DR5rev:GFP, an auxin-responsive reporter, was reduced and abnormal in smo2-1 smo2-2 embryos. Furthermore, the expression and subcellular localization of the PIN1 auxin efflux facilitator also were altered. Consistent with these observations, either the exogenous application of auxin or endogenous auxin overproduction (YUCCA9 overexpression) partially rescued the smo2-1 smo2-2 embryonic lethality. Surprisingly, the dwarf phenotype of smo2-1 smo2-2/+ was completely rescued by YUCCA9 overexpression. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed a substantial accumulation of 4α-methylsterols, substrates of SMO2, in smo2 heterozygous double mutants. Together, our data suggest that SMO2s are important for correct sterol composition and function partially through effects on auxin accumulation, auxin response, and PIN1 expression to regulate Arabidopsis embryogenesis and postembryonic development. PMID:27006488

  18. Comparative molecular modelling of biologically active sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Mariusz; Mazerski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Membrane sterols are targets for a clinically important antifungal agent - amphotericin B. The relatively specific antifungal action of the drug is based on a stronger interaction of amphotericin B with fungal ergosterol than with mammalian cholesterol. Conformational space occupied by six sterols has been defined using the molecular dynamics method to establish if the conformational features correspond to the preferential interaction of amphotericin B with ergosterol as compared with cholesterol. The compounds studied were chosen on the basis of structural features characteristic for cholesterol and ergosterol and on available experimental data on the ability to form complexes with the antibiotic. Statistical analysis of the data obtained has been performed. The results show similarity of the conformational spaces occupied by all the sterols tested. This suggests that the conformational differences of sterol molecules are not the major feature responsible for the differential sterol - drug affinity.

  19. A search for mosquito larvicidal compounds by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2, through computational screening and docking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Barani Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sterol is a very vital compound for most of the insects and mosquitoes to complete their life cycle. Unfortunately mosquitoes cannot synthesize the sterol, it depends on mammals for the same. Mosquitoes take the sterol from the plant decays during their larval stage in the form of phytosterol, which is then converted to cholesterol for further growth and reproduction. This conversion occurs with the help of the sterol carrier protein 2(SCP2. Methods: Mosquito populations are controlled by plant-based inhibitors, which inhibit sterol carrier protein (SCPI-Sterol carrier protein inhibitor activity. In this article, we explain the methods of inhibiting Aedes aegypti SCP2 by insilico methods including natural inhibitor selection and filtrations by virtual screening and interaction studies. Results: In this study protein-ligand interactions were carried out with various phytochemicals, as a result of virtual screening Alpha-mangostin and Panthenol were found to be good analogs, and were allowed to dock with the mosquito cholesterol carrier protein AeSCP-2. Conclusion: Computational selections of SCPIs are highly reliable and novel methods for discovering new and more effective compounds to control mosquitoes.

  20. Intracellular sterol transport in eukaryotes, a connection to mitochondrial function ?

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiter, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells synthesize sterols in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) from where it needs to be efficiently transported to the plasma membrane, which harbors not, vert, similar90% of the free sterol pool of the cell. Sterols that are being taken up from the environment, on the other hand, are transported back from the plasma membrane to the ER, where the free sterols are esterified to steryl esters. The molecular mechanisms that govern this bidirectional movement of sterols between the ER a...

  1. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Kashman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays.

  2. Plant sterols in food: No consensus in guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Plant sterols are used as food supplement to reduce serum cholesterol levels. • Reductions in serum cholesterol levels are achieved at the expense of increased plant sterol levels. • The potential atherogenicity of increased serum plant sterol levels is controversially debated. • This dispute is reflected by different guideline recommendations in regard to plant sterols. - Abstract: Plant sterols are supplemented in foods to reduce cardiovascular risk. Randomized controlled trials show 2 g of plant sterols a day reduce serum cholesterol by about 10%. This reduction in serum cholesterol levels is achieved at the expense of increased serum plant sterol levels. Findings in patients with phytosterolemia, in experimental studies and in clinical trials have lead to speculations that plant sterols might be atherogenic. In view of emerging safety issues the role of plant sterols in cardiovascular prevention has become controversial. This review reflects the ongoing controversial scientific debate and points out recent developments in guidelines of national and international societies

  3. Influenza viral membrane fusion is sensitive to sterol concentration but surprisingly robust to sterol chemical identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, Katarzyna E; Wrona, Dominik; Rawle, Robert J; Kasson, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virions are enriched in cholesterol relative to the plasma membrane from which they bud. Previous work has shown that fusion between influenza virus and synthetic liposomes is sensitive to the amount of cholesterol in either the virus or the target membrane. Here, we test the chemical properties of cholesterol required to promote influenza fusion by replacing cholesterol with other sterols and assaying viral fusion kinetics. We find that influenza fusion with liposomes is surprisingly robust to sterol chemical identity, showing no significant dependence on sterol identity in target membranes for any of the sterols tested. In the viral membrane, lanosterol slowed fusion somewhat, while polar sterols produced a more pronounced slowing and inhibition of fusion. No other sterols tested showed a significant perturbation in fusion rates, including ones previously shown to alter membrane bending moduli or phase behavior. Although fusion rates depend on viral cholesterol, they thus do not require cholesterol's ability to support liquid-liquid phase coexistence. Using electron cryo-microscopy, we further find that sterol-dependent changes to hemagglutinin spatial patterning in the viral membrane do not require liquid-liquid phase coexistence. We therefore speculate that local sterol-hemagglutinin interactions in the viral envelope may control the rate-limiting step of fusion. PMID:27431907

  4. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam;

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used...... adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ≥40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol...

  5. Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway as Target for Anti-trypanosomatid Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderley de Souza; Juliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic pathway in fungi and in members of the Trypanosomatidae family is one that produces a special class of sterols, including ergosterol, and other 24-methyl st...

  6. TLC of sterols, steroids, and related triterpenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Vol. 17. New York : CRC Press, 2008 - (Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. - Sherma, J. - Kowalska, T.), s. 576-603 ISBN 978-1-4200-4677-9. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 99) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : TLC * sterols * steroids * ecdysteroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Universal Behavior of Membranes with Sterols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Rowat, Amy C.; Brief, E.;

    2006-01-01

    ) is obtained from deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance. We compare these results, along with data for membrane-bending rigidity, to explore the relationship between membrane hydrophobic thickness and elastic properties. Together, such diverse approaches demonstrate that membrane properties are......Lanosterol is the biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol and ergosterol, sterols that predominate in the membranes of mammals and lower eukaryotes, respectively. These three sterols are structurally quite similar, yet their relative effects on membranes have been shown to differ. Here we study the...... effects of cholesterol, lanosterol, and ergosterol on 1-palmitoyl-2- oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers at room temperature. Micropipette aspiration is used to determine membrane material properties (area compressibility modulus), and information about lipid chain order (first moments...

  8. Visualisierung von Plasmamembran-Domänen in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Blachutzik, Jörg O.

    2013-01-01

    Unter Verwendung fluoreszenzmarkierter Remorine der taxonomischen Gruppe 1b wurden Nanodomänen in Arabidopsis Plasmamembranen (PM) unter Verwendung hoch auflösender Laser Scanning-Systeme sichtbar gemacht. In diesen kompartimentierten Membranbereichen lagerten sich Sterol-abhängige Remorine aus verschiedenen Pflanzen-familien zusammen und zeigten dort Kolokalisation. Dies wurde statistisch belegt durch hohe Pearson und Spearman Korrelationskoeffizienten. Remorine konnten schließlich als pflan...

  9. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-01

    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux. PMID:24267242

  10. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:26993747

  11. Increased plant sterol and stanol levels in brain of Watanabe rabbits fed rapeseed oil derived plant sterol or stanol esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fricke, Christiane B.; Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    Foods containing plant sterol or stanol esters can be beneficial in lowering LDL-cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CVD. The present study examined whether high dietary intake of rapeseed oil (RSO) derived plant sterol and stanol esters is associated with increased levels of these...... form for 120 d (n 9 for each group). Concentrations of cholesterol, its precursor lathosterol, plant sterols and stanols in brain and additionally in liver and plasma were determined by highly sensitive GC-MS. High-dose intake of RSO derived plant sterols and stanols resulted in increased levels of...... these components in plasma and liver. In brain a limited uptake of plant sterols and stanols was proven, indicating that these compounds passed the blood-brain barrier and may be retained in the brain tissue of Watanabe rabbits. Plant stanol ester feeding lowered plant sterol levels in brain, liver, and...

  12. Sterol Ring System Oxidation Pattern in Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramakrishna Rao

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The marine sponges (Porifera are a unique group of sedentary organisms from which several novel natural products are reported, many of which have useful biological activities. In producing unusual sterols, they occupy a preeminent position among the various groups of organisms. The polar sterols of sponges reported as at the end of the year 2002 number about 250; their ring structure changing a hundred times. The oxidation pattern in the sterol ring system, from the point of view of biogenesis seems to be mainly of four types. Each sponge species is able to produce sterols fitting into one of the four main biogenetic pathways viz., (i 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-sterol pathway, (ii 3β-hydroxy-Δ7-sterol pathway, (iii 3β-hydroxy-Δ5,7-sterol pathway, and (iv 3α-hydroxy sterol pathway.

  13. STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sterol composition of marine microalgae has been shown to be a chemotaxonomic property potentially of value in distinguishing members of different algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae display sterol compositions ranging from as few as two (cholesterol ...

  14. Diversity of Sterol Composition in Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezni, Faten; Labidi, Arbia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Martine, Lucy; Berdeaux, Olivier; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2016-05-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. seed oil is used in some Mediterranean forest area for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, we aim to examine, for the first time, the effect of growing area on sterol content of Pistacia lentiscus seed oil. Fruits were harvested from 13 different sites located in northern and central Tunisia. Gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to quantify sterols and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify them. The major sterol identified was β-sitosterol with a value ranging from 854.12 to 1224.09 mg/kg of oil, thus making up more than 54% of the total sterols. The other two main sterols were cycloartenol (11%) and 24-methylene-cycloartenol (5%). Statistical results revealed that growing location significantly (P < 0.001) affected phytosterol levels in these oils. PMID:27060921

  15. Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

  16. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine. PMID:10446013

  17. Genetic variation in plant CYP51s confers resistance against voriconazole, a novel inhibitor of brassinosteroid-dependent sterol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Husar, Sigrid; Kalaivanan, Florian; Khan, Mamoona; Idlhammer, Markus; Shumilina, Daria; Lange, Theo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Fujioka, Shozo; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14α-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant growth regulatory properties of voriconazole and related triazoles were identified in a screen for compounds with the ability to alter BR homeostasis. Voriconazole suppressed growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of a wide range of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We uncover that voriconazole toxicity in plants is a result of a deficiency in BRs that stems from an inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP51, which catalyzes a step of BR-dependent sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, a member of the Rosaceae, is naturally voriconazole resistant and that this resistance is conferred by the specific CYP51 variant of F. vesca. The potential of voriconazole as a novel tool for plant research is discussed. PMID:23335967

  18. Genetic variation in plant CYP51s confers resistance against voriconazole, a novel inhibitor of brassinosteroid-dependent sterol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Rozhon

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14α-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant growth regulatory properties of voriconazole and related triazoles were identified in a screen for compounds with the ability to alter BR homeostasis. Voriconazole suppressed growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of a wide range of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We uncover that voriconazole toxicity in plants is a result of a deficiency in BRs that stems from an inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP51, which catalyzes a step of BR-dependent sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, a member of the Rosaceae, is naturally voriconazole resistant and that this resistance is conferred by the specific CYP51 variant of F. vesca. The potential of voriconazole as a novel tool for plant research is discussed.

  19. Profiling and Metabolism of Sterols in the Weaver Ant Genus Oecophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidkjær, Nanna H; Jensen, Karl-Martin V; Gislum, René; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are essential to insects because they are vital for many biochemical processes, nevertheless insects cannot synthesize sterols but have to acquire them through their diet. Studies of sterols in ants are sparse and here the sterols of the weaver ant genus Oecophylla are identified for the first time. The sterol profile and the dietary sterols provided to a laboratory Oecophylla longinoda colony were analyzed. Most sterols originated from the diet, except one, which was probably formed via dealkylation in the ants and two sterols of fungal origin, which likely originate from hitherto unidentified endosymbionts responsible for supplying these two compounds. The sterol profile of a wild Oecophylla smaragdina colony was also investigated. Remarkable qualitative similarities were established between the two species despite the differences in diet, species, and origin. This may reflect a common sterol need/aversion in the weaver ants. Additionally, each individual caste of both species displayed unique sterol profiles. PMID:26996016

  20. The Evolution of Sterol Biosynthesis in Bacteria: In Situ Fluorescence Localization of Sterols in the Nucleoid Bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budin, M.; Jorgenson, T. L.; Pearson, A.

    2004-12-01

    The biosynthesis of sterols is generally regarded as a eukaryotic process. The first enzymatic step in the production of sterols requires molecular oxygen. Therefore, both the origin of eukaryotes and the evolution of sterol biosynthesis were thought to postdate the rise of oxygen in earth's atmosphere, until Brocks et al. discovered steranes in rocks aged 2.7 Ga (1). Many prokaryotes produce hopanoids, sterol-like compounds that are synthesized from the common precursor squalene without the use of molecular oxygen. However, a few bacterial taxa are also known to produce sterols, suggesting this pathway could precede the rise of oxygen (2, 3). Recently, we discovered the shortest sterol-producing biosynthetic pathway known to date in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus (4). Using genomic searches, we found that Gemmata has the enzymes necessary for synthesis of sterols, and lipid analyses showed that the sterols produced are lanosterol and its isomer parkeol. Gemmata is a member of the Planctomycetes, an unusual group of bacteria, all of the known species of which contain intracellular compartmentalization. Among the Planctomycetes, Gemmata uniquely is the only prokaryote known to contain a double-membrane-bounded nuclear body (5). Since sterols usually are found in eukaryotes, and Gemmata has a eukaryote-like nuclear organelle, we investigated the location of the sterols within Gemmata to postulate whether they play a role in stabilization of the nuclear membrane and control of genomic organization. We used the sterol-specific fluorescent dye Filipin III in conjunction with fluorescent dyes for internal and external cellular membranes in order to determine whether the sterols are located in the nuclear body membrane, external membrane, or both. We found that sterols in Gemmata are concentrated in the internal membrane, implying that they function in maintaining this unusual cellular component. It is notable that Gemmata also produce hopanoids, suggesting that they

  1. Comparison of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Acid Hydrolysis of Sterol Glycosides from Foods Rich in Δ(7)-Sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münger, Linda H; Jutzi, Sabrina; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Nyström, Laura

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present the difference in sterol composition of extracted steryl glycosides (SG) hydrolyzed by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis. SG were analyzed from foods belonging to the plant families Cucurbitaceae (melon and pumpkin seeds) and Amaranthaceae (amaranth and beetroot), both of which are dominated by Δ(7)-sterols. Released sterols were quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All Δ(7)-sterols identified (Δ(7)-stigmastenyl, spinasteryl, Δ(7)-campesteryl, Δ(7)-avenasteryl, poriferasta-7,25-dienyl and poriferasta-7,22,25-trienyl glucoside) underwent isomerization under acidic conditions and high temperature. Sterols with an ethylidene or methylidene side chain were found to form multiple artifacts. The artifact sterols coeluted with residues of incompletely isomerized Δ(7)-sterols, or Δ(5)-sterols if present, and could be identified as Δ(8(14))-sterols on the basis of relative retention time, and their MS spectra as trimethylsilyl (TMS) and acetate derivatives. For instance, SG from melon were composed of 66% Δ(7)-stigmastenol when enzymatic hydrolysis was performed, whereas with acid hydrolysis only 8% of Δ(7)-stigmastenol was determined. The artifact of Δ(7)-stigmastenol coeluted with residual non-isomerized spinasterol, demonstrating the high risk of misinterpretation of compositional data obtained after acid hydrolysis. Therefore, the accurate composition of SG from foods containing sterols with a double bond at C-7 can only be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis or by direct analysis of the intact SG. PMID:25757602

  2. Sterol composition from inflorescences of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fraction of sterol acetates from the inflorescences of Hieracium pilosella has been isolated in the typical way from petroleum ether extract. By means of the weight method the total amount of sterols was determined (0.2659%. The mixtures of sterol acetates and free sterols were investigated using GC-MS techniques. The occurrence of about 18 sterols has been observed. Cholesterol, cholest-8(14-en-3b-ol, cholesta-5.7-dien-3b-ol, cholest-7-en-3b-ol, ergosta-5.24-dien-3b-ol, campesterol, stigmasterol, b-sitosterol, fucosterol, 5a-stigmast-7-en-3a-ol were identified. The probable structures of lophenol, isofucosterol, 5a-stigmasta-7.24-dien-3b-ol, lanosta-9(11.24-dien-3b-ol and 24-ethylidene lophenol were stated on the basis of literature data. The last 4 sterols occur in a vestigial quantity, which made its identification impossible. Sitos erol and cholesterol are remarkably dominating sterols in the fraction.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi Response to Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors: Morphophysiological Alterations Leading to Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Rafael Luis; Soares, Maurilio José; Probst, Christian Macagnan; Krieger, Marco Aurélio

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi displays similarities to fungi in terms of its sterol lipid biosynthesis, as ergosterol and other 24-alkylated sterols are its principal endogenous sterols. The sterol pathway is thus a potential drug target for the treatment of Chagas disease. We describe here a comparative study of the growth inhibition, ultrastructural and physiological changes leading to the death of T. cruzi cells following treatment with the sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs) ...

  4. Relationship Between the Sterol Content of Yeast Cells and Their Fermentation Activity in Grape Must

    OpenAIRE

    Larue, F.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribereau-Gayon, P.

    1980-01-01

    In grape must of high sugar concentration, yeast growth, the viability rate of “resting” yeast cells, and fermentation activity were stimulated under certain conditions of aeration and temperature. This stimulation might be interpreted as being a result of the yeast cell sterol content. The addition of certain sterols to the fermenting medium was able to increase this sterol content. According to aeration conditions of the medium, which determined the sterol content of yeasts, the sterols add...

  5. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices

  6. Digitonide precipitable sterols: a reevaluation with special attention to lanosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of digitonin to precipitate lanosterol from prepared mixtures and biological sources was evaluated. Commercially available lanosterol was determined to be composed of about 60% lanosterol and 40% dihydrolanosterol. Both sterols were only partially precipitated by digitonin under all conditions examined. The presence of cholesterol increased the precipitation of lanosterol, but never to completion. About 40% of the lanosterols from saponified sheep's-wool fat was not precipitated by digitonin. Also 14C-labeled lanosterol recovered from rat brain following intracerebral injection of 2-[14C]mevalonate was only 70% precipitated by digitonin. Steric hinderance by the methyl groups at carbon -4 is suggesed to explain the poor precipitability of this sterol. In conclusion, lanosterol can not be considered to be a digitonide-precipitable sterol equivalent to cholesterol. Caution should be exercised in situations where digitonin-precipitable sterols are being prepared from sources containing significant concentrations of lanosterol (i.e., mass and/or radiolabel)

  7. Multicolor bleach-rate imaging enlightens in vivo sterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sage, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Elucidation of in vivo cholesterol transport and its aberrations in cardiovascular diseases requires suitable model organisms and the development of appropriate monitoring technology. We recently presented a new approach to visualize transport of the intrinsically fluorescent sterol, dehydroergos...

  8. Sterols and sphingolipids: Dynamic duo or partners in crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Sonia; Liu, Ying; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Wilcox, Lisa; Sturley, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    One manner in which eukaryotic cells respond to their environments is by optimizing the composition and proportions of sterols and sphingolipids in membranes. The physical association of the planar ring of sterols with the acyl chains of phospholipids, particularly sphingolipids, produces membrane micro-heterogeneity that is exploited to coordinate several crucial pathways. We hypothesize that these lipid molecules play an integrated role in human disease; when one of the partners is mis-regu...

  9. Transport of sterols to the plasma membrane of leek seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the intracellular transport of sterols in etiolated leek (Allium porrum L.) seedlings, in vivo pulse-chase experiments with [1-14C]acetate were performed. Then, endoplasmic reticulum-, Golgi-, and plasma membrane (PM)-enriched fractions were prepared and analyzed for the radioactivity incorporated into free sterols. In leek seedlings sterols are present as a mixture in which (24R)-24-ethylcholest-5-en-3beta-ol is by far the major compound (around 60%). The other sterols are represented by cholest-5-en-3beta-ol, 24-methyl-cholest-5-en-3beta-ol, (24S)-24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol, and stigmasta-5,24(24(1))Z-dien-3Beta-ol. These compounds are shown to reside mainly in the PM. Our results clearly indicate that free sterols are actively transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the PM during the first 60 min of chase, with kinetics very similar to that of phosphatidylserine. Such a transport was found to be decreased at low temperature (12 degrees C) and following treatment with monensin and brefeldin A. These data are consistent with a membrane-mediated process for the intracellular transport of sterols to the PM, which likely involves the Golgi apparatus

  10. Higher sterol content regulated by CYP51 with concomitant lower phospholipid content in membranes is a common strategy for aluminium tolerance in several plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Tadao; Khan, Md Shahadat Hossain; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maejima, Eriko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Nakano, Takeshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tawaraya, Keitaro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Matsuo; Ishikawa, Satoru; Ikka, Takashi; Ishikawa, Akifumi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Ueki, Nozomi; Umetsu, Asami; Kannari, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the accumulation of positively charged Al(3+) ions. The phospholipids will be balanced by other electrically neutral lipids, such as sterols. In the present research, Al tolerance was compared among pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes. Compared with Al-tolerant genotypes, the Al-sensitive genotype accumulated more Al in the root tip, had a less intact plasma membrane, and showed a lower expression level of PsCYP51, which encodes obtusifoliol-14α-demethylase (OBT 14DM), a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme. The ratio of phospholipids to sterols was higher in the sensitive genotype than in the tolerant genotypes, suggesting that the sterol biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in Al tolerance. Consistent with this idea, a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with knocked-down AtCYP51 expression showed an Al-sensitive phenotype. Uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of OBT 14DM, suppressed the Al tolerance of Al-tolerant genotypes of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmark cv. Currency). These results suggest that increased sterol content, regulated by CYP51, with concomitant lower phospholipid content in the root tip, results in lower negativity of the plasma membrane. This appears to be a common strategy for Al tolerance among several plant species. PMID:25416794

  11. Serum albumin promotes ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent sterol uptake in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Magdalena; Silvestro, Daniele; Fredslund, Maria D.;

    2014-01-01

    Sterol uptake in fungi is a multistep process that involves interaction between external sterols and the cell wall, incorporation of sterol molecules into the plasma membrane, and subsequent integration into intracellular membranes for turnover. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been i...... donor in ATP-binding cassette-transporter-dependent sterol uptake, a process potentially important for growth of Candida glabrata inside infected humans....... implicated in sterol uptake, but key features of their activity remain to be elucidated. Here, we apply fluorescent cholesterol (NBD-cholesterol) to monitor sterol uptake under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in two fungal species, Candida glabrata (Cg) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc). We found that in....... cerevisiae requires the presence of serum or albumin for efficient cholesterol uptake. These results suggest that albumin can serve as sterol donor in ABC transporter-dependent sterol uptake, a process potentially important for growth of C. glabrata inside infected humans. Serum albumin can serve as sterol...

  12. Free and Esterified Sterol Distribution in Four Romanian Vegetable Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisc Vasile DULF

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, triterpenoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and various hydrocarbons. The free and esterified sterol concentrations in four Romanian edible oils (corn germ, wheat germ, sweet almond and grape seed oil were determined, including individual values for β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol, sitostanol, campestanol, and cholesterol. Free and esterified sterols were separated by solid-phase extraction (SPE, saponified, and analyzed as trimethylsilyl ether derivatives using gas-chromatography (GC with flame ionization detector (FID. Differences in total sterol content and the proportion of esterified (ES and free sterols (FS were evident for studied oil samples. In general, β-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 158.3 mg/100 g in grape seed oil to 478.5 mg/100 g in corn germ oil. Only in these two vegetable oil, we identified trace amount of cholesterol (<3 mg/100g. The total sterol concentrations ranged from 199.9 mg/100g (sweet almond oil to 745.2 mg/100 g (corn germ oil. In corn germ and wheat germ oil, the dominant form of sterols was the esterified one (60.7% ES and 55.6% ES, respectively, of total sterols. This study consolidates the view that vegetable oils are good natural sources of phytosterols. The analyses of these components provide rich information about the identity and quality of vegetable oils. The corn germ and wheat germ oils proved to be the richest sources in phytosterols, being recommended as functional oils.

  13. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  14. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  15. Characterization of fatty alcohol and sterol fractions in olive tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Solano, Mara; Ruiz-Jimenez, José; Luque De Castro, María D

    2010-07-14

    The determination of sterols and fatty alcohols is a part of the study of the metabolomic profile of the unsaponifiable fraction in olive tree. Leaves and drupes from three varieties of olive tree (Arbequina, Picual, and Manzanilla) were used. The content of the target compounds was studied in five ripeness stages and three harvesting periods for olive drupes and leaves, respectively. A method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction and derivatization for the individual identification and quantitation of sterols and fatty alcohols, involving chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection by selected ion monitoring, was used. The concentrations of alcohols and sterols in the drupes ranged between 0.1 and 1086.9 mug/g and between 0.1 and 5855.3 mug/g, respectively, which are higher than in leaves. Statistical studies were developed to show the relationship between the concentration of the target analytes and variety, ripeness stage, and harvesting period. PMID:20550122

  16. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  17. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David A; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Summons, Roger E

    2016-03-01

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650-540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago. PMID:26903629

  18. Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway as Target for Anti-trypanosomatid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic pathway in fungi and in members of the Trypanosomatidae family is one that produces a special class of sterols, including ergosterol, and other 24-methyl sterols, which are required for parasitic growth and viability, but are absent from mammalian host cells. Currently, there are several drugs that interfere with sterol biosynthesis (SB that are in use to treat diseases such as high cholesterol in humans and fungal infections. In this review, we analyze the effects of drugs such as (a statins, which act on the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, (b bisphosphonates, which interfere with the isoprenoid pathway in the step catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase, (c zaragozic acids and quinuclidines, inhibitors of squalene synthase (SQS, which catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, (d allylamines, inhibitors of squalene epoxidase, (e azoles, which inhibit C14α-demethylase, and (f azasterols, which inhibit Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (SMT. Inhibition of this last step appears to have high selectivity for fungi and trypanosomatids, since this enzyme is not found in mammalian cells. We review here the IC50 values of these various inhibitors, their effects on the growth of trypanosomatids (both in axenic cultures and in cell cultures, and their effects on protozoan structural organization (as evaluted by light and electron microscopy and lipid composition. The results show that the mitochondrial membrane as well as the membrane lining the protozoan cell body and flagellum are the main targets. Probably as a consequence of these primary effects, other important changes take

  19. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peirong; XU Guanjun; BIAN Lizeng; ZHANG Shuichang; SONG Fuqing

    2006-01-01

    Various △5-3β-sterenols, whose carbon numbers range from C19-C23 to C26-C30and some compounds have many stereomers maximal up to six,have been detected out from the extract of brown algae (Sargassum muticum), which means that steranes with lower carbon numbers are likely different in the origin, and some corresponding sterol stereoisomers may have already existed in their precursor organisms. This provides some experimental evidence for supplementing and amending the traditional interpretation of the sterol stereoisomer transformation during the deposition and diagenesis of organic matter.

  20. Plant phloem sterol content: forms, putative functions, and implications for phloem-feeding insects

    OpenAIRE

    Behmer, Spencer T.; Olszewski, Nathan; Sebastiani, John; Palka, Sydney; Sparacino, Gina; Sciarrno, Elizabeth; Robert J Grebenok

    2013-01-01

    All eukaryotes contain sterols, which serve as structural components in cell membranes, and as precursors for important hormones. Plant vegetative tissues are known to contain mixtures of sterols, but very little is known about the sterol composition of phloem. Plants are food for many animals, but plant-feeding arthropods (including phloem-feeding insets) are unique among animals in that they have lost the ability to synthesize sterols, and must therefore acquire these essential nutrients fr...

  1. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with...... offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy...... to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the...

  2. Free Sterols of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The free sterols of the red alga, Chondria armata have been identified by means of NMR, EIMS and GCMS analyses. The mixture contained besides cholesterol, C sub(28) and C sub(29) saturated as well as unsaturated components. The major component...

  3. Digitonide precipitable sterols: a reevaluation with special attention to lanosterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of digitonin to precipitate lanosterol from prepared mixtures and biological sources was evaluated. Commercially available lanosterol was determined to be composed of about 60% lanosterol and 40% dihydrolanosterol. Both sterols were only partially precipitated by digitonin under all conditions examined. The presence of cholesterol increased the precipitation of lanosterol, but never to completion. About 40% of the lanosterols from saponified sheep's-wool fat was not precipitated by digitonin. Also /sup 14/C-labeled lanosterol recovered from rat brain following intracerebral injection of 2-(/sup 14/C)mevalonate was only 70% precipitated by digitonin. Steric hinderance by the methyl groups at carbon -4 is suggesed to explain the poor precipitability of this sterol. In conclusion, lanosterol can not be considered to be a digitonide-precipitable sterol equivalent to cholesterol. Caution should be exercised in situations where digitonin-precipitable sterols are being prepared from sources containing significant concentrations of lanosterol (i.e., mass and/or radiolabel).

  4. Minor sterols from the sponge Ircinia ramosa (Killer)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Three sterols, isolated from the lipid fraction of the sponge Ircinia ramosa were characterised as cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol-7-one (7-oxo cholesterol, 1), cholest 5-23-dien-b beta ol-7-one (7-oxo demosterol, 2) and 24E-ethyl cholest-5-en-3 beta -ol-7...

  5. Seasonal variation of vitamin and sterol content of chironomidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Tuba

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, seasonal variation of vitamin and sterol content of Chironomidae larvae were determined by using HPLC. As the result of vitamin analysis, we found alpha-tocopherol, retinol, K1, K2, D2 and D3. When the seasonal variation of vitamin groups were compared, a significant increase was observed in vitamin K1, K2, D2 and alpha-tocopherol in all seasons. A significant increase was observed in vitamin D3 in spring. And also vitamin A level high in autumn and winter, alpha-tocopherol level was significantly high among vitamins. When vitamin groups were compared statistically, differences were detected between seasons (p < 0.001). Analyzing the content of sterol, we found ergosterol, cholesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in all seasons. Cholesterol level was found to be significantly high in sterols. When sterol contents were compared statistically, differences were detected between seasons (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the reasons for these differences are larval development feature and the variety of food in different seasons. PMID:24511704

  6. Abnormal sterol metabolism in holoprosencephaly: studies in cultured lymphoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D; Morgenthaler, J; Lacbawan, F; Long, B; Runz, H; Garbade, S F; Zschocke, J; Kelley, R I; Okun, J G; Hoffmann, G F; Muenke, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the developing forebrain in humans. The aetiology is heterogeneous and remains unexplained in approximately 75% of patients. Objective To examine cholesterol biosynthesis in lymphoblastoid cell lines of 228 patients with HPE, since perturbations of cholesterol homeostasis are an important model system to study HPE pathogenesis in animals. Methods An in vitro loading test that clearly identifies abnormal increase of C27 sterols in lymphoblast‐derived cells was developed using [2‐14C] acetate as substrate. Results 22 (9.6%) HPE cell lines had abnormal sterol pattern in the in vitro loading test. In one previously reported patient, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome was diagnosed, whereas others also had clearly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis of uncertain cause. The mean (SD) cholesterol levels were 57% (15.3%) and 82% (4.7%) of total sterols in these cell lines and controls, respectively. The pattern of accumulating sterols was different from known defects of cholesterol biosynthesis. In six patients with abnormal lymphoblast cholesterol metabolism, additional mutations in genes known to be associated with HPE or chromosomal abnormalities were observed. Conclusions Impaired cholesterol biosynthesis may be a contributing factor in the cause of HPE and should be considered in the evaluation of causes of HPE, even if mutations in HPE‐associated genes have already been found. PMID:17237122

  7. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh; Baughman, R P; Contini, C; Lundgren, B

    1999-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia (P. carinii pneumonia, or PCP) in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. Rat-derived P. carinii carinii organisms have distinct sterols which are not synthesized by mammals and not found in other microbes infecting mam...

  8. A Study of the Reactivity of Polyhydroxylated Sterol Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Klepetářová, Blanka; Elbert, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 8 (2015), s. 808-817. ISSN 2193-5807 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alpha-hydroxyketones * polyhydroxylated compounds * regiospecific reactions * silylation * sterols Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  9. The counterflow transport of sterols and PI4P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmin, Bruno; Antonny, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Cholesterol levels in intracellular membranes are constantly adjusted to match with specific organelle functions. Cholesterol is kept high in the plasma membrane (PM) because it is essential for its barrier function, while low levels are found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where cholesterol mediates feedback control of its own synthesis by sterol-sensor proteins. The ER→Golgi→PM concentration gradient of cholesterol in mammalian cells, and ergosterol in yeast, appears to be sustained by specific intracellular transport processes, which are mostly mediated by lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Here we review a recently described function of two LTPs, OSBP and its yeast homolog Osh4p, which consists in creating a sterol gradient between membranes by vectorial transport. OSBP also contributes to the formation of ER/Golgi membrane contact sites, which are important hubs for the transfer of several lipid species. OSBP and Osh4p organize a counterflow transport of lipids whereby sterols are exchanged for the phosphoinositide PI4P, which is used as a fuel to drive sterol transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26928592

  10. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis:Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutz W. Weber; Meinrad Boll; Andreas Stampfl

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at least 30 genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids. SREBPs are synthesized as precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they form a complex with another protein, SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP).The SCAP molecule contains a sterol sensory domain. In the presence of high cellular sterol concentrations SCAP confines SREBP to the ER. With low cellular concentrations, SCAP escorts SREBP to activation in the Golgi. There, SREBP undergoes two proteolytic cleavage steps to release the mature, biologically active transcription factor, nuclear SREBP (nSREBP). nSREBP translocates to the nucleus and binds to sterol response elements (SRE) in the promoter/enhancer regions of target genes. Additional transcription factors are required to activate transcription of these genes. Three different SREBPs are known, SREBPs-1a, -1c and -2. SREBP-1a and -1c are isoforms produced from a single gene by alternate splicing. SREBP-2is encoded by a different gene and does not display any isoforms. It appears that SREBPs alone, in the sequence described above, can exert complete control over cholesterol synthesis, whereas many additional factors (hormones,cytokines, etc.) are required for complete control of lipid metabolism. Medicinal manipulation of the SREBP/SCAP system is expected to prove highly beneficial in the management of cholesterol-related disease.

  11. Cytotoxic sterols from the formosan brown alga Turbinaria ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, J H; Wang, G H; Sung, P J; Chiu, Y H; Duh, C Y

    1997-12-01

    Two hydroperoxysterols 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (1) and 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (2), and fucosterol (3) were isolated from the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae). Hydroperoxide 2 is a new natural compound and was converted into 29-hydroxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3beta-ol (4) by reaction with LAH. Sterols 1, 2, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:17252381

  12. Sterol-Rich Membrane Domains Define Fission Yeast Cell Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makushok, Tatyana; Alves, Paulo; Huisman, Stephen Michiel; Kijowski, Adam Rafal; Brunner, Damian

    2016-05-19

    Cell polarization is crucial for the functioning of all organisms. The cytoskeleton is central to the process but its role in symmetry breaking is poorly understood. We study cell polarization when fission yeast cells exit starvation. We show that the basis of polarity generation is de novo sterol biosynthesis, cell surface delivery of sterols, and their recruitment to the cell poles. This involves four phases occurring independent of the polarity factor cdc42p. Initially, multiple, randomly distributed sterol-rich membrane (SRM) domains form at the plasma membrane, independent of the cytoskeleton and cell growth. These domains provide platforms on which the growth and polarity machinery assembles. SRM domains are then polarized by the microtubule-dependent polarity factor tea1p, which prepares for monopolar growth initiation and later switching to bipolar growth. SRM polarization requires F-actin but not the F-actin organizing polarity factors for3p and bud6p. We conclude that SRMs are key to cell polarization. PMID:27180904

  13. SUPLEMENTASI STEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM (Triticum sp.) PADA MARGARIN (Supplementation of Margarine with Wheat Germ Sterol)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Anna Marliyati; Hidayat Syarief1); Deddy Muchtadi 2); Latifah K. Darusman; Rimbawan

    2010-01-01

    Margarine is a water in oil (w/o) emulsion product which is widely used for household cooking and baking industry. Consuming of margarine, which contains trans fatty acid may cause health problem due to the increase of LDL cholesterol. Since margarine is also a good carrier of phytosterol which prevent the absorption of cholesterol, there is a possibility to formulate a healthier margarine. In this research formulation and characteristics of products was investigated. The research work consis...

  14. Mechanisms and genetic determinants regulating sterol absorption, circulating LDL levels, and sterol elimination: implications for classification and disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Calandra, Sebastiano; Tarugi, Patrizia; Speedy, Helen E.; Dean, Andrew F; Bertolini, Stefano; Shoulders, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    This review integrates historical biochemical and modern genetic findings that underpin our understanding of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) dyslipidemias that bear on human disease. These range from life-threatening conditions of infancy through severe coronary heart disease of young adulthood, to indolent disorders of middle- and old-age. We particularly focus on the biological aspects of those gene mutations and variants that impact on sterol absorption and hepatobiliar...

  15. Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2-Driven Cholesterol Esterification Opposes Liver X Receptor-Stimulated Fecal Neutral Sterol Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Bura, Kanwardeep; Kelley, Kathryn; Wilson, Martha D; Rudel, Lawrence L; Brown, J Mark

    2016-02-01

    Statin drugs have proven a successful and relatively safe therapy for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even with the substantial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering achieved with statin treatment, CVD remains the top cause of death in developed countries. Selective inhibitors of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol-O acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) hold great promise as effective CVD therapeutics. In mouse models, previous work has demonstrated that either antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) or small molecule inhibitors of SOAT2 can effectively reduce CVD progression, and even promote regression of established CVD. Although it is well known that SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can alter both the packaging and retention of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins, here we set out to determine whether SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can also impact basal and liver X receptor (LXR)-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss. These studies demonstrate that SOAT2 is a negative regulator of LXR-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss in mice. PMID:26729489

  16. Plant Sterols as Dietary Adjuvants in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G.; Gordon, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Plant sterol-enriched foods are an effective dietary adjuvant in reducing cardiovascular risk by lowering total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum by up to ∼15%. The mechanism of action of plant sterols is different from those of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (statins) and thus their effect is additive. Combining plant sterols with other dietary components known to reduce cholesterol in a portfolio approach has proven to be most effective f...

  17. Lipid-regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes by oxysterol-binding protein homologues

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Timothy A.; Choi, Mal-Gi; Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Mears, Jason A.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Hinshaw, Jenny E.; Prinz, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are transferred between cellular membranes by vesicular and poorly understood nonvesicular pathways. Oxysterol-binding protein–related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in sterol sensing and nonvesicular transport. In this study, we show that yeast ORPs use a novel mechanism that allows regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes, such as organelle contact sites. We find that the core lipid-binding domain found in all ORPs can simultaneously bind two membranes. Usin...

  18. Sterol homeostasis requires regulated degradation of squalene monooxygenase by the ubiquitin ligase Doa10/Teb4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foresti, Ombretta; Ruggiano, Annamaria; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K;

    2013-01-01

    Sterol homeostasis is essential for the function of cellular membranes and requires feedback inhibition of HMGR, a rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. As HMGR acts at the beginning of the pathway, its regulation affects the synthesis of sterols and of other essential mevalonate-derive...... to control sterol biosynthesis at different levels and thereby allowing independent regulation of multiple products of the mevalonate pathway. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00953.001....

  19. Nature of sterols affects plasma membrane behavior and yeast survival during dehydration.

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Ferreira, Thierry; Gervais, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) is a main site of injury during osmotic perturbation. Sterols, major lipids of the PM structure in eukaryotes, are thought to play a role in ensuring the stability of the lipid bilayer during physicochemical perturbations. Here, we investigated the relationship between the nature of PM sterols and resistance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hyperosmotic treatment. We compared the responses to osmotic dehydration (viability, sterol quantification, ultrastructur...

  20. Studies on the Utilization, Metabolism and Function of Sterols in the House-Fly, Musca Domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insects generally have been found to require a dietary source of sterol for normal larval growth and metamorphosis. Our work has pointed to two additional physiological roles for sterols in the housefly, Musca domestica L.: (1) A dietary source of sterol is essential for sustained viable egg production in the female fly; on a sterol-deficient diet eggs are produced but hatch and viability are low. (2) Cholesterol is also involved in the mobilization and utilization of nutrient reserves associated with the initiation of ovarian maturation in the female fly. The quantitative sterol requirements for the above physiological processes and the metabolic conversions that occur during growth, metamorphosis and reproduction have been studied in this insect, using C14- and H3-labelled sterols in conjunction with a variety of analytical tools, including reverse isotope dilution, gasliquid chromatography and spectroscopy, and employing aseptic rearing techniques and semi-defined larval and Adult diets. Both C14-cholesterol and H3-β- sitosterol have been used as a source df sterol in either the larval or the adult diet of the house fly, and the pattern of utilization and metabolism was found to be almost identical for these two sterols. However, there was no detectable conversion of β-sitosterol to cholesterol. Sub-minimal quantities of cholesterol have also been used in the larval diet in combination with ''sparing sterols'' such as choies tanol, which will fulfill in part but not entirely the sterol requirement of this insect. The utilization and fate of the 'sparing sterol' has been investigated using C14 cholestanol, and the metabolism of the minute quantity of essential cholesterol is currently under study using high-specific-activity C14 cholesterol. - Other species of insects, including the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), have been examined in relation to the patterns of utilization and the metabolic pathways for sterols found in the house-fly. (author)

  1. THE STUDIED OF MATTER STEROLS IN ANATOMY PARTS OF CRATAEGUS SANGUNEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Николаевна Девятловская

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the content of free and associated sterols in anatomy parts of the crataegus sangunea in the course of the annual cycle. The work presents the dynamics of studying changes in the content of sterols in the shoots, leaves, and fruits. It is established, that acid esters and glycosides sterols contain in its composition limits and unsaturated acids, the content of which in the course of the growing season changes.

  2. THE STUDIED OF MATTER STEROLS IN ANATOMY PARTS OF CRATAEGUS SANGUNEA

    OpenAIRE

    Анна Николаевна Девятловская; Людмила Николаевна Журавлёва; Юрий Давыдович Алашкевич

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the content of free and associated sterols in anatomy parts of the crataegus sangunea in the course of the annual cycle. The work presents the dynamics of studying changes in the content of sterols in the shoots, leaves, and fruits. It is established, that acid esters and glycosides sterols contain in its composition limits and unsaturated acids, the content of which in the course of the growing season changes.

  3. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  4. Effect of Sterol Structure on Chain Ordering of an Unsaturated Phospholipid: A 2H-NMR Study of POPC/Sterol Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghi, Mehran; Thewalt, Jenifer; Zuckermann, Martin

    2012-10-01

    The physical properties of biological membranes are considerably altered by the presence of sterols. In particular, sterols help to maintain the integrity of the cell by adjusting the fluidity of the plasma membrane. Cholesterol is in addition an important component of lipid rafts which are hypothesized to compartmentalize the cell membrane surface thereby making it possible for certain proteins to function. Using 2H-NMR spectroscopy, we studied the effect of a series of different sterols on the chain ordering of POPC, an unsaturated phospholipid present in eukaryotic cell membranes. We were able to assigned specific roles to the structural differences between the sterols by comparing the manner in which they affect the average lipid chain conformation of POPC.

  5. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acquisition of plant sterols, mediated via elicitins, is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. In this paper, we looked at the interaction between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. When ground leaf tissue was added to growth media, P. ramorum growth and sporulation was greates...

  6. Applying Clustering and Phylogeny Analysis to Study Dinoflagellates based on Sterol Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterol compositions of dinoflagellates have been studied for several decades as a means of assessing whether certain species possess unique chemical biomarkers. However, no attempt has been made to compile the results from numerous studies to examine how sterol compositions may relate to the phylog...

  7. Selective visualization of fluorescent sterols in Caenorhabditis elegans by bleach-rate-based image segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Landt Larsen, Ane; Færgeman, Nils J.;

    2010-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetically tractable model organism to investigate sterol transport. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent sterol, dehydroergosterol (DHE), is challenged by C. elegans' high autofluorescence in the same spectral region as emission of DHE. We present a method...

  8. Sterol ratios as a tool for sewage pollution assessment of river sediments in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić Bujagić, Ivana; Grujić, Svetlana; Jauković, Zorica; Laušević, Mila

    2016-06-01

    In this work, source pollution tracing of the sediments of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia was performed using sterol ratios. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, which enabled complete chromatographic separation of four analytes with identical fragmentation reactions (epicoprostanol, coprostanol, epicholestanol and cholestanol), was applied for the determination of steroid compounds (hormones, human/animal and plant sterols). A widespread occurrence of sterols was identified in all analyzed samples, whereas the only detected hormones were mestranol and 17α-estradiol. A human-sourced sewage marker coprostanol was detected at the highest concentration (up to 1939 ng g(-1)). The ratios between the key sterol biomarkers, as well as the percentage of coprostanol relative to the total sterol amount, were applied with the aim of selecting the most reliable for distinction between human-sourced pollution and the sterols originated from the natural sources in river sediments. The coprostanol/(cholesterol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/epicoprostanol ratios do not distinguish between human and natural sources of sterols in the river sediments in Serbia. The most reliable sterol ratios for the sewage pollution assessment of river sediments in the studied area were found to be coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol), coprostanol/cholesterol and epicoprostanol/coprostanol. For the majority of sediments, human-derived pollution was determined. Two sediment samples were identified as influenced by a combination of human and natural biogenic sources. PMID:26874877

  9. Host defense against viral infection involves interferon mediated down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Blanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the protective role of inflammatory processes in modulating lipid metabolism in infection. Here we report an intimate link between the innate immune response to infection and regulation of the sterol metabolic network characterized by down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis by an interferon regulatory loop mechanism. In time-series experiments profiling genome-wide lipid-associated gene expression of macrophages, we show a selective and coordinated negative regulation of the complete sterol pathway upon viral infection or cytokine treatment with IFNγ or β but not TNF, IL1β, or IL6. Quantitative analysis at the protein level of selected sterol metabolic enzymes upon infection shows a similar level of suppression. Experimental testing of sterol metabolite levels using lipidomic-based measurements shows a reduction in metabolic output. On the basis of pharmacologic and RNAi inhibition of the sterol pathway we show augmented protection against viral infection, and in combination with metabolite rescue experiments, we identify the requirement of the mevalonate-isoprenoid branch of the sterol metabolic network in the protective response upon statin or IFNβ treatment. Conditioned media experiments from infected cells support an involvement of secreted type 1 interferon(s to be sufficient for reducing the sterol pathway upon infection. Moreover, we show that infection of primary macrophages containing a genetic knockout of the major type I interferon, IFNβ, leads to only a partial suppression of the sterol pathway, while genetic knockout of the receptor for all type I interferon family members, ifnar1, or associated signaling component, tyk2, completely abolishes the reduction of the sterol biosynthetic activity upon infection. Levels of the proteolytically cleaved nuclear forms of SREBP2, a key transcriptional regulator of sterol biosynthesis, are reduced upon infection and IFNβ treatment at both the protein and de novo

  10. Identification of mitochondrial coenzyme a transporters from maize and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallot, Rémi; Agrimi, Gennaro; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Teresinski, Howard J; Frelin, Océane; Ellens, Kenneth W; Castegna, Alessandra; Russo, Annamaria; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Mullen, Robert T; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Hanson, Andrew D

    2013-06-01

    Plants make coenzyme A (CoA) in the cytoplasm but use it for reactions in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes, implying that these organelles have CoA transporters. A plant peroxisomal CoA transporter is already known, but plant mitochondrial or chloroplastic CoA transporters are not. Mitochondrial CoA transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family, however, have been identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Leu-5p) and mammals (SLC25A42). Comparative genomic analysis indicated that angiosperms have two distinct homologs of these mitochondrial CoA transporters, whereas nonflowering plants have only one. The homologs from maize (Zea mays; GRMZM2G161299 and GRMZM2G420119) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; At1g14560 and At4g26180) all complemented the growth defect of the yeast leu5Δ mitochondrial CoA carrier mutant and substantially restored its mitochondrial CoA level, confirming that these proteins have CoA transport activity. Dual-import assays with purified pea (Pisum sativum) mitochondria and chloroplasts, and subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein fusions in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cells, showed that the maize and Arabidopsis proteins are targeted to mitochondria. Consistent with the ubiquitous importance of CoA, the maize and Arabidopsis mitochondrial CoA transporter genes are expressed at similar levels throughout the plant. These data show that representatives of both monocotyledons and eudicotyledons have twin, mitochondrially located mitochondrial carrier family carriers for CoA. The highly conserved nature of these carriers makes possible their reliable annotation in other angiosperm genomes. PMID:23590975

  11. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreña-Barroso, E.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g- 1) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g- 1). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate

  12. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings

  13. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  14. Lipid-lowering Activity of Natural and Semi-Synthetic Sterols and Stanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dhiaa A; Wasan, Ellen K; Wasan, Kishor M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of plant sterols/ stanols has long been demonstrated to reduce plasma cholesterol levels. The objective of this review is to demonstrate the lipid-lowering activity and anti-atherogenic effects of natural and semi-synthetic plant sterols/ stanols based on evidence from cell-culture studies, animal studies and clinical trials. Additionally, this review highlights certain molecular mechanisms by which plant sterols/ stanols lower plasma cholesterol levels with a special emphasis on factors that affect the cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols/stanols. The crystalline nature and the poor oil solubility of these natural products could be important factors that limit their cholesterol-lowering efficiency. Several attempts have been made to improve the cholesterol-lowering activity by enhancing the bioavailability of crystalline sterols and stanols. Approaches involved reduction of the crystal size and/or esterification with fatty acids from vegetable or fish oils. However, the most promising approach in this context is the chemical modification of plant sterols /stanols into water soluble disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphates analogue by esterification with ascorbic acid. This novel semi-synthetic stanol derivative has improved efficacy over natural plant sterols/ stanols and can provide additional benefits by combining the cholesterol-lowering properties of plant stanols with the antioxidant potential of ascorbic acid. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID:26626241

  15. Zinc finger transcription factors displaced SREBP proteins as the major Sterol regulators during Saccharomycotina evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Maguire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs, which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1 and C. albicans (Cph2 have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1 and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina.

  16. Following Intracellular Cholesterol Transport by Linear and Non-Linear Optical Microscopy of Intrinsically Fluorescent Sterols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wustner, D.

    2012-01-01

    analysis like pixel-wise bleach rate fitting and multiphoton image correlation spectroscopy are introduced. Several applications of the new technology including observation of vectorial sterol trafficking in polarized human hepatoma cells for investigation of reverse cholesterol transport are presented....... cellular movement of this essential lipid molecule. In this article, a survey of the various methods being used for analysis of sterol trafficking is given. Various classical biochemical methods are presented and their suitability for analysis of sterol trafficking is assessed. Special emphasis is on...

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  18. Chromatic aberration correction and deconvolution for UV sensitive imaging of fluorescent sterols in cytoplasmic lipid droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Faergeman, Nils J

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsically fluorescent sterols, like dehydroergosterol (DHE), mimic cholesterol closely and are therefore suitable to determine cholesterol transport by fluorescence microscopy. Disadvantages of DHE are its low quantum yield, rapid bleaching, and the fact that its excitation and emission is in...

  19. MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE MICRON-SCALE SEGREGATION OF STEROLS AND GM1 IN LIVE MAMMALIAN SPERM

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Buttke, Danielle E.; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Weiss, Robert S.; Travis, Alexander J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that a stable, micron-scale segregation of focal enrichments of sterols exists at physiological temperature in the plasma membrane of live murine and human sperm. These enrichments of sterols represent microheterogeneities within this membrane domain overlying the acrosome. Previously, we showed that cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), which binds the glycosphingolipid, GM1, localizes to this same domain in live sperm. Interestingly, the GM1 undergoes an unexplain...

  20. Sterols from Mytilidae Show Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Effects via Anti-Oxidative Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yujuan Sun; Yanfei Lin; Xueli Cao; Lan Xiang; Jianhua Qi

    2014-01-01

    For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experim...

  1. Sterol Transport In Yeast and the Oxysterol Binding Protein Homologue (OSH) Family

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Timothy A.; Prinz, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Sterols such as cholesterol are a significant component of eukaryotic cellular membranes, and their unique physical properties influence a wide variety of membrane processes. It is known that the concentration of sterol within the membrane varies widely between organelles, and that the cell actively maintains this distribution through various transport processes. Vesicular pathways such as secretion or endocytosis may account for this traffic, but increasing evidence highlights the importance...

  2. Targeting Ergosterol Biosynthesis in Leishmania donovani: Essentiality of Sterol 14alpha-demethylase

    OpenAIRE

    Laura-Isobel McCall; Amale El Aroussi; Jun Yong Choi; Vieira, Debora F.; Geraldine De Muylder; Johnston, Jonathan B.; Steven Chen; Danielle Kellar; Jair L Siqueira-Neto; Roush, William R.; Larissa M. Podust; McKerrow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania protozoan parasites (Trypanosomatidae family) are the causative agents of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis worldwide. While these diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, there are few adequate treatments available. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) in the parasite sterol biosynthesis pathway has been the focus of considerable interest as a novel drug target in Leishmania. However, its essentiality in Leishmania donovani has yet to be de...

  3. Mitochondrial function and regulation of macrophage sterol metabolism and inflammatory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Annette; Allen, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to explore the role of mitochondria in regulating macrophage sterol homeostasis and inflammatory responses within the aetiology of atherosclerosis. Macrophage generation of oxysterol activators of liver X receptors (LXRs), via sterol 27-hydroxylase, is regulated by the rate of flux of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, via a complex of cholesterol trafficking proteins. Oxysterols are key signalling molecules, regulating the transcriptional activity of L...

  4. Fluorescent Sterols and Cholesteryl Esters as Probes for Intracellular Cholesterol Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanko, Katarzyna A.; Modzel, Maciej; Solanko, Lukasz M.; Wüstner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol transport between cellular organelles comprised vesicular trafficking and nonvesicular exchange; these processes are often studied by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. A major challenge for using this approach is producing analogs of cholesterol with suitable brightness and structural and chemical properties comparable with those of cholesterol. This review surveys currently used fluorescent sterols with respect to their behavior in model membranes, their photophysical properties, as well as their transport and metabolism in cells. In the first part, several intrinsically fluorescent sterols, such as dehydroergosterol or cholestatrienol, are discussed. These polyene sterols (P-sterols) contain three conjugated double bonds in the steroid ring system, giving them slight fluorescence in ultraviolet light. We discuss the properties of P-sterols relative to cholesterol, outline their chemical synthesis, and explain how to image them in living cells and organisms. In particular, we show that P-sterol esters inserted into low-density lipoprotein can be tracked in the fibroblasts of Niemann–Pick disease using high-resolution deconvolution microscopy. We also describe fluorophore-tagged cholesterol probes, such as BODIPY-, NBD-, Dansyl-, or Pyrene-tagged cholesterol, and eventual esters of these analogs. Finally, we survey the latest developments in the synthesis and use of alkyne cholesterol analogs to be labeled with fluorophores by click chemistry and discuss the potential of all approaches for future applications. PMID:27330304

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Effects of Sterol Fraction from Red Algae Porphyra dentata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kazłowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dentata, an edible red macroalgae, is used as a folk medicine in Asia. This study evaluated in vitro and in vivo the protective effect of a sterol fraction from P. dentata against breast cancer linked to tumor-induced myeloid derived-suppressor cells (MDSCs. A sterol fraction containing cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol was prepared by solvent fractionation of methanol extract of P. dentata  in silica gel column chromatography. This sterol fraction in vitro significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cancer cells. Intraperitoneal injection of this sterol fraction at 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight into 4T1 cell-implanted tumor BALB/c mice significantly inhibited the growth of tumor nodules and increased the survival rate of mice. This sterol fraction significantly decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS and arginase activity of MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, the sterol fraction from P. dentata showed potential for protecting an organism from 4T1 cell-based tumor genesis.

  6. Fluorescent Sterols and Cholesteryl Esters as Probes for Intracellular Cholesterol Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanko, Katarzyna A; Modzel, Maciej; Solanko, Lukasz M; Wüstner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol transport between cellular organelles comprised vesicular trafficking and nonvesicular exchange; these processes are often studied by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. A major challenge for using this approach is producing analogs of cholesterol with suitable brightness and structural and chemical properties comparable with those of cholesterol. This review surveys currently used fluorescent sterols with respect to their behavior in model membranes, their photophysical properties, as well as their transport and metabolism in cells. In the first part, several intrinsically fluorescent sterols, such as dehydroergosterol or cholestatrienol, are discussed. These polyene sterols (P-sterols) contain three conjugated double bonds in the steroid ring system, giving them slight fluorescence in ultraviolet light. We discuss the properties of P-sterols relative to cholesterol, outline their chemical synthesis, and explain how to image them in living cells and organisms. In particular, we show that P-sterol esters inserted into low-density lipoprotein can be tracked in the fibroblasts of Niemann-Pick disease using high-resolution deconvolution microscopy. We also describe fluorophore-tagged cholesterol probes, such as BODIPY-, NBD-, Dansyl-, or Pyrene-tagged cholesterol, and eventual esters of these analogs. Finally, we survey the latest developments in the synthesis and use of alkyne cholesterol analogs to be labeled with fluorophores by click chemistry and discuss the potential of all approaches for future applications. PMID:27330304

  7. Quantitation of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in turpentine (Pistacia terebinthus Chia) growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2006-10-01

    The chemical composition (fatty acids, tocopherols, and sterols) of the oil from 14 samples of turpentine (Pistacia terebinthus L.) fruits is presented in this study. The oil content of the samples varied in a relatively small range between 38.4 g/100 g and 45.1 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acid of the oil is oleic acid, which accounted for 43.0 to 51.3% of the total fatty acids. The total content of vitamin E active compounds in the oils ranged between 396.8 and 517.7 mg/kg. The predominant isomers were alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, with approximate equal amounts between about 110 and 150 mg/kg. The seed oil of P. terebinthus also contained different tocotrienols, with gamma-tocotrienol as the dominate compound of this group, which amounted to between 79 and 114 mg/kg. The total content of sterols of the oils was determined to be between 1341.3 and 1802.5 mg/kg, with beta-sitosterol as the predominent sterol that accounted for more than 80% of the total amount of sterols. Other sterols in noteworthy amounts were campesterol, Delta5-avenasterol, and stigmasterol, which came to about 3-5% of the total sterols. PMID:17002437

  8. Glyceride structure and sterol composition of SOS-7 halophyte oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceride structure of SOS-7 halophyte oil was studied using the lipase hydrolysis technique. This halophyte sample was obtained from 1988 harvest planted in Ghardaka, on the border of the Red Sea, Egypt. The oilseed was ground and extracted for its oil using commercial hexane in Soxhlet extractor. The unsaturated fatty acids were found centralized in the 2-position of triglycerides, whereas oleic and linolenic acids showed more preference for this position. It was found that P3 was the major component of GS3, whereas P2L and PStL; PL2, POL and StL2 are predominating among GS2U and GSU3 respectively. L3 manifested itself as the principal constituent of GU3 type. Sterol composition of the halophyte oil was determined by GLC as TMS derivative. It was found that the oil contains campsterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and 7-stigmasterol of which 7-stigmasterol is the major sterol and constitute 52.4%.

    Se ha estudiado usando la técnica de hidrólisis mediante lipasa la estructura glicerídica de aceite de halofito SOS-7. Esta muestra de halofito fue obtenida a partir de una cosecha de 1988 plantada en Ghardaka, en la orilla del Mar Rojo, Egipto. Para la extracción del aceite de la semilla molida se utilizó hexano comercial en extractor Soxhlet. Los ácidos grasos insaturados se encontraron centralizados en la posición 2 de los triglicéridos, siendo los ácidos oleico y linolénico los que mostraron mayor preferencia por esta posición. Se encontró que P3 fue el componente mayoritario de GS3, mientras que P2L y PStL; PL2 POL y StL2 son los predominantes para GS2U y GSU3 respectivamente. L3 se manifestó como el principal constituyente de los GU3. La composición esterólica del aceite de halofito se determinó por GLC como derivados del

  9. Phase behaviour of sterols and vitamins in supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerszt R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction with supercritical solvents has been used in different areas, such as petroleum desasphaltation, descaffeination of coffee and tea and in the separation of other types of natural products. The supercritical solvent most frequently utilized in the extraction of natural products is carbon dioxide (CO2 due to its several advantages over other solvents such as low cost, atoxicity and volatility. The design, evaluation and optimization of a supercritical extraction that is based on phase equilibrium require phase equilibrium data. This type of data is very scarce for natural compounds like sterols and vitamins. These natural compounds are produced synthetically, but nowadays interest in their extraction from natural sources is increasing. Therefore, the objective of this work is to study the thermodynamic modelling equilibrium of systems containing vitamins A, D, E and K, using the predictive LCVM model. The sensitivity of critical properties in the calculation of the phase behavior was also studied. This study proved that the choice of a group contribution method to calculate thermodynamic properties is very important for obtaining good results in the phase equilibrium calculations.

  10. Postprandial plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations after consumption of plant sterol or stanol enriched mixed meals in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Konings, Maurice; Schött, Hans-F; Friedrichs, Silvia; Husche, Constanze; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent results on the relationship between increased plant sterol concentrations with cardiovascular risk, which might be related to the formation of oxyphytosterols (plant sterol oxidation products) from plant sterols. However, determinants of oxyphytosterol formation and metabolism are largely unknown. It is known, however, that serum plant sterol concentrations increase after daily consumption of plant sterol enriched products, while concentrations decrease after plant stanol consumption. Still, we have earlier reported that fasting oxyphytosterol concentrations did not increase after consuming a plant sterol- or a plant stanol enriched margarine (3.0g/d of plant sterols or stanols) for 4weeks. Since humans are in a non-fasting state for most part of the day, we have now investigated effects on oxyphytosterol concentrations during the postprandial state. For this, subjects consumed a shake (50g of fat, 12g of protein, 67g of carbohydrates), containing no, or 3.0g of plant sterols or plant stanols. Blood samples were taken up to 8h and after 4h subjects received a second shake (without plant sterols or plant stanols). Serum oxyphytosterol concentrations were determined in BHT-enriched EDTA plasma via GC-MS/MS. 7β-OH-campesterol and 7β-OH-sitosterol concentrations were significantly higher after consumption of a mixed meal enriched with plant sterol esters compared to the control and plant stanol ester meal. These increases were seen only after consumption of the second shake, illustrative for a second meal effect. Non-oxidized campesterol and sitosterol concentrations also increased after plant sterol consumption, in parallel with 7β-OH concentrations and again only after the second meal. Apparently, plant sterols and oxyphytosterols follow the same second meal effect as described for dietary cholesterol. However, the question remains whether the increase in oxyphytosterols in the postprandial phase is due to

  11. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lin; D. Knol; M. Menéndez-Carreño; W.A.M. Blom; J. Matthee; H.G. Janssen; E.A. Trautwein

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  12. Membrane association of the Arabidopsis ARF exchange factor GNOM involves interaction of conserved domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Nadine; Nielsen, Michael M.; Keicher, Jutta;

    2008-01-01

    The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate...

  13. Following intracellular cholesterol transport by linear and non-linear optical microscopy of intrinsically fluorescent sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Elucidation of intracellular cholesterol transport is important for understanding the molecular basis of several metabolic and neuronal diseases, like atheroclerosis or lysosomal storage disorders. Progress in this field depends crucially on the development of new technical approaches to follow the cellular movement of this essential lipid molecule. In this article, a survey of the various methods being used for analysis of sterol trafficking is given. Various classical biochemical methods are presented and their suitability for analysis of sterol trafficking is assessed. Special emphasis is on recent developments in imaging technology to follow the intracellular fate of intrinsically fluorescent sterols as faithful cholesterol markers. In particular, UV-sensitive wide field and multiphoton microscopy of the sterol dehydroergosterol, DHE, is explained and new methods of quantitative image analysis like pixel-wise bleach rate fitting and multiphoton image correlation spectroscopy are introduced. Several applications of the new technology including observation of vectorial sterol trafficking in polarized human hepatoma cells for investigation of reverse cholesterol transport are presented. PMID:21470123

  14. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abumweis Suhad S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status.

  15. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters. PMID:27064103

  16. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important role in the development of this model, based on interdisciplinary collaborations using genetics as a major tool to investigate aspects of physiology, development, plant-microbe interactions and evol...

  17. Plant Sterols as Anticancer Nutrients: Evidence for Their Role in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Grattan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While many factors are involved in the etiology of cancer, it has been clearly established that diet significantly impacts one’s risk for this disease. More recently, specific food components have been identified which are uniquely beneficial in mitigating the risk of specific cancer subtypes. Plant sterols are well known for their effects on blood cholesterol levels, however research into their potential role in mitigating cancer risk remains in its infancy. As outlined in this review, the cholesterol modulating actions of plant sterols may overlap with their anti-cancer actions. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women and there remains a need for effective adjuvant therapies for this disease, for which plant sterols may play a distinctive role.

  18. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae: 17. Seasonal variation of antibacterial activity of total sterols obtained from frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    From lipid fraction of frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii unsaponifiable part was extracted with diethyl ether to isolate total sterols. The extracted sterols were obtained for a period of nine months and tested against test bacteria...

  19. Fungal sterol C22-desaturase is not an antimycotic target as shown by selective inhibitors and testing on clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Binder, Ulrike; Maurer, Elisabeth; Grimm, Christian; Giera, Martin; Bracher, Franz

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of concise enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis is one of the most prominent strategies for antifungal chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol C22-desaturase, which introduce double bonds into the sterol core and side chain, have not been fully investigated yet for their potential as antifungal drug targets. Lathosterol side chain amides bearing N-alkyl groups of proper length are known as potent inhibitors of the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol Δ(24)-reductase in mammalian cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we present the results of our evaluation of these amides for their ability to inhibit enzymes in fungal ergosterol biosynthesis. In the presence of inhibitor(s) an accumulation of sterols lacking a double bond at C22/23 (mainly ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol) was observed in Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Hence, the lathosterol side chain amides were identified as selective inhibitors of the fungal sterol C22-desaturase, which was discussed as a specific target for novel antifungals. One representative inhibitor, (3S,20S)-20-N-butylcarbamoylpregn-7-en-3β-ol was subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing on patient isolates according to modified EUCAST guidelines. But, the test organisms showed no significant reduction of cell growth and/or viability up to an inhibitor concentration of 100μg/mL. This leads to the conclusion that sterol C22-desaturase is not an attractive target for the development of antifungals. PMID:26022150

  20. Concentrations of surfactants and sterols in the surface microlayer of the estuarine areas of Selangor River, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalahi, Murad Ali; Talib Latif, Mohd; Mohd Ali, Masni; Dominick, Doreena; Firoz Khan, Md; Bahiyah Abd Wahid, Nurul; Ili Hamizah Mustaffa, Nur

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the concentration of surfactant and sterols as biomarkers in the surface microlayer (SML) in estuarine areas of the Selangor River, Malaysia. SML samples were collected during different seasons using a rotation drum method. The compositions of surfactants in SML were determined as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) as anionic and cationic surfactants respectively. The concentration of sterols was determined using a gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The results show that the concentrations of surfactants around the estuarine area were dominated by anionic surfactants (MBAS) with average concentrations of 0.39 μmol L‑1. The concentrations of total sterols in the SML ranged from 107.06 to 505.55 ng L‑1. The surfactants and total sterol concentrations were found to be higher in the wet season. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterols component in the SML of the Selangor River. The diagnostic ratios of sterols show the influence of natural sources and waste on the contribution of sterols in the SML. Further analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct inputs of sterols derived from human activity (40.58%), terrigenous and plant inputs (22.59%) as well as phytoplankton and marine inputs (17.35%).

  1. Quantitative assessment of sterol traffic in living cells by dual labeling with dehydroergosterol and BODIPY-cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wustner, D.; Solanko, L.; Sokol, Olena; Garvik, O.; Li, Z. G.; Bittman, R.; Korte, T.; Herrmann, A.

    2011-01-01

    followed a stretched exponential decay, while the fluorescence lifetime of BCh2 was comparable in various cellular regions. Our results indicate that BCh2 is suitable for analyzing sterol uptake pathways and inter-organelle sterol flux in living cells. The BODIPY-moiety affects lipid phase preference of...

  2. Effects of lovastatin and dietary cholesterol on sterol homeostasis in healthy human subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Duane, W C

    1993-01-01

    We measured biliary and fecal sterol outputs in 12 human subjects on a metabolic ward in four randomly allocated, 6-7 wk periods: (a) lovastatin (40 mg b.i.d.) + low cholesterol diet (mean 246 mg/d), (b) lovastatin + high cholesterol diet (mean 1,071 mg/d), (c) low cholesterol diet alone, (d) high cholesterol diet alone. In addition to lowering serum LDL cholesterol, lovastatin significantly lowered biliary secretion of cholesterol, fecal output of endogenous neutral sterols, cholesterol bala...

  3. A Sterol and Spiroditerpenoids from a Penicillium sp. Isolated from a Deep Sea Sediment Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Chengbin Cui; Yongsheng Che; Dezan Ye; Zongze Shao; Yan Li

    2012-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated sterol, sterolic acid (1), three new breviane spiroditerpenoids, breviones I–K (2–4), and the known breviones (5–8), were isolated from the crude extract of a Penicillium sp. obtained from a deep sea sediment sample that was collected at a depth of 5115 m. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments, and 1 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were deduced by comparison of their CD spectra with those ...

  4. Sterols isolated from seeds of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Ah Kim; Jeong Hyun Son; Seok Bean Song; Seo Young Yang; Young Ho Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Many studies have been conducted on the biologically active constituents of whole parts of P. ginseng (i.e., roots, leaves, flower buds, and fruits). However, the seeds of P. ginseng have not been intensively investigated. A new sterol glucoside,3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5,22,24-stigmastatrienol ( 1 ), and a known sterol, 5,22-stigmastadienol ( 2 ),were isolated from seeds of P...

  5. Fecal free and conjugated bile acids and neutral sterols in vegetarians, omnivores, and patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, J T; Adlercreutz, H; Turunen, M J

    1988-04-01

    Increased excretion and intestinal bacterial metabolism of bile acids and neutral sterols have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. We determined fecal neutral sterol and bile acid profiles by new capillary column gas-liquid chromatographic methods in 18 patients with colorectal cancer, 10 omnivores, and 10 vegetarians. The methods also determine concentrations of esterified neutral sterols and saponifiable bile acids formed by intestinal bacterial action. Patients with colorectal cancer had the highest concentrations of neutral animal sterols, the lowest degree of esterification of neutral sterols, the lowest relative amount of saponifiable bile acids, and the highest concentrations of unconjugated primary bile acids. These differences were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) and more profound when the patients were compared with vegetarians than with omnivores. Since epidemiologic studies suggest that vegetarians have a lower risk of colorectal cancer than omnivores, these differences are discussed as possible risk factors for colorectal cancer. PMID:3387891

  6. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined.......To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  7. Overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene of Withania somnifera enhances salt tolerance, heat tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Mishra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant's adaptation to abiotic stress. METHODOLOGY: The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses--salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. RESULTS: The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found

  8. Functional analysis of the Hikeshi-like protein and its interaction with HSP70 in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Shinya; Ohama, Naohiko; Mizoi, Junya [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kazuo [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko, E-mail: akys@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • HKL, a Hikeshi homologous gene is identified in Arabidopsis. • HKL interacts with two HSP70 isoforms and regulates the subcellular localization of HSC70-1. • The two HSP70 translocate into nucleus in response to heat stress. • Overexpression of HKL confers thermotolerance in transgenic plants. - Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) refold damaged proteins and are an essential component of the heat shock response. Previously, the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) has been reported to translocate into the nucleus in a heat-dependent manner in many organisms. In humans, the heat-induced translocation of HSP70 requires the nuclear carrier protein Hikeshi. In the Arabidopsis genome, only one gene encodes a protein with high homology to Hikeshi, and we named this homolog Hikeshi-like (HKL) protein. In this study, we show that two Arabidopsis HSP70 isoforms accumulate in the nucleus in response to heat shock and that HKL interacts with these HSP70s. Our histochemical analysis revealed that HKL is predominantly expressed in meristematic tissues, suggesting the potential importance of HKL during cell division in Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that HKL regulates HSP70 localization, and HKL overexpression conferred thermotolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that HKL plays a positive role in the thermotolerance of Arabidopsis plants and cooperatively interacts with HSP70.

  9. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...

  10. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang;

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that promote a wide range of developmental processes. While GA signalling is well understood, little is known about how GA is transported or how GA distribution is regulated. Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants...... (ABA), an antagonist of GA, is also transported by NPF3 in vitro. ABA promotes NPF3 expression and GA-Fl uptake in plants. On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting as an influx carrier and that GA-ABA interaction may...

  11. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...

  12. Sardisterol, A New Polyhydroxylated Sterol from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton digitatum Moser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU, Jing-Yu; YANG, Ruo-Lin

    2001-01-01

    A new polyhydroxylated sterol, named sardisterol, was isolated from the soft coral Sarcophyton digitatum Moser. Its structure was determined as (22R, 24ξ)-methyicholest-5-en-3β,22, 25, 28-tetraol-3-acetate on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  13. Simultaneous extraction, derivatization and clean-up of sterols from soil using accelerated solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-step extraction, derivatization and clean-up technique for the determination of sterols in soil by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is presented. In this method, in situ derivatization of sterols using 99 % N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) + 1 % trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) was carried out inside the extraction cell. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MSD) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The effects of solvent, sorbent and temperature on the in situ derivatization of sterols were investigated using Ottawa sand fortified at 50 ppm sterol mixture (cholestrol, stigmasterol and stigmastanol). The extraction performed using dichloromethane at extraction pressure of 1500 p.s.i, temperature 60 degree Celsius and static extraction time of 15 min gave recoveries from 87 to 96 %. The effect of several types of sorbents as on-line clean-up by inclusion of sorbents in the extraction cell on the extraction efficiencies were investigated using spiked soil sample. Increase in static extraction time significantly improved the recoveries of the analytes. The utilization of integrated extraction, derivatization and clean-up strategy simplify and shorten the sample preparation step in an analysis. (author)

  14. Selective accelerated solvent extraction for the analysis of soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been successfully used in the analysis of a wide range of chemicals from many sample matrices. However, the main problem with accelerated solvent extraction is low selectivity towards the analyte because during the extraction process, many interfering components are co-extracted together with target analytes and thus requires post-extraction clean-up processes. In this study, a selective accelerated solvent extraction with clean-up step incorporated inside the extraction cell was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sterols in soil. PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, pyrene) and sterols (coprostanol, cholestrol, stigmasterol, stigmastanol) were extracted separately using two elution steps. The selectivity and efficiency of this approach were evaluated using several sorbents and proper choice of solvents. Using polar sorbents, PAHs were recovered in the first extraction using n-hexane while sterols were recovered in the second extraction using a more polar solvent such as methanol, isopropanol, acetone and mixture of DCM: MeOH (40:60, v/ v). Recoveries for PAHs ranged from 76.5-99.2 % and sterols from 83.7-91.4 % using silica as the sorbent, n-hexane as the first eluent, and methanol as the second eluent. (author)

  15. A New 4α-Methylated Sterol from a Nephthea sp. (Nephtheidae) Bornean Soft Coral

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Ishii; Hiroshi Matsuura; Zhan Zhaoqi; Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan

    2009-01-01

    A new 4α-methyl sterol, 4α-methyl-ergosta-6,8(14),22E-triene-3β-ol (1), was isolated along with cholesterol from a Nephthea sp. Bornean soft coral The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the data with those of the related compounds.

  16. Spatiotemporal analysis of endocytosis and membrane distribution of fluorescent sterols in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Faergeman, Nils J

    2008-01-01

    regions of the cell surface, and endocytosis contributed by 62% to total sterol uptake in J774 cells. DHE co-localized with fluorescent transferrin (Tf) in vesicles right after onset of endocytosis and in deepened surface patches of energy depleted cells. Surface caveolae labeled with GFP-tagged caveolin...

  17. Unraveling and engineering the production of 23,24-bisnorcholenic steroids in sterol metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Qin; Liu, Yong-Jun; Yao, Kang; Liu, Hao-Hao; Tao, Xin-Yi; Wang, Feng-Qing; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The catabolism of sterols in mycobacteria is highly important due to its close relevance in the pathogenesis of pathogenic strains and the biotechnological applications of nonpathogenic strains for steroid synthesis. However, some key metabolic steps remain unknown. In this study, the hsd4A gene from Mycobacterium neoaurum ATCC 25795 was investigated. The encoded protein, Hsd4A, was characterized as a dual-function enzyme, with both 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities in vitro. Using a kshAs-null strain of M. neoaurum ATCC 25795 (NwIB-XII) as a model, Hsd4A was further confirmed to exert dual-function in sterol catabolism in vivo. The deletion of hsd4A in NwIB-XII resulted in the production of 23,24-bisnorcholenic steroids (HBCs), indicating that hsd4A plays a key role in sterol side-chain degradation. Therefore, two competing pathways, the AD and HBC pathways, were proposed for the side-chain degradation. The proposed HBC pathway has great value in illustrating the production mechanism of HBCs in sterol catabolism and in developing HBCs producing strains for industrial application via metabolic engineering. Through the combined modification of hsd4A and other genes, three HBCs producing strains were constructed that resulted in promising productivities of 0.127, 0.109 and 0.074 g/l/h, respectively. PMID:26898409

  18. Investigation of oxidation attack sites in sterols: Thermodynamics of hydrogen atom transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škorňa, P.; Lengyel, Jozef; Rimarčík, J.; Klein, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1038, JUN 2014 (2014), s. 26-32. ISSN 2210-271X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-27047S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : sterol * steroid * oxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2014

  19. Effects of plant sterols and olive oil phenols on serum lipoproteins in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis investigated whether minor components from vegetable oils can improve health by decreasing cholesterol concentrations or oxidative modification of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles.The plant sterolsβ-sitosterol and sitostanol are known to decrease cholester

  20. Plant sterols for adults with hypercholesterolemia treated with or without medication (statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bernácer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is the most common coronary risk factor among the Spanish population; 37.4% of the Spanish adult population have cholesterol levels between 190 and 240 mg/dl. Foods enriched with plant sterols (PS can effectively reduce plasma cholesterol in patients with high levels. However, its effectiveness and safety in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia who are on medication (statins or not has been less studied. The aim of this review is to establish the possible role of plant sterols in the control of hypercholesterolemia, as well as how safe they are for people with moderate hypercholesterolemia treated with statins. The main studies were looked at, regardless of design, language or publication date which studied the connection between “plant sterols” and “hypercholesterolemia”, using Pubmed/Medline, SCOPUS and Google Scholar databases. The studies brought together in this review show that an intake of between 2 and 3g/day of plant sterols effectively reduces plasma cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Both clinical studies and available meta-analyses do not indicate any problems related to the drug-nutrient interaction associated with the use of plant sterol-enriched foods. In patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia where the use of statins is not justified a healthy diet, exercise and foods high in PS can provide the best therapeutic approach.

  1. Multidrug Transporters and Alterations in Sterol Biosynthesis Contribute to Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkow, Elizabeth L; Manigaba, Kayihura; Parker, Josie E; Barker, Katherine S; Kelly, Stephen L; Rogers, P David

    2015-10-01

    While much is known concerning azole resistance in Candida albicans, considerably less is understood about Candida parapsilosis, an emerging species of Candida with clinical relevance. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of azole resistance in a collection of resistant C. parapsilosis clinical isolates in order to determine which genes might play a role in this process within this species. We examined the relative expression of the putative drug transporter genes CDR1 and MDR1 and that of ERG11. In isolates overexpressing these genes, we sequenced the genes encoding their presumed transcriptional regulators, TAC1, MRR1, and UPC2, respectively. We also sequenced the sterol biosynthesis genes ERG3 and ERG11 in these isolates to find mutations that might contribute to this phenotype in this Candida species. Our findings demonstrate that the putative drug transporters Cdr1 and Mdr1 contribute directly to azole resistance and suggest that their overexpression is due to activating mutations in the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators. We also observed that the Y132F substitution in ERG11 is the only substitution occurring exclusively among azole-resistant isolates, and we correlated this with specific changes in sterol biosynthesis. Finally, sterol analysis of these isolates suggests that other changes in sterol biosynthesis may contribute to azole resistance in C. parapsilosis. PMID:26169412

  2. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi response to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: morphophysiological alterations leading to cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luis Kessler

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi displays similarities to fungi in terms of its sterol lipid biosynthesis, as ergosterol and other 24-alkylated sterols are its principal endogenous sterols. The sterol pathway is thus a potential drug target for the treatment of Chagas disease. We describe here a comparative study of the growth inhibition, ultrastructural and physiological changes leading to the death of T. cruzi cells following treatment with the sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs ketoconazole and lovastatin. We first calculated the drug concentration inhibiting epimastigote growth by 50% (EC(50/72 h or killing all cells within 24 hours (EC(100/24 h. Incubation with inhibitors at the EC(50/72 h resulted in interesting morphological changes: intense proliferation of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which was corroborated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy of the parasites stained with rhodamine 123, and strong swelling of the reservosomes, which was confirmed by acridine orange staining. These changes to the mitochondria and reservosomes may reflect the involvement of these organelles in ergosterol biosynthesis or the progressive autophagic process culminating in cell lysis after 6 to 7 days of treatment with SBIs at the EC(50/72 h. By contrast, treatment with SBIs at the EC(100/24 h resulted in rapid cell death with a necrotic phenotype: time-dependent cytosolic calcium overload, mitochondrial depolarization and reservosome membrane permeabilization (RMP, culminating in cell lysis after a few hours of drug exposure. We provide the first demonstration that RMP constitutes the "point of no return" in the cell death cascade, and propose a model for the necrotic cell death of T. cruzi. Thus, SBIs trigger cell death by different mechanisms, depending on the dose used, in T. cruzi. These findings shed new light on ergosterol biosynthesis and the mechanisms of programmed cell death in this ancient protozoan parasite.

  4. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan; Li, Sijia; Henke, Adam; Muse, Evan D; Cheng, Bo; Welzel, Gustav; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Wang, Danling; Roland, Jason; Glass, Christopher K; Tremblay, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR), a nuclear hormone receptor, is an essential regulator of immune responses. Activation of LXR-mediated transcription by synthetic agonists, such as T0901317 and GW3965, attenuates progression of inflammatory disease in animal models. However, the adverse effects of these conventional LXR agonists in elevating liver lipids have impeded exploitation of this intriguing mechanism for chronic therapy. Here, we explore the ability of a series of sterol-based LXR agonists to alleviate inflammatory conditions in mice without hepatotoxicity. We show that oral treatment with sterol-based LXR agonists in mice significantly reduces dextran sulfate sodium colitis-induced body weight loss, which is accompanied by reduced expression of inflammatory markers in the large intestine. The anti-inflammatory property of these agonists is recapitulated in vitro in mouse lamina propria mononuclear cells, human colonic epithelial cells, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, treatment with LXR agonists dramatically suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression in a model of traumatic brain injury. Importantly, in both disease models, the sterol-based agonists do not affect the liver, and the conventional agonist T0901317 results in significant liver lipid accumulation and injury. Overall, these results provide evidence for the development of sterol-based LXR agonists as novel therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.-Yu, S., Li, S., Henke, A., Muse, E. D., Cheng, B., Welzel, G., Chatterjee, A. K., Wang, D., Roland, J., Glass, C. K., Tremblay, M. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27025962

  5. X-ray Structure of 4,4′-Dihydroxybenzophenone Mimicking Sterol Substrate in the Active Site of Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)*S⃞♦

    OpenAIRE

    Eddine, Ali Nasser; von Kries, Jens P.; Podust, Mikhail V.; Warrier, Thulasi; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; Larissa M. Podust

    2008-01-01

    A universal step in the biosynthesis of membrane sterols and steroid hormones is the oxidative removal of the 14α-methyl group from sterol precursors by sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51). This enzyme is a primary target in treatment of fungal infections in organisms ranging from humans to plants, and development of more potent and selective CYP51 inhibitors is an important biological objective. Our continuing interest in structural aspects of substrate and inhibitor recognition in CYP51 led us t...

  6. Sterol-dependent nuclear import of ORP1S promotes LXR regulated trans-activation of apoE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxysterol binding protein related protein 1S (ORP1S) is a member of a family of sterol transport proteins. Here we present evidence that ORP1S translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to sterol binding. The sterols that best promote nuclear import of ORP1S also activate the liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factors and we show that ORP1S binds to LXRs, promotes binding of LXRs to LXR response elements (LXREs) and specifically enhances LXR-dependent transcription via the ME.1 and ME.2 enhancer elements of the apoE gene. We propose that ORP1S is a cytoplasmic sterol sensor, which transports sterols to the nucleus and promotes LXR-dependent gene transcription through select enhancer elements. -- Highlights: ► ORP1S translocates to the nucleus in response to sterol binding. ► The sterols that best promote nuclear import of ORP1S are LXR agonists. ► ORP1S binds to LXRs, enhances binding of LXRs to LXREs and promotes LXR-dependent transcription of apoE.

  7. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  8. A comprehensive method for extraction and quantitative analysis of sterols and secosteroids from human plasma[S

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Smith, Daniel D.; Stiles, Ashlee R.; Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a method for the extraction and analysis of 62 sterols, oxysterols, and secosteroids from human plasma using a combination of HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Deuterated standards are added to 200 μl of human plasma. Bulk lipids are extracted with methanol:dichloromethane, the sample is hydrolyzed using a novel procedure, and sterols and secosteroids are isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Compounds are resolved on C18 core-shell HPLC columns and by GC. Sterols and o...

  9. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Harrabi, S.; De Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7-stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the ...

  10. Interaction of the chloride intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 with different sterols in model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Aims: Sterols have been reported to modulate conformation and hence the function of several membrane proteins. One such group is the Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family of proteins. The CLIC protein family consists of six evolutionarily conserved protein members in vertebrates. These proteins are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as membrane bound proteins. We now for the first time demonstrate that the spontaneous membrane insertion of CLIC1 is dependent on the presence of cholesterol in membranes. Our novel findings also extend to the identification of a cholesterol-binding domain within CLIC1 that facilitates the spontaneous membrane insertion of the protein into membranes containing cholesterol. Methods: CLIC1 wild type (WT) and mutant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA followed by size‐exclusion chromatography. Langmuir monolayer film balance experiments were carried out using 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) alone, or in a 5:1 mole ratio combination with either one of the following sterols: Cholesterol (CHOL), β-Sitosterol (SITO), Ergosterol (ERG), Hydroxyecdysone (HYD) or Cholestane (CHOS). WT CLIC1 or mutant versions of CLIC1 were then injected into the aqueous subphase under the lipid film. Results: In lipid monolayers lacking sterols, CLIC1 did not insert. However significant membrane insertion occurred when CLIC1 was added to membranes containing cholesterol. Substitution of membrane cholesterol with either HYD, SITO or ERG, not only increased CLIC1’s membrane interaction but also increased its rate of insertion. Conversely, CLIC1 showed no insertion into monolayers containing CHOS, which lacked the intact sterol 3β-OH group. CLIC1 mutants G18A and G22A, did not insert in POPC:CHOL monolayers whereas the C24A mutant showed membrane insertion equivalent to WT CLIC1. X-ray and Neutron reflectivity, along with Small Angle X-ray Scattering techniques were subsequently used to probe

  11. Effect of medium modification and selected precursors on sterol production by short-term callus cultures of Euphorbia tirucalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesboer, D.D.; Mahlberg, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    Latex from E. Tirucalli, a potential rubber source, contains steroidal alcohols that are high in energy and thus of value in biomass conversion to fuels. Euphol was present in large amounts in the latex, but tirucallol predominated in greater quantities in explants and callus indicating synthesis and/or accumulation of tirucallol by cells other than the laticifer cell. Sterol production was significantly enhanced by certain nutrient media, as well as indole-3-acetic acid, and depressed by benzyladenine. Precursor stimulation of product synthesis was successful only with squalene, which promoted sterol production at 1.0 mg/liter but inhibited cell growth at higher concentrations. DL-mevalonic acid and lanosterol promoted neither growth nor sterol production. DL-(214C) mevalonate was used to confirm the biosynthesis of sterols in both latex and callus cultures.

  12. Cholesterol lowering effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols in a French population with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bard Jean-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant sterols are an established non-pharmacological means to reduce total and LDL blood cholesterol concentrations and are therefore recommended for cholesterol management by worldwide-renown health care institutions. Their efficacy has been proven in many types of foods with the majority of trials conducted in spreads or dairy products. As an alternative to dairy products, soy based foods are common throughout the world. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of plant sterols in soy-based foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols on blood lipid profiles in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind mono-centric study, 50 subjects were assigned to 200 ml of soy drink either enriched with 2.6 g plant sterol esters (1.6 g/d free plant sterol equivalents or without plant sterols (control for 8 weeks. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activity. Plasma concentrations of lipids were measured at initial visit, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks. The primary measurement was the change in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C. Secondary measurements were changes in total cholesterol (TC, non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides. Results Regular consumption of the soy drink enriched with plant sterols for 8 weeks significantly reduced LDL- C by 0.29 mmol/l or 7% compared to baseline (p 96%, and products were well tolerated. Conclusion Daily consumption of a plant sterol-enriched soy drink significantly decreased total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol and is therefore an interesting and convenient aid in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Sterols Are Mainly in the Cytoplasmic Leaflet of the Plasma Membrane and the Endocytic Recycling Compartment in CHO Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Mousumi; Mesmin, Bruno; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    The transbilayer distribution of many lipids in the plasma membrane and in endocytic compartments is asymmetric, and this has important consequences for signaling and membrane physical properties. The transbilayer distribution of cholesterol in these membranes is not properly established. Using the fluorescent sterols, dehydroergosterol and cholestatrienol, and a variety of fluorescence quenchers, we studied the transbilayer distribution of sterols in the plasma membrane (PM) and the endocyti...

  14. Genetic Variation in Plant CYP51s Confers Resistance against Voriconazole, a Novel Inhibitor of Brassinosteroid-Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Husar, Sigrid; Kalaivanan, Florian; Khan, Mamoona; Idlhammer, Markus; Shumilina, Daria; Lange, Theo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Fujioka, Shozo; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14α-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant grow...

  15. Nonvesicular sterol movement from plasma membrane to ER requires oxysterol-binding protein–related proteins and phosphoinositides

    OpenAIRE

    Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Im, Young Jun; Hurley, James H.; Prinz, William A.

    2006-01-01

    Sterols are moved between cellular membranes by nonvesicular pathways whose functions are poorly understood. In yeast, one such pathway transfers sterols from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that this transport requires oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)–related proteins (ORPs), which are a large family of conserved lipid-binding proteins. We demonstrate that a representative member of this family, Osh4p/Kes1p, specifically facilitates the nonvesicular transf...

  16. Substrate Preferences and Catalytic Parameters Determined by Structural Characteristics of Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum*

    OpenAIRE

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Nes, W. David; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects populations of ∼90 countries worldwide, with no vaccine and only a few moderately effective drugs. Here we report the structure/function characterization of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum. The enzyme catalyzes removal of the 14α-methyl group from sterol precursors. The reaction is essential for membrane biogenesis and therefore has great potential to become a target for antileishmanial chemotherapy. Although L. infa...

  17. Molecular Docking Based Virtual Design of Polysubstituted Triazoles as Cytochrome P-450 14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51) Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Bibek Pati*,1; Subhasis Banerjee2

    2012-01-01

    Computational ligand docking methodology, AutoDock 4.0, based on Lamarckian genetic algorithm was employed for virtual screening of a compound library with 13 entries including reference compound as fluconazole with the enzyme Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51), a potential antifungal drug target. Considering free energy of binding as a criteria of evaluation, a total of 12 compounds were predicted to be potential inhibitors of Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (C...

  18. The use of lipid emulsions for sterol supplementation of spat of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Soudant, P.; Val Sanles, M.; Quere, C.; Le Coz, J.R.; Marty, Y; Moal, J.; Samain, J. F.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the ingestion and absorption of lipid emulsions, spat were fed algae deficient in stigmasterol and cholesterol and an emulsion containing these two sterols. The ingestion-absorption of the emulsion was estimated by measuring incorporation of these two sterols in oyster lipids during the 33-day feeding period. They were supplemented with 0%, 3%, 10% and 20% emulsion wet weight of the algae dry weight. The results showed that after only 7 days of emulsion supplementation, significa...

  19. Silencing of sterol glycosyltransferases modulates the withanolide biosynthesis and leads to compromised basal immunity of Withania somnifera

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Surendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Misra, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyse transfer of glycon moiety to sterols and their related compounds to produce diverse glyco-conjugates or steryl glycosides with different biological and pharmacological activities. Functional studies of SGTs from Withania somnifera indicated their role in abiotic stresses but details about role under biotic stress are still unknown. Here, we have elucidated the function of SGTs by silencing SGTL1, SGTL2 and SGTL4 in Withania somnifera. Down-regulatio...

  20. Fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied in lanolin paste on the bottom surface of intact tulip leaves causes a rapid and intense its senescence. The aim of this work was to study the effect of JA-Me on free and bound fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence. The main free and bound fatty acids of tulip leaf, in decreasing order of their abundance, were linolenic, linoleic, palmitic, oleic, stearic and myristic acids. Only the content of free linolenic acid decreased after treatment with JA-Me during visible stage of senescence. ß-Sitosterol (highest concentration, campesterol, stigmasterol and cholesterol were identified in tulip leaf. Methyl jasmonate evidently increased the level of ß-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol during induced senescence. It is suggested that the increase in sterol concentrations under the influence of methyl jasmonate induced changes in membrane fluidity and permeability, which may be responsible for senescence.

  1. A Sterol and Spiroditerpenoids from a Penicillium sp. Isolated from a Deep Sea Sediment Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Cui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new polyoxygenated sterol, sterolic acid (1, three new breviane spiroditerpenoids, breviones I–K (2–4, and the known breviones (5–8, were isolated from the crude extract of a Penicillium sp. obtained from a deep sea sediment sample that was collected at a depth of 5115 m. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments, and 1 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were deduced by comparison of their CD spectra with those of the model compounds. Compounds 2 and 5 showed significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells, which is comparable to the positive control cisplatin.

  2. Molecular Docking Based Virtual Design of Polysubstituted Triazoles as Cytochrome P-450 14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51 Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Pati*,1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational ligand docking methodology, AutoDock 4.0, based on Lamarckian genetic algorithm was employed for virtual screening of a compound library with 13 entries including reference compound as fluconazole with the enzyme Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51, a potential antifungal drug target. Considering free energy of binding as a criteria of evaluation, a total of 12 compounds were predicted to be potential inhibitors of Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51 and 10 compounds displayed greater binding affinities than fluconazole as Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51 Inhibitor. Compound 1a & 1b were the most potent in inhibiting the Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51, in silico. Putative interactions between Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51 and inhibitors were identified by inspection of docking-predicted poses. This understanding of protein–ligand interaction and value of binding energy imparts impetus to the rapid development of novel Cytochrome P-450-14-Alpha-Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51.

  3. New polyhydroxy sterols from the marine sponge Callyspongia fibrosa (Ridley & Dendly)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.P.; Sarma, N.S.; Murthy, Y.L.N.; Kantamreddi, V.S.S.N.; Wright, C.W.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    University, Visakhaptnam – 530 003, India b School of Pharmacy, University of Bradford, Bradford-BD7 1DP, U.K. c National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004, India Abstract - Four new polyhydroxylated sterols are isolated from Marine... obtained from pooled fractions but after rechromatography. The antimalarial activity was carried out at Bradford school of pharmacy, University of Bradford, UK. Cultures containing predominantly early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum were used...

  4. Tracking the sterol biosynthesis pathway of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    OpenAIRE

    Fabris, M; Matthijs, M.; Carbonelle, S.; Moses, T.; Pollier, J.; Dasseville, R.; Baart, G.J.E.; Vyverman, W.; Goossens, A

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are unicellular photosynthetic microalgae that play a major role in global primary production and aquatic biogeochemical cycling. Endosymbiotic events and recurrent gene transfers uniquely shaped the genome of diatoms, which contains features from several domains of life. The biosynthesis pathways of sterols, essential compounds in all eukaryotic cells, and many of the enzymes involved are evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. Although well characterized in most eukaryotes, the path...

  5. Unraveling and engineering the production of 23,24-bisnorcholenic steroids in sterol metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Qin Xu; Yong-Jun Liu; Kang Yao; Hao-Hao Liu; Xin-Yi Tao; Feng-Qing Wang; Dong-Zhi Wei

    2016-01-01

    The catabolism of sterols in mycobacteria is highly important due to its close relevance in the pathogenesis of pathogenic strains and the biotechnological applications of nonpathogenic strains for steroid synthesis. However, some key metabolic steps remain unknown. In this study, the hsd4A gene from Mycobacterium neoaurum ATCC 25795 was investigated. The encoded protein, Hsd4A, was characterized as a dual-function enzyme, with both 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehyd...

  6. Recovery of sterols as fatty acid steryl esters from waste material after purification of tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Toshihiro; Hirota, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yomi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Fujita, Tokio; Kitano, Motohiro; Shimada, Yuji

    2004-08-01

    Tocopherols are purified industrially from soybean oil deodorizer distillate by a process comprising distillation and ethanol fractionation. The waste material after ethanol fractionation (TC waste) contains 75% sterols, but a purification process has not yet been developed. We thus attempted to purify sterols by a process including a lipase-catalyzed reaction. Candida rugosa lipase efficiently esterified sterols in TC waste with oleic acid (OA). After studying several factors affecting esterification, the reaction conditions were determined as follows: ratio of TC waste/OA, 1:2 (wt/wt); water content, 30%; amount of lipase, 120 U/g-reaction mixture; temperature, 40 degrees C. Under these conditions, the degree of esterification reached 82.7% after 24 h. FA steryl esters (steryl esters) in the oil layer were purified successfully by short-path distillation (purity, 94.9%; recovery, 73.1%). When sterols in TC waste were esterified with FFA originating from olive, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, and linseed oils, the FA compositions of the steryl esters differed somewhat from those of the original oils: The content of saturated FA was lower and that of unsaturated FA was higher. The m.p. of the steryl esters synthesized (21.7-36.5 degrees C) were remarkably low compared with those of the steryl esters purified from high-b.p. soybean oil deodorizer distillate substances (56.5 degrees C; JAOCS 80, 341-346, 2003). The low-m.p. steryl esters were soluble in rapeseed oil even at a final concentration of 10%. PMID:15638248

  7. Sterols from the red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, from Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Nasiri; Soodabeh Saeidnia; Ali Mashinchian-Moradi; Gohari, Ahmad R

    2011-01-01

    Context: Two of the important algae from Persian Gulf are Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flageliformis (Rhodophyta). Antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic effects of the mentioned algae have been presented in the previous studies. Aim: In this study, the isolation and structural elucidation of the sterols from these algae are reported. Materials and Methods: The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out with silica gel, sephadex LH 20 column chromatography (CC) and HP...

  8. Role of Aspergillus lentulus 14-α Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51A) in Azole Drug Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado, Emilia; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some morphologically atypical Aspergillus fumigatus strains are different species belonging to the section Fumigati. Aspergillus lentulus, one of these sibling species, is increasingly reported in patients under corticosteroid treatment. MICs of most antifungals in clinical use are elevated against A. lentulus, and it shows primary resistance to azole drugs. Two A. lentulus cytochrome P450 14-α sterol demethylases, encoded by A. lentulus cyp51A (Alcyp51A)...

  9. Formation of Azole-Resistant Candida albicans by Mutation of Sterol 14-Demethylase P450

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Kentaro; Tsuchimori, Noboru; Okonogi, Kenji; Perfect, John R.; Gotoh, Osamu; Yoshida, Yuzo

    1999-01-01

    The sterol 14-demethylase P450 (CYP51) of a fluconazole-resistant isolate of Candida albicans, DUMC136, showed reduced susceptibility to this azole but with little change in its catalytic activity. Twelve nucleotide substitutions, resulting in four amino acid changes, were identified in the DUMC136 CYP51 gene in comparison with a reported CYP51 sequence from a wild-type, fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans strain. Seven of these substitutions, including all of those causing amino acid changes...

  10. Prothioconazole and Prothioconazole-Desthio Activities against Candida albicans Sterol 14-α-Demethylase

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Josie E.; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Cools, Hans J; Fraaije, Bart A.; Lucas, John A.; Rigdova, Katarina; Griffiths, William J.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Prothioconazole is a new triazolinthione fungicide used in agriculture. We have used Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) to investigate the in vitro activity of prothioconazole and to consider the use of such compounds in the medical arena. Treatment of C. albicans cells with prothioconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, and voriconazole resulted in CYP51 inhibition, as evidenced by the accumulation of 14α-methylated sterol substrates (lanosterol and eburicol) and the depletion of ergosterol. We the...

  11. Plant Sterols as Anticancer Nutrients: Evidence for Their Role in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Grattan, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    While many factors are involved in the etiology of cancer, it has been clearly established that diet significantly impacts one’s risk for this disease. More recently, specific food components have been identified which are uniquely beneficial in mitigating the risk of specific cancer subtypes. Plant sterols are well known for their effects on blood cholesterol levels, however research into their potential role in mitigating cancer risk remains in its infancy. As outlined in this review, the c...

  12. Sterols isolated from seeds of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ah Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Many studies have been conducted on the biologically active constituents of whole parts of P. ginseng (i.e., roots, leaves, flower buds, and fruits. However, the seeds of P. ginseng have not been intensively investigated. A new sterol glucoside,3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5,22,24-stigmastatrienol ( 1 , and a known sterol, 5,22-stigmastadienol ( 2 ,were isolated from seeds of P. ginsengand were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced nuclear factor (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS transcription in transfected HepG2 cells. The present work deals with the isolation, identification, and antiinflammatory activities of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC R-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS.The antiinflammatory activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results: Two sterols have been isolated from the seeds of P. ginseng. Compound 1 is a previously unreported glucosidyl sterol. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited NFκB-luciferase activity, with IC 50 values of 8.1 and 4.8΅M, respectively. They also inhibited iNOS-luciferase activity in TNFα-induced HepG2 cells, with IC 50 values of 2.2 and 2.9΅M, respectively. Conclusion: The two isolatedsterols have inhibitory effects on inflammation-related factors in HepG2 cells, as determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Thus, seeds of P. ginseng are worthy of consideration for the development and research of antiinflammatory agents.

  13. Formulation and antifungal performance of natamycin-loaded liposomal suspensions: the benefits of sterol-enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaoud, Clotilde; Lebouille, Jérôme G J L; Mendes, Eduardo; De Braal, Henriette E A; Meesters, Gabriel M H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate food-grade liposomal delivery systems for the antifungal compound natamycin. Liposomes made of various soybean lecithins are prepared by solvent injection, leading to small unilamellar vesicles (Fine-tuning of sterol concentration allows preparation of liposomal suspensions presenting modulated in vitro release kinetics rates and enhanced antifungal activity against the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:26009272

  14. Boophiline, an Antimicrobial Sterol Amide from the Cattle Tick Boophilus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Potterat, Olivier; Hostettmann, Kurt; Höltzel, Alexandra; Jung, Günther; Diehl, Peter A.; Petrini, Orlando

    2008-01-01

    Boophiline (1), a new sterol amide was isolated from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). The structure was assigned as N-[3-(sulfooxy)-25ξ-cholest-5-en-26-oyl]-L-isoleucine by detailed 2D NMR investigations in conjunction with FAB mass spectrometry and acidic hydrolyses. Complete assignment of the diastereotopic methylene protons of the ring system could be deduced from the NMR data. In agar dilution assays, 1 exhibited antifungal properties against Cladosporium cucumerinum and an...

  15. Mitochondrial function and regulation of macrophage sterol metabolism and inflammatory responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annette; Graham; Anne-Marie; Allen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to explore the role of mitochondria in regulating macrophage sterol homeostasis and inflammatory responses within the aetiology of atherosclerosis.Macrophage generation of oxysterol activators of liver X receptors(LXRs),via sterol 27-hydroxylase,is regulated by the rate of flux of cholesterolto the inner mitochondrial membrane,via a complex of cholesterol trafficking proteins.Oxysterols are key signalling molecules,regulating the transcriptional activity of LXRs which coordinate macrophage sterol metabolism and cytokine production,key features influencing the impact of these cells within atherosclerotic lesions.The precise identity of the complex of proteins mediating mitochondrial cholesterol trafficking in macrophages remains a matter of debate,but may include steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and translocator protein.There is clear evidence that targeting either of these proteins enhances removal of cholesterol via LXRα-dependent induction of ATP binding cassette transporters(ABCA1,ABCG1) and limits the production of inflammatory cytokines; interventions which influence mitochondrial structure and bioenergetics also impact on removal of cholesterol from macrophages.Thus,molecules which can sustain or improve mitochondrial structure,the function of the electron transport chain,or increase the activity of components of the protein complex involved in cholesterol transfer,may therefore have utility in limiting or regressing atheroma development,reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction.

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  17. Two-photon time-lapse microscopy of BODIPY-cholesterol reveals anomalous sterol diffusion in chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Frederik W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is an important membrane component, but our knowledge about its transport in cells is sparse. Previous imaging studies using dehydroergosterol (DHE, an intrinsically fluorescent sterol from yeast, have established that vesicular and non-vesicular transport modes contribute to sterol trafficking from the plasma membrane. Significant photobleaching, however, limits the possibilities for in-depth analysis of sterol dynamics using DHE. Co-trafficking studies with DHE and the recently introduced fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol suggested that the latter probe has utility for prolonged live-cell imaging of sterol transport. Results We found that BChol is very photostable under two-photon (2P-excitation allowing the acquisition of several hundred frames without significant photobleaching. Therefore, long-term tracking and diffusion measurements are possible. Two-photon temporal image correlation spectroscopy (2P-TICS provided evidence for spatially heterogeneous diffusion constants of BChol varying over two orders of magnitude from the cell interior towards the plasma membrane, where D ~ 1.3 μm2/s. Number and brightness (N&B analysis together with stochastic simulations suggest that transient partitioning of BChol into convoluted membranes slows local sterol diffusion. We observed sterol endocytosis as well as fusion and fission of sterol-containing endocytic vesicles. The mobility of endocytic vesicles, as studied by particle tracking, is well described by a model for anomalous subdiffusion on short time scales with an anomalous exponent α ~ 0.63 and an anomalous diffusion constant of Dα = 1.95 x 10-3 μm2/sα. On a longer time scale (t > ~5 s, a transition to superdiffusion consistent with slow directed transport with an average velocity of v ~ 6 x 10-3 μm/s was observed. We present an analytical model that bridges the two regimes and fit this model to vesicle

  18. Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, -30, and -40 soy sterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    PEGs Soy Sterol are polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives of soybean oil sterols used in a variety of cosmetic formulations as surfactants and emulsifying agents, skin-conditioning agents, and cleansing and solubilizing agents. When the safety of these ingredients were first reviewed, the available data were insufficient to support safety. New data have since been received and the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics has been substantiated. Current concentration of use ranges from a low of 0.05% in makeup preparations to 2% in moisturizers and several other products. PEGs Soy Sterol are produced by the reaction of the soy sterol hydroxyl with ethylene oxide. In general, ethoxylated fatty acids can contain 1,4-dioxane as a byproduct of ethoxylation. The soy sterols include campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol. The distribution of sterols found in oils derived from common plants is similar, with beta-sitosterol comprising a major component. Impurities include sterol hydrocarbons and cholesterol (4% to 6%) and triterpine alcohols, keto-steroids, and other steroid-like substances (4% to 6%). No pesticide residues were detected. PEGS: Because PEGs are an underlying structure in PEGs Soy Sterols, the previous assessment of PEGs was considered. It is generally recognized that the PEG monomer, ethylene glycol, and certain of its monoalkyl ethers are reproductive and developmental toxins. Given the methods of manufacture of PEGs Soy Sterol, there is no likelihood of ethylene glycol or its alkyl ethers being present. Also, the soybean oil sterol ethers in this ingredient are chemically different from the ethylene glycol alkyl ethers of concern. PEGs are not carcinogenic, although sensitization and nephrotoxicity were observed in burn patients treated with a PEG-based cream. No evidence of systemic toxicity or sensitization was found in studies with intact skin. Plant Phytosterols: Intestinal absorption of ingested plant phytosterols is on the order of 5%, with

  19. Quantification of Sterol and Triterpenol Biomarkers in Sediments of the Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-Lagoonal System (Brazil) by UHPLC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Anceski Bataglion; Hector Henrique Ferreira Koolen; Rolf Roland Weber; Marcos Nogueira Eberlin

    2016-01-01

    Sterols and triterpenols present in sedimentary cores from 12 stations along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Ten sterols and three triterpenols were identified and quantified, indicating both natural and anthropogenic sources. The relative distributions of sterol and triterpenol showed that the study area is submitted to organic matter (OM) from the Ribeira de Iguape River, ...

  20. Crystal structure of cytochrome P450 14α-sterol demethylase (CYP51) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complex with azole inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa M. Podust; Poulos, Thomas L.; Waterman, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 14α-sterol demethylases (CYP51) are essential enzymes in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes. CYP51 removes the 14α-methyl group from sterol precursors such as lanosterol, obtusifoliol, dihydrolanosterol, and 24(28)-methylene-24,25-dihydrolanosterol. Inhibitors of CYP51 include triazole antifungal agents fluconazole and itraconazole, drugs used in treatment of topical and systemic mycoses. The 2.1- and 2.2-Å crystal structures reported here for 4-phen...

  1. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Eriksson, André Huss; Andersen, Rikke; Frokjaer, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  2. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well as...

  3. Information and Its Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) the structure of a data transmission source, carrier, and receiver; (2) a quantitative measure for the amount of data, followed by some quantitative examples of data transmission processes; (3) the concept of data current; (4) data containers; and (5) how this information can be used to structure physics courses. (JN)

  4. Structural complex of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) with 14α-methylenecyclopropyl-Δ7-24, 25-dihydrolanosterol[S

    OpenAIRE

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Waterman, Michael R.; Nes, W. David; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2012-01-01

    Sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) that catalyzes the removal of the 14α-methyl group from the sterol nucleus is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, a primary target for clinical and agricultural antifungal azoles and an emerging target for antitrypanosomal chemotherapy. Here, we present the crystal structure of Trypanosoma (T) brucei CYP51 in complex with the substrate analog 14α-methylenecyclopropyl-Δ7-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (MCP). This sterol binds tightly to all protozoan CYP51s and ...

  5. Effect of rapeseed oil derived plant sterol and stanol esters on atherosclerosis parameters in cholesterol challenged heterozygous Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Fricke, Christiane; Pilegaard, Kirsten; Poulsen, Morten; Wester, Ingmar; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mortensen, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Rapeseed oil (RSO) is a novel source of plant sterols, containing the unique brassicasterol in concentrations higher than allowed for plant sterol blends in food products in the European Union. Effects of RSO sterols and stanols on aortic atherosclerosis were studied in cholesterol-fed heterozygous...... brassicasterol were well tolerated. They were hypocholesterolaemic and inhibited experimental atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed Hh-WHHL rabbits. A significant uptake of plant sterols into the blood and incorporation of campesterol and campestanol into aortic tissue was recorded....

  6. Isolation and functional analysis of a Brassica juncea gene encoding a component of auxin efflux carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; MIN; NI; XIAO; YA; CHEN; ZHI; HONG; XU; HONG; WEI; XUE

    2002-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a divergent role in plant growth and developmental processes including rootand embryo development, vascular pattern formation and cell elongation. Recently isolated Arabidopsispin gene family was believed to encode a component of auxin efflux carrier (Galweiler et al, 1998). Basedon the Arabidopsis pin1 sequence we have isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA (designated Bjpinl), whichencoded a 70-kDa putative auxin efflux carrier. Deduced BjPIN1 shared 65% identities at protein level withAtPIN1 and was highly homologous to other putative PIN proteins of Arabidopsis (with highest homologyto AtPIN3). Hydrophobic analysis showed similar structures between BjPIN1 and AtPIN proteins. Presenceof 6 exons (varying in size between 65 bp and 1229 bp) and 5 introns (sizes between 89 bp and 463 bp)in the genomic fragment was revealed by comparing the genomic and cDNA sequences. Northern blotanalysis indicated that Bjpinl was expressed in most of the tissues tested, with a relatively higher levelof transcript in flowers and a lower level in root tissues. Promoter-reporter gene fusion studies furtherrevealed the expression of Bjpinl in the mature pollen grains, young seeds, root tip, leaf vascular tissue andtrace bundle, stem epidermis, cortex and vascular cells. BjPIN1 was localized on the plasma membraneas demonstrated through fusion expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Auxin efflux carrier activitywas elevated in transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BjPIN1.

  7. Hungarian students’ carrier aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gubik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the students’ carrier aspiration, right after their graduation and five years after their studies. It examines the differences arising from the students’ family business background and their most important social variables (gender, age. Then the study highlights the effects of study field on the students’ intention. The direct effect of education on starting an enterprise is undiscovered in the literature, the paper deals with the influence of availability and services use, offered by higher institutions.

  8. Comparison of human solute carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Schlessinger, Avner; Matsson, Pär; Shima, James E.; Pieper, Ursula; Yee, Sook Wah; Kelly, Libusha; Apeltsin, Leonard; Stroud, Robert M.; Ferrin, Thomas E; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Sali, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Solute carriers are eukaryotic membrane proteins that control the uptake and efflux of solutes, including essential cellular compounds, environmental toxins, and therapeutic drugs. Solute carriers can share similar structural features despite weak sequence similarities. Identification of sequence relationships among solute carriers is needed to enhance our ability to model individual carriers and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their substrate specificity and transport. Here, we desc...

  9. The lipid lowering effect of plant sterol ester capsules in hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhi-Ping

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods enriched with phytosterols have been proven to be an effective therapy to improve blood lipid profiles. However, none of the studies have investigated the efficacy in lipid lowering of plant sterol esters (PSE in capsule form. The objective of this study is to determine if the plant sterol esters (PSE in capsule form (1.3 grams of PSE/day lowered plasma cholesterol levels and lipid ratios in free-living hypercholesterolemic subjects during a 4-week intervention period. Methods Sixteen subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential study with a 4-week placebo phase followed by a 2-week wash-out period and a 4-week treatment phase. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activities. Blood samples were collected at 7, 21 and 28 days of each phase. The primary measurements were change in plasma total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol (LDL between phases and within each phase. The secondary measurements were change in triglycerides, lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL, LDL/HDL and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results In comparison to placebo, LDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced by 7% and 4% (P Conclusion In conclusion, plant sterol ester capsule is effective in improving lipid profiles among hypercholesterolemic subjects in a free-living setting at the minimum dosage recommended by FDA. The significant improved lipid profiles were reached after three weeks of administration. To achieve better lipid lowering results, higher dosages and combination with diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol are recommended.

  10. Evidence that the intra-amoebal Legionella drancourtii acquired a sterol reductase gene from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Pierre-Edouard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-living amoebae serve as a natural reservoir for some bacteria that have evolved into «amoeba-resistant» bacteria. Among these, some are strictly intra-amoebal, such as Candidatus "Protochlamydia amoebophila" (Candidatus "P. amoebophila", whose genomic sequence is available. We sequenced the genome of Legionella drancourtii (L. drancourtii, another recently described intra-amoebal bacterium. By comparing these two genomes with those of their closely related species, we were able to study the genetic characteristics specific to their amoebal lifestyle. Findings We identified a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene common to these two bacteria and absent in their relatives. This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyses the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes, and is probably functional within L. drancourtii since it is transcribed. The phylogenetic analysis of this protein suggests that it was acquired horizontally by a few bacteria from viridiplantae. This gene was also found in the Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus genome, a virus that grows in amoebae and possesses the largest viral genome known to date. Conclusion L. drancourtii acquired a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene of viridiplantae origin. The most parsimonious hypothesis is that this gene was initially acquired by a Chlamydiales ancestor parasite of plants. Subsequently, its descendents transmitted this gene in amoebae to other intra-amoebal microorganisms, including L. drancourtii and Coxiella burnetii. The role of the sterol delta-7 reductase in prokaryotes is as yet unknown but we speculate that it is involved in host cholesterol parasitism.

  11. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...

  12. Fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Saniewski; Janusz Czapski; Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) applied in lanolin paste on the bottom surface of intact tulip leaves causes a rapid and intense its senescence. The aim of this work was to study the effect of JA-Me on free and bound fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence. The main free and bound fatty acids of tulip leaf, in decreasing order of their abundance, were linolenic, linoleic, palmitic, oleic, stearic and myristic acids. Only the content of free linol...

  13. Identification of hopanoid, sterol, and tetrahymanol production in the aerobic methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, P. V.; Summons, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Correlating the occurrence of molecular biosignatures preserved in the rock record with specific microbial taxa is a compelling strategy for studying microbial life in the context of the Earth's distant past. Polycyclic triterpenoids, including the hopanes and steranes, comprise classes of biomarkers that are readily detected in a variety of ancient sediments and are clearly recognized as the diagenetic products of modern day bacterial hopanoids and eukaryotic sterols. Thus, based on the distribution of these lipids in extant microbes, the occurrence of their diagenetic products in the rock record is often utilized as evidence for the existence of specific bacterial and eukaryotic taxa in ancient ecosystems. However, questions have arisen about our understanding of the taxonomic distribution of many of these molecular biomarkers in extant microbes. This is prompting reassessments of the use of polycyclic triterpenoids as geological proxies for microbial taxa, especially in the light of the poorly defined issue of microbial diversity. Recently, significant effort has been put forth to better understand the biosynthesis, function, and regulation of these lipid molecules in a variety of modern organisms so that a more informed interpretation of their occurrence in the rock record can be reached. Here we report the unprecedented production of three different classes of polycyclic triterpenoid biomarker lipids in one bacterium. Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, a member of the Gammaproteobacteria, is a halotolerant alkaliphilic aerobic methanotroph previously isolated from a moderately saline soda lake in Tuva (Central Asia). In this study, M. alcaliphilum is shown to produce C-3 methylated and unmethylated aminohopanoids commonly associated with other mesophilic aerobic methanotrophs. In addition, this organism is also able to produce 4,4-dimethyl sterols and surprisingly, the gammacerane triterpenoid tetrahymanol. Previously, tetrahymanol production has only been

  14. Changes in fatty acid and sterol composition during oogenesis in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    OpenAIRE

    Vahirua Lechat, I; Laure, F; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Bianchini, J; Bellais, M; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    The fatty acid and sterol composition of the oyster Pinctada margaritifera during oogenesis and in eggs was analysed. No major differences were observed during oogenesis, but the egg composition was significantly different from that of gonads. The amount of saturated fatty acids was the highest in eggs and the C16:0 predominant (P < 5%); by contrast, the amount of 22:6(n-3) was significantly lower (P < 5%) than in gonads. No major differences were observed for the polar lipid (PL) composition...

  15. Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of New Dimeric Quaternary Alkylammonium Conjugates of Sterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił Brycki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New dimeric quaternary alkylammonium conjugates of sterols were obtained by two step reactions of ergosterol, cholesterol and cholestanol with bromoacetic acid bromide, followed by bimolecular nucleophilic substitution with N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine, N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine and 3,3'-iminobis- (N,N-dimethylpropylamine. The product structures were confirmed by spectral (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR analysis, mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and PM5 semiempirical methods. Additionally in silico studies have been conducted for the synthesized compounds on the basis of Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS.

  16. Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of New Dimeric Quaternary Alkylammonium Conjugates of Sterols

    OpenAIRE

    Bogumił Brycki; Hanna Koenig; Iwona Kowalczyk; Tomasz Pospieszny

    2014-01-01

    New dimeric quaternary alkylammonium conjugates of sterols were obtained by two step reactions of ergosterol, cholesterol and cholestanol with bromoacetic acid bromide, followed by bimolecular nucleophilic substitution with N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine, N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine and 3,3'-iminobis- (N,N-dimethylpropylamine). The product structures were confirmed by spectral (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR) analysis, mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and PM5 semiempirical method...

  17. Azole Binding Properties of Candida albicans Sterol 14-α Demethylase (CaCYP51)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Martel, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Melo, Nadja; Lamb, David C.; Nes, W. David; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Purified Candida albicans sterol 14-α demethylase (CaCYP51) bound the CYP51 substrates lanosterol and eburicol, producing type I binding spectra with Ks values of 11 and 25 μM, respectively, and a Km value of 6 μM for lanosterol. Azole binding to CaCYP51 was “tight” with both the type II spectral intensity (ΔAmax) and the azole concentration required to obtain a half-ΔAmax being proportional to the CaCYP51 concentration. Tight binding of fluconazole and itraconazole was confirmed by 50% inhib...

  18. Effects of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour Fahimeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sterol regulatory element binding protein- 1 and -2 (SREBP-1 and -2 are key transcription factors involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. The SREBP have mostly been studied in rodents in which lipogenesis is regulated in both liver and adipose tissue. There is, though, a paucity of information on birds, in which lipogenesis occurs essentially in the liver as in humans. Since a prelude to the investigation of the role of SREBP in lipid metabolism regulation in chicken, we review Size and Tissue expression Pattern of SREBP and role of this protein in chickens.

  19. New method for recognition of sterol signalling molecules: Methinium salts as receptors for sulphated steroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejík, Z.; Bříza, T.; Králová, Jarmila; Mikula, I.; Poučková, P.; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 94, February 2015 (2015), s. 15-20. ISSN 1878-5867 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14008; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.300/30.0060; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Polymethinium salts * Sulphated sterols * Molecular recognition * Synthetic receptors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Recombinant sterol esterase from Ophiostoma piceae: an improved biocatalyst expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedillo Víctor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE with high affinity towards p-nitrophenol, glycerol and sterol esters. Its hydrolytic activity on natural mixtures of triglycerides and sterol esters has been proposed for pitch biocontrol in paper industry since these compounds produce important economic losses during paper pulp manufacture. Results Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE* studied. After the initial screening of different clones expressing the enzyme, only one was selected for showing the highest production rate. Different culture conditions were tested to improve the expression of the recombinant enzyme. Complex media were better than minimal media for production, but in any case the levels of enzymatic activity were higher (7-fold in the best case than those obtained from O. piceae. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 76 kDa, higher than that reported for the native enzyme under SDS-PAGE (60 kDa. Steady-state kinetic characterization of the recombinant protein showed improved catalytic efficiency for this enzyme as compared to the native one, for all the assayed substrates (p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and cholesterol esters. Different causes for this were studied, as the increased glycosylation degree of the recombinant enzyme, their secondary structures or the oxidation of methionine residues. However, none of these could explain the improvements found in the recombinant protein. N-terminal sequencing of OPE* showed that two populations of this enzyme were expressed, having either 6 or 8 amino acid residues more than the native one. This fact affected the aggregation behaviour of the recombinant protein, as was corroborated by analytical ultracentrifugation, thus improving the catalytic efficiency of this enzyme. Conclusion P. pastoris resulted to be an optimum

  1. Synthesis Toward and Stereochemical Assignment of Clathsterol: Exploring Diverse Strategies to Polyoxygenated Sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Feng, Feng; Shi, Yong; Tian, Wei-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Herein we describe a synthesis of the trisulfate derivative of clathsterol (1), a marine sterol endowed with impressive structural features and moderate inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. By synthesizing two possible isomers of the side chain, the stereochemistry of 1 is assigned. In creating chiral side chains from steroidal lactone, our strategies, including an addition/reduction procedure to give C22R-OH, an epoxide-opening reaction, and a [3.3]-rearrangement to induce the generation of C24S-Et and C24R-Et respectively, are highly flexible and complementary to each other. PMID:27120267

  2. The influence of sterol metabolism upon radiation-induced aneuploidy of Drosophila melanogaster in the yeast-drosophila system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of sterol metabolism upon induced Drosophila melanogaster mutagenesis in an ecology-genetic yeast-drosophila system has been studied. The sterol deficit in fly organism has been created for account of using as food substrate for fremales of biomass of saccharomyces cerevisiae living cells of 9-2-PZ12 train with nyssup(r1) locus mutation which blocks the ergosterol synthesis. It has been found that the Drosophila females content on mutant yeast increases the frequency of losses and non discrepancy of X-chromosomes induced by X-radiation (1000 R). Addition into yeast biomass of 0.1 % cholesterol solution in 10 %-ethanol reduces the oocytes resistance to X-radiation up to control level. Possible hormonal and membrane mechanisms of increasing radiation-induced aneuploidy of Drosophila and the role of sterol metabolism in organism resistance to damaging factors are discussed

  3. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  4. Substrate Preferences and Catalytic Parameters Determined by Structural Characteristics of Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Nes, W. David; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I. (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (NWU)

    2012-05-14

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects populations of {approx}90 countries worldwide, with no vaccine and only a few moderately effective drugs. Here we report the structure/function characterization of sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum. The enzyme catalyzes removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from sterol precursors. The reaction is essential for membrane biogenesis and therefore has great potential to become a target for antileishmanial chemotherapy. Although L. infantum CYP51 prefers C4-monomethylated sterol substrates such as C4-norlanosterol and obtusifoliol (V{sub max} of {approx}10 and 8 min{sup -1}, respectively), it is also found to 14{alpha}-demethylate C4-dimethylated lanosterol (V{sub max} = 0.9 min{sup -1}) and C4-desmethylated 14{alpha}-methylzymosterol (V{sub max} = 1.9 min{sup -1}). Binding parameters with six sterols were tested, with K{sub d} values ranging from 0.25 to 1.4 {mu}m. Thus, L. infantum CYP51 is the first example of a plant-like sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase, where requirements toward the composition of the C4 atom substituents are not strict, indicative of possible branching in the postsqualene portion of sterol biosynthesis in the parasite. Comparative analysis of three CYP51 substrate binding cavities (Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and L. infantum) suggests that substrate preferences of plant- and fungal-like protozoan CYP51s largely depend on the differences in the enzyme active site topology. These minor structural differences are also likely to underlie CYP51 catalytic rates and drug susceptibility and can be used to design potent and specific inhibitors.

  5. Fully automated determination of the sterol composition and total content in edible oils and fats by online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Marco; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-09-01

    Sterol analysis of edible oils and fats is important in authenticity control. The gas chromatographic determination of the sterol distribution and total content is described by ISO norm 12228. Extraction, purification, and detection of the sterols are time-consuming and error-prone. Collaborative trials prove this regularly. Purification by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and robust GC determination of all mentioned sterols is not straightforward. Therefore, a fully automated LC-GC-FID method was developed to facilitate the determination of sterols. The only manual step left was to weigh the sample into an autosampler vial. Saponification and extraction were performed by an autosampler while purification, separation, and detection were accomplished by online coupled normal-phase LC-GC-FID. Interlacing of sample preparation and analysis allowed an average sample throughput of one sample per hour. The obtained quantitative results were fully comparable with the ISO method with one apparent exception. In the case of sunflower oils, an additional unknown sterol was detected generally missed by ISO 12228. The reason was found in the omission of sterol silylation before subjection to GC-FID. The derivatization reaction changed the retention time and hid this compound behind a major sterol. The compound could be identified as 14-methyl fecosterol. Its structure was elucidated by GC-MS and ensured by HPLC and GC retention times. Finally, validation of the designed method confirmed its suitability for routine environments. PMID:27522150

  6. The role of ABC proteins Aus1p and Pdr11p in the uptake of external sterols in yeast: dehydroergosterol fluorescence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohut, Peter; Wüstner, Daniel; Hronska, L;

    2011-01-01

    Uptake of external sterols in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multistep process limited to anaerobiosis or heme deficiency. It includes crossing the cell wall, insertion of sterol molecules into plasma membrane and their internalization and integration into intracellular membranes. We...

  7. Recoverable Pd/C catalyst mediated dehydrogenation of sterols and an improved synthesis of 1α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi-Zhen; Liu, Chao; Tang, Long-Qian; Liu, Zhao-Peng

    2012-11-01

    A novel recyclable Pd/C catalyst mediated dehydrogenation of sterols is developed. The conversion of sterols to 1,4,6-trien-3-ones is best achieved with Pd/C as a catalyst (10%) in the presence of six equivalents of allyl diethyl phosphate (ADP) and excess amount of sodium carbonate in DMF under vigorous reflux conditions. This transformation gives 17,17-ethylenedioxyandrost-1,4,6-trien-3-one in better yield than that of DDQ oxidation and thus provides an improved synthesis of 1α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone from DHEA. PMID:23000152

  8. Azole Antifungal Sensitivity of Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51) and CYP5218 from Malassezia globosa

    OpenAIRE

    Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Price, Claire L.; Parker, Josie E.; Rolley, Nicola J.; Smyrniotis, Christopher J.; David D. Hughes; Vera Thoss; W. David Nes; Kelly, Diane E.; Holman, Theodore R.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia globosa cytochromes P450 CYP51 and CYP5218 are sterol 14α-demethylase (the target of azole antifungals) and a putative fatty acid metabolism protein (and a potential azole drug target), respectively. Lanosterol, eburicol and obtusifoliol bound to CYP51 with K d values of 32, 23 and 28 μM, respectively, catalyzing sterol 14α-demethylation with respective turnover numbers of 1.7 min−1, 5.6 min−1 and 3.4 min−1. CYP5218 bound a range of fatty acids with linoleic acid binding strongest ...

  9. Δ24-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  10. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Sylvie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  11. Determination of triacyl glycerol and sterol components of fat to authenticate ghee based sweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, A L Amrutha; Sabeena, K; Havanur, Priya Pramod

    2016-04-01

    Method comparison of triacyl glycerol (TAG) and sterol components of fats of ghee based sweets was carried out on dairy ghee, laboratory prepared control sample and market samples. The fat was extracted from control and market samples. Determination of TAG and sterol composition of the fats was carried out using low resolution Gas Chromatography. The quantification of cholesterol and β-sitosterol and TAG classes of dairy ghee, control and market samples fat was also determined using single short column. Adulteration at 5 % level in milk fats showed varied TAG compositions of C50, C52 and C54 as compared to control and pure ghee sample. The cholesterol content of ghee and control sample was 2.30 ± 0.8, 2.00 ± 0.24 g/kg respectively and β-sitosterol content of control was 0.20 ± 0.11 g/kg. The adulterated samples showed varied cholesterol and β-sitosterol contents as compared to control sample fat. PMID:27413245

  12. Sterols from Mytilidae Show Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Effects via Anti-Oxidative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Sun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF. SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL, brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function.

  13. Targeting Ergosterol biosynthesis in Leishmania donovani: essentiality of sterol 14 alpha-demethylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; El Aroussi, Amale; Choi, Jun Yong; Vieira, Debora F; De Muylder, Geraldine; Johnston, Jonathan B; Chen, Steven; Kellar, Danielle; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L; Roush, William R; Podust, Larissa M; McKerrow, James H

    2015-03-01

    Leishmania protozoan parasites (Trypanosomatidae family) are the causative agents of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis worldwide. While these diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, there are few adequate treatments available. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) in the parasite sterol biosynthesis pathway has been the focus of considerable interest as a novel drug target in Leishmania. However, its essentiality in Leishmania donovani has yet to be determined. Here, we use a dual biological and pharmacological approach to demonstrate that CYP51 is indispensable in L. donovani. We show via a facilitated knockout approach that chromosomal CYP51 genes can only be knocked out in the presence of episomal complementation and that this episome cannot be lost from the parasite even under negative selection. In addition, we treated wild-type L. donovani and CYP51-deficient strains with 4-aminopyridyl-based inhibitors designed specifically for Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51. While potency was lower than in T. cruzi, these inhibitors had increased efficacy in parasites lacking a CYP51 allele compared to complemented parasites, indicating inhibition of parasite growth via a CYP51-specific mechanism and confirming essentiality of CYP51 in L. donovani. Overall, these results provide support for further development of CYP51 inhibitors for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25768284

  14. Targeting Ergosterol biosynthesis in Leishmania donovani: essentiality of sterol 14 alpha-demethylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Isobel McCall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania protozoan parasites (Trypanosomatidae family are the causative agents of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis worldwide. While these diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, there are few adequate treatments available. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51 in the parasite sterol biosynthesis pathway has been the focus of considerable interest as a novel drug target in Leishmania. However, its essentiality in Leishmania donovani has yet to be determined. Here, we use a dual biological and pharmacological approach to demonstrate that CYP51 is indispensable in L. donovani. We show via a facilitated knockout approach that chromosomal CYP51 genes can only be knocked out in the presence of episomal complementation and that this episome cannot be lost from the parasite even under negative selection. In addition, we treated wild-type L. donovani and CYP51-deficient strains with 4-aminopyridyl-based inhibitors designed specifically for Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51. While potency was lower than in T. cruzi, these inhibitors had increased efficacy in parasites lacking a CYP51 allele compared to complemented parasites, indicating inhibition of parasite growth via a CYP51-specific mechanism and confirming essentiality of CYP51 in L. donovani. Overall, these results provide support for further development of CYP51 inhibitors for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. Structural Insights into Inhibition of Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase in the Human Pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Anderson, Spencer; Kleshchenko, Yuliya; Furtak, Vyacheslav; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R. (Vanderbilt); (NWU); (Meharry)

    2010-09-02

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), which threatens the lives of millions of people and remains incurable in its chronic stage. The antifungal drug posaconazole that blocks sterol biosynthesis in the parasite is the only compound entering clinical trials for the chronic form of this infection. Crystal structures of the drug target enzyme, Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51), complexed with posaconazole, another antifungal agent fluconazole and an experimental inhibitor, (R)-4{prime}-chloro-N-(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imid-azol-1-yl)ethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (VNF), allow prediction of important chemical features that enhance the drug potencies. Combined with comparative analysis of inhibitor binding parameters, influence on the catalytic activity of the trypanosomal enzyme and its human counterpart, and their cellular effects at different stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle, the structural data provide a molecular background to CYP51 inhibition and azole resistance and enlighten the path for directed design of new, more potent and selective drugs to develop an efficient treatment for Chagas disease.

  16. Stimulation of cell proliferation and polyphosphoinositide turnover in a yeast sterol auxotroph by ergosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ergosterol on cell division and phospholipid metabolism was investigated in strain GL7, a sterol auxotroph of Saccharmyces cerevisiae. When starved for ergosterol GL7 remains viable but grows very slowly and partially accumulates in the unbudded state. The readdition of ergosterol alone or together with cholesterol but not cholesterol alone stimulates both budding and cell proliferation noticeably after a lag of several hours. Within 10 min after ergosterol readdition to prelabeled cholesterol-grown cells the 32P and [3H] inositol content of the polyphosphoinositides increases markedly followed by an equally striking and rapid decrease. The phosphatidylinositol kinase activity in the membrane fraction also increases when cells growing on cholesterol were supplemented with a small amount of ergosterol. A serine specific casein kinase activity which is immunoprecipitable by antibody prepared against the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, pp60/sup v-src/, is enhanced in ergosterol-grown cells when compared to the kinase activity in cholesterol cells. Taken together the results suggest that increased poly-phosphoinositide turnover and protein phosphorylation are associated with or parallel the stimulation of cell proliferation by a small amount of the yeast's natural sterol

  17. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Pisanty, Odelia; Barbosa, Inês C R; Zourelidou, Melina; Regnault, Thomas; Crocoll, Christoph; Erik Olsen, Carl; Weinstain, Roy; Schwechheimer, Claus; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Estelle, Mark; Shani, Eilon

    2016-01-01

    deficient in GA transport. We show that the NPF3 transporter efficiently transports GA across cell membranes in vitro and GA-Fl in vivo. NPF3 is expressed in root endodermis and repressed by GA. NPF3 is targeted to the plasma membrane and subject to rapid BFA-dependent recycling. We show that abscisic acid...... (ABA), an antagonist of GA, is also transported by NPF3 in vitro. ABA promotes NPF3 expression and GA-Fl uptake in plants. On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting as an influx carrier and that GA-ABA interaction may...

  18. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay,; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide impor...

  20. Selenium Speciation in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoou

    2011-01-01

    Selenium has been proved as an essential micronutrient and is beneficial to animals and humans. It is a structural component of the important antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which catalyzes reactions to detoxify reactive oxygen species. However, the essentiality of Se in plants remains controversial and the protective role of Se in plants has rarely been investigated. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was grown in controlled environments having selenate or selenite enriched medi...

  1. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  2. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106750 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106750 002-115-C09 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104851 001-043-A10 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100909 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100909 J023132G24 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058950 001-020-A07 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059821 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059821 006-205-D11 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064944 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064944 J013000P14 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068400 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068400 J013151M04 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066013 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066013 J013047I12 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100241 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100241 J023054P13 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318553 J075145A22 At3g45810.1 68416.m04958 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component famil ... y protein similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  13. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) genetic…

  14. Methods of staining and visualization of sphingolipid enriched and non-enriched plasma membrane regions of Arabidopsis thaliana with fluorescent dyes and lipid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blachutzik Jörg O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterols and Sphingolipids form lipid clusters in the plasma membranes of cell types throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. These lipid domains provide a medium for protein signaling complexes at the plasma membrane and are also observed to be principal regions of membrane contact at the inception of infection. We visualized different specific fluorescent lipophilic stains of the both sphingolipid enriched and non-sphingolipid enriched regions in the plasma membranes of live protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Lipid staining protocols for several fluorescent lipid analogues in plants are presented. The most emphasis was placed on successful protocols for the single and dual staining of sphingolipid enriched regions and exclusion of sphingolipid enriched regions on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. A secondary focus was placed to ensure that these staining protocols presented still maintain cell viability. Furthermore, the protocols were successfully tested with the spectrally sensitive dye Laurdan. Conclusion Almost all existing staining procedures of the plasma membrane with fluorescent lipid analogues are specified for animal cells and tissues. In order to develop lipid staining protocols for plants, procedures were established with critical steps for the plasma membrane staining of Arabidopsis leaf tissue and protoplasts. The success of the plasma membrane staining protocols was additionally verified by measurements of lipid dynamics by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique and by the observation of new phenomena such as time dependent lipid polarization events in living protoplasts, for which a putative physiological relevance is suggested.

  15. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects tw

  16. Faecal sterols as sewage markers in the Langat River, Malaysia: Integration of biomarker and multivariate statistical approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nur Hazirah Adnan; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Hafizan Juahir; Masni Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    The Langat River in Malaysia has been experiencing anthropogenic input from urban,rural and industrial activities for many years.Sewage contamination,possibly originating from the greater than three million inhabitants of the Langat River Basin,were examined.Sediment samples from 22 stations (SL01-SL22) along the Langat River were collected,extracted and analysed by GC-MS.Six different sterols were identified and quantified.The highest sterol concentration was found at station SL02 (618.29 ng/g dry weight),which situated in the Balak River whereas the other sediment samples ranged between 11.60 and 446.52 ng/g dry weight.Sterol ratios were used to identify sources,occurrence and partitioning of faecal matter in sediments and majority of the ratios clearly demonstrated that sewage contamination was occurring at most stations in the Langat River.A multivariate statistical analysis was used in conjunction with a combination of biomarkers to better understand the data that clearly separated the compounds.Most sediments of the Langat River were found to contain low to mid-range sewage contamination with some containing ‘significant' levels of contamination.This is the first report on sewage pollution in the Langat River based on a combination of biomarker and multivariate statistical approaches that will establish a new standard for sewage detection using faecal sterols.

  17. Effects of Inhibitors of [Delta]24(25)-Sterol Methyl Transferase on the Ultrastructure of Epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marina V.; Magaraci, Filippo; Orenes Lorente, Silvia; Gilbert, Ian; de Souza, Wanderley

    2005-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the ethiological agent of Chagas disease. New compounds are being developed based on the biosynthesis and function of sterols, because T. cruzi has a requirement for specific endogenous sterols for growth and survival. Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs) are drugs commonly used against fungal diseases. These drugs act by depleting essential and specific membrane components and/or inducing the accumulation of toxic intermediary or lateral products of the biosynthetic pathway. In this work we present the effects of WSP488, WSP501, and WSP561, specific inhibitors of [Delta]24(25)-sterol methyl transferase, on the ultrastructure of T. cruzi epimastigotes. All three drugs inhibited parasite multiplication at low concentrations, with IC50 values of 0.48, 0.44, and 0.48 [mu]M, respectively, and induced marked morphological changes including (a) blockage of cell division; (b) swelling of the mitochondrion, with several projections and depressions; (c) swelling of the perinuclear space; (d) presence of autophagosomes and myelin-like figures; (e) enlargement of the flagellar pocket and of a cytoplasmic vacuole located in close association with the flagellar pocket; (f) detachment of the membrane of the cell body; and (g) formation of a vesicle at the surface of the parasite between the flagellar pocket and the cytostome. Our results show that these drugs are potent in vitro inhibitors of growth of T. cruzi.

  18. Vitamin D and sterol composition of ten types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D, ergosterol, ergosterol metabolites, and phytosterols were analyzed in ten mushroom types sampled nationwide in the U.S. to update the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Sterols were analyzed by GC-FID with mass spectrometric confirmation of components. Vitamin D was assayed ...

  19. SHORT-TERM EFFICACY OF PLANT STEROLS CONSUMED AT BREAKFAST OR AT EACH MEAL IN LOWERING BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To compare under controlled conditions the effect of plant sterol consumed as a single morning dose or divided through the day on blood lipid profile. Method: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-feeding, single blind trial was conducted in 19 subjects with LDL- cholesterol level...

  20. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  1. The substance composition of sterols in the sediments from the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea and global climatic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bing; Hu Chuanyu; Pan Jianming; Xue Bin; YaoMei

    2006-01-01

    The compounds of sterols such as C27 、C28 、C29 and C3o are recorded from C-8 core of the Chukchi Sea. The double bond position is located at 5-, 5 ,22 as well as 22-,24-. The compound of sterols such as C27、C28、C29 are recorded from B2-9core of the Bering Sea. The double bond position is located at 5-, 5, 22 as well as 22. The composition characteristics of sterols indicate that the substance is mainly contributed by the terrigenous origin and marine silicate organisms. The results are also suggest that the record of abnormal sterols from the surface sediments (2 -0 cm)in the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea represent the period from 1980s to the late 1990s. The strong signal of the Arctic warming is preserved in the sediments, which indicates the eco- environmental change responding to climatic effect of circumjacent.

  2. Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from 1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2ω6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time point

  3. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Structural Basis of Sterol Binding by NPC2, a Lysosomal Protein Deficient in Niemann-Pick Type C2 Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu,S.; Benoff, B.; Liou, H.; Lobel, P.; Stock, A.

    2007-01-01

    NPC2 is a small lysosomal glycoprotein that binds cholesterol with submicromolar affinity. Deficiency in NPC2 is the cause of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease, a fatal neurovisceral disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. Here we report the crystal structure of bovine NPC2 bound to cholesterol-3-O-sulfate, an analog that binds with greater apparent affinity than cholesterol. Structures of both apo-bound and sterol-bound NPC2 were observed within the same crystal lattice, with an asymmetric unit containing one molecule of apoNPC2 and two molecules of sterol-bound NPC2. As predicted from a previously determined structure of apoNPC2, the sterol binds in a deep hydrophobic pocket sandwiched between the two {beta}-sheets of NPC2, with only the sulfate substituent of the ligand exposed to solvent. In the two available structures of apoNPC2, the incipient ligand-binding pocket, which ranges from a loosely packed hydrophobic core to a small tunnel, is too small to accommodate cholesterol. In the presence of sterol, the pocket expands, facilitated by a slight separation of the {beta}-strands and substantial reorientation of some side chains, resulting in a perfect molding of the pocket around the hydrocarbon portion of cholesterol. A notable feature is the repositioning of two aromatic residues at the tunnel entrance that are essential for NPC2 function. The NPC2 structures provide evidence of a malleable binding site, consistent with the previously documented broad range of sterol ligand specificity.

  5. Sterol Biosynthesis and Azole Tolerance Is Governed by the Opposing Actions of SrbA and the CCAAT Binding Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsaller, Fabio; Hortschansky, Peter; Furukawa, Takanori; Carr, Paul D; Rash, Bharat; Capilla, Javier; Müller, Christoph; Bracher, Franz; Bowyer, Paul; Haas, Hubertus; Brakhage, Axel A; Bromley, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Azole drugs selectively target fungal sterol biosynthesis and are critical to our antifungal therapeutic arsenal. However, resistance to this class of drugs, particularly in the major human mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, is emerging and reaching levels that have prompted some to suggest that there is a realistic probability that they will be lost for clinical use. The dominating class of pan-azole resistant isolates is characterized by the presence of a tandem repeat of at least 34 bases (TR34) within the promoter of cyp51A, the gene encoding the azole drug target sterol C14-demethylase. Here we demonstrate that the repeat sequence in TR34 is bound by both the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA, and the CCAAT binding complex (CBC). We show that the CBC acts complementary to SrbA as a negative regulator of ergosterol biosynthesis and show that lack of CBC activity results in increased sterol levels via transcriptional derepression of multiple ergosterol biosynthetic genes including those coding for HMG-CoA-synthase, HMG-CoA-reductase and sterol C14-demethylase. In agreement with these findings, inactivation of the CBC increased tolerance to different classes of drugs targeting ergosterol biosynthesis including the azoles, allylamines (terbinafine) and statins (simvastatin). We reveal that a clinically relevant mutation in HapE (P88L) significantly impairs the binding affinity of the CBC to its target site. We identify that the mechanism underpinning TR34 driven overexpression of cyp51A results from duplication of SrbA but not CBC binding sites and show that deletion of the 34 mer results in lack of cyp51A expression and increased azole susceptibility similar to a cyp51A null mutant. Finally we show that strains lacking a functional CBC are severely attenuated for pathogenicity in a pulmonary and systemic model of aspergillosis. PMID:27438727

  6. Sterol transfer between cyclodextrin and membranes: similar but not identical mechanism to NPC2-mediated cholesterol transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauliff, Leslie A; Xu, Zhi; Storch, Judith

    2011-08-30

    Niemann--Pick C disease is an inherited disorder in which cholesterol and other lipids accumulate in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Recently, cyclodextrins (CD) have been shown to reduce symptoms and extend lifespan in animal models of the disease. In the present studies we examined the mechanism of sterol transport by CD using in vitro model systems and fluorescence spectroscopy and NPC2-deficient fibroblasts. We demonstrate that cholesterol transport from the lysosomal cholesterol-binding protein NPC2 to CD occurs via aqueous diffusional transfer and is very slow; the rate-limiting step appears to be dissociation of cholesterol from NPC2, suggesting that specific interactions between NPC2 and CD do not occur. In contrast, the transfer rate of the fluorescent cholesterol analogue dehydroergosterol (DHE) from CD to phospholipid membranes is very rapid and is directly proportional to the acceptor membrane concentration, as is DHE transfer from membranes to CD. Moreover, CD dramatically increases the rate of sterol transfer between membranes, with rates that can approach those mediated by NPC2. The results suggest that sterol transfer from CD to membranes occurs by a collisional transfer mechanism involving direct interaction of CD with membranes, similar to that shown previously for NPC2. For CD, however, absolute rates are slower compared to NPC2 for a given concentration, and the lysosomal phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) does not stimulate rates of sterol transfer between membranes and CD. As expected from the apparent absence of interaction between CD and NPC2, the addition of CD to NPC2-deficient fibroblasts rapidly rescued the cholesterol accumulation phenotype. Thus, the recent observations of CD efficacy in mouse models of NPC disease are likely the result of CD enhancement of cholesterol transport between membranes, with rapid sterol transfer occurring during CD--membrane interactions. PMID:21740003

  7. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A; Kaiser, Hermann-Josef; Gerl, Mathias J; Sampaio, Julio L; de Robillard, Quentin; Ferguson, Charles; Proszynski, Tomasz J; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simons, Kai

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane...... trafficking, we devised an immunoisolation procedure for specific recovery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles transporting a transmembrane raft protein from the TGN to the cell surface in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel quantitative shotgun lipidomics approach, we could demonstrate that TGN...... sorting selectively enriched ergosterol and sphingolipid species in the immunoisolated secretory vesicles. This finding, for the first time, indicates that the TGN exhibits the capacity to sort membrane lipids. Furthermore, the observation that the immunoisolated vesicles exhibited a higher membrane order...

  8. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  9. In vitro and in silico studies on the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of the sterols identified from the soft coral, subergorgia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyil Byju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gorgonians and other octocorals are known to possess a huge array of secondary metabolites in which sterols are the major group of secondary metabolites apart from sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, and the bioactive metabolites could show marked biomedical potential for future drug discovery. Objective : This study was intended for the isolation and identification of sterols from the octocoral Subergorgia reticulata and to evaluate the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of the identified sterols through in vitro and in silico approach. Materials and Methods : The organism was collected from Lakshadweep Island. The isolated sterols were identified using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The structure was confirmed by using comparison of their spectra those in National Institute of Standard Technology (NIST library. The apoptosis inducing effect of identified sterols were determined by PASS online prediction. In vitro cytotoxity studies were carried out using Dalton′s lymphoma ascites cells (DLA and the cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion method. Results : Six sterols were identified from the soft coral S. reticulata. They are Cholesta-5,22-diene-3ol (3β, Ergosta-5-22-dien-3ol (3β,22E 24S, Cholesterol, 26,26-Dimethyl-5,24(28-ergostadien-3β-ol. β-sitosterol, and Fucosterol. In silico predictions showed that the identified sterols exhibited remarkable apoptosis agonist activity. The probability of apoptosis agonist activity were found maximum for 26,26-Dimethyl-5,24 (28-S. reticulata sterol fractions isolated were found to be having anticancer activity. Conclusions : These findings suggest that S. reticulata contained biologically active sterol compounds that may be useful in the treatment of cancer.

  10. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products. PMID:26697919

  11. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...... worked out with respect to net transport rate, initial rate, unidirectional fluxes including back-flow through the pump, maximum accumulation ratio, competitive inhibition and acceleration, counter transport, and metabolic poisoning. The energetics of the system are treated. The fact that the system...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119708 002-157-E08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060981 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060981 006-202-H08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111736 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111736 J023047L09 At1g68370.1 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... protein ... (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070093 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070093 J023041M10 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-78 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060009 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060009 006-302-D03 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-71 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058419 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058419 001-015-D06 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to S ... P|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073225 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073225 J033023C04 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to SP ... |O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288002 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288002 J075110B01 At1g68510.1 68414.m07826 LOB domain protein 42 ... / lateral organ boundaries do ... main protein 42 ... (LBD42 ) identical to LOB DOMAIN 42 ... [Arabidopsis th ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111785 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111785 J023089N11 At5g62310.1 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kinase, putative ... nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243050 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243050 J100011E04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242758 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242758 J090051H03 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242717 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242717 J090043H19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242638 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242638 J090023J02 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242651 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242651 J090026B08 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287631 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287631 J065073J24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288923 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288923 J090081P06 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242271 J075187A19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242681 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242681 J090032N04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241519 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241519 J065170E12 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240655 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240655 J023135E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242733 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242733 J090047O22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242859 J090073L24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243187 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243187 J100039E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101368 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101368 J033035L13 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111570 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111570 J013071C24 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243065 J100015N03 At5g24270.1 68418.m02855 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... or homolog (SOS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  9. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070528 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070528 J023060D13 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... supe ... roxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119904 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119904 002-182-A05 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104030 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104030 001-020-C01 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104160 006-211-E09 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287459 J043019O07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288034 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288034 J075140H07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111576 J013075J23 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120838 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120838 J023022B11 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111921 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111921 001-013-A10 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly i...dentical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profil

  19. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073140 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK073140 J033022I01 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-168 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120439 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK120439 J013098H20 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK121378 J023127F14 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-142 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK063856 001-122-D05 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isoz... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-46 ...

  4. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mech...

  5. In vitro and in silico studies on the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of the sterols identified from the soft coral, subergorgia reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Kuniyil Byju; Vattoni Anuradha; Gopalakrishnapai Vasundhara; S. Muraleedharan Nair; N Chandramohana Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gorgonians and other octocorals are known to possess a huge array of secondary metabolites in which sterols are the major group of secondary metabolites apart from sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, and the bioactive metabolites could show marked biomedical potential for future drug discovery. Objective : This study was intended for the isolation and identification of sterols from the octocoral Subergorgia reticulata and to evaluate the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of ...

  6. Structural Basis for Rational Design of Inhibitors Targeting Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14α-Demethylase: Two Regions of the Enzyme Molecule Potentiate Its Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Friggeri, Laura; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Rachakonda, Girish; Williams, Amanda D; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Di Santo, Roberto; De Vita, Daniela; Waterman, Michael R.; Tortorella, Silvano; Villalta, Fernando; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, which was once thought to be confined to endemic regions of Latin America, has now gone global, becoming a new worldwide challenge with no cure available. The disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which depends on the production of endogenous sterols, and therefore can be blocked by sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) inhibitors. Here we explore the spectral binding parameters, inhibitory effects on T. cruzi CYP51 activity, and antiparasitic potencies of a ...

  7. Esterificación quimioselectiva de fitosteroles de madera mediante lipasas Chemoselective transesterification of wood steroles by lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gregorio

    2008-07-01

    estanol; enzima inmovilizadaThe chemoselective transesterification of wood sterols is a novel type application of lipases that is considered within a technological platform for the upgrading of black liquor from the Kraft pulping process. Wood sterols are a mixture of sterols and stanols (saturated sterols in which more than 90% is represented by β-sitosterol and β-sitostanol. Both products are oriented to different markets, representing the fractionation of the wood sterols a significant added value. Both substances are structurally similar which precludes its separation by physical operations, being its fractionation by chemoselective esterification with lipases a very appealing strategy. Several commercial lipases were evaluated in their capacity for the selective transesterification of stanols and two of them were selected: one immobilized and one non-supported. The process was optimized with the immobilized lipase obtaining more than 90% esterification of sterols with around 20% esterification of sterols, which satisfied the criterion of selectivity. The immobilized enzyme was however poorly stable because of protein desorption during the reaction; therefore, several strategies of immobilization of the non-supported lipase were developed, best results being obtained with butyl Sepabeads® as support. The selected biocatalyst was tested in the sequential batch reaction of transesterification, proving that the biocatalyst can be used for five sequential batches with very little loss of activity and insignificant reduction in conversion and productivity, which satisfies the profitability criterion of the process. Key words: Lipase; enzymatic transesterification; wood sterols; stanol esters; immobilized enzyme.

  8. Towards squalamine mimics: synthesis and antibacterial activities of head-to-tail dimeric sterol-polyamine conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hua; Wennersten, Christine; Moellering, Robert C; Regen, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Four dimeric sterol-polyamine conjugates have been synthesized from the homo- and hetero-connection of monomeric sterol-polyamine analogs in a head-to-tail manner. These dimeric conjugates show strong antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, whereas their corresponding activities against Gram-negative bacteria are relatively moderate. Though no significant difference was observed in the activities of these conjugates, cholic acid-containing dimeric conjugates generally exhibit higher activities than the corresponding deoxycholic acid-derived analogs. This is in contrast to the finding that a monomeric deoxycholic acid-spermine conjugate was more active than the corresponding cholic acid-derived analog. PMID:23495155

  9. Kinetic imaging of NPC1L1 and sterol trafficking between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes in hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig Petersen, Nicole; Færgeman, Nils J; Yu, Liqing;

    2008-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a recently identified protein that mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulates biliary cholesterol excretion. The itineraries and kinetics of NPC1L1 trafficking remain uncertain. In this study, we have visualized movement of NPC1L1-enhanced green...... exclusively in the canalicular membrane, where the protein is highly mobile. Our study demonstrates dynamic trafficking of NPC1L1 between cell surface and intracellular compartments and suggests that this transport is involved in NPC1L1 mediated cellular sterol uptake....... fluorescent protein (NPC1L1-EGFP) and cholesterol analogues in hepatoma cells. At steady state about 42% of NPC1L1 resided in the transferrin (Tf) positive, sterol enriched endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), while time-lapse microscopy demonstrated NPC1L1 traffic between plasma membrane and ERC...

  10. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  11. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  12. Sustainable bioenergy carriers from wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M.A.; Cavaleiro, A. J.; Abreu, A. A.; Costa, J.C.; Sousa, D. Z.; Alves, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technologies for renewable energy production is crucial for decreasing the reliance in fossil fuels and improving global sustainability. Waste materials are valuable resources that can be used for the production of energy carriers. Organic wastes can be anaerobically digested to ultimately produce methane. Hydrogen can be recovered from this process, if methanogenesis is inhibited. These energy carriers can also be derived from recalcitrant materials in a two step-proce...

  13. Assessment of anthropogenic contamination with sterol markers in surface sediments of a tropical estuary (Itajaí-Açu, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frena, Morgana; Bataglion, Giovana A; Tonietto, Alessandra E; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alexandre, Marcelo R; Madureira, Luiz A S

    2016-02-15

    The Itajaí-Açu estuarine region is one of the most important estuarine systems of south Brazil, due to the location of the Itajaí Harbor, which is the major route of international trading of the state and the largest national fishing pole landing. In addition, industries as well as urban and tourism activities are potential sources of pollution in this area. In the present study, sediment samples from 12 stations along the estuarine system were collected and extracted followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. Eight sterols were identified and quantified, indicating natural and anthropogenic sources. Coprostanol concentrations ranged from <4 up to 8930ngg(-1) of dry weight sediment with higher values being observed in the area next to the Itajaí Harbor and under influence of Itajaí-Mirim River flow, which receives wastewater from several cities. Concentrations and selected sterol ratios were useful tools used to distinguish anthropogenic and biogenic organic matter (OM) sources in the studied area, where coprostanol concentrations higher than 500ngg(-1) were observed in 42% of the stations analyzed, indicating strong sewage contamination. Factor analysis with principal component analysis (FA/PCA) has distinguished two different groups of samples, with high and low total sterol concentrations. FA/PCA results revealed that the stations located in the estuary were separated by PC1 because they are clearly contaminated by sewage, also pointed by coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol ratios and by the higher concentrations of fecal sterols. PMID:26657388

  14. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Selectively Suppress Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein-1 through Proteolytic Processing and Autoloop Regulatory Circuit*

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Yahagi, Naoya; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Nishi, Makiko; Kubota, Midori; Teraoka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sekiya, Motohiro; Iizuka, Yoko; Ohashi, Ken; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Gotoda, Takanari; Ishibashi, Shun

    2010-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a key transcription factor for the regulation of lipogenic enzyme genes in the liver. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) selectively suppress hepatic SREBP-1, but molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. To gain insight into this regulation, we established in vivo reporter assays to assess the activities of Srebf1c transcription and proteolytic processing. Using these in vivo reporter assays, we showed that the primary mechanism for P...

  15. Protein kinase Cbeta mediates hepatic induction of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c by insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Inoue, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Ishigaki, Naomi; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yahagi, Naoya; Gotoda, Takanari; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a transcription factor that controls lipogenesis in the liver. Hepatic SREBP-1c is nutritionally regulated, and its sustained activation causes hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Although regulation of SREBP-1c is known to occur at the transcriptional level, the precise mechanism by which insulin signaling activates SREBP-1c promoter remains to be elucidated. Here we show that protein kinase C beta (PKCbeta) is a key mediator o...

  16. Free-cholesterol loading does not trigger phase separation of the fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol in the plasma membrane of macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    . DHE's surface distribution matched exactly large ruffles and membrane protrusions which were pronounced in FC-loaded cells. Plasma membrane blebs, however, formed in FC-loaded J774 cells had a homogenous staining along the membrane bilayer at 20 degrees C. The results show that even in FC-loaded cells...... with increased membrane cholesterol content, sterols do not form a separate phase in the plasma membrane....

  17. Sterol 14α-demethylase as a potential target for antitrypanosomal therapy: enzyme inhibition and parasite cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Ott, Robert D.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Kleshchenko, Yuliya Y.; Schuster, Inge; Nes, W. David; Hill, George C.; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Sterol 14α-demethylases (CYP51) serve as primary targets for antifungal drugs and specific inhibition of CYP51s in protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (TB) and Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) might provide an effective treatment strategy for human trypanosomiases. Primary inhibitor selection is based initially on the cytochrome P450 spectral response to ligand binding. Ligands which demonstrate strongest binding parameters were examined as inhibitors of reconstituted TB and TC CYP51 activity in vit...

  18. Impact of Recently Emerged Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51) Variants of Mycosphaerella graminicola on Azole Fungicide Sensitivity▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Hans J; Mullins, Jonathan G. L.; Fraaije, Bart A.; Parker, Josie E.; Kelly, Diane E.; Lucas, John A.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    The progressive decline in the effectiveness of some azole fungicides in controlling Mycosphaerella graminicola, causal agent of the damaging Septoria leaf blotch disease of wheat, has been correlated with the selection and spread in the pathogen population of specific mutations in the M. graminicola CYP51 (MgCYP51) gene encoding the azole target sterol 14α-demethylase. Recent studies have suggested that the emergence of novel MgCYP51 variants, often harboring substitution S524T, has contribu...

  19. DISP3, a sterol-sensing domain-containing protein that links thyroid hormone action and cholesterol metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Martina; Corlett, Alicia; Bendová, Zdeňka; Pajer, Petr; Bartůněk, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2009), s. 520-528. ISSN 0888-8809 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520705 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2005-018652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone receptor * cholesterol metabolism * sterol-sensing domain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.257, year: 2009

  20. Karakteristik Pertumbuhan Vegetatif, Kandungan Sterol dan Klorofil dari Beberapa Aksesi Tanaman Bangun-Bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Nuraminah

    2016-01-01

    Research was purposed to find the vegetative growth characteristic, sterols and chlorophyll content of some accessions indian borage. This research was held at home screen Agriculture Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan was began from December 2015 until February 2016 with accession Medan (Krakatau), Medan (Tuntungan), Sibolangit, Simalungun and Brastagi. The results showed that morphology character of accession plants Medan (Tuntungan), Sibolangit, Simalungun and Brastagi not signif...

  1. Effect of wounding and light exposure on sterol, glycoalkaloid, and calystegine levels in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. group Tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Usman

    2013-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are neurotoxic substances that are present in some members of the Solanaceae family, including crop species like potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tomato. The SGA level in the potato tuber is a genetic trait, but certain environmental factors such as wounding and light exposure can increase SGA levels several-fold, which may render tubers unsuitable for human consumption. There is little information about SGA biosynthesis. The sterol cholesterol is commonly rega...

  2. Feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis:sterol-accelerated ubiquitination and degradation of HMG CoA reductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Russell A DeBose-Boyd

    2008-01-01

    3Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase produces mevalonate,an important intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol and essential nonsterol isoprenoids.The reductase is subject to an exorbitant amount of feedback control through multiple mechanisms that are mediated by sterol and nonsterol end-products of mevalonate metabolism.Here,Ⅰwill discuss recent advances that shed light on one mechanism for control of reductase,which involves rapid degradation of the enzyme.Accumulation of certain sterols triggers binding of reductase to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins called Insig-1 and Insig-2.Reductase-Insig binding results in recruitment of a membrane-associated ubiquitin ligase called gp78,which initiates ubiquitination of reductase.This ubiquitination is an obligatory reaction for recognition and degradation of reductase from ER membranes by cytosolic 26S proteasomes.Thus,sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase represents an example of how a general cellular process (ER-associated degradation) is used to control an important metabolic pathway (cholesterol synthesis).

  3. [Determination of β-sitosterol and total sterols content and antioxidant activity of oil in acai (Euterpe oleracea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Qu, Sheng-Sheng; Li, Jia-Jing; Wang, Lin-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    In order to establish a method for the determination of the sterols of the oil in the freeze-dried acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and to evaluate its antioxidant activities, a saponification/extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method were developed and validated for the analysis of phytosterols in PEE (Petroleum ether extract). Separation was achieved on a Purosper STAR LP C18 column with a binary, gradient solvent system of acetonitrile and isopropanol. Evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was used to quantify β-sitosterol and the total sterols. Peak identification was verified by retention times and spikes with external standards. Standard curves were constructed (r = 0.999 2) to allow for sample quantification. Recovery of the saponification and extraction was demonstrated via analysis of spiked samples. The highest content of total sterols is β-sitosterol. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using the total oxyradical scavenging capacity assay (TOSC assay). The result showed that the PEE exhibited significant antioxidant properties, sample concentration and the antioxidant capacity had a certain relevance. PMID:25911812

  4. Effects of heme oxygenase-1 expression on sterol homeostasis in rat astroglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Song, Wei; Khatib, Soliman; Geng, Guoyan; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-03-15

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased (AD) neural tissues. Central oxidation of cholesterol to oxysterols has been implicated in neuroembryogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and membrane repair. In the current study, we demonstrated that transient transfection of rat astroglia with human (h)ho-1 cDNA for 3 days significantly decreased intracellular cholesterol concentrations and increased levels of four oxysterol species (measured by GC/MS) compared to untreated control cultures and HO-1-transfected cells exposed to the HO inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP). Relative to control preparations, oxidative stress was augmented in mitochondria (isolated by subcellular fractionation) and culture media derived from HO-1-transfected astrocytes, as evidenced by enhanced oxidation of the synthetic reporter molecules, linoleoyl tyrosine (LT), linoleoyl tyrosine cholesterol ester (LTC), or linoleoyl tyrosine deoxyguanosyl ester (LTG; measured by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS). We also observed enhanced oxidation of exogenous LTC in human neuroblastoma (M17) cells exposed for 18 h to conditioned media collected from HO-1-transfected astrocytes relative to control media. In AD and other pathological states, glial HO-1 induction may transduce ambient noxious stimuli (e.g., beta-amyloid) into altered patterns of glial sterol metabolism which, in turn, may affect neuronal membrane turnover, survival, and adaptability. PMID:17320768

  5. Fluconazole Binding and Sterol Demethylation in Three CYP51 Isoforms Indicate Differences in Active Site Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamine, A.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Waterman, Mike (Vanderbilt)

    2010-11-16

    14{alpha}-Demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in all sterol biosynthetic pathways (animals, fungi, plants, protists, and some bacteria), catalyzing the removal of the C-14 methyl group following cyclization of squalene. Based on mutations found in CYP51 genes from Candida albicans azole-resistant isolates obtained after fluconazole treatment of fungal infections, and using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found that fluconazole binding and substrate metabolism vary among three different CYP51 isoforms: human, fungal, and mycobacterial. In C. albicans, the Y132H mutant from isolates shows no effect on fluconazole binding, whereas the F145L mutant results in a 5-fold increase in its IC{sub 50} for fluconazole, suggesting that F145 (conserved only in fungal 14{alpha}-demethylases) interacts with this azole. In C. albicans, F145L accounts, in part, for the difference in fluconazole sensitivity reported between mammals and fungi, providing a basis for treatment of fungal infections. The C. albicans Y132H and human Y145H CYP51 mutants show essentially no effect on substrate metabolism, but the Mycobacterium tuberculosis F89H CYP51 mutant loses both its substrate binding and metabolism. Because these three residues align in the three isoforms, the results indicate that their active sites contain important structural differences, and further emphasize that fluconazole and substrate binding are uncoupled properties.

  6. Sterols from the red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, from Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Nasiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Two of the important algae from Persian Gulf are Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flageliformis (Rhodophyta. Antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic effects of the mentioned algae have been presented in the previous studies. Aim: In this study, the isolation and structural elucidation of the sterols from these algae are reported. Materials and Methods: The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out with silica gel, sephadex LH 20 column chromatography (CC and HPLC to obtain six pure compounds 1-6 . The structural elucidation of the constituents was based on the data obtained from H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, DEPT, and EI-MS. Results: The isolated compounds from G. salicornia were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1, cholesterol (2, oleic acid (3, and stigmasterol (4, and the isolated constituents from H. flagelliformis were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1, cholesterol (2, oleic acid (3, cholesterol oleate (5, and (22E-cholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol-7-one (6 based on the spectral data compared to those reported in the literature. Conclusion: Red algae are enriched with cholesterol polysaccharides. We first reported the presence of cholesteryl oleate and (22E-cholesta-5,22-dien-3b-ol-7-one in H. flagelliformis.

  7. Effects of adenine nucleotide and sterol depletion on tight junction structure and function in MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antitumor agent Hadacidin (H), N-formyl-hydroxyamino-acetic acid, reversibly inhibited the multiplication of clone 4 Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at a 4 mM concentration within 24-48 hours. Treated cells were arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. Accompanying this action was a 16-fold increase in the area occupied b the cells and a refractoriness to trypsin treatment. To test whether this effect was due to an increase in tight junction integrity, electrical resistance (TER) was measured across H-treated monolayers. Addition of H at the onset of junction formation reversibly prevented the development of TER. ATP and cAMP levels were decreased by H, as well as the rate of [3H]-leucine incorporation into protein. When 1 mM dibutyryl-cAMP (d.cAMP) and theophylline were added, H had no effect on cell division or protein synthesis, and TER was partially restored. The addition of 1 mM d.cAMP and 1 mM theophylline to control cultures decreased TER, indicating a biphasic effect on TER development/maintenance. In a separate study, the effect of sterol depletion on tight junctions formation/maintenance in wild-type MDCK cells was investigated

  8. Sterol-modulated glycolipid sorting occurs in niemann-pick C1 late endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Dwyer, N K; Neufeld, E B; Love, D C; Cooney, A; Comly, M; Patel, S; Watari, H; Strauss, J F; Pentchev, P G; Hanover, J A; Blanchette-Mackie, E J

    2001-02-01

    The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein and endocytosed low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol were shown to enrich separate subsets of vesicles containing lysosomal associated membrane protein 2. Localization of Rab7 in the NPC1-containing vesicles and enrichment of lysosomal hydrolases in the cholesterol-containing vesicles confirmed that these organelles were late endosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Lysobisphosphatidic acid, a lipid marker of the late endosomal pathway, was found in the cholesterol-enriched lysosomes. Recruitment of NPC1 to Rab7 compartments was stimulated by cellular uptake of cholesterol. The NPC1 compartment was shown to be enriched in glycolipids, and internalization of GalNAcbeta1-4[NeuAcalpha2-3]Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'-ceramide (G(M2)) into endocytic vesicles depends on the presence of NPC1 protein. The glycolipid profiles of the NPC1 compartment could be modulated by LDL uptake and accumulation of lysosomal cholesterol. Expression in cells of biologically active NPC1 protein fused to green fluorescent protein revealed rapidly moving and flexible tubular extensions emanating from the NPC1-containing vesicles. We conclude that the NPC1 compartment is a dynamic, sterol-modulated sorting organelle involved in the trafficking of plasma membrane-derived glycolipids as well as plasma membrane and endocytosed LDL cholesterol. PMID:11032830

  9. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  10. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Harrison, B.; Stanga, J.; Young, L.-S.; Neal, C.; Sabat, G.; Murthy, N.; Harms, A.; Sedbrook, J.; Masson, P.

    The primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings respond to gravity stimulation by developing a tip curvature that results from differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the elongation zone. This curvature appears modulated by a lateral gradient of auxin that originates in the gravity-perceiving cells (statocytes) of the root cap through an apparent lateral repositioning of a component the auxin efflux carrier complex within these cells (Friml et al, 2002, Nature 415: 806-809). Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern early phases of gravity perception and signal transduction within the root-cap statocytes. We have used a molecular genetic approach to uncover some of these mechanisms. Mutations in the Arabidopsis ARG1 and ARL2 genes, which encode J-domain proteins, resulted in specific alterations in root and hypocotyl gravitropism, without pleiotropic phenotypes. Interestingly, ARG1 and ARL2 appear to function in the same genetic pathway. A combination of molecular genetic, biochemical and cell-biological approaches were used to demonstrate that ARG1 functions in early phases of gravity signal transduction within the root and hypocotyl statocytes, and is needed for efficient lateral auxin transport within the cap. The ARG1 protein is associated with components of the secretory and/or endosomal pathways, suggesting its role in the recycling of components of the auxin efflux carrier complex between plasma membrane and endosome (Boonsirichai et al, 2003, Plant Cell 15:2612-2625). Genetic modifiers of arg1-2 were isolated and shown to enhance the gravitropic defect of arg1-2, while resulting in little or no gravitropic defects in a wild type ARG1 background. A slight tendency for arg1-2;mar1-1 and arg1-2;mar2-1 double-mutant organs to display an opposite gravitropic response compared to wild type suggests that all three genes contribute to the interpretation of the gravity-vector information by seedling organs. The

  11. Motor Carrier Evaluation Program procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Division (DOE-TMD) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned material. In the performance of these duties, the DOE-TMD has established an exemplary safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials. The DOE recognizes that its responsibility for hazardous material does not end when the shipments leave the DOE sites. A special partnership is needed between the DOE, the DOE contractors, and the carriers chosen to transport hazardous materials. As in any partnership, it is critical that DOE know essential information about its partner in this joint venture. In fulfillment of its responsibility for the safe transportation of radioactive materials as well as other hazardous commodities and wastes routinely shipped from many DOE locations nationwide, the DOE-TMD has developed this policy for a motor carrier evaluation program. It is the intent of the DOE-TMD that this Motor Carrier Evaluation Program be implemented at all DOE locations to the fullest extent practicable. This program will assist in the evaluation of carriers transporting Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material, because these shipments frequently are in the ''public eye.'' The program will also evaluate truckload (TL) quantity transporters of hazardous materials, including radioactive material and chemical wastes. The program has also recently been expanded to include motor carriers transporting less-than-truckload (LTL) quantities of these materials

  12. New method to determine free sterols/oxysterols in food matrices using gas chromatography and ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Pakuła, Lucyna

    2016-05-15

    Sterols/oxysterols in food may be free or bound i.e. esterified with fatty acids. Methods commonly applied to determine those compounds in such matrices (based on various analytical techniques) usually start with hydrolysis of the food lipid fraction, which means that the results are no good indication of concentration of free sterols/oxysterols only. But only free oxysterols are proatherogenic factors, bound ones are not. There are some published methods selectively sensitive to free oxysterols only, but they are capable to determine only a few compounds and feature very low recovery rates. The aim of this work was to develop a method to determine various free (non-esterified) sterols/oxysterols in various food matrices. The developed method is based on the GC-IT-MS technique used in the chemical ionization mode. It was applied to determine 16 different free sterols/oxysterols in egg powder, cheese, butter, milk and salami. Fat extracted from the given matrix is purified on a specially prepared silica-gel bed to separate the sterol fraction from the oxysterol one. Sterols are silylated using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane BSTFA:TMCS, then GC-IT-MS analysed. The method features high recovery rates (75-95%), high reproducibility (RSD<20%), and sensitivity within the 0.01-0.3 mg 100 g(-1) range, depending on the analysed compound. The method is ideally suited for determination of free sterols/oxysterols. Besides, should total concentration of both free and bound forms be of interest, food lipids may be transesterificated before the silica-gel bed purification step. PMID:26992495

  13. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  14. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  15. Carrier sense data highway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  16. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  17. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  18. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  19. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  20. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  1. Human Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 1a Contributes Significantly to Hepatic Lipogenic Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP 1, the master regulator of lipogenesis, was shown to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is attributed to its major isoform SREBP1c. Based on studies in mice, the minor isoform SREBP1a is regarded as negligible for hepatic lipogenesis. This study aims to elucidate the expression and functional role of SREBP1a in human liver. Methods: mRNA expression of both isoforms was quantified in cohorts of human livers and primary human hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with PF-429242 to inhibit the proteolytic activation of SREBP precursor protein. SREBP1a-specifc and pan-SREBP1 knock-down were performed by transfection of respective siRNAs. Lipogenic SREBP-target gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Results: In human liver, SREBP1a accounts for up to half of the total SREBP1 pool. Treatment with PF-429242 indicated SREBP-dependent auto-regulation of SREBP1a, which however was much weaker than of SREBP1c. SREBP1a-specifc knock-down also reduced significantly the expression of SREBP1c and of SREBP-target genes. Regarding most SREBP-target genes, simultaneous knock-down of both isoforms resulted in effects of only similar extent as SREBP1a-specific knock-down. Conclusion: We here showed that SREBP1a is significantly contributing to the human hepatic SREBP1 pool and has a share in human hepatic lipogenic gene expression.

  2. Role of leptin in the regulation of sterol/steroid biosynthesis in goose granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenqiang; Gan, Chao; Wen, Rui; Xiao, Qihai; Gou, Hua; Liu, Hehe; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen

    2014-09-15

    Leptin is critical for reproductive endocrinology. The aim of this study is to assess the expression patterns of leptin receptor (Lepr) during ovarian follicle development and to reveal the mechanism by which leptin affects steroid hormone secretion in goose granulosa cells. Transcripts of Lepr were ubiquitous in all tested tissues, with pituitary and adrenal glands being the predominant sites. Goose ovarian follicles were divided into several groups by diameter including prehierarchical (4 to 6, 6 to 8, and 8 to 10 mm) and hierarchical (F5-F1) follicles. Lepr gene expression was significantly higher in granulosa cells than in theca cells from follicles of 4 to 8 mm in diameter. Expression of Lepr in granulosa cells decreased gradually as follicles developed, with fluctuating expression in F5 and F3 follicles. Lepr mRNA in theca cells underwent a slight decrease from the 6- to 8-mm cohorts to F5 follicle and then exhibited a transient increase and declined later. In vitro experiments in cultured goose granulosa cells showed that estradiol release was significantly stimulated, whereas progesterone increased slightly and testosterone decreased dramatically after leptin treatment. In accordance with the data for steroids, expression of Lepr, Srebp1, Cyp51, StAR, and Cyp19a1 were induced by the addition of leptin, and the concomitant changes in Hmgcs1, Dhcr24, Cyp11a1, 17β-hsd, Cyp17, and 3β-hsd gene expression were seen. These results suggested that leptin is involved in the development of goose ovarian follicles, and leptin's effect on steroid hormone secretion could be due to altered sterol/steroidogenic gene expression via interaction with its receptor. PMID:25016410

  3. Single particle tracking with sterol modulation reveals the cholesterol-mediated diffusion properties of integrin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of sterol modulation with cyclodextrins plus fluorescence microscopy revealed a biophysical mechanism behind cholesterol’s influence on the diffusion of a ubiquitous class of receptors called integrins. The heterogeneous diffusion of integrins bound to ligand-coated quantum dots was measured using single particle tracking (SPT), and the ensemble changes in integrin diffusion were measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). A 25 ± 1% reduction of membrane cholesterol resulted in three significant changes to the diffusion of ligand-bound αPS2CβPS integrins as measured by SPT. There was a 23% increase in ligand-bound mobile integrins; there was a statistically significant increase in the average diffusion coefficient inside zones of confined diffusion, and histograms of confined integrin trajectories showed an increased frequency in the range of 0.1–1 μm2 s−1 and a decreased frequency in the 0.001–0.1 μm2 s−1 range. No statistical change was measured in the duration of confinement nor the size of confined zones. Restoring the cholesterol-depleted cells with exogenous cholesterol or exogenous epicholesterol resulted in similar diffusion properties. Epicholesterol differs from cholesterol in the orientation of a single hydroxyl group. The ability of epicholesterol to substitute for cholesterol suggests a biophysical mechanism for cholesterol’s effect on integrin diffusion. Influences of bilayer thickness, viscosity and organization are discussed as possible explanations for the measured changes in integrin diffusion when the membrane cholesterol concentration is reduced. (paper)

  4. The exocyst complex contributes to PIN auxin efflux carrier recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdová, Edita; Synek, Lukáš; Pečenková, Tamara; Hála, Michal; Kulich, I.; Fowler, J.E.; Murphy, A.S.; Žárský, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2013), s. 709-719. ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P853; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/1629; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380802 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : exocyst * polar auxin transport * PIN recycling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.815, year: 2013

  5. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miyuki Tanaka,1 Eriko Misawa,1 Koji Yamauchi,1 Fumiaki Abe,1 Chiaki Ishizaki2 1Functional Food Research Department, Food Science and Technology Institute, Morinaga Milk Industry Co, Ltd, Zama, Kanagawa, 2Ebisu Skin Research Center, Inforward, Inc., Tokyo, Japan Background: Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods: First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP containing 40 µg Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results: After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243152 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ... ...AK243152 J100032N02 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-70 ... ...AK288069 J075158N05 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  8. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  9. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  10. Crystal Structures of Trypanosoma brucei Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase and Implications for Selective Treatment of Human Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Park, Hee-Won; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Harp, Joel M.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Nes, W. David; Pays, Etienne; Chaudhuri, Minu; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R. (ULdB); (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (Toronto); (NWU); (Meharry)

    2010-01-25

    Sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (14DM, the CYP51 family of cytochrome P450) is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes. It serves as a major drug target for fungal diseases and can potentially become a target for treatment of human infections with protozoa. Here we present 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures of 14DM from the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, ligand-free and complexed with a strong chemically selected inhibitor N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl-4-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadi-azol-2-yl)benzamide that we previously found to produce potent antiparasitic effects in Trypanosomatidae. This is the first structure of a eukaryotic microsomal 14DM that acts on sterol biosynthesis, and it differs profoundly from that of the water-soluble CYP51 family member from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, both in organization of the active site cavity and in the substrate access channel location. Inhibitor binding does not cause large scale conformational rearrangements, yet induces unanticipated local alterations in the active site, including formation of a hydrogen bond network that connects, via the inhibitor amide group fragment, two remote functionally essential protein segments and alters the heme environment. The inhibitor binding mode provides a possible explanation for both its functionally irreversible effect on the enzyme activity and its selectivity toward the 14DM from human pathogens versus the human 14DM ortholog. The structures shed new light on 14DM functional conservation and open an excellent opportunity for directed design of novel antiparasitic drugs.

  11. The occurrence of PAHs and faecal sterols in Dublin Bay and their influence on sedimentary microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian T; O'Reilly, Shane S; Monteys, Xavier; Reid, Barry F; Szpak, Michal T; McCaul, Margaret V; Jordan, Sean F; Allen, Christopher C R; Kelleher, Brian P

    2016-05-15

    The source, concentration, and potential impact of sewage discharge and incomplete organic matter (OM) combustion on sedimentary microbial populations were assessed in Dublin Bay, Ireland. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and faecal steroids were investigated in 30 surface sediment stations in the bay. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content at each station was used to identify and quantify the broad microbial groups present and the impact of particle size, total organic carbon (%TOC), total hydrogen (%H) and total nitrogen (%N) was also considered. Faecal sterols were found to be highest in areas with historical point sources of sewage discharge. PAH distribution was more strongly associated with areas of deposition containing high %silt and %clay content, suggesting that PAHs are from diffuse sources such as rainwater run-off and atmospheric deposition. The PAHs ranged from 12 to 3072ng/g, with 10 stations exceeding the suggested effect range low (ERL) for PAHs in marine sediments. PAH isomer pair ratios and sterol ratios were used to determine the source and extent of pollution. PLFAs were not impacted by sediment type or water depth but were strongly correlated to, and influenced by PAH and sewage levels. Certain biomarkers such as 10Me16:0, i17:0 and a17:0 were closely associated with PAH polluted sediments, while 16:1ω9, 16:1ω7c, Cy17:0, 18:1ω6, i16:0 and 15:0 all have strong positive correlations with faecal sterols. Overall, the results show that sedimentary microbial communities are impacted by anthropogenic pollution. PMID:26961173

  12. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of the Sterol 14α-Demethylase CYP51F1 from Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyoung-Goo; Lee, Im-Soon; Chun, Young-Jin; Yun, Chul-Ho; Johnston, Jonathan B.; Ortiz de Montellon, Paul R.; Kim, Donghak

    2011-01-01

    Lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51F1) from Candida albicans is known to be an essential enzyme in fungal sterol biosynthesis. Wild-type CYP51F1 and several of its mutants were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. It exhibited a typical reduced CO-difference spectrum with a maximum at 446 nm. Reconstitution of CYP51F1 with NADPH-P450 reductase gave a system that successfully converted lanosterol to its demethylated product. Titration of the purified enzyme ...

  13. The effect of sterols on amphotericin b self-aggregation in a lipid bilayer as revealed by free energy simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann A.; Baginski M.; Winczewski S.; Czub J.

    2013-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is an effective but toxic antifungal drug, known to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, presumably by assembling into transmembrane pores in a sterol-dependent manner. The aggregation of AmB molecules in a phospholipid bilayer is, thus, crucial for the drug’s activity. To provide an insight into the molecular nature of this process, here, we report an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation study of AmB head-to-head dimerization in a phospholipid bilayer, a po...

  14. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sterols in termite nest, soil, and sediment from Great Kwa River, SE Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyo-Ita, Orok Esu; Oyo-Ita, Inyang Okon; Ugim, Samuel Ugim

    2013-02-01

    Costal sediment samples from Great Kwa River as well as adjoining termite nest and soil samples were analyzed for quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sterols using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to access the possibility of transport of biologically produced PAHs/sterols from termite nest to the sediments. The total PAH concentrations (sum of parent and alkyl) for the sediments ranged between 131.96 and 139.35 ng/g dry weight (dw) while those for the nest and soil samples were in the range 9.51-9.71 and 71.85-77.26 ng/g dw, respectively. These levels of PAHs in sediments were relatively low compared to other urban/industrial Asian and American countries. No evidence of the usual biologically produced PAHs was found, thus reducing the likelihood of transport of these compounds from the nest to the sediments. The absence of parent and alkyl PAHs in central compartment of the nest may reflect the selective fern leaves feeding pattern of the dominant termite species prevalent in the vicinity of the study site. Utilization of six selected PAH ratios such as Fla/(Fla + Pyr) (0.4-0.5), Ant/(Ant + Phe) (0.25-0.90), BaA/(BaA + Chrys) (0.45-0.61), MP/P (0.05-6.81), 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP (0.61-0.95), and LPAH/HPAH ( 2.80-3.80) allows discrimination of PAH sources for the samples to be made with a mixed source dominance observed. Examination of sterol distributions in the samples shows relatively high abundance of cholest-5-en-3β-ol in central compartment of the nest, considered here as a consequence of metabolic conversion of phyto-/fungi sterols in the tissues of the termite species. The relatively reduced levels of stanol compounds in central compartment of the nest may be associated with their utilization by the termites for growth and development. PMID:22544040

  15. Genes encoding chimeras of Neurospora crassa erg-3 and human TM7SF2 proteins fail to complement Neurospora and yeast sterol C-14 reductase mutants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Prakash; Durgadas P Kasbekar

    2002-03-01

    The human gene TM7SF2 encodes a polypeptide (SR-1) with high sequence similarity to sterol C-14 reductase, a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme in fungi, plants and mammals. In Neurospora and yeast this enzyme is encoded by the erg-3 and erg24 genes respectively. In an effort to demonstrate sterol C-14 reductase activity for SR-1 we constructed six recombinant genes coding for chimeras of the Neurospora erg-3 and SR-1 protein sequences and tested them for complementation of the Neurospora erg-3 mutant. To our surprise, all the chimeras failed to complement erg-3. A few of the chimeric proteins were also tested against the yeast erg24 mutant, but again there was no complementation. We discuss some reasons that might account for these unexpected findings.

  16. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic studies of total saponin, alkaloid and sterols contents of decoction of Joshanda: identification of components through thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The current study was aimed to assess antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of total saponin, alkaloid and sterol contents of Joshanda decoction followed by its constituent's analysis via thin layer chromatography (TLC). Saponins and alkaloids showed prominent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae whereas sterols only against S. aureus. Saponin and alkaloid contents of 97 and 108 µg/ml, respectively, showed prominent free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl, with mild cytotoxicity in brine shrimp cytotoxic test. Under ultraviolet light at 254 nm, TLC of total saponins showed eight different compounds, total sterols comprising three while total alkaloids two compounds of various polarities. It is concluded that the various contents of Joshanda decoction possess outstanding susceptibility against bacteria implicating primarily upper respiratory tract infections augmented by strong antioxidant activity. PMID:23235996

  17. Alterations in composition of sterols and in properties of erythrocyte membranes in rats with Shvetz experimental leukosis and after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palamarchyuk, V.I.; Trikash, I.O. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Biokhimii)

    1983-05-01

    Sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane is studied in experimental Schwetz leukosis. Interconnections of alteration in sterol composition and membrane properties are investigated, as well as the effect of UV-radiation on the alteration of sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane and lifetime of animals With leukosis. The effect of UV-radiation on survival of the leukosis animals has been studied which showed that irradiation of rats in the dose of 8 mWt/min/cm/sup 2/ for 12 days increases the lifetime of animals by several days, i.e. increases resistance of animals to leukosis. In the case of short-time UV-radiation of rats the cholesterine amount in erythrocyte membranes increases by 9% as compared with the norm, simultaneously, other substances appear. Acidic resistance of erythrocytes of irradiated animals also increases. The supposition is made that alterations promote the increase of organism resistance to leukosis.

  18. Alterations in composition of sterols and in properties of erythrocyte membranes in rats with Shvetz experimental leukosis and after UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane is studied in experimental Schwetz leukosis. Interconnections of alteration in sterol composition and membrane properties are investigated, as well as the effect of UV-radiation on the alteration of sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane and lifetime of animals With leukosis. The effect of UV-radiation on survival of the leukosis animals has been studied which showed that irradiation of rats in the dose of 8 mWt/min/cm2 for 12 days increases the lifetime of animals by several days, i.e. increases resistance of animals to leukosis. In the case of short-time UV-radiation of rats the cholesterine amount in erythrocyte membranes increases by 9% as compared with the norm, simultaneously, other substances appear. Acidic resistance of erythrocytes of irradiated animals also increases. The supposition is made that alterations promote the increase of organism resistance to leukosis

  19. Effect of sterol metabolism in the yeast-Drosophila system on the frequency of radiation-induced aneuploidy in the Drosophila melanogaster oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of sterol metabolism on induced mutagenesis of Drosophila melanogaster was studied in the ecogenetic system of yeast-Drosophila. Sterol deficiency was created in Drosophila by using the biomass of live cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 9-2-P712 till mutation in locus nys/sup r1/ blocking the synthesis of ergosterol as the food. It was found that rearing of Drosophila females on the mutant yeast increases the frequency of loss and nondisjunction of X chromosomes induced in mature oocytes by X rays (1000 R). Addition of 0.1% of cholesterol solution in 10% ethanol to the yeast biomass restores the resistance of oocyte to X irradiation to the control level. The possible hormonal effect on membrane leading to increased radiation-induced aneuploidy in Drosophila and the role of sterol metabolism in determining the resistance to various damaging factors are discussed

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066771 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066771 J013083K07 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative s...imilar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059353 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059353 001-026-D01 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059160 001-023-D05 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 3e-28 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242849 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242849 J090072M15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288959 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288959 J090084E19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243008 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243008 J090097H12 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288072 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288072 J075161I05 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243178 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243178 J100036P15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243505 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243505 J100074N19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287577 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287577 J065037N08 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  10. Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. Results We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced dicot genomes, Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa by using genes coding for proteases in the MEROPS database 1 for Arabidopsis to identify homologous sequences in Populus. A multigene-based phylogenetic analysis was performed. Most protease families were found to be larger in Populus than in Arabidopsis, reflecting recent genome duplication. Detailed studies on e.g. the DegP, Clp, FtsH, Lon, rhomboid and papain-Like protease families showed the pattern of gene family expansion and gene loss was complex. We finally show that different Populus tissues express unique suites of protease genes and that the mRNA levels of different classes of proteases change along a developmental gradient. Conclusion Recent gene family expansion and contractions have made the Arabidopsis and Populus complements of proteases different and this, together with expression patterns, gives indications about the roles of the individual gene products or groups of proteases.

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 3e-12 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 6e-22 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 1e-160 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.1 68417.m02148 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063585 001-118-A04 At4g13870.2 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX) contains Pf...am profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 6e-16 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.2 68417.m02149 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243230 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243230 J100044L04 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-65 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103452 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103452 J033129I11 At1g19850.1 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) / auxin-respon...sive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-166 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318617 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318617 J100090H20 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-63 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287832 J065187F20 At1g30950.1 68414.m03790 unusual floral organ (UFO ) / F-box family protein ( ... ubunit; almost identical to unusual floral organs (UFO )GI:4376159 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] Landsberg-e ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241547 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241547 J065176G22 At1g30950.1 68414.m03790 unusual floral organ (UFO ) / F-box family protein ( ... ubunit; almost identical to unusual floral organs (UFO )GI:4376159 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] Landsberg-e ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242616 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-34 ... ...AK242616 J090017C19 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242846 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 9e-12 ... ...AK242846 J090071I10 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241162 J065116A05 At5g54800.1 68418.m06826 glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator, putative identic...al to glucose 6 phosphate/phosphate translocator [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|7229675|gb|AAF42936 2e-11 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242098 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-22 ... ...AK242098 J075143H11 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243041 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-31 ... ...AK243041 J100008G07 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243539 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 6e-34 ... ...AK243539 J100078G04 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-22 ... ...AK242576 J090009A15 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289111 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-20 ... ...AK289111 J090096N14 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289248 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289248 J100079D02 At5g54800.1 68418.m06826 glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator, putative identic...al to glucose 6 phosphate/phosphate translocator [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|7229675|gb|AAF42936 7e-19 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-81 ... ...AK287695 J065129B08 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At1g07370.1 68414.m00786 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 1 (PCNA1) identi ... cal to SP|Q9M7Q7 Proliferating cellular nuclear ... antigen 1 (PCNA 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071591 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071591 J023105C08 At2g29570.1 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA2) identical to SP|Q9Z ... W35 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At2g29570.1 68415.m03591 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA2) identi ... cal to SP|Q9ZW35 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241265 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241265 J065132C02 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-81 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105739 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105739 001-202-A05 At3g19450.1 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to SP|P48523 Cin ... namyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-46 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243022 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243022 J100001E20 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-64 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287708 J065132C02 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-81 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121261 J023104H13 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100867 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100867 J023124E13 At2g29640.1 josephin family protein contains Pfam domain PF02099: Jose...phin; similar to Josephin-like protein (Swiss-Prot:O82391) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-59 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065851 J013041L15 At1g79010.1 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 23 kDa subunit, mitochondrial (TY ... ursor (EC 1.6.5.3) (EC 1.6.99.3) (Complex I-23KD) (CI -23KD) (Complex I- 28.5KD) (CI -28.5KD) {Arabidopsis ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119532 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119532 001-203-F01 At1g79010.1 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 23 kDa subunit, mitochondrial (T ... ursor (EC 1.6.5.3) (EC 1.6.99.3) (Complex I-23KD) (CI -23KD) (Complex I- 28.5KD) (CI -28.5KD) {Arabidopsis ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243512 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243512 J100075C18 At4g16280.3 68417.m02471 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) id ... entical to SP|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243512 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243512 J100075C18 At4g16280.2 68417.m02470 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) id ... entical to SP|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-130 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 2e-65 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110534 002-168-A07 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-114 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-24 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-45 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 3e-66 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069071 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069071 J023010H01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-124 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060286 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060286 001-006-C08 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 6e-78 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-29 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-25 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-28 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105393 001-123-B04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-25 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-126 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 8e-63 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 1e-125 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-26 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-47 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-98 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-98 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109812 002-147-H02 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 5e-90 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-31 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121003 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121003 J023045B21 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-48 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-45 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 4e-27 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061162 006-209-A01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-35 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-50 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066153 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287906 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit / ClpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF028...61: Clp amino terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069552 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058510 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amin...o terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  3. Shotgun Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shotgun tandem mass spectrometry proteomics approaches, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS, were used to identify Arabidopsis thaliana leaf proteins. These methods utilize different protein/peptide separation strategies. Detergents not compatible wit...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318553 J075145A22 At4g11230.1 68417.m01819 respiratory burst ... oxidase, putative / NADPH oxidase ... , putative similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase homolog F [gi:3242456], RbohAp108 [gi:2654 ... 868] from Arabidopsis thaliana, respiratory burst ... oxidase homolog [GI:16549087] from Solanum tuberos ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110694 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110694 002-170-A08 At5g59560.2 sensitivity to red light reduced protein (SRR1) id...entical to sensitivity to red light reduced protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:25527089; supporting cDNA gi|25527088|gb|AY127047.1| 1e-18 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK099399 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 079; contains weak similarity to the SAPB protein (TR:E236624) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to seven transme...AK099399 J013000O17 At3g05010.1 transmembrane protein, putative similar to GB:AAB61...mbrane domain orphan receptor (GI:4321619) [Mus musculus] contains 7 transmembrane domains; 2e-89 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241202 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241202 J065122B10 At3g20600.1 68416.m02607 non-race specific disease resistance protein (NDR1) ... protein (NDR1) GB:AF021346 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Science ... 278 (5345), 1963-1965 (1997)) 2e-11 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240830 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240830 J065014C16 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121431 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121431 J023138G19 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064987 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064987 J013001D03 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241627 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241627 J065187G05 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241568 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241568 J065179E12 At3g56700.1 68416.m06307 male ... sterility protein, putative similar to SP|Q088 ... 91 Male ... sterility protein 2 {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF03015: Male ... sterility protein 2e-70 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242888 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242888 J090079L06 At3g56700.1 68416.m06307 male ... sterility protein, putative similar to SP|Q088 ... 91 Male ... sterility protein 2 {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF03015: Male ... sterility protein 8e-81 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287630 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287630 J065073I15 At5g22260.1 68418.m02593 male ... sterility 1 protein, putative (MS1) identical ... to male ... sterility 1 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|1555 ... fam profile PF00628: PHD-finger; identical to cDNA male ... sterility 1 protein (ms1 gene) GI:15554514 3e-78 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058440 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 20S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-92 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119246 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119246 001-121-C04 At5g26570.1 glycoside hydrolase starch -binding domain-containing protein si ... milar to SEX1 (starch ... excess) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:12044358; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF00686: Starch ... binding domain 1e-116 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072331 J023039L19 At5g26570.1 glycoside hydrolase starch -binding domain-containing protein sim ... ilar to SEX1 (starch ... excess) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:12044358; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF00686: Starch ... binding domain 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107208 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ala hydrolase, putative virtually identical to gr1-protein from [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3559811; similar t...AK107208 002-125-B11 At1g44350.1 IAA-amino acid hydrolase 6, putative (ILL6) / IAA-

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 1e-150 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287447 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287447 J043016O04 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-30 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-129 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243298 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243298 J100053J04 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 2e-44 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241385 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241385 J065156D02 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 1e-11 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241333 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241333 J065144I22 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 2e-35 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 6e-11 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241521 J065170L14 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 9e-32 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288402 J090030B22 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 7e-25 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 7e-12 ...

  9. Engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Just how these crystals form remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating calcium oxalate crystal formation, a crystal engineering approach was initiated utilizing the non-crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis. The success of t...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288349 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288349 J090023P19 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-23 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241364 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241364 J065152E11 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-20 ...

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase in family GT14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant cell-surface proteoglycans in plants and are involved in many cellular processes including somatic embryogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and cell elongation. We reported a glucuronosyltransferase encoded by Arabidopsis AtGlcAT14A, which catalyzes an addition of glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14 in the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database (CAZy; www.cazy.org), in which a total of 11 proteins, including AtGLCAT14A, are classified from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report the enzyme activities for the rest of the Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, analyzed in the same way as for AtGlcAT14A. Evidently, two other Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, At5g15050 and At2g37585, also possess the glucuronosyltransferase activity adding glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans. Therefore, we named At5g15050 and At2g37585 as AtGlcAT14B and AtGlcAT14C, respectively. PMID:24739253

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242817 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242817 J090063G17 At3g48560.1 68416.m05302 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-a ... cid synthase (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058963 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058963 001-020-C04 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-15 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109628 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109628 002-138-C02 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242722 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242722 J090045F10 At3g16857.2 68416.m02153 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 2e-22 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111864 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111864 J033025G23 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 1e-92 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241362 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241362 J065151H17 At3g16857.1 68416.m02152 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 5e-13 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK112039 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112039 001-044-C11 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 4e-18 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111899 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111899 J023034P21 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 1e-92 ...