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Sample records for arabidopsis populus vitis

  1. Comparative analysis of GT14/GT14-like family genes in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis

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    Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Li, Ting [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Glycosyltransferase family14 (GT14) belongs to the glycosyltransferase (GT) superfamily that plays important roles in the biosynthesis of cell walls, the most abundant source of cellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. It has been hypothesized that DUF266 proteins are a new class of GTs related to GT14. In this study, we identified 62 GT14 and 106 DUF266 genes (named GT14-like herein) in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis. Our phylogenetic analysis separated GT14 and GT14-like genes into two distinct clades, which were further divided into eight and five groups, respectively. Similarities in protein domain, 3D structure and gene expression were uncovered between the two phylogenetic clades, supporting the hypothesis that GT14 and GT14-like genes belong to one family. Therefore, we proposed a new family name, GT14/GT14-like family that combines both subfamilies. Variation in gene expression and protein subcellular localization within the GT14-like subfamily were greater than those within the GT14 subfamily. One-half of the Arabidopsis and Populus GT14/GT14-like genes were found to be preferentially expressed in stem/xylem, indicating that they are likely involved in cell wall biosynthesis. This study provided new insights into the evolution and functional diversification of the GT14/GT14-like family genes.

  2. Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis

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    Jansson Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. Results We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced dicot genomes, Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa by using genes coding for proteases in the MEROPS database 1 for Arabidopsis to identify homologous sequences in Populus. A multigene-based phylogenetic analysis was performed. Most protease families were found to be larger in Populus than in Arabidopsis, reflecting recent genome duplication. Detailed studies on e.g. the DegP, Clp, FtsH, Lon, rhomboid and papain-Like protease families showed the pattern of gene family expansion and gene loss was complex. We finally show that different Populus tissues express unique suites of protease genes and that the mRNA levels of different classes of proteases change along a developmental gradient. Conclusion Recent gene family expansion and contractions have made the Arabidopsis and Populus complements of proteases different and this, together with expression patterns, gives indications about the roles of the individual gene products or groups of proteases.

  3. Populus: arabidopsis for forestry. Do we need a model tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gail

    2002-12-01

    Trees are used to produce a variety of wood-based products including timber, pulp and paper. More recently, their use as a source of renewable energy has also been highlighted, as has their value for carbon mitigation within the Kyoto Protocol. Relative to food crops, the domestication of trees has only just begun; the long generation time and complex nature of juvenile and mature growth forms are contributory factors. To accelerate domestication, and to understand further some of the unique processes that occur in woody plants such as dormancy and secondary wood formation, a 'model' tree is needed. Here it is argued that Populus is rapidly becoming accepted as the 'model' woody plant and that such a 'model' tree is necessary to complement the genetic resource being developed in arabidopsis. The genus Populus (poplars, cottonwoods and aspens) contains approx. 30 species of woody plant, all found in the Northern hemisphere and exhibiting some of the fastest growth rates observed in temperate trees. Populus is fulfilling the 'model' role for a number of reasons. First, and most important, is the very recent commitment to sequence the Populus genome, a project initiated in February 2002. This will be the first woody plant to be sequenced. Other reasons include the relatively small genome size (450-550 Mbp) of Populus, the large number of molecular genetic maps and the ease of genetic transformation. Populus may also be propagated vegetatively, making mapping populations immortal and facilitating the production of large amounts of clonal material for experimentation. Hybridization occurs routinely and, in these respects, Populus has many similarities to arabidopsis. However, Populus also differs from arabidopsis in many respects, including being dioecious, which makes selfing and back-cross manipulations impossible. The long time-to-flower is also a limitation, whilst physiological and biochemical experiments are more readily conducted in Populus compared with the

  4. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis.

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    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-04-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 (-) were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  5. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis

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    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 − were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of basic leucine zipper transcription factor families in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza saliva and Populus trichocarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Qian; ZHANG Liang-sheng; WANG Yi-fei; WANG Jian

    2009-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors form a large gene family that is important in pathogen defense, light and stress signaling, etc. The Completed whole genome sequences of model plants Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza saliva) and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) constitute a valuable resource for genome-wide analysis and genomic comparative analysis, as they are representatives of the two major evolutionary lineages within the angiosperms: the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. In this study, bioinformatics analysis identified 74, 89 and 88 bZIP genes respectively in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. Moreover, a comprehensive overview of this gene family is presented, including the gene structure, phylogeny, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs. As a result, the plant bZIPs were organized into 10 subfamilies on basis of phylogenetic relationship. Gene duplication events during the family evolution history were also investigated. And it was further concluded that chromosomal/segmental duplication might have played a key role in gene expansion of bZIP gene family.

  7. Overexpression of Two PsnAP1 Genes from Populus simonii × P. nigra Causes Early Flowering in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 a...

  8. Characterization of a bifunctional O- and N-glucosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera in glucosylating phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline in Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Zhi-Sheng Xu

    Full Text Available 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3-methylcatechol, phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline are present in the environment and are risky to humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In this study, a putative uridine diphosphate glucose-dependent glycosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvUGT72B1 displayed high O-glucosyltransferase or N-glucosyltransferase activity toward all these xenbiotics and was able to enhance the resistance of P. pastoris to them. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, VvUGT72B1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher resistance to all the xenobiotics except for phenol and exhibited higher removal efficiencies against all xenobiotics. Glucosides of 3-methylcatechol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, phenol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline were exported to the surrounding media by Arabidopsis plants while transgenic Arabidopsis plants exported more glucosides than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Our findings have the potential to provide a broader spectrum remediation strategy for the phytoremoval and degradation of phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline than previous works.

  9. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

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    Dong, Yan [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Liaoning Forestry Vocational-Technical College, Shenyang 110101 (China); Wang, Congpeng; Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; Liu, Sha [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Xinli, E-mail: xiaxl@bjfu.edu.cn [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yin, Weilun, E-mail: yinwl@bjfu.edu.cn [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth.

  10. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth

  11. The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr.&Gray)

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    Tuskan, G.A.; DiFazio, S.; Jansson, S.; Bohlmann, J.; Grigoriev,I.; Hellsten, U.; Putnam, N.; Ralph, S.; Rombauts, S.; Salamov, A.; Schein, J.; Sterck, L.; Aerts, A.; Bhalerao, R.R.; Bhalerao, R.P.; Blaudez, D.; Boerjan, W.; Brun, A.; Brunner, A.; Busov, V.; Campbell, M.; Carlson, J.; Chalot, M.; Chapman, J.; Chen, G.-L.; Cooper, D.; Coutinho,P.M.; Couturier, J.; Covert, S.; Cronk, Q.; Cunningham, R.; Davis, J.; Degroeve, S.; Dejardin, A.; dePamphillis, C.; Detter, J.; Dirks, B.; Dubchak, I.; Duplessis, S.; Ehiting, J.; Ellis, B.; Gendler, K.; Goodstein, D.; Gribskov, M.; Grimwood, J.; Groover, A.; Gunter, L.; Hamberger, B.; Heinze, B.; Helariutta, Y.; Henrissat, B.; Holligan, D.; Holt, R.; Huang, W.; Islam-Faridi, N.; Jones, S.; Jones-Rhoades, M.; Jorgensen, R.; Joshi, C.; Kangasjarvi, J.; Karlsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Kirst, M.; Kohler, A.; Kalluri, U.; Larimer, F.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Leple, J.-C.; Locascio, P.; Lou, Y.; Lucas, S.; Martin,F.; Montanini, B.; Napoli, C.; Nelson, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Nieminen, K.; Nilsson, O.; Peter, G.; Philippe, R.; Pilate, G.; Poliakov, A.; Razumovskaya, J.; Richardson, P.; Rinaldi, C.; Ritland, K.; Rouze, P.; Ryaboy, D.; Schmutz, J.; Schrader, J.; Segerman, B.; Shin, H.; Siddiqui,A.; Sterky, F.; Terry, A.; Tsai, C.; Uberbacher, E.; Unneberg, P.; Vahala, J.; Wall, K.; Wessler, S.; Yang, G.; Yin, T.; Douglas, C.; Marra,M.; Sandberg, G.; Van der Peer, Y.; Rokhsar, D.

    2006-09-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. Over 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event, with approximately 8,000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event surviving in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially slower in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average between 1.4-1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with disease resistance, meristem development, metabolite transport and lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis.

  12. Differential phylogenetic expansions in BAHD acyltransferases across five angiosperm taxa and evidence of divergent expression among Populus paralogues

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    Johnson Virgil E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAHD acyltransferases are involved in the synthesis and elaboration of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. Previous research has shown that characterized proteins from this family fall broadly into five major clades and contain two conserved protein motifs. Here, we aimed to expand the understanding of BAHD acyltransferase diversity in plants through genome-wide analysis across five angiosperm taxa. We focus particularly on Populus, a woody perennial known to produce an abundance of secondary metabolites. Results Phylogenetic analysis of putative BAHD acyltransferase sequences from Arabidopsis, Medicago, Oryza, Populus, and Vitis, along with previously characterized proteins, supported a refined grouping of eight major clades for this family. Taxon-specific clustering of many BAHD family members appears pervasive in angiosperms. We identified two new multi-clade motifs and numerous clade-specific motifs, several of which have been implicated in BAHD function by previous structural and mutagenesis research. Gene duplication and expression data for Populus-dominated subclades revealed that several paralogous BAHD members in this genus might have already undergone functional divergence. Conclusions Differential, taxon-specific BAHD family expansion via gene duplication could be an evolutionary process contributing to metabolic diversity across plant taxa. Gene expression divergence among some Populus paralogues highlights possible distinctions between their biochemical and physiological functions. The newly discovered motifs, especially the clade-specific motifs, should facilitate future functional study of substrate and donor specificity among BAHD enzymes.

  13. Dragon TIS Spotter: an Arabidopsis-derived predictor of translation initiation sites in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Magana-Mora, Arturo; Ashoor, Haitham; Boris R Jankovic; Kamau, Allan; Awara, Karim; Chowdhary, Rajesh; Archer, John A. C.; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In higher eukaryotes, the identification of translation initiation sites (TISs) has been focused on finding these signals in cDNA or mRNA sequences. Using Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.) information, we developed a prediction tool for signals within genomic sequences of plants that correspond to TISs. Our tool requires only genome sequence, not expressed sequences. Its sensitivity/specificity is for A.t. (90.75%/92.2%), for Vitis vinifera (66.8%/94.4%) and for Populus trichocarpa (81.6%/...

  14. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

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    Zhifeng eWen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw., a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084, increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.

  15. Spliceosomal intron size expansion in domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera

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    Goertzen Leslie R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spliceosomal introns are important components of eukaryotic genes as their structure, sizes and contents reflect the architecture of gene and genomes. Intron size, determined by both neutral evolution, repetitive elements activities and potential functional constraints, varies significantly in eukaryotes, suggesting unique dynamics and evolution in different lineages of eukaryotic organisms. However, the evolution of intron size, is rarely studied. To investigate intron size dynamics in flowering plants, in particular domesticated grapevines, a survey of intron size and content in wine grape (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir genes was conducted by assembling and mapping the transcriptome of V. vinifera genes from ESTs to characterize and analyze spliceosomal introns. Results Uncommonly large size of spliceosomal intron was observed in V. vinifera genome, otherwise inconsistent with overall genome size dynamics when comparing Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis. In domesticated grapevine, intron size is generally not related to gene function. The composition of enlarged introns in grapevines indicated extensive transposable element (TE activity within intronic regions. TEs comprise about 80% of the expanded intron space and in particular, recent LTR retrotransposon insertions are enriched in these intronic regions, suggesting an intron size expansion in the lineage leading to domesticated grapevine, instead of size contractions in Arabidopsis and Populus. Comparative analysis of selected intronic regions in V. vinifera cultivars and wild grapevine species revealed that accelerated TE activity was associated with grapevine domestication, and in some cases with the development of specific cultivars. Conclusions In this study, we showed intron size expansion driven by TE activities in domesticated grapevines, likely a result of long-term vegetative propagation and intensive human care, which simultaneously promote TE proliferation and

  16. Dragon TIS Spotter: An Arabidopsis-derived predictor of translation initiation sites in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Magana-Mora, Arturo

    2012-10-30

    In higher eukaryotes, the identification of translation initiation sites (TISs) has been focused on finding these signals in cDNA or mRNA sequences. Using Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.) information, we developed a prediction tool for signals within genomic sequences of plants that correspond to TISs. Our tool requires only genome sequence, not expressed sequences. Its sensitivity/specificity is for A.t. (90.75%/92.2%), for Vitis vinifera (66.8%/94.4%) and for Populus trichocarpa (81.6%/94.4%), which suggests that our tool can be used in annotation of different plant genomes. We provide a list of features used in our model. Further study of these features may improve our understanding of mechanisms of the translation initiation. The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Identification and Characterization of the Populus AREB/ABF Subfamily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lexiang Ji; Jia Wang; Meixia Ye; Ying Li; Bin Guo; Zhong Chen; Hao Li; Xinmin An

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone that plays an important role in responses to abiotic stresses.The ABA-responsive element binding proteinlABRE-binding factor (AREB/ABF) gene subfamily contains crucial transcription factors in the ABA-mediated signaling pathway.In this study,a total of 14 putative AREB/ABF members were identified in the Populus trichocarpa Torr.& Gray.genome using five AREB/ABF amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana L.as probes.The 14 putative Populus subfamily members showed high protein similarities,especially in the basic leucine zipper (bZlP) domain region.A neighbor-joining analysis combined with gene structure data revealed homology among the 14 genes.The expression patterns of the Populus AREB/ABF subfamily suggested that the most abundant transcripts of 11 genes occurred in leaf tissues,while two genes were most transcribed in root tissues.Significantly,eight Populus AREB/ABF gene members were upregulated after treatment with 100 μM exogenous ABA,while the other six members were downregulated.We identified the expression profiles of the subfamily members in Populus tissues and elucidated different response patterns of Populus AREB/ABF members to ABA stress.This study provided insight into the roles of Populus AREB/ABF homologues in plant response to abiotic stresses.

  18. Identification of candidate genes in Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network and comparative genomics

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    Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Bisaria, Anjali [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidences supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database and additional genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional genomics in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.

  19. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp. PMID:26689772

  20. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

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    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants. PMID:25416258

  1. The CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Yang, Nan; Lv, Yanting; Pan, Lixia; Lv, Shuo; Han, Huibin; Wang, Guodong

    2016-06-01

    The CLE (CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region-related) peptides are small secreted signaling peptides that are primarily involved in the regulation of stem cell homeostasis in different plant meristems. Particularly, the characterization of the CLE41-PXY/TDR signaling pathway has greatly advanced our understanding on the potential roles of CLE peptides in vascular development and wood formation. Nevertheless, our knowledge on this gene family in a tree species is limited. In a recent study, we reported on a systematically investigation of the CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa. The potential roles of PtCLE genes were studied by comparative analysis and transcriptional profiling. Among fifty PtCLE members, many PtCLE proteins share identical CLE motifs or contain the same CLE motif as that of AtCLEs, while PtCLE genes exhibited either comparable or distinct expression patterns comparing to their Arabidopsis counterparts. These findings indicate the existence of both functional conservation and functional divergence between PtCLEs and their AtCLE orthologues. Our results provide valuable resources for future functional investigations of these critical signaling molecules in woody plants. PMID:27232947

  2. Diversification and expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB families of putative auxin transporters in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eCarraro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively, and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also evidence for differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of proteins involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ

  3. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and Candidate Genes for Cadmium Tolerance in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Induri, Brahma R [West Virginia University; Ellis, Danielle R [West Virginia University; Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic variation in response of Populus to heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) is an important step in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tolerance. In this study, a pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides was characterized for Cd exposure. The pedigree showed significant variation for Cd tolerance thus enabling the identification of relatively tolerant and susceptible genotypes for intensive characterization. A total of 16 QTLs at logarithm of odds (LOD) ratio > 2.5, were found to be associated with total dry weight, its components, and root volume. Four major QTLs for total dry weight were mapped to different linkage groups in control (LG III) and Cd conditions (LG XVI) and had opposite allelic effects on Cd tolerance, suggesting that these genomic regions were differentially controlled. The phenotypic variation explained by Cd QTL for all traits under study varied from 5.9% to 11.6% and averaged 8.2% across all QTL. Leaf Cd contents also showed significant variation suggesting the phytoextraction potential of Populus genotypes, though heritability of this trait was low (0.22). A whole-genome microarray study was conducted by using two genotypes with extreme responses for Cd tolerance in the above study and differentially expressed genes were identified. Candidate genes including CAD2 (CADMIUM SENSITIVE 2), HMA5 (HEAVY METAL ATPase5), ATGTST1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Glutathione S-Transferase1), ATGPX6 (Glutathione peroxidase 6), and ATMRP 14 (Arabidopsis thaliana Multidrug Resistance associated Protein 14) were identified from QTL intervals and microarray study. Functional characterization of these candidate genes could enhance phytoremediation capabilities of Populus.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the structural genes regulating defense phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tsai, Chung-Jui [Michigan Technological University; Harding, Scott A [Michigan Technological University; Lindroth, richard L [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Yuan, Yinan [Michigan Technological University

    2006-01-01

    Salicin-based phenolic glycosides, hydroxycinnamate derivatives and flavonoid-derived condensed tannins comprise up to one-third of Populus leaf dry mass. Genes regulating the abundance and chemical diversity of these substances have not been comprehensively analysed in tree species exhibiting this metabolically demanding level of phenolic metabolism. Here, shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway genes thought to give rise to these phenolic products were annotated from the Populus genome, their expression assessed by semiquantitative or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and metabolic evidence for function presented. Unlike Arabidopsis, Populus leaves accumulate an array of hydroxycinnamoyl-quinate esters, which is consistent with broadened function of the expanded hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferase gene family. Greater flavonoid pathway diversity is also represented, and flavonoid gene families are larger. Consistent with expanded pathway function, most of these genes were upregulated during wound-stimulated condensed tannin synthesis in leaves. The suite of Populus genes regulating phenylpropanoid product accumulation should have important application in managing phenolic carbon pools in relation to climate change and global carbon cycling.

  5. Populus: Arabidopsis for Forestry. Do We Need a Model Tree?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Trees are used to produce a variety of wood‐based products including timber, pulp and paper. More recently, their use as a source of renewable energy has also been highlighted, as has their value for carbon mitigation within the Kyoto Protocol. Relative to food crops, the domestication of trees has only just begun; the long generation time and complex nature of juvenile and mature growth forms are contributory factors. To accelerate domestication, and to understand further some of the unique ...

  6. Clone history shapes Populus drought responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sherosha; Bräutigam, Katharina; Hamanishi, Erin T; Wilkins, Olivia; Thomas, Barb R; Schroeder, William; Mansfield, Shawn D; Plant, Aine L; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2011-07-26

    Just as animal monozygotic twins can experience different environmental conditions by being reared apart, individual genetically identical trees of the genus Populus can also be exposed to contrasting environmental conditions by being grown in different locations. As such, clonally propagated Populus trees provide an opportunity to interrogate the impact of individual environmental history on current response to environmental stimuli. To test the hypothesis that current responses to an environmental stimulus, drought, are contingent on environmental history, the transcriptome- level drought responses of three economically important hybrid genotypes-DN34 (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra), Walker [P. deltoides var. occidentalis × (Populus laurifolia × P. nigra)], and Okanese [Walker × (P. laurifolia × P. nigra)]-derived from two different locations were compared. Strikingly, differences in transcript abundance patterns in response to drought were based on differences in geographic origin of clones for two of the three genotypes. This observation was most pronounced for the genotypes with the longest time since establishment and last common propagation. Differences in genome-wide DNA methylation paralleled the transcriptome level trends, whereby the clones with the most divergent transcriptomes and clone history had the most marked differences in the extent of total DNA methylation, suggesting an epigenomic basis for the clone history-dependent transcriptome divergence. The data provide insights into the interplay between genotype and environment in the ecologically and economically important Populus genus, with implications for the industrial application of Populus trees and the evolution and persistence of these important tree species and their associated hybrids. PMID:21746919

  7. Identification, expression analysis and characterization of defense and signaling genes in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Julie; Le Henanff, Gaëlle; Bertsch, Christophe; Walter, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    The reduction of phytochemicals applied to grapevine relies on the development of alternative strategies involving activation of the plant's own defense system. The aim of this work was to study the signaling of defense responses to pathogens in Vitis vinifera. We identified in V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay two putative regulatory elements, VvNHL1 and VvEDS1, with similarity to Arabidopsis defense regulators NDR1 and EDS1. Expression studies of these putative signaling genes together with other known grape defense genes show that they are differentially regulated by salicylic acid and jasmonate-ethylene treatments, as well as by inoculation with different types of pathogens. The expression of VvEDS1 was stimulated by salicylic acid treatment, Botrytis cinerea and Plasmopara viticola inoculation, whereas VvNHL1 was repressed by B. cinerea. VvNHL1 overexpression introduced in Arabidopsis ndr1 mutant did not complement the mutation in terms of sensitivity to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Moreover, we observed a weakened resistance to B. cinerea of ndr1 mutants overexpressing VvNHL1, which may be related to cell death enhancement. Together, our results identify two new pathogen-responsive regulatory elements in Vitis vinifera, with potential roles in pathogen defense. PMID:17988883

  8. Populus transcriptomics : from noise to biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sjödin, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Mikromatriser handlar numera inte bara om att alstra genuttrycksdata i snabb takt, utan det är minst lika viktigt att effektivt ta hand om informationen efteråt. I den här avhandlingen presenteras ett arbetsflöde för att mäta, lagra och analysera genuttrycksdata i asp och poppel (Populus spp.). En Populus} mikromatrisdatabas - UPSC--BASE - tillgänglig för alla intresserade, utvecklades i syfte att samla in och lagra genuttrycksdata. Flertalet analysverktyg gjordes samtidigt tillgängliga, för ...

  9. Epigenomics of Development in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Steve; Freitag, Michael; Mockler, Todd

    2013-01-10

    We conducted research to determine the role of epigenetic modifications during tree development using poplar (Populus trichocarpa), a model woody feedstock species. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) or chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), followed by high-throughput sequencing, we are analyzed DNA and histone methylation patterns in the P. trichocarpa genome in relation to four biological processes: bud dormancy and release, mature organ maintenance, in vitro organogenesis, and methylation suppression. Our project is now completed. We have 1) produced 22 transgenic events for a gene involved in DNA methylation suppression and studied its phenotypic consequences; 2) completed sequencing of methylated DNA from eleven target tissues in wildtype P. trichocarpa; 3) updated our customized poplar genome browser using the open-source software tools (2.13) and (V2.2) of the P. trichocarpa genome; 4) produced summary data for genome methylation in P. trichocarpa, including distribution of methylation across chromosomes and in and around genes; 5) employed bioinformatic and statistical methods to analyze differences in methylation patterns among tissue types; and 6) used bisulfite sequencing of selected target genes to confirm bioinformatics and sequencing results, and gain a higher-resolution view of methylation at selected genes 7) compared methylation patterns to expression using available microarray data. Our main findings of biological significance are the identification of extensive regions of the genome that display developmental variation in DNA methylation; highly distinctive gene-associated methylation profiles in reproductive tissues, particularly male catkins; a strong whole genome/all tissue inverse association of methylation at gene bodies and promoters with gene expression; a lack of evidence that tissue specificity of gene expression is associated with gene methylation; and evidence that genome methylation is a significant impediment to tissue

  10. Allelopathic potential of populus euphratica olivier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populus euphratica Olivier is frequently cultivated deciduous tree in Pakistan on agricultural land for its shade, fodder, timber and fuel wood. A relatively reduced under storey is often observed below it. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the allelopathic potential of Populus euphratica against some crop species. Plant material of Populus euphratica were collected from the agriculture fields of Lahor, District Swabi in 2008 and were dried at room temperature (258 deg. C-308 deg. C). Allelopathic studies conducted by using aqueous extracts from various parts including young leaves, mature leaves, bark, litter and mulching in various experiments invariably retarded the germination, plumule, radical growth, fresh and dry weight of Sorghum vulgare Perse, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv and Triticum aestivum L., in laboratory experiments. The aqueous extracts obtained after 48 h were more inhibitory than 24 h. Leaves were more toxic than bark. Litter and mulching experiments also proved to be inhibitory. It is suggested that the various assayed parts of Populus euphratica have strong allelopathic potential at least against the tested species. Further investigation is required to see its allelopathic behavior under field condition against its associated species and to identify the toxic principles. (author)

  11. Genome-wide analysis of major intrinsic proteins in the tree plant Populus trichocarpa: Characterization of XIP subfamily of aquaporins from evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Anjali; Sankararamakrishnan Ramasubbu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) include water-conducting aquaporins and glycerol-transporting aquaglyceroporins. MIPs play important role in plant-water relations. The model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize contain more than 30 MIPs and based on phylogenetic analysis they can be divided into at least four subfamilies. Populus trichocarpa is a model tree species and provides an opportunity to investigate several tree-specific traits. In this study, we ...

  12. Genome-wide analysis of major intrinsic proteins in the tree plant Populus trichocarpa: Characterization of XIP subfamily of aquaporins from evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anjali Bansal; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2009-01-01

    Background Members of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) include water-conducting aquaporins and glycerol-transporting aquaglyceroporins. MIPs play important role in plant-water relations. The model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize contain more than 30 MIPs and based on phylogenetic analysis they can be divided into at least four subfamilies. Populus trichocarpa is a model tree species and provides an opportunity to investigate several tree-specific traits. In this study, we have inve...

  13. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  14. Barcoding poplars (Populus L. from western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianju Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M, trnG-psbK (G and psbK-psbI (P, and trnH-psbA (H and rbcL (R; the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I, and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in

  15. Gas exchange characteristics of Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassman, J H; Zwier, J C

    1991-03-01

    Responses of net photosynthesis, dark respiration, photorespiration, transpiration, and stomatal conductance to irradiance, temperature, leaf-to-air vapor density difference (VDD), and plant water stress were examined in two Populus trichocarpa clones (one from a moist, coastal climate in western Washington and one from a dry, continental climate in eastern Washington), one P. deltoides clone, and two P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides clones. Light saturation of photosynthesis in greenhouse-grown trees occurred at about 800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for P. deltoides, P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides, and the eastern Washington ecotype of P. trichocarpa, but at about 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for the western Washington ecotype of P. trichocarpa. Average net photosynthesis (at saturating irradiance and the optimum temperature of 25 degrees C) was 20.7, 18.8, 18.2 and 13.4 micromol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) for P. deltoides, P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides, and the eastern and western Washington clones of P. trichocarpa, respectively. In all clones, net photosynthesis decreased about 14% as VDD increased from 3 to 18 g H(2)O m(-3). Stomatal conductance decreased sharply with decreasing xylem pressure potential (XPP) in all clones except the western Washington clone of P. trichocarpa. Stomata in this clone were insensitive to changes in XPP and did not control water loss. Complete stomatal closure (stomatal conductance water use efficiency (WUE) and the western Washington clone of P. trichocarpa had the lowest WUE. The hybrids were intermediate. It was concluded that: (1) gas exchange characteristics of eastern and western Washington clones of P. trichocarpa reflected adaptation to their native environment; (2) crossing the western Washington clone of P. trichocarpa with the more drought resistant P. deltoides clone produced plants better adapted to the interior Pacific Northwest climate, although the stomatal response to soil water deficits in the hybrid was conservative compared with that

  16. Genome-wide analysis of major intrinsic proteins in the tree plant Populus trichocarpa: Characterization of XIP subfamily of aquaporins from evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs include water-conducting aquaporins and glycerol-transporting aquaglyceroporins. MIPs play important role in plant-water relations. The model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize contain more than 30 MIPs and based on phylogenetic analysis they can be divided into at least four subfamilies. Populus trichocarpa is a model tree species and provides an opportunity to investigate several tree-specific traits. In this study, we have investigated Populus MIPs (PtMIPs and compared them with their counterparts in Arabidopsis, rice and maize. Results Fifty five full-length MIPs have been identified in Populus genome. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Populus has a fifth uncharacterized subfamily (XIPs. Three-dimensional models of all 55 PtMIPs were constructed using homology modeling technique. Aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filters, characteristics of loops responsible for solute selectivity (loop C and gating (loop D and group conservation of small and weakly polar interfacial residues have been analyzed. Majority of the non-XIP PtMIPs are similar to those in Arabidopsis, rice and maize. Additional XIPs were identified from database search and 35 XIP sequences from dicots, fungi, moss and protozoa were analyzed. Ar/R selectivity filters of dicots XIPs are more hydrophobic compared to fungi and moss XIPs and hence they are likely to transport hydrophobic solutes. Loop C is longer in one of the subgroups of dicot XIPs and most probably has a significant role in solute selectivity. Loop D in dicot XIPs has higher number of basic residues. Intron loss is observed on two occasions: once between two subfamilies of eudicots and monocot and in the second instance, when dicot and moss XIPs diverged from fungi. Expression analysis of Populus MIPs indicates that Populus XIPs don't show any tissue-specific transcript abundance. Conclusion Due to whole genome duplication, Populus has the

  17. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Populus: phylogeny, organization, and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellanki Priyadarshini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is a phenolic heteropolymer in secondary cell walls that plays a major role in the development of plants and their defense against pathogens. The biosynthesis of monolignols, which represent the main component of lignin involves many enzymes. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of monolignols. The CAD gene family has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and partially in Populus. This is the first comprehensive study on the CAD gene family in woody plants including genome organization, gene structure, phylogeny across land plant lineages, and expression profiling in Populus. Results The phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD genes fall into three main classes (clades, one of which is represented by CAD sequences from gymnosperms and angiosperms. The other two clades are represented by sequences only from angiosperms. All Populus CAD genes, except PoptrCAD 4 are distributed in Class II and Class III. CAD genes associated with xylem development (PoptrCAD 4 and PoptrCAD 10 belong to Class I and Class II. Most of the CAD genes are physically distributed on duplicated blocks and are still in conserved locations on the homeologous duplicated blocks. Promoter analysis of CAD genes revealed several motifs involved in gene expression modulation under various biological and physiological processes. The CAD genes showed different expression patterns in poplar with only two genes preferentially expressed in xylem tissues during lignin biosynthesis. Conclusion The phylogeny of CAD genes suggests that the radiation of this gene family may have occurred in the early ancestry of angiosperms. Gene distribution on the chromosomes of Populus showed that both large scale and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the CAD gene family expansion. The duplication of several CAD genes seems to be associated with a genome duplication

  18. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

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    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  19. Proteomic analysis and candidate allergenic proteins in Populus deltoides CL. "2KEN8" mature pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wu, Li-Shuan; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Jia, Hui-Xia; Li, Yu; Yin, Ya-Fang; Hu, Jian-Jun; Lu, Meng-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was used to generate a map of Populus deltoides CL. "2KEN8" mature pollen proteins. By applying 2-D electrophoresis, we resolved 403 protein spots from mature pollen. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method, we identified 178 distinct proteins from 218 protein spots expressed in mature pollen. Moreover, out of these, 28 proteins were identified as putative allergens. The expression patterns of these putative allergen genes indicate that several of these genes are highly expressed in pollen. In addition, the members of profilin allergen family were analyzed and their expression patterns were compared with their homologous genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Knowledge of these identified allergens has the potential to improve specific diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy treatment for patients with poplar pollen allergy. PMID:26284084

  20. Characterization of Vitis vinifera NPR1 homologs involved in the regulation of Pathogenesis-Related gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bernard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine protection against diseases needs alternative strategies to the use of phytochemicals, implying a thorough knowledge of innate defense mechanisms. However, signalling pathways and regulatory elements leading to induction of defense responses have yet to be characterized in this species. In order to study defense response signalling to pathogens in Vitis vinifera, we took advantage of its recently completed genome sequence to characterize two putative orthologs of NPR1, a key player in salicylic acid (SA-mediated resistance to biotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Two cDNAs named VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 were isolated from Vitis vinifera cv Chardonnay, encoding proteins showing 55% and 40% identity to Arabidopsis NPR1 respectively. Constitutive expression of VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 monitored in leaves of V. vinifera cv Chardonnay was found to be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole, a SA analog. In contrast, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 transcript levels were not affected during infection of resistant Vitis riparia or susceptible V. vinifera with Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew, suggesting regulation of VvNPR1 activity at the protein level. VvNPR1.1-GFP and VvNPR1.2-GFP fusion proteins were transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, where they localized predominantly to the nucleus. In this system, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 expression was sufficient to trigger the accumulation of acidic SA-dependent Pathogenesis-Related proteins PR1 and PR2, but not of basic chitinases (PR3 in the absence of pathogen infection. Interestingly, when VvNPR1.1 or AtNPR1 were transiently overexpressed in Vitis vinifera leaves, the induction of grapevine PR1 was significantly enhanced in response to P. viticola. Conclusion In conclusion, our data identified grapevine homologs of NPR1, and their functional analysis showed that VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 likely control the expression of

  1. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  2. Stem Xylem Characterization for Vitis Drought Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Ciacciulli, Angelo; Grossi, Daniele; Brancadoro, Lucio; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-07-01

    Together with stomatal conductance and root conductivity, the stem water reserve and transport systems could be regulatory mechanisms able to participate in the regulation of the plant water status. Lianas, such as Vitis spp., minimize the trunk support role, and stems have evolved to improve their ability in water transport. In this work, stems of 10 different Vitis species were studied in relation to their expected drought tolerance using reflectance spectroscopy. Spectra were measured before (T0) and after coloration with Sudan IV dye. The T0 spectral signature showed characteristic species features. The partial least squares (PLS) regression and the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network analysis were able to predict the expected drought tolerance score; thus, reflectance spectroscopy was demonstrated to be a useful technique for drought tolerance phenotyping. These methods could be applied for the preliminary selection of new rootstocks/cultivars. Wood composition variation appeared to be correlated with the water stress susceptibility. To clarify this relationship, the attention was focused on the wood hydrophobicity. Sudan IV is a microscopy dye traditionally used to underline suberin, waxes, and, in general, hydrophobic substances. Differences between rough and colored spectra evidenced the absorption band of Sudan IV with a maximum at 539 nm. The coloration intensity was used to develop a hydrophobicity index. The obtained values were correlated with the expected drought tolerance score. Therefore, hydrophobic compounds seem to play an important role in water use efficiency, and an hydrophobic barrier in the xylem tissue appears to be a protective mechanism against water stress. PMID:27281116

  3. Conservation and Diversity of MicroRNA-associated Copper-regulatory Networks in Populus trichocarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanfa Lu; Chenmin Yang; Vincent L. Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Plants develop important regulatory networks to adapt to the frequently-changing availability of copper (Cu).However,little is known about miRNA-associated Cu-regulatory networks in plant species other than Arabidopsis.Here,we report that Cu-responsive miRNAs in Populus trichocarpa (Torr.& Gray)include not only conserved miR397,miR398 and miR408,but also Populus-specific miR1444,suggesting the conservation and diversity of Cu-responsive miRNAs in plants.Copper-associated suppression of mature miRNAs is in company with the up-regulation of their target genes encoding Cu-containing proteins in Populus.The targets include miR397-targeted PtLAC5,PtLAC6 and PtLAC110a,miR398-targeted PtCSD1,PtCSD2a and PtCSD2b,miR408-targeted PtPCL1,PtPCL2,PtPCL3 and PtLAC4,and miR1444-targeted PtPPO3 and PtPPO6.Consistently,P.trichocarpa miR408 promoter-directed GUS gene expression is down-regulated by Cu in transgenic tobacco plants.Cu-response elements (CuREs) are found in the promoters of Cu-responsive miRNA genes.We identified 34 SQUAMOSA-promoter binding protein-like (SPL) genes,of which 17 are full-length PtSPL proteins or partial sequences with at least 300 amino acids.Phylogenetic analysis indicates that PtSPL3 and PtSPL4 are CuRE-binding proteins controlling Cu-responsive gene expression.Cu appears to be not involved in the regulation of these transcription factors because neither PtSPL3 nor PtSPL4 is Cu-regulated and no CuRE exists in their promoters.

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of novel lncRNAs in Populus under nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Chenlu; Bao, Hai; Chen, Hui; Wang, Yanwei

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as important regulatory factors of gene expression in eukaryotic species, such as Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa. However, the systematic identification of potential lncRNAs in trees is comparatively rare. In particular, the characteristics, expression, and regulatory roles of lncRNAs in trees under nutrient stress remain largely unknown. A genome-wide strategy was used in this investigation to identify and characterize novel and low-nitrogen (N)-responsive lncRNAs in Populus tomentosa; 388 unique lncRNA candidates belonging to 380 gene loci were detected and only seven lncRNAs were found to belong to seven conserved non-coding RNA families indicating the majority of P. tomentosa lncRNAs are species-specific. In total, 126 lncRNAs were significantly altered under low-N stress; 8 were repressed, and 118 were induced. Furthermore, 9 and 5 lncRNAs were detected as precursors of 11 known and 14 novel Populus miRNAs, respectively, whereas 4 lncRNAs were targeted by 29 miRNAs belonging to 5 families, including 22 conserved and 7 non-conserved miRNAs. In addition, 15 antisense lncRNAs were identified to be generated from opposite strands of 14 corresponding protein-coding genes. In total, 111 protein-coding genes with regions complementary to 38 lncRNAs were also predicted with some lncRNAs corresponding to multiple genes and vice versa, and their functions were annotated, which further demonstrated the complex regulatory relationship between lncRNAs and protein-coding genes in plants. Moreover, an interaction network among lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs was investigated. These findings enrich our understanding of lncRNAs in Populus, expand the methods of miRNA identification. Our results present the first global characterization of lncRNAs and their potential target genes in response to nitrogen stress in trees, which provides more information on low-nutrition adaptation mechanisms in woody plants

  5. Highly Efficient Isolation of Populus Mesophyll Protoplasts and Its Application in Transient Expression Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianjun [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Background: Populus is a model woody plant and a promising feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. However, its lengthy life cycle impedes rapid characterization of gene function. Methodology/Principal Findings: We optimized a Populus leaf mesophyll protoplast isolation protocol and established a Populus protoplast transient expression system. We demonstrated that Populus protoplasts are able to respond to hormonal stimuli and that a series of organelle markers are correctly localized in the Populus protoplasts. Furthermore, we showed that the Populus protoplast transient expression system is suitable for studying protein-protein interaction, gene activation, and cellular signaling events. Conclusions/Significance: This study established a method for efficient isolation of protoplasts from Populus leaf and demonstrated the efficacy of using Populus protoplast transient expression assays as an in vivo system to characterize genes and pathways.

  6. Highly efficient isolation of Populus mesophyll protoplasts and its application in transient expression assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is a model woody plant and a promising feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. However, its lengthy life cycle impedes rapid characterization of gene function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We optimized a Populus leaf mesophyll protoplast isolation protocol and established a Populus protoplast transient expression system. We demonstrated that Populus protoplasts are able to respond to hormonal stimuli and that a series of organelle markers are correctly localized in the Populus protoplasts. Furthermore, we showed that the Populus protoplast transient expression system is suitable for studying protein-protein interaction, gene activation, and cellular signaling events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study established a method for efficient isolation of protoplasts from Populus leaf and demonstrated the efficacy of using Populus protoplast transient expression assays as an in vivo system to characterize genes and pathways.

  7. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  8. Growth of Populus and Salix Species under Compost Leachate Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Abedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the known broad variation in remediation capacity, three plant species were used in the experiment: two fast growing poplar’s clones - Populus deltoides, Populus euramericana, and willows Salix alba. Populus and Salix cuttings were collected from the nursery of the Populus Research Center of Safrabasteh in the eastern part of Guilan province at north of Iran. The Populus clones were chosen because of their high biomass production capacity and willow- because it is native in Iran. The highest diameter growth rate was exhibited for all three plant species by the 1:1 treatment with an average of 0.26, 0.22 and 0.16 cm in eight months period for P. euroamericana, P. deltoides and S. alba, respectively. Over a period of eight months a higher growth rate of height was observed in (P and (1:1 treatment for S. alba (33.70 and 15.77 cm, respectively and in (C treatment for P. deltoides (16.51 cm. P. deltoides and S. alba produced significantly (p<0.05 smaller aboveground biomass in (P treatment compared to all species. P. deltoides exhibited greater mean aboveground biomass in the (1:1 treatment compared to other species. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in the growth of roots between P. deltoides, P. euramericana and S. alba in all of the treatments.

  9. Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Hybrid Poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar is a model organism for high in vitro regeneration in woody plants. We have chosen a hybrid poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche. By optimizing the Murashige and Skoog medium with (0.3 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and (0.08 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid, we have achieved the highest frequency (90% for shoot regeneration from poplar leaves. It was also important to improve the transformation efficiency of poplar for genetic breeding and other applications. In this study, we found a significant improvement of the transformation frequency by controlling the leaf age. Transformation efficiency was enhanced by optimizing the Agrobacterium concentration (OD600 = 0.8–1.0 and an infection time (20–30 min. According to transmission electron microscopy observations, there were more Agrobacterium invasions in the 30-day-old leaf explants than in 60-day-old and 90-day-old explants. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP marker, the expression of MD–GFP fusion proteins in the leaf, shoot, and root of hybrid poplar P. davidiana Dode × P. bollena Lauche was visualized for confirmation of transgene integration. Southern and Northern blot analysis also showed the integration of T-DNA into the genome and gene expression of transgenic plants. Our results suggest that younger leaves had higher transformation efficiency (~30% than older leaves (10%.

  10. Proteomic analysis and candidate allergenic proteins in Populus deltoides CL. “2KEN8” mature pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wu, Li-Shuan; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Jia, Hui-Xia; Li, Yu; Yin, Ya-Fang; Hu, Jian-Jun; Lu, Meng-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was used to generate a map of Populus deltoides CL. “2KEN8” mature pollen proteins. By applying 2-D electrophoresis, we resolved 403 protein spots from mature pollen. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method, we identified 178 distinct proteins from 218 protein spots expressed in mature pollen. Moreover, out of these, 28 proteins were identified as putative allergens. The expression patterns of these putative allergen genes indicate that several of these genes are highly expressed in pollen. In addition, the members of profilin allergen family were analyzed and their expression patterns were compared with their homologous genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Knowledge of these identified allergens has the potential to improve specific diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy treatment for patients with poplar pollen allergy. PMID:26284084

  11. POTENCIJAL JABLANA (Populus nigra var. italica) U FITOREMEDIJACIJI KADMIJA

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Tamara; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; Cvjetko, Marina; Bukovac, Ivana; Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Bilandžić, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fitoremedijacija se smatra obećavajućom, jeftinom te estetski prihvatljivom, in situ tehnologijom za remedijaciju teških metala iz onečišćenih tala. Potencijal uporabe drveća u fitoremedijaciji tla prepoznat je zadnjih desetljeća, te je u skladu s tim u ovom radu utvrđen potencijal jablana (Populus nigra var. italica) u fitoremedijaciji kadmija. U tu svrhu ispitan je fitoekstrakcijski potencijal jablana (Populus nigra var. italica), distribucija kadmija u pojedine dijelove biljke (list, stabl...

  12. The glutamine synthetase gene family in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cánovas Francisco M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC: 6.3.1.2, L-glutamate: ammonia ligase ADP-forming is a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation and metabolism of higher plants. The current work was undertaken to develop a more comprehensive understanding of molecular and biochemical features of GS gene family in poplar, and to characterize the developmental regulation of GS expression in various tissues and at various times during the poplar perennial growth. Results The GS gene family consists of 8 different genes exhibiting all structural and regulatory elements consistent with their roles as functional genes. Our results indicate that the family members are organized in 4 groups of duplicated genes, 3 of which code for cytosolic GS isoforms (GS1 and 1 which codes for the choroplastic GS isoform (GS2. Our analysis shows that Populus trichocarpa is the first plant species in which it was observed the complete GS family duplicated. Detailed expression analyses have revealed specific spatial and seasonal patterns of GS expression in poplar. These data provide insights into the metabolic function of GS isoforms in poplar and pave the way for future functional studies. Conclusions Our data suggest that GS duplicates could have been retained in order to increase the amount of enzyme in a particular cell type. This possibility could contribute to the homeostasis of nitrogen metabolism in functions associated to changes in glutamine-derived metabolic products. The presence of duplicated GS genes in poplar could also contribute to diversification of the enzymatic properties for a particular GS isoform through the assembly of GS polypeptides into homo oligomeric and/or hetero oligomeric holoenzymes in specific cell types.

  13. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [ORNL; Yao, Jianzhuang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaiprasongsuk, Minta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Guanglin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Guo, Hong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2013-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175 lM and 341 lM, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.

  14. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Populus: Interactions with Biotic and Abiotic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.; Liu, C.; Tschaplinski, T. J.; Zhao, N.

    2009-09-01

    Populus trees face constant challenges from the environment during their life cycle. To ensure their survival and reproduction, Populus trees deploy various types of defenses, one of which is the production of a myriad of secondary metabolites. Compounds derived from the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway are the most abundant class of secondary metabolites synthesized in Populus. Among other major classes of secondary metabolites in Populus are terpenoids and fatty acid-derivatives. Some of the secondary metabolites made by Populus trees have been functionally characterized. Some others have been associated with certain biological/ecological processes, such as defense against insects and microbial pathogens or acclimation or adaptation to abiotic stresses. Functions of many Populus secondary metabolites remain unclear. The advent of various novel genomic tools will enable us to explore in greater detail the complexity of secondary metabolism in Populus. Detailed data mining of the Populus genome sequence can unveil candidate genes of secondary metabolism. Metabolomic analysis will continue to identify new metabolites synthesized in Populus. Integrated genomics that combines various 'omics' tools will prove to be the most powerful approach in revealing the molecular and biochemical basis underlying the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Populus. Characterization of the biological/ecological functions of secondary metabolites as well as their biosynthesis will provide knowledge and tools for genetically engineering the production of seconday metabolites that can lead to the generation of novel, improved Populus varieties.

  15. Local selection across a latitudinal gradient shapes nucleotide diversity in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Molecular studies of adaptive evolution often focus on detecting selective sweeps driven by positive selection on a species-wide scale; however, much adaptation is local, particularly of ecologically important traits. Here, we look for evidence of range-wide and local adaptation at candidate genes for adaptive phenology in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, a widespread forest tree whose range extends across environmental gradients of photoperiod and growing season length. We examined nucleotide diversity of 27 poplar homologs of the flowering-time network-a group of genes that control plant developmental phenology through interactions with environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. Only one gene, ZTL2, showed evidence of reduced diversity and an excess of fixed replacement sites, consistent with a species-wide selective sweep. Two other genes, LFY and FRI, harbored high levels of nucleotide diversity and exhibited elevated differentiation between northern and southern accessions, suggesting local adaptation along a latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, FRI has also been identified as a target of local selection between northern and southern accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that this gene may be commonly involved in ecological adaptation in distantly related species. Our findings suggest an important role for local selection shaping molecular diversity and reveal limitations of inferring molecular adaptation from analyses designed only to detect species-wide selective sweeps. PMID:21624997

  16. Overexpression of phospholipase Dα gene enhances drought and salt tolerance of Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG TingTing; SONG YunZhi; LIU YuDong; GUO XingQi; ZHU ChangXiang; WEN FuJiang

    2008-01-01

    The cDNA of AtPLDα (Arabidopsis thaliana Phospholipase Da) gene was introduced into P. tomentosa (Populus tomentosa) under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Southern and Northern blot analyses suggested that the AtPLDα gene has been transferred into the P. tomentosa genome. No obvious morphological or developmental difference was observed between the transgenic and wild-type (WT) plants. Drought and salt tolerance and gene expression of seedlings of several transgenic lines and WT plants (control) were studied. The results showed that the rhizogenesis rate and the average root-length of transgenic lines were significantly higher than WT plants after mannitol and NaCl treatment under the same growth conditions. Northern blot analysis indicated that the higher the PLDα expression in the transgenic plants, the more tolerant the transgenic plants are to drought and salt treatment. Meanwhile, another group of these transgenic lines and WT plants (control) were treated with PEG6000 and NaCI separately. The contents of chlorophylls and the activities of some antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase) as well as malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity were analyzed. Altogether, our results demonstrated that overexpression of the PLDα gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance in transgenic P. tomentosa plants.

  17. Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla = Vääna-Viti community setting group home / Tõnu Laigu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laigu, Tõnu, 1956-

    2015-01-01

    Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla Harku vallas Aiba tee 8/7, valminud 2013. Hoonete arhitektid Tõnu Laigu, Koit Ojaliiv, Mari Rass (QP Arhitektid OÜ), sisearhitektid Andres Labi, Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  18. A new diterpenoid from the stem bark of Populus davidiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Feng Zhang; Xiang Li; Byung Sun Min; Ki Hwan Bae

    2008-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, named populusol A (1), was isolated from the methanolic extraction of the stem bark of Populus davidiana. The structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HRFAB-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  19. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of...

  20. 葡萄WRKY18基因的克隆及表达特性分析%Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis of WRKY18 in Vitis vinifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖培连; 冯睿杰; 侯丽霞; 吕晓彤; 朱丹; 刘新

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress severely restrict the development of grape industry, so it will provide theoretical basis for grape breeding through gene cloning and studying its molecular mechanisms. We cloned the full-length cDNA of VvWRKY18 from leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivar‘Zuoyouhong’ tissue culture seedling. The results showed that VvWRKY18 ampliifed fragment size of 954 bp, encoding a protein of 317 amino acids. Bioinfor-matic analysis indicated that VvWRKY18 with molecular weight 35.2416 kDa, isoelectric point 8.22 and insta-bility coefifcient 48.61, speculating it was unstable protein. Besides it shared high homology with WRKY18 in Oryza sativa Japonica Group, in Sorghum bicolor, in Populus trichocarpa and in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subcel-lular localization result indicated that it was located in nucleus. And it belonged to type II WRKY transcription factor. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that VvWRKY18 expressed in different tissues, especially in lfower. In addition, VvWRKY18 was induced by low temperature (4℃), salt stress, osmotic stress, salicylic acid (SA), ab-scisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, the expression of VvWRKY18 was highly induced at 6 h by low temperature and the expression pattern of VvWRKY18 under NO were similar to those of low temperature induction, which indicated that NO participated in the signal transduction process of grape response to low temperature stress.%以抗性品种‘左优红’组培苗为材料,克隆得到WRKY18基因,测序结果显示:VvWRKY18基因片段大小为954 bp,编码317个氨基酸序列。生物信息学分析结果显示VvWRKY18蛋白分子量约为35.2416 kDa,等电点为8.22,不稳定系数为48.61,推测为不稳定蛋白;与已知的粳稻、高粱、毛果杨及拟南芥WRKY家族蛋白高度同源;亚细胞定位预测结果显示主要存在于细胞核中,属于第二类WRKY转录因子家族成员。实时荧光定量PCR分析显示, VvWRKY18在葡萄不

  1. Transcriptome responses to aluminum stress in roots of aspen (Populus tremula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Nadine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ionic aluminum (mainly Al3+ is rhizotoxic and can be present in acid soils at concentrations high enough to inhibit root growth. Many forest tree species grow naturally in acid soils and often tolerate high concentrations of Al. Previously, we have shown that aspen (Populus tremula releases citrate and oxalate from roots in response to Al exposure. To obtain further insights into the root responses of aspen to Al, we investigated root gene expression at Al conditions that inhibit root growth. Results Treatment of the aspen roots with 500 μM Al induced a strong inhibition of root growth within 6 h of exposure time. The root growth subsequently recovered, reaching growth rates comparable to that of control plants. Changes in gene expression were determined after 6 h, 2 d, and 10 d of Al exposure. Replicated transcriptome analyses using the Affymetrix poplar genome array revealed a total of 175 significantly up-regulated and 69 down-regulated genes, of which 70% could be annotated based on Arabidopsis genome resources. Between 6 h and 2 d, the number of responsive genes strongly decreased from 202 to 26, and then the number of changes remained low. The responses after 6 h were characterized by genes involved in cell wall modification, ion transport, and oxidative stress. Two genes with prolonged induction were closely related to the Arabidopsis Al tolerance genes ALS3 (for Al sensitive 3 and MATE (for multidrug and toxin efflux protein, mediating citrate efflux. Patterns of expression in different plant organs and in response to Al indicated that the two aspen genes are homologs of the Arabidopsis ALS3 and MATE. Conclusion Exposure of aspen roots to Al results in a rapid inhibition of root growth and a large change in root gene expression. The subsequent root growth recovery and the concomitant reduction in the number of responsive genes presumably reflect the success of the roots in activating Al tolerance mechanisms. The

  2. Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  3. Paleomagnetism of Rocks from the Island of Viti Levu, Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    YASKAWA, Katsumi; INOKUCHI, Hiroo; MATSUDA, Jun-ichi; TAKAHASHI, Shinji; ISEZAKI, Nobuhiro; MIYATA, Takao; Rao, Bhaskar; Rodda, Peter; ヤスカワ, カツミ; イノクチ, ヒロオ; マツダ, ジュンイチ; タカハシ, シンジ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; ミヤタ, タカオ

    1985-01-01

    Samples were collected at 19 sites in basalts, andesites, dacites, gabbros, sandstones and limestones in the island of Viti Levu. They were dated at about 4 to 40 Ma. New age data have been added in 2 sites. After partial demagnetization by alternating fields to remove unstable components of magnetization, the directions of magnetization became well grouped except for the rocks from a few sites. Both normal and reversed directions are present. The volume susceptibility of each specimen has al...

  4. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG ...

  5. Allelopathic interference of Populus deltoides with some winter season crops

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harminder; Kohli, Ravinder; Batish, Daizy

    2001-01-01

    Interférence allélopathique de Populus deltoides avec quelques cultures d'hiver. On a étudié dans deux groupes de champs du Punjab (Inde du Nord) les performances des cultures d'hiver suivantes associées avec des allées de Populus deltoides : Triticum aestivum, Lens culinaris, Phaseolus mungo, Avena sativa, Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica juncea et Helianthus annuus. Dans l'un des groupes le sol d'origine a été conservé (S$_{\\rm p}$), tandis que dans l'autre il a été remplacé par un sol prél...

  6. Increasing the productivity of short-rotation Populus plantations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W.; Radwan, M.A.; Zasada, J.C. [Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States). Pacific Northwest Research Station

    1997-12-31

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. Seven research papers are included which provide detailed methods, results, and interpretations on these topics.

  7. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome. PMID:25676392

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses and microscopic structure changes of Populus tomentosa Carr seedlings to 4-BDE exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Man; Li, Yuling; Li, Yanling; Du, Kejiu

    2015-09-01

    Populus species are very effective in remediation of contaminants. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as flame retardants and are known to be persistent environmental pollutants. Numerous studies have shown that PBDEs are rising in human tissues and biota. 4-Monobrominated diphenyl ether (4-BDE), one of the less brominated PBDEs, was served as a model compound for biodegradation of lower brominated congeners. The present study was designed to clarify the effects of 4-BDE stress on morphological, physiological, and biochemical impacts of Populus tomentosa Carr in a tissue culture condition. Different concentrations of 4-BDE (3 and 30 mg L(-1)) were supplied alone or together with 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA in tissue culture media. With the concentration increased, 4-BDE caused negative effects on the microscopic structure of roots, stem, and leaves. The leaf color became shallow in low concentration of 4-BDE treatments and appeared albinism with 4-BDE concentration increased. The chlorophyll content and the leaf mass per area of albino leaves reduced significantly. 4-BDE also caused positive effects on the adventitious root differentiation and the biomass below 30 mg L(-1). With the 4-BDE treatment time increased (23, 47, and 58 days), the peroxidase (POD) activity displayed the decreasing trend. The proline content decreased first and then increased. Exposure to 4-BDE induced the malondialdehyde (MDA) to increase in leaves. Application of 4-BDE affected the endogenous hormone levels of cuttings in their adventitious roots inducing media. Below 0.3 mg L(-1), 4-BDE caused the faint expression of auxin-sensitive DR5::GUS reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Additionally, P. tomentosa Carr exhibited the better tolerance against 4-BDE in the range of less than 30 mg L(-1). PMID:25971809

  9. VitisExpDB: A Database Resource for Grape Functional Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    VitisExpDB is an online MySQL-PHP driven relational database that houses annotated EST and gene expression data for Vitis vinifera and non-vinifera grape varieties. Currently, the database stores ~320,000 EST sequences derived from 8 species/hybrids, their annotation details and gene ontology based...

  10. The Populus superoxide dismutase gene family and its responses to drought stress in transgenic poplar overexpressing a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Molina-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutamine synthetase (GS plays a central role in plant nitrogen assimilation, a process intimately linked to soil water availability. We previously showed that hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba, INRA 717-1B4 expressing ectopically a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a display enhanced tolerance to drought. Preliminary transcriptome profiling revealed that during drought, members of the superoxide dismutase (SOD family were reciprocally regulated in GS poplar when compared with the wild-type control, in all tissues examined. SOD was the only gene family found to exhibit such patterns. RESULTS: In silico analysis of the Populus genome identified 12 SOD genes and two genes encoding copper chaperones for SOD (CCSs. The poplar SODs form three phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their distinct metal co-factor requirements and gene structure. Nearly all poplar SODs and CCSs are present in duplicate derived from whole genome duplication, in sharp contrast to their predominantly single-copy Arabidopsis orthologs. Drought stress triggered plant-wide down-regulation of the plastidic copper SODs (CSDs, with concomitant up-regulation of plastidic iron SODs (FSDs in GS poplar relative to the wild type; this was confirmed at the activity level. We also found evidence for coordinated down-regulation of other copper proteins, including plastidic CCSs and polyphenol oxidases, in GS poplar under drought conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Both gene duplication and expression divergence have contributed to the expansion and transcriptional diversity of the Populus SOD/CCS families. Coordinated down-regulation of major copper proteins in drought-tolerant GS poplars supports the copper cofactor economy model where copper supply is preferentially allocated for plastocyanins to sustain photosynthesis during drought. Our results also extend previous findings on the compensatory regulation between chloroplastic CSDs and FSDs, and suggest that this

  11. Local adaptation in the flowering-time gene network of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Identifying the signature and targets of local adaptation is an increasingly important goal in empirical population genetics. Using data from 443 balsam poplar Populus balsamifera trees sampled from 31 populations, we tested for evidence of geographically variable selection shaping diversity at 27 homologues of the Arabidopsis flowering-time network. These genes are implicated in the control of seasonal phenology, an important determinant of fitness. Using 335 candidate and 412 reference single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we tested for evidence of local adaptation by searching for elevated population differentiation using F(ST)-based outlier analyses implemented in BayeScan or a Hierarchical Model in Arelquin and by testing for significant associations between allele frequency and environmental variables using BAYENV. A total of 46 SNPs from 14 candidate genes had signatures of local adaptation-either significantly greater population differentiation or significant covariance with one or more environmental variable relative to reference SNP distributions. Only 11 SNPs from two genes exhibited both elevated population differentiation and covariance with one or more environmental variables. Several genes including the abscisic acid gene ABI1B and the circadian clock genes ELF3 and GI5 harbored a large number of SNPs with signatures of local adaptation-with SNPs in GI5 strongly covarying with both latitude and precipitation and SNPs in ABI1B strongly covarying with temperature. In contrast to several other systems, we find little evidence that photoreceptors, including phytochromes, play an important role in local adaptation. Our results additionally show that detecting local adaptation is sensitive to the analytical approaches used and that model-based significance thresholds should be viewed with caution. PMID:22513286

  12. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG 1,' ' 110 R,' '1202,' and '1616,' which are used commercially for phylloxera resistance were susceptible. PMID:19295825

  13. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  14. Comparative nucleotide diversity across North American and European populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohamed; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Guy, Robert D; Jansson, Stefan; Silim, Salim N; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2012-06-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms in two North American balsam poplars (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray and P. balsamifera L.; section Tacamahaca), and one Eurasian aspen (P. tremula L.; section Populus) were compared using nine loci involved in defense, stress response, photoperiodism, freezing tolerance, and housekeeping. Nucleotide diversity varied among species and was highest for P. tremula (θ(w) = 0.005, π(T) = 0.007) as compared to P. balsamifera (θ(w) = 0.004, π(T) = 0.005) or P. trichocarpa (θ(w) = 0.002, π(T) = 0.003). Across species, the defense and the stress response loci accounted for the majority of the observed level of nucleotide diversity. In general, the studied loci did not deviate from neutral expectation either at the individual locus (non-significant normalized Fay and Wu's H) or at the multi-locus level (non-significant HKA test). Using molecular clock analysis, section Tacamahaca probably shared a common ancestor with section Populus approximately 4.5 million year ago. Divergence between the two closely related balsam poplars was about 0.8 million years ago, a pattern consistent with an isolation-with-migration (IM) model. As expected, P. tremula showed a five-fold higher substitution rate (2 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year) compared to the North American species (0.4 × 10(-8) substitution/site/year), probably reflecting its complex demographic history. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) varied among species with a more rapid decay in the North American species (balsam poplar species likely reflects the recent time of their divergence. PMID:22562720

  15. Glycosylation-mediated phenylpropanoid partitioning in Populus tremuloides cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babst Benjamin A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic glycosides (PGs and condensed tannins (CTs comprise large, multi-purpose non-structural carbon sinks in Populus. A negative correlation between PG and CT concentrations has been observed in several studies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship is not known. Results Populus cell cultures produce CTs but not PGs under normal conditions. Feeding salicyl alcohol resulted in accumulation of salicins, the simplest PG, in the cells, but not higher-order PGs. Salicin accrual reflected the stimulation of a glycosylation response which altered a number of metabolic activities. We utilized this suspension cell feeding system as a model for analyzing the possible role of glycosylation in regulating the metabolic competition between PG formation, CT synthesis and growth. Cells accumulated salicins in a dose-dependent manner following salicyl alcohol feeding. Higher feeding levels led to a decrease in cellular CT concentrations (at 5 or 10 mM, and a negative effect on cell growth (at 10 mM. The competition between salicin and CT formation was reciprocal, and depended on the metabolic status of the cells. We analyzed gene expression changes between controls and cells fed with 5 mM salicyl alcohol for 48 hr, a time point when salicin accumulation was near maximum and CT synthesis was reduced, with no effect on growth. Several stress-responsive genes were up-regulated, suggestive of a general stress response in the fed cells. Salicyl alcohol feeding also induced expression of genes associated with sucrose catabolism, glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and most of the flavonoid pathway genes were reduced, consistent with down-regulated CT synthesis. Conclusions Exogenous salicyl alcohol was readily glycosylated in Populus cell cultures, a process that altered sugar utilization and phenolic partitioning in the cells. Using this system, we

  16. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system. PMID:25820686

  17. Response of Populus x canescens (Populus tremula x alba) to high concentration of NaCl stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; PENG Zhen-hua

    2006-01-01

    Populus x canescens was cultivated on solid substrate and treated by salt (150 mM NaCl). The growth parametersincluding new leaf formation, height increment, diameter at the base increment, fresh and dry mass of leaf, stem, coarse root, and fine root were determined. The nutrient elements in leaves of samples under salt stress and the control, and the chlorophyll fluorescence of plants separated dark and light, initial fluorescence (Fo), and maximum fluorescence (Fm) were measured. Results showed that 150 mM NaCl treatment resulted in growth reduction of Populus x canescens. Nutrient element contents in the foliage of plants under salt stress were different from that of control. The foliar N-concentrations of plants under salt stress were not affected. Contents of Na under salt stress were 120 times as much as that under control. However, contents of S, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn under salt stress were less than that under control. Salt stress caused damage in the PSII reaction centers, i.e. photo-inhibition couldn't be repaired under dark situation. The yield of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that several parameters associated with PSII functions, e.g. Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm were not influenced at the first stage of salt stress treatment. However, after a period of time, PSII functions were significantly inhibited, which led to the decrease of carbon assimilation. These results suggest that salt stress (150 mM NaCl) did not affect photosynthetic chlorophyll fluorescence of Populus x canescens immediately. After four day of salt stress, PSII reaction centres were seriously damaged during photo-inhibition.

  18. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Matthew S; Robertson, Amanda L; Takebayashi, Naoki; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William R; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-04-01

    *Current perceptions that poplars have high levels of nucleotide variation, large effective population sizes, and rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium are based primarily on studies from one poplar species, Populus tremula. *We analysed 590 gene fragments (average length 565 bp) from each of 15 individuals from different populations from throughout the range of Populus balsamifera. *Nucleotide diversity (theta(total) = 0.0028, pi = 0.0027) was low compared with other trees and model agricultural systems. Patterns of nucleotide diversity and site frequency spectra were consistent with purifying selection on replacement and intron sites. When averaged across all loci we found no evidence for decay of linkage disequilibrium across 750 bp, consistent with the low estimates of the scaled recombination parameter, rho = 0.0092. *Compared with P. tremula, a well studied congener with a similar distribution, P. balsamifera has low diversity and low effective recombination, both of which indicate a lower effective population size in P. balsamifera. Patterns of diversity and linkage indicate that there is considerable variation in population genomic patterns among poplar species and unlike P. tremula, association mapping techniques in balsam poplar should consider sampling single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at well-spaced intervals. PMID:20122131

  19. Molecular evolution and expression divergence of the Populus euphratica Hsf genes provide insight into the stress acclimation of desert poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Jianbo; Li, Yu; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) family is one of the most important regulators in the plant kingdom. Hsf has been demonstrated to be involved in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormone and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of Hsf family in desert poplar, Populus euphratica. Total of 32 genes encoding Hsf were identified and they were classified into three main classes (A, B, and C). Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that the members in each class were relatively conserved. Total of 10 paralogous pairs were identified in PeuHsf family, in which nine pairs were generated by whole genome duplication events. Ka/Ks analysis showed that PeuHsfs underwent purifying selection pressure. In addition, various cis-acting elements involved in hormone and stress responses located in the promoter regions of PeuHsfs. Gene expression analysis indicated that several PeuHsfs were tissue-specific expression. Compared to Arabidopsis, more PeuHsf genes were significantly induced by heat, drought, and salt stresses (21, 19, and 22 PeuHsfs, respectively). Our findings are helpful in understanding the distinguished adaptability of P. euphratica to extreme environment and providing a basis for functional analysis of PeuHsfs in the future. PMID:27425424

  20. Genome-wide Identification of TCP Family Transcription Factors from Populus euphratica and Their Involvement in Leaf Shape Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Ma, Jianchao; Fan, Di; Li, Chaofeng; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    Higher plants have been shown to experience a juvenile vegetative phase, an adult vegetative phase, and a reproductive phase during its postembryonic development and distinct lateral organ morphologies have been observed at the different development stages. Populus euphratica, commonly known as a desert poplar, has developed heteromorphic leaves during its development. The TCP family genes encode a group of plant-specific transcription factors involved in several aspects of plant development. In particular, TCPs have been shown to influence leaf size and shape in many herbaceous plants. However, whether these functions are conserved in woody plants remains unknown. In the present study, we carried out genome-wide identification of TCP genes in P. euphratica and P. trichocarpa, and 33 and 36 genes encoding putative TCP proteins were found, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the poplar TCPs together with Arabidopsis TCPs indicated a biased expansion of the TCP gene family via segmental duplications. In addition, our results have also shown a correlation between different expression patterns of several P. euphratica TCP genes and leaf shape variations, indicating their involvement in the regulation of leaf shape development. PMID:27605130

  1. Molecular evolution and expression divergence of the Populus euphratica Hsf genes provide insight into the stress acclimation of desert poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Jianbo; Li, Yu; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) family is one of the most important regulators in the plant kingdom. Hsf has been demonstrated to be involved in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormone and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of Hsf family in desert poplar, Populus euphratica. Total of 32 genes encoding Hsf were identified and they were classified into three main classes (A, B, and C). Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that the members in each class were relatively conserved. Total of 10 paralogous pairs were identified in PeuHsf family, in which nine pairs were generated by whole genome duplication events. Ka/Ks analysis showed that PeuHsfs underwent purifying selection pressure. In addition, various cis-acting elements involved in hormone and stress responses located in the promoter regions of PeuHsfs. Gene expression analysis indicated that several PeuHsfs were tissue-specific expression. Compared to Arabidopsis, more PeuHsf genes were significantly induced by heat, drought, and salt stresses (21, 19, and 22 PeuHsfs, respectively). Our findings are helpful in understanding the distinguished adaptability of P. euphratica to extreme environment and providing a basis for functional analysis of PeuHsfs in the future. PMID:27425424

  2. Genome-wide Identification of TCP Family Transcription Factors from Populus euphratica and Their Involvement in Leaf Shape Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Ma, Jianchao; Fan, Di; Li, Chaofeng; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    Higher plants have been shown to experience a juvenile vegetative phase, an adult vegetative phase, and a reproductive phase during its postembryonic development and distinct lateral organ morphologies have been observed at the different development stages. Populus euphratica, commonly known as a desert poplar, has developed heteromorphic leaves during its development. The TCP family genes encode a group of plant-specific transcription factors involved in several aspects of plant development. In particular, TCPs have been shown to influence leaf size and shape in many herbaceous plants. However, whether these functions are conserved in woody plants remains unknown. In the present study, we carried out genome-wide identification of TCP genes in P. euphratica and P. trichocarpa, and 33 and 36 genes encoding putative TCP proteins were found, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the poplar TCPs together with Arabidopsis TCPs indicated a biased expansion of the TCP gene family via segmental duplications. In addition, our results have also shown a correlation between different expression patterns of several P. euphratica TCP genes and leaf shape variations, indicating their involvement in the regulation of leaf shape development. PMID:27605130

  3. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF VITIS VINIFERA LINN. ON ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tikare V.P; Hadaginhal R V; Raghavendra M M A V

    2011-01-01

    In the present study fruits of Vitis vinifera Linn. (Vitacae) commonly known as Draksh were selected for preliminary phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of cognitive enhancing activity. The shade dried fruits were subjected to successive solvent extraction with 70 % ethanol. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids when subjected to chemical tests. TLC was run for their confirmation of flavonoids in Vitis...

  4. Genome-wide analysis of WOX gene family in rice, sorghum, maize, Arabidopsis and poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zong, Jie; Liu, Jianhua; Yin, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-11-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) genes form a large gene family specifically expressed in plants. They are known to play important roles in regulating the development of plant tissues and organs by determining cell fate. Recent available whole genome sequences allow us to do more comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the WOX genes in plants. In the present study, we identified 11 and 21 WOXs from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and maize (Zea mays), respectively. The 72 WOX genes from rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum, maize, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) were grouped into three well supported clades with nine subgroups according to the amino acid sequences of their homodomains. Their phylogenetic relationship was also supported by the observation of the motifs outside the homodomain. We observed the variation of duplication events among the nine sub-groups between monocots and eudicots, for instance, more gene duplication events of WOXs within subgroup A for monocots, while, less for dicots in this subgroup. Furthermore, we observed the conserved intron/exon structural patterns of WOX genes in rice, sorghum and Arabidopsis. In addition, WUS (Wuschel)-box and EAR (the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression)-like motif were observed to be conserved among several WOX subgroups in these five plants. Comparative analysis of expression patterns of WOX genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggest that the WOX genes play conserved and various roles in plants. This work provides insights into the evolution of the WOX gene family and is useful for future research. PMID:20977659

  5. Competitive replacement of the native Vitis and Hedera taxa by invasive aliens: morphological, cytological and molecular evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Maria HOHN; Bodor, Péter; Márta BENYEI-HIMMER; Ferenczi, Júlia; Bisztray, György Dénes

    2012-01-01

    We describe here case studies of two woody climber species native to the broadleaf forests of the Carpathian basin. Wild grape (Vitis sylvestris C.C.Gmel.), considered to be one of the ancestors of the domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) became a highly threatened species since the introduction of the American grape species as rootstocks for grapevine. Among these, especially, Riparian grape (Vitis riparia Minchx.) escaped from the wine yards and by invading the natural habitats replac...

  6. Cross Breeding of Populus and Its Hybrids for Cold Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Populus tomentosa was crossed with P. tremuloidis, P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × Ulmus pumila in order to maintain its rapid growth and high wood quality and improve its resistance to cold. Two methods were used to increase the germination rate from 1.5% to 41.1% and the remaining rate from 1.7% to 44.2%. Forty crossing combinations were conducted and 2 744 hybrid seedlings were obtained. MX4 × P. grandidentata (G-1-58), MX3 × P. tremuloidis (T-44-60), MX2 × P. tremuloidis (l-13-87-37) and MX2 × (P. alba × P. grandidentata) were regarded as superior combinations after analysis and selection. Thirty seedlings of these combinations and 11 triploid seedlings identified by counting their chromosomes were selected as super plants.

  7. Lesão renal aguda por glicerol: efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera L Acute kidney injury by glycerol: antioxidant effect of Vitis vinifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Cristina de Oliveira Martim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A lesão renal aguda (LRA é a complicação mais grave da rabdomiólise. Nessa síndrome, a liberação do pigmento heme desencadeia uma lesão que se caracteriza por vasoconstrição glomerular e toxicidade celular direta com provável componente oxidante. A renoproteção com antioxidantes tem demonstrado efeito satisfatório. As proantocianidinas são antioxidantes naturais encontradas no extrato da semente da uva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera sobre a função renal de ratos submetidos à lesão induzida por rabdomiólise. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos e adultos pesando entre 250 e 300 g. A LRA foi induzida pela administração de glicerol 50% por via muscular. Os animais foram distribuídos em 4 grupos: grupo Salina (6 mL/kg de NaCl a 0,9%, por via intraperitoneal (dose única, Glicerol (6 mL/kg por via muscular metade da dose em cada região femoral, em dose única, grupo Vitis vinifera (3 mg/kg/dia, por via oral durante cinco dias e grupo Glicerol + Vitis vinifera que recebeu Vitis vinifera por cinco dias antes do glicerol. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados a função renal (FR e o perfil oxidativo (peróxidos urinários FOX-2 e MDA-TBARS. O grupo glicerol de animais tratado com Vitis vinifera apresentou melhora da FR e redução dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados deste estudo confirmaram a ação antioxidante da Vitis vinifera na LRA induzida por glicerol.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Acute Kidney Injury (AKI is the most serious complication of rhabdomyolysis. In this syndrome, the delivery of heme pigment induces an injury that distinguishes itself by glomerular vasoconstriction and direct cellular toxicity with oxidative component. The renoprotection with antioxidants has demonstrated satisfactory effect. The proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants found in the grape seed extract. The aim of this study was to

  8. Productivity, water-use efficiency and tolerance to moderate water deficit correlate in 33 poplar genotypes from a Populus deltoides × Populus trichocarpa F1 progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Monclus, Romain; Villar, Marc; Barbaroux, Cécile; Bastien, Catherine; Fichot, Régis; Delmotte, Francis; Delay, Didier; Petit, Jean-Michel; Brechet, Claude; Dreyer, Erwin; Brignolas, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Genotypic variability for productivity, wateruse efficiency and leaf traits in 33 genotypes selected from an F1 progeny of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh • Populus trichocarpa L. was explored under optimal and moderate water-deficit conditions. Saplings of the 33 genotypes were grown in a two-plot open field at INRA Orle´ ans (France) and coppiced every year. A moderate water deficit was induced during two successive years on one plot by withholding irrigation, while the second one remaine...

  9. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism. PMID:26545592

  10. Spasmolytic effect of Vitis vinifera leaf extract on rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Naseri M.K.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera (grape leaf has been used traditionally to treat diarrhea and its extract induces relaxation in rat aorta and uterus. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of grape leaf hydroalcoholic extract (GLHE on rat colon contractions induced by some spasmogens. A piece of distal colon from male adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution and colon contractions recorded by an isotonic transducer under 1g resting tension. The GLHE (0.5- 4 mg/ml reduced the contractions induced by KCl (60 mM, BaCl2 (4 mM, acetylcholine (1 μM dose-dependently (P<0.001. The spasmolytic effect of GLHE on ACh-induced contraction was unaffected by propranolol (1 μM, phentolamine (1 μM, L-NAME (300 μM, and naloxone (1μM. In Ca2+-free but rich in KCl (120 mM Tyrode solution, cumulative concentrations of CaCl2 induced colon contractions which, were inhibited by the extract. Glibenclamide (3 μM had no effect on the extract spasmolytic activity, but tetraethylammonium (5 mM contracted the pre-relaxed colon induced by the extract. Results suggest that the grape leaf hydroalcoholic extract spasmolytic effect is due to the blockade of the voltage dependent calcium channels and activation of Ca2+-operated potassium channels

  11. Acclimatization of 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstock Aclimatização do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

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    Marília Pereira Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-acclimatization stage can be used to improve micropropagation protocols and increase the yield of produced plants. The influence of sucrose and photon flux density (PFD levels on the acclimatization of in vitro-grown 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstocks was evaluated. Rooted shoots were obtained from 4-week-old in vitro shoots cultivated in QL (Quoirin and Lepoivre, 1977 culture medium supplemented with 15, 30 and 45 g L-1 of sucrose. The experiment was kept in a 25 ± 2ºC growth room, under 16-h photoperiod and PFD of 18 µmol m-2 s-1 or 43 µmol m-2 s-1. Plants were transferred to an intermittent misting system greenhouse for 10 d followed by 20 d of once-a-day watering routine using a handheld hose. Plant height was influenced by sucrose concentration, and shoots produced on media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose were the tallest (5.0 cm. The largest leaf area was obtained with 31.3 g L-1 of sucrose, under the PFD of 43 µmol m-2 s-1 (13.3 cm². Absence of sucrose in the culture medium led to a significant reduction in leaf area at both PFDs. Shoot (aerial part dry matter was largest when 30 or 45 g L-1 of sucrose (17.5 and 16.7 mg per plant, respectively were used. Microcuttings rooted in all sucrose concentrations tested. The highest survival percentage (100% during ex vitro acclimatization was obtained for shoots cultured in media supplemented with 45 g L-1 of sucrose under both PFDs tested.A fase de pré-aclimatização pode ser utilizada para aperfeiçoar os protocolos de micropropagação e aumentar o rendimento na produção de mudas. Avaliou-se a influência da sacarose e níveis de densidade de fluxo de fóton (DFF in vitro, na sobrevivência das mudas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'(Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia, na fase de aclimatização. Microestacas obtidas de brotações in vitro foram cultivadas em meio de cultura QL suplementado 15, 30 e 45 g L-1 de sacarose. O

  12. Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dong; Halter, David; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Tisch, Christine; Tröster, Viktoria; Kortekamp, Andreas; Hugueney, Philippe; Nick, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Stilbenes, as important secondary metabolites of grapevine, represent central phytoalexins and therefore constitute an important element of basal immunity. In this study, potential genetic variation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated grapevine, was sought with respect to their output of stilbenes and potential use for resistance breeding. Considerable variation in stilbene inducibility was identified in V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris. Genotypic differences in abundance and profiles of stilbenes that are induced in response to a UV-C pulse are shown. Two clusters of stilbene 'chemovars' emerged: one cluster showed quick and strong accumulation of stilbenes, almost exclusively in the form of non-glycosylated resveratrol and viniferin, while the second cluster accumulated fewer stilbenes and relatively high proportions of piceatannol and the glycosylated piceid. For all 86 genotypes, a time dependence of the stilbene pattern was observed: piceid, resveratrol, and piceatannol accumulated earlier, whereas the viniferins were found later. It was further observed that the genotypic differences in stilbene accumulation were preceded by differential accumulation of the transcripts for chalcone synthase (CHS) and stilbene-related genes: phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL), stilbene synthase (StSy), and resveratrol synthase (RS). A screen of the population with respect to susceptibility to downy mildew of grapevine (Plasmopara viticola) revealed considerable variability. The subpopulation of genotypes with high stilbene inducibility was significantly less susceptible as compared with low-stilbene genotypes, and for representative genotypes it could be shown that the inducibility of stilbene synthase by UV correlated with the inducibility by the pathogen. PMID:25873669

  13. Competitive replacement of the native Vitis and Hedera taxa by invasive aliens: morphological, cytological and molecular evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria HOHN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe here case studies of two woody climber species native to the broadleaf forests of the Carpathian basin. Wild grape (Vitis sylvestris C.C.Gmel., considered to be one of the ancestors of the domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. became a highly threatened species since the introduction of the American grape species as rootstocks for grapevine. Among these, especially, Riparian grape (Vitis riparia Minchx. escaped from the wine yards and by invading the natural habitats replaced the autochthonous wild grape. In consequence of the competitive exclusion Vitis sylvestris suffered a strong withdrawal along its native habitats. 20 morphological traits, including leaf shape and trichome structure were studied to tackle evidence of the introgressive hybridization among the alien and native taxa. Most of the studied Hungarian habitats were already dominated by hybrid specimens of Vitis taxa. Molecular analysis based on 8 nuclear microsatellites markers supported the morphological results. 

  14. ANTIOXIDATIVE LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT EXTRACTIVES FROM TRIPLOID POPULUS TOMENTOSA XYLEM

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    Yong-Hao Ni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Triploid Populus tomentosa Carr. (Salicaceae is a good alternative to meet the increasing need of the global pulp and paper industry. Meanwhile, the xylem of this species could be a useful bioresource to develop low molecular extractives with significant bioactive potential. In the present work, a phytochemical investigation on aqueous EtOH extractives of Triploid P. tomentosa xylem, by systematical performance of Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, resulted in the isolation of two phenolic acids (ρ-coumaric acid (I and caffeic acid (II, two flavonoids (apigenin (III and luteolin (IV, and three phenolic glucosides (salicortin (V, salireposide (VI and populoside (VII. The structure elucidation and determination of the isolated extractives were based on their spectroscopical data and physiochemical evidences. This was the first time to report the low molecular weight extractives of Triploid P. tomentosa. Various low molecular weight extractives from Triploid P. tomentosa xylem exhibited significant antioxidative activities by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays.

  15. Lignin Characterization of Triploid Clones of Populus tomentosa Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiao-juan; Pu Jun-wen; Xie Yi-min; Takeshi Furuno; Liu Xin-yu

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the structural characteristics of lignin in triploid clones ofPopulus tomentosa and its changes in the processes of pulping and bleaching, milled wood lignin (MWL), lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) and the residual lignin from kraft pulp (KP) and sulfite pulp (SP) were isolated and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The most diagnostic peaks were assigned and the differences were discussed. The spectral patterns reveal that triploid P. tomentosa shows the specific features of hardwood from temperate areas, but in the spectrum of FTIR, the strength ratio of A1270 cm-1 to A1226 cm-1 is 0.88, higher than the average of hardwood from temperate areas, which will make the lignin delignification more difficult during pulping and bleaching. The LCC from triploid P. tomentosa is mainly composed of xyloglucan and glucuronic acid, and other glucides have much lower ratio. In LCC FTIR, there are three peaks at 1 427, 1 329 and 1046 cm--1, indicating that both semi-cellulose and cellulose could exist in LCC, and that there might be relationships between cellulose and lignin. Compared with the residual lignin from KP and SP, the condensed structure in KP is more than that in SP.

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution of essential elements through Populus leaf ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mónica R; Woll, Arthur; Niklas, Karl J

    2016-04-01

    We examined the spatiotemporal distribution and accumulation of calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) during the growth and maturation of grey poplar (Populus tremula × alba) leaves covering plastochrons 01 through 10. This period spans the sugar sink-to-source transition and requires coordinated changes of multiple core metabolic processes that likely involve alterations in essential and non-essential element distributions as tissues mature and effect a reversal in phloem flow direction. Whole-leaf elemental maps were obtained from dried specimens using micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Additional cross-sections of fresh leaves were scanned to check for tissue specificity in element accumulation. The anatomical distribution of Zn and K remains relatively consistent throughout leaf development; Ca accumulation varied across leaf developmental stages. The basipetal allocation of Ca to the leaf mesophyll matched spatially and temporally the sequence of phloem maturation, positive carbon balance, and sugar export from leaves. The accumulation of Ca likely reflects the maturation of xylem in minor veins and the enhancement of the transpiration stream. Our results independently confirm that xylem and phloem maturation are spatially and temporally coordinated with the onset of sugar export in leaves. PMID:26985054

  17. Oxidation behavior of biomass chars: pectin and Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-Shig Shim; Mohammad R. Hajaligol; Vicki L. Baliga [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2004-08-01

    Biomass chars of pectin and cotton wood (Populus deltoides) were prepared by using a heating rate of about 1{sup o}C/s, peak pyrolysis temperatures of 400-800{sup o}C, and residence times of 10-60 min at peak temperatures. Char samples were pyrolyzed in a helium atmosphere using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oxidation reactivity measurements of the same char samples in the TGA were collected after converting the helium atmosphere to an oxygen containing atmosphere. Reactivities were measured using an isothermal method at various reaction temperatures from 400 to 700{sup o}C and oxygen concentrations of 2-21%. Oxidation kinetic parameters such as apparent reaction order and apparent activation energies were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study morphological and structural development in the char samples as a function of heat treatment temperature. An interesting morphological development on the surface of the char was observed by SEM, which showed evolution of vesicle formation and whisker growth as heat treatment temperatures increased. Its implication on char reactivity is discussed. Preliminary results showed decreasing reactivity with increasing peak heat treatment temperatures. Char reactivity was affected more by the heat treatment temperature than by the hold times (10-60 min). 15 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Construction of cDNA Library from Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guangjun; Wang Yiqin; Shen Xin

    2003-01-01

    In order to isolate and clone salt-tolerance involved genes of Populus euphratica, we constructed a cDNA library from salt-treated leaves of P. euphratica. In the experiment, double strand cDNA were synthesized by a beads-based method. The syntheses of the first strand and the second strand cDNA, adapter ligation and restriction reaction for releasing cDNA were all conducted on the beads. The double strand cDNA were released from magnetic beads by digestion with NotI, and cDNA fragments smaller than 500 bp and residual adapters were removed through cDNA size fractionation columns. Finally, double strand cDNA were directionally cloned intoλExcell vector. The results show that the primary titer of the cDNA library is 7.46×106 pfu per mL and the packaging efficiency reaches 1.47×107 recombinants per μg DNA. λDNA extracted from two clones of plaque were digested by EcoR I and NotI, both of the clones contained inserts larger than 900 bp. These results show that the cDNA library of salt-treated P. euphratica leaves has been successfully constructed.

  19. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development, it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in term of polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province. These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.  

  20. Establishment of in vitro culture of Populus euphratica Olivier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Peng; Dong Zhan-yuan; Sun Hong-bin; Zhao Ju-ying; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to establish a regeneration system for micropropagation of Populus euphratica Olivier. On the basis of an analysis of plant leaf mineral nutrients, a special medium was proposed, called MP2. In optimizing media for in vitro plant cultures including MS, B5 and MP2 media we employed hormones, auxin IAA, cytokine benzyladenine (BAP) and gibberellic acid (GA) in our factorial experiments on media. Adventitious shoots were derived from cuttings of adult plants taken from Xingjiang, west China, on selected media with MP2 + 0.5 mg.L-1 BA + 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. The shoots were elongated on a medium with 0.25mg.L-1 BAP, 0.1 mg.L-1NAA and 2 mg·L-1 GA and were then rooted on a medium with 0.2-0.5 mg·L-1 IBA. All the media were incorporated with 30 g·L-1 sucrose and an adjusted pH at 6.3.

  1. Gamma radiation effect on Populus nigra assimilatory pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of low intensity gamma radiation on the photosynthesis in young poplar saplings was studied. Black poplar (Populus nigra) was chosen due to its ecological importance, as fast growing tree species with many hybrids, in the frame of a polluted environment. Assimilatory pigments in the leaves of irradiated saplings were assayed using standard spectrophotometric method in acetone extract. Series of five saplings formed the experimental samples. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b levels appeared as diminished in exposed samples in comparison to the controls. Linear regression was established in every case, the line slope showing the higher effect in chlorophyll b. Carotene pigments presented a slight increasing tendency in the exposed samples. Assimilatory pigment sum was shown to be affected by the same decreasing tendency. Student t-test was applied (two tailed, pair type) to reveal statistical significance of observed modifications. Though not very deep, the modifications induced by exposure to gamma radiation of low intensity (comparable to the local atmospheric variations, caused by both natural and artificial sources) represent putative inhibitory factors in young plant photosynthesis. The main mechanism of radiation action seems to be water radiolysis, triggering peroxide cascade, generally producing toxic products for the cell metabolism. Nevertheless, living cell ability to repair some damages caused by external stress could be revealed in the present case by the enhancing tendency of the carotenes which sustain photosynthesis as secondary pigments. (authors)

  2. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  3. Cell Wall-Bound Anionic Peroxidase, PtrPO21, is Involved in Lignin Polymerization in Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Yuan; Li, Quanzi; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Shi, Rui; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Jack P.; Liu, Jie; Loziuk, Philip; Edmunds, Charles W.; Miller, Zachary D.; Peszlen, Ilona; Muddiman, David C.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2016-03-01

    Class III peroxidases are members of a large plant-specific sequence-heterogeneous protein family. Several sequence-conserved homologs have been associated with lignin polymerization in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Nicotiana tabacum, Zinnia elegans, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris. In Populus trichocarpa, a model species for studies of wood formation, the peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis have not yet been identified. To do this, we retrieved sequences of all PtrPOs from Peroxibase and conducted RNA-seq to identify candidates. Transcripts from 42 PtrPOs were detected in stem differentiating xylem (SDX) and four of them are the most xylem-abundant (PtrPO12, PtrPO21, PtrPO42, and PtrPO64). PtrPO21 shows xylem-specific expression similar to that of genes encoding the monolignol biosynthetic enzymes. Using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry, PtrPO21 is detected only in the cell wall fraction and not in the soluble fraction. Downregulated transgenics of PtrPO21 have a lignin reduction of ~20% with subunit composition (S/G ratio) similar to wild type. The transgenics show a growth reduction and reddish color of stem wood. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the stems of the downregulated PtrPO21-line 8 can be reduced to ~60% of wild type. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis of PtrPO21 downregulated transgenics identified a significant overexpression of PtPrx35, suggesting a compensatory effect within the peroxidase family. No significant changes in the expression of the 49 P. trichocarpa laccases (PtrLACs) were observed.

  4. Nucleotide diversity among natural populations of a North American poplar (Populus balsamifera, Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Amy L; Glenn, Elise; Yeager, Adam; Olson, Matthew S

    2009-01-01

    Poplars (Populus spp.) comprise an important component of circumpolar boreal forest ecosystems and are the model species for tree genomics. In this study, we surveyed genetic variation and population differentiation in three nuclear genes among populations of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) in North America. We examined nucleotide sequence variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), two well-studied nuclear loci in plants, and abscisic acid insensitivity 1B (ABI1B), a locus coincident with timing of seasonal dormancy in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of hybrid poplars. We compared estimates of baseline population genetic parameters for these loci with those obtained in studies of other poplar species, particularly European aspen (Populus tremula). Average pairwise nucleotide diversity (pi(tot) = 0.00216-0.00353) was equivalent to that in Populus trichocarpa, but markedly less than that in P. tremula. Elevated levels of population structure were observed in ABI1B between the northern and southern regions (F(CT) = 0.184, P < 0.001) and among populations (F(ST) = 0.256, P < 0.001). These results suggest that geographic or taxonomic factors are important for understanding patterns of variation throughout the genus Populus. Our findings have the potential to aid in the design of sampling regimes for conservation and breeding stock and contribute to historical inferences regarding the factors that shaped the genetic diversity of boreal plant species. PMID:19228296

  5. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:19626311

  6. SEXUAL DEMOGRAPHICS OF RIPARIAN POPULATIONS OF POPULUS DELTOIDES: CAN MORTALITY BE PREDICTED FROM A CHANGE IN REPRODUCTIVE STATUS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populus deltoides forests along the Rio Grande river drainage are predicted to disappear within this century. We evaluated stand health over three years by examining the sex ratio, size, and spatial distribution of male, female, and non-reproductive trees in six even-aged stands of Populus deltoide...

  7. SEXUAL DEMOGRAPHICS OF RIPARIN POPULATIONS OF POPULUS DELTOIDES: CAN MORTALITY BE PREDICTED FROM A CHANGE IN REPRODUCTIVE STATUS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populus deltoides forests along the Rio Grande river drainage are predicted to disappear within this century. We evaluated stand health over three years by examining the sex ratio, size, and spatial distribution of male, female, and non-reproductive trees in six even-aged stands of Populus deltoide...

  8. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms. PMID:27529978

  9. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  10. Annotated host fungus index for populus in British Columbia. FRDA report No. 222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    This index lists all documented fungal associations with either living or dead native Populus in British Columbia. The first part of the index lists fungi in alphabetical order by species scientific name and includes synonyms (if any), a brief description, and the fungal association. This part arranges the fungi by host in four categories: Trembling aspen, black cottonwood, balsam poplar, and other Populus species and hybrids. The second part of the index provides cross-references from species name (arranged by taxonomic group) to the category of host.

  11. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry. PMID:26592256

  12. Variation in the chilling requirement and bud burst rate of wild Vitis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural fruit crops in the world. In the United States, grapevines are often grown in environments very different than the Mediterranean climate from where the cultivated species was domesticated. Predictions of changing clima...

  13. The phytoalexin resveratrol regulates the initiation of hypersensitive cell death in Vitis cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chang

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR, while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir' does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. 'Pinot Noir' accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5 transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death.

  14. A phage display-selected peptide inhibitor of Agrobacterium vitis polygalacturonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeremy G; Kasun, George W; Leonard, Takara; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2016-05-01

    Agrobacterium vitis, the causal agent of crown gall of grapevine, is a threat to viticulture worldwide. A major virulence factor of this pathogen is polygalacturonase, an enzyme that degrades pectin components of the xylem cell wall. A single gene encodes for the polygalacturonase gene. Disruption of the polygalacturonase gene results in a mutant that is less pathogenic and produces significantly fewer root lesions on grapevines. Thus, the identification of peptides or proteins that could inhibit the activity of polygalacturonase could be part of a strategy for the protection of plants against this pathogen. A phage-displayed combinatorial peptide library was used to isolate peptides with a high binding affinity to A. vitis polygalacturonase. These peptides showed sequence similarity to regions of Oryza sativa (EMS66324, Japonica) and Triticum urartu (NP_001054402, wild wheat) polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs). Furthermore, these panning experiments identified a peptide, SVTIHHLGGGS, which was able to reduce A. vitis polygalacturonase activity by 35% in vitro. Truncation studies showed that the IHHL motif alone is sufficient to inhibit A. vitis polygalacturonase activity. PMID:26177065

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the Vitis vinifera fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase

    OpenAIRE

    Quirk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Vitis vinifera dual-activity fucose and nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme l-fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) has been purified to homogeneity and the 118.8 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized by vapor diffusion in Zeppezauer tubes at 277 K.

  16. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  17. Variation within and between Vitis species for foliar resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    To complement existing control strategies, grape growers in humid climates desire cultivars with resistance to downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola. Numerous disease resistance screens of diverse Vitis germplasm have previously been conducted to identify downy mildew resistance, but ratings o...

  18. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important role in the development of this model, based on interdisciplinary collaborations using genetics as a major tool to investigate aspects of physiology, development, plant-microbe interactions and evol...

  19. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  20. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Bei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and plant area index (PAI are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI, canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  1. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  2. The obscure events contributing to the evolution of an incipient sex chromosome in Populus A retrospective working hypothesis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University; Slavov, Goncho T. [West Virginia University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Genetic determination of gender is a fundamental developmental and evolutionary process in plants. Although it appears that dioecy in Populus is partially genetically controlled, the precise gender-determining systems remain unclear. The recently-released second draft assembly and annotated gene set of the Populus genome provided an opportunity to re-visit this topic. We hypothesized that over evolutionary time, selective pressure has reformed the genome structure and gene composition in the peritelomeric region of the chromosome XIX which has resulted in a distinctive genome structure and cluster of genes contributing to gender determination in Populus. Multiple lines of evidence support this working hypothesis. First, the peritelomeric region of the chromosome XIX contains significantly fewer single nucleotide polymorphisms than the rest of Populus genome and has a distinct evolutionary history. Second, the peritelomeric end of chromosome XIX contains the largest cluster of the nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class of disease resistances genes in the entire Populus genome. Third, there is a high occurrence of small microRNAs on chromosome XIX coincident to the region containing the putative gender-determining locus and the major cluster of NBS-LRR genes. Further, by analyzing the metabolomic profiles of floral bud in male and female Populus trees using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found there are gender-specific accumulations of phenolic glycosides. Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the genetic control of gender determination in Populus.

  3. Control of trichome formation in Arabidopsis by poplar single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei eZhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, trichome formation is regulated by the interplay of R3 MYBs and several others transcription factors including the WD40-repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1, the R2R3 MYB transcription factor GLABRA1 (GL1, the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3 or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3, and the homeodomain protein GLABRA2 (GL2. R3 MYBs including TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, TRYPTICHON (TRY, CAPRICE (CPC, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1, ETC2 and ETC3 negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GL1 for binding GL3 or EGL3, thus blocking the formation of TTG1-GL3/EGL3-GL1, an activator complex required for the activation of the trichome positive regulator gene GL2. However, it is largely unknown if R3 MYBs in other plant species especially woody plants have similar functions. By BLASTing the Populus trichocarpa protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of TCL1, an Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor, we identified a total of eight R3 MYB transcription factor genes in poplar, namely Populus trichocarpa TRICHOMELESS1through 8 (PtrTCL1-PtrTCL8. The amino acid signature required for interacting with bHLH transcription factors and the amino acids required for cell-to-cell movement of R3 MYBs are not fully conserved in all PtrTCLs. When tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts, however, all PtrTCL interacted with GL3. Expressing each of the eight PtrTCLs genes in Arabidopsis resulted in either glabrous phenotypes or plants with reduced trichome numbers, and expression levels of GL2 in all transgenic plants tested were greatly reduced. Expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TCL1 native promoter almost completely complemented the mutant phenotype of tcl. In contrast, expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TRY native promoter in the try mutant, or under the control of CPC native promoter in the cpc mutant resulted in glabrous phenotypes, suggesting that PtrTCL1 functions similarly to TCL1, but not TRY and CPC.

  4. Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2006-08-11

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

  5. RepPop: a database for repetitive elements in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populus trichocarpa is the first tree genome to be completed, and its whole genome is currently being assembled. No functional annotation about the repetitive elements in the Populus trichocarpa genome is currently available. Results We predicted 9,623 repetitive elements in the Populus trichocarpa genome, and assigned functions to 3,075 of them (31.95%. The 9,623 repetitive elements cover ~40% of the current (partially assembled genome. Among the 9,623 repetitive elements, 668 have copies only in the contigs that have not been assigned to one of the 19 chromosome while the rest all have copies in the partially assembled chromosomes. Conclusion All the predicted data are organized into an easy-to-use web-browsable database, RepPop. Various search capabilities are provided against the RepPop database. A Wiki system has been set up to facilitate functional annotation and curation of the repetitive elements by a community rather than just the database developer. The database RepPop will facilitate the assembling and functional characterization of the Populus trichocarpa genome.

  6. Identification of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes for cadmium tolerance in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Induri, Brahma R [West Virginia University; Ellis, Danielle R [West Virginia University; Slavov, Goncho T. [West Virginia University; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University

    2012-01-01

    Understanding genetic variation for the response of Populus to heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) is an important step in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of tolerance. In this study, a pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray and Populus deltoides Bart. was characterized for growth and performance traits after Cd exposure. A total of 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) at logarithm of odds (LOD) ratio 2.5 were detected for total dry weight, its components and root volume. Major QTL for Cd responses were mapped to two different linkage groups and the relative allelic effects were in opposing directions on the two chromosomes, suggesting differential mechanisms at these two loci. The phenotypic variance explained by Cd QTL ranged from 5.9 to 11.6% and averaged 8.2% across all QTL. A whole-genome microarray study led to the identification of nine Cd-responsive genes from these QTL. Promising candidates for Cd tolerance include an NHL repeat membrane-spanning protein, a metal transporter and a putative transcription factor. Additional candidates in the QTL intervals include a putative homolog of a glutamate cysteine ligase, and a glutathione-S-transferase. Functional characterization of these candidate genes should enhance our understanding of Cd metabolism and transport and phytoremediation capabilities of Populus.

  7. ADVANCE IN RESEARCH ON DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF POPULUS%杨树抗旱性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春英; 李春阳

    2003-01-01

    The drought resistance of woody plants, in particular, Populus, was reviewed in this paper. Studies about drought resistance of Populus mostly focused on changes in growth properties, physiological adaptation and biochemical aspects, but a few on molecular biology. The indexes of drought adaptation and productivity were analyzed and these indexes could be employed to identify drought resistance of woody plants. Combination of such different approaches will, hopefully, give us a more complete understanding of the various regulatory mechanisms in trees than what we may have today. With development of the molecular biology of woody plants, the sluties on stress resistance of Populus which was regarded as a model plant, are summarised. Ref 96

  8. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Tian

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs constitute a superfamily of NAD(P+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  9. The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour across Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play?

    OpenAIRE

    GAMBETTA, G. A.; Manuck, C. M.; Drucker, S. T.; Shaghasi, T.; Fort, K.; Matthews, M A; Walker, M. A.; McElrone, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), % aquaporin contribution to Lp r , scion tr...

  10. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...

  11. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study....

  12. Phenological behaviour of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars in Pinhais – PR / Comportamento fenológico de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia em Pinhais – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Zanette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the phenological cycle of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the 2004/2005 season. The cultivars were Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. The experiment was performed on an orchard implanted in 1999 at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Paraná in Pinhais-PR. The phenology of two adult plants of each cultivar was monitored. The recorded phenological stages were: 1 Dormant bud; 2 Swollen bud; 3 Wool bud; 4 Green tip; 5 Bud burst (first leaf appearance; 6 Two to three leaves unfolded; 7 Five to six leaves unfolded; 8 Fully developed inflorescence; 9 Trace bloom (flowerhoods detached; 10 Full flowering (50% of the flowerhoods fallen; 11 Fruit set; 12 Groat-sized berries; 13 Pea-sized berries; 14 50% filled berries (beginning to touch berries; 15 Final size; 16 Color change; 17 Berries ripe for harvest; and 18 End of harvesting. A very long phenological cycle was observed when compared to species such as Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. These evaluations allowed us to conclude that: a there is no difference in the phenological cycle periods between bronze and dark skinned cultivars; b cultivars presented desuniform wool bud to full flowering cycle, ranging from 25 days (‘Regale’ to 81 days (‘Creek’; c the cultivar Regale presented the longest cycle (203 days from full flowering to harvest and the cultivar Creek the shortest (136 days. The evaluated cultivars additionally presented desuniform ripening and a tendency to drop berries. O objetivo foi caracterizar o ciclo fenológico de nove cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia avaliadas na safra de 2004/2005. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar do Setor de Fruticultura da Estação Experimental do Canguiri da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Pinhais-PR, sendo que

  13. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  14. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  15. Genome-wide association implicates numerous genes and pleiotropy underlying ecological trait variation in natural populations of Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKown, Athena [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Klapste, Jaroslav [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Guy, Robert [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Geraldes, Armando [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Porth, Ilga [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Hannemann, Jan [University of Victoria, Canada; Friedmann, Michael [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Ehlting, Juergen [University of Victoria, Canada; Cronk, Quentin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; El-Kassaby, Yousry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mansfield, Shawn [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2014-01-01

    To uncover the genetic basis of phenotypic trait variation, we used 448 unrelated wild accessions of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) from natural populations throughout western North America. Extensive information from large-scale trait phenotyping (with spatial and temporal replications within a common garden) and genotyping (with a 34K Populus SNP array) of all accessions were used for gene discovery in a genome-wide association study (GWAS).

  16. Distinct Microbial Communities within the Endosphere and Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides Roots across Contrasting Soil Types ▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Gottel, Neil R.; Castro, Hector F.; Kerley, Marilyn; Yang, Zamin; Pelletier, Dale A.; Podar, Mircea; Karpinets, Tatiana; Uberbacher, Ed; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Schadt, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The root-rhizosphere interface of Populus is the nexus of a variety of associations between bacteria, fungi, and the host plant and an ideal model for studying interactions between plants and microorganisms. However, such studies have generally been confined to greenhouse and plantation systems. Here we analyze microbial communities from the root endophytic and rhizospheric habitats of Populus deltoides in mature natural trees from both upland and bottomland sites in central Tennessee. Commun...

  17. Identification of five B-type response regulators as members of a multistep phosphorelay system interacting with histidine-containing phosphotransfer partners of Populus osmosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, the multistep phosphorelay signaling pathway mediates responses to environmental factors and plant hormones. This system is composed of three successive partners: hybrid Histidine-aspartate Kinases (HKs, Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer proteins (HPts, and Response Regulators (RRs. Among the third partners, B-type RR family members are the final output elements of the pathway; they act as transcription factors and clearly play a pivotal role in the early response to cytokinin in Arabidopsis. While interactions studies between partners belonging to the multistep phosphorelay system are mainly focused on protagonists involved in cytokinin or ethylene pathways, very few reports are available concerning partners of osmotic stress signaling pathway. Results In Populus, we identified eight B-type RR proteins, RR12-16, 19, 21 and 22 in the Dorskamp genotype. To assess HPt/B-type RR interactions and consequently determine potential third partners in the osmosensing multistep phosphorelay system, we performed global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assays in combination with Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC assays in plant cells. We found that all B-type RRs are able to interact with HPt predominant partners (HPt2, 7 and 9 of HK1, which is putatively involved in the osmosensing pathway. However, different profiles of interaction are observed depending on the studied HPt. HPt/RR interactions displayed a nuclear localization, while the nuclear and cytosolic localization of HPt and nuclear localization of RR proteins were validated. Although the nuclear localization of HPt/RR interaction was expected, this work constitutes the first evidence of such an interaction in plants. Furthermore, the pertinence of this partnership is reinforced by highlighting a co-expression of B-type RR transcripts and the other partners (HK1 and HPts belonging to a potential osmosensing pathway. Conclusion Based on the interaction studies

  18. Genome resequencing in Populus: Revealing large-scale genome variation and implications on specialized-trait genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To date, Populus ranks among a few plant species with a complete genome sequence and other highly developed genomic resources. With the first genome sequence among all tree species, Populus has been adopted as a suitable model organism for genomic studies in trees. However, far from being just a model species, Populus is a key renewable economic resource that plays a significant role in providing raw materials for the biofuel and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, aside from leading frontiers of basic tree molecular biology and ecological research, Populus leads frontiers in addressing global economic challenges related to fuel and fiber production. The latter fact suggests that research aimed at improving quality and quantity of Populus as a raw material will likely drive the pursuit of more targeted and deeper research in order to unlock the economic potential tied in molecular biology processes that drive this tree species. Advances in genome sequence-driven technologies, such as resequencing individual genotypes, which in turn facilitates large scale SNP discovery and identification of large scale polymorphisms are key determinants of future success in these initiatives. In this treatise we discuss implications of genome sequence-enable technologies on Populus genomic and genetic studies of complex and specialized-traits.

  19. Contributions to the study of Vitis vinifera defence mechanisms against esca

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Marta Raquel Martins

    2009-01-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex aetiology affecting grapevines worldwide and leading to great economic losses in viticulture. In the Vinho Verde Demarcated Region (North of Portugal), esca and young grapevine decline has been leading to important losses in wine production. The disease is widespread all over the region affecting all varieties of Vinho Verde grapevines, both old and young plants. To study the putative response of Vitis vinifera to esca-related fungi a la...

  20. Evaluation on Anti-hepatitis Viral Activity of Vitis vinifer L

    OpenAIRE

    Long Ma; Haibo Li; Jun Zhao; Tao Liu

    2010-01-01

    Suosuo grape (Vitis vinifer L) is traditionally used as a therapeutic agent for measles and hepatitis by the ethnic Uighurs. This work aimed to investigate the anti-HBV effect of total triterpene (VTT), total flavonoids (VTF) and total polysaccharides (VTP) from Suosuo grape, and their synergistic effects were also tested. The viral antigens of cellular secretion, HBsAg and HBeAg, were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The quantity of HBV-DNA released in the supernatant ...

  1. Copper impacts in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): molecular, biochemical and biotechnological approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Viviana Maria Varajão

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Programa Doutoral em Biologia de Plantas Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800’s, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture. Although they initially seemed to improve plant growth in unproductive lands, their intensive use has raised concerns regarding toxicity to plants and soil contamination, and research has emerged to characterize coppe...

  2. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 6093-6112. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * stilbenes * accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) * microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) * LC-MS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  3. Displaying Political Order: Yam Cultivation in Tokaimalo, Ra Province, Viti Levu, Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Masao; イシイ, マサオ

    1992-01-01

    The yam is one of the most important agricultural products in Melanesia, both in the subsistence economy and in the symbolic world. The symbolic usage of the yam is best seen in the annual competition to produce and display giant yams. The men of Tokaimalo, Saivou District, Ra Province, Viti Levu Island, Fiji are also good cultivators of the yam. Though they do not cultivate giant yams, and there is no annual competition between individuals to produce good yams, the yam cultivation seems ...

  4. Phaemoniella chlamydospora infection induces changes in phenolic compounds content in Vitis vinifera

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Helena; Martin, Nico; Vesentini, Damiano; Rego, Cecilia; Monteiro, Sara; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora infection was evaluated in three grapevine cultivars, in relation to the variation in phenolic compounds within the host. Young plants of Vitis vinifera (cv. Chardonnay, Touriga Nacional and two clones of cv. Aragonez) were infected using two strains of Pa. chlamydospora and were harvested after fi ve months from inoculation. Overall, a localised increment in the amount of total phenolics within a methanolic extract of grapevine wood tissu...

  5. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: spatiotemporal relationships among turgor, sugar accumulation, and anthocyanin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Castellarin, Simone D; Gambetta, Greg A.; Wada, Hiroshi; Shackel, Ken A.; Matthews, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the first observations indicating the spatiotemporal relationships among genetic and physiological aspects of ripening in the berry of Vitis vinifera. At the onset of ripening in the red flesh variety Alicante Bouschet, colour development began in the flesh at the stylar end of the fruit and progressed toward the pedicel end flesh and into the skin. Tissue solute potential and cell turgor also decreased first in the flesh. The decrease in flesh solute potential was due to a...

  6. LOCATION AND USES OF WILD GRAPEVINE (Vitis spp.) IN THE STATE OF PUEBLA, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Ana del Carmen Rodríguez Landero; Omar Franco Mora; Juan Guillermo Cruz Castillo; Adriana Aurora Cortés Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, correct locations of wild grapevines (Vitis spp.) and their actual uses by native people are not well documented. In the recent years, in the State of Puebla, Mexico, more than 180 wild grapevine-growing-sites were located; those sites were grouped in 3 main regions; Teziutlan, Atlixco and Tehuacan, with 113, 46 and 24 sites, respectively. Wild grapevines were found at altitudes from 120 (Hueytamalco) to 2540 (Chiautzingo) meters over sea level (msnm) growing in humid climates or a...

  7. Penggunaan Sari Buah Anggur Hijau ( Vitis vinifera L ) Dalam Sediaan Krim Pelembab

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Elisabet H.F

    2012-01-01

    Dry skin need a moisturizer that is usually shaped cream. The ingredients moisturizing that are commonly used include glycerin. Grape fruit ( Vitis vinifera L.) is a natural material that can be used skin moisturizer because it is rich in vitamins A, B1, B6, C and E. Beside vitamin, green grape fruit also has mineral as calcium, phosphor, potassium, iron, carbohydrate, protein and lipid. Based on its contents, when conducting research using guava juice has concentrated into moisturizing cream...

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Guo-Tian; Wang Jun-Fang; Cramer Grant; Dai Zhan-Wu; Duan Wei; Xu Hong-Guo; Wu Ben-Hong; Fan Pei-Ge; Wang Li-Jun; Li Shao-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the ...

  9. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-ang, Niramon

    2013-01-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45–85 °C), and the time (2–8 h) were designed for the extraction. The resu...

  10. Is there a future for wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris) in the Rhine Valley?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Claire; Schnitzler, Annik; Douard, Anne; Peter, Richard; Gillet, François

    2011-01-01

    The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, is considered to be an endangered taxon in Europe, mainly as a consequence of the introduction of pathogens from North America and of the destruction of its habitat. In the Rhine Valley, nearly all populations disappeared due to river management, the intensi.cation of forestry, and the introduction of phylloxera. After a growing awareness of the need to preserve endangered forest ecosystems, attempts to reintroduce wild grape...

  11. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi in the Ebro river Basin (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ocete Rubio, Rafael; Arroyo García, R.; Morales, M. L.; Cantos, Manuel; Gallardo Cano, A.; Pérez Izquierdo, Mª Á.; Gómez Parrales, Isidoro; López Martínez, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    A wild grapevine population of 76 vines of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi was found along the Iregua river valley (Northeastern Spain), located in the Ibérica mountain-range. The characterization of this phytogenetic resource was based on an ampelographic description of the male and female individuals and an evaluation of their sanitary state. This shows that the imported North American downy and powdery mildews are the main pathogens, but no symptoms caused by phylloxe...

  12. Microsatellite characterization of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genetic diversity in Asturias (Northern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Dolores, María; Suárez, Belén

    2013-01-01

    The genetic heritage of the Asturian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been declining over the past century due to the phylloxera attack and the further abandonment of this culture. In addition, efforts in recent years to restore the Asturian vineyard with the pulling-up of old vineyards and replanting with cultivars endorsed by Cangas Quality Wine regulations are contributing even more to this genetic erosion. The aim of this study was the evaluation and identification of the phytogenetic...

  13. Polyphenol Oxidase Activity during Rooting in Cuttings of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Hayrullah

    2003-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was investigated during rooting in cuttings from three different grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Muscat, Cardinal and Perlelte), and the enzyme activity and rooting ability were compared. Rooting was observed on the Muscat and Perlelte cuttings, but not on the Cardinal cuttings. PPO activity started to increase in the early stage of the experiment, and decreased after root emergence in the Muscat and Perlelte cuttings. However, enzyme activity started...

  14. Fungal Endophytic Communities in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) Respond to Crop Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pancher, Michael; Ceol, Marco; Corneo, Paola Elisa; Longa, Claudia Maria Oliveira; Yousaf, Sohail; Pertot, Ilaria; Campisano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We studied the distribution of fungal endophytes of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plants in a subalpine area of northern Italy, where viticulture is of high economic relevance. We adopted both cultivation-based and cultivation-independent approaches to address how various anthropic and nonanthropic factors shape microbial communities. Grapevine stems were harvested from several locations considering organic and integrated pest management (IPM) and from the cultivars Merlot and Chardonnay. Cul...

  15. Productivity, water-use efficiency and tolerance to moderate water deficit correlate in 33 poplar genotypes from a Populus deltoides x Populus trichocarpa F1 progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, R; Villar, M; Barbaroux, C; Bastien, C; Fichot, R; Delmotte, F M; Delay, D; Petit, J-M; Bréchet, C; Dreyer, E; Brignolas, F

    2009-11-01

    Genotypic variability for productivity, water-use efficiency and leaf traits in 33 genotypes selected from an F1 progeny of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh x Populus trichocarpa L. was explored under optimal and moderate water-deficit conditions. Saplings of the 33 genotypes were grown in a two-plot open field at INRA Orléans (France) and coppiced every year. A moderate water deficit was induced during two successive years on one plot by withholding irrigation, while the second one remained irrigated (control). Stem biomass and leaf structure (e.g., specific leaf area and leaf area) were measured in 2004 and 2005 and functional leaf traits (e.g., carbon isotope discrimination, Delta) were measured only in 2004. Tolerance to water deficit was estimated at genotype level as the ability to limit losses in biomass production in water deficit versus control trees. Stem biomass, leaf structure and Delta displayed a significant genotypic variability whatever the irrigation regime. For all traits, genotype ranks remained stable across years for similar irrigation conditions. Carbon isotope discrimination scaled negatively with productivity and leaf nitrogen content in controls. The most productive genotypes were the least tolerant to moderate water deficit. No relationship was evidenced between Delta and the level of tolerance to water deficit. The relationships between traits evidenced in this collection of P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 genotypes contrast with the ones that were previously detected in a collection of P. deltoides x Populus nigra L. cultivars tested in the same field trial. PMID:19773340

  16. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF VITIS VINIFERA LINN. ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikare V P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study fruits of Vitis vinifera Linn. (Vitacae commonly known as Draksh were selected for preliminary phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of cognitive enhancing activity. The shade dried fruits were subjected to successive solvent extraction with 70 % ethanol. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids when subjected to chemical tests. TLC was run for their confirmation of flavonoids in Vitis vinifera and than subjected to isolation by preparative TLC method and analyzed by UV, FTIR and HPTLC. In the pharmacological screening, the alcoholic extract was used for the evaluation of cognitive enhancing activity using elevated plus maze & passive avoidance task method with Mentat as Standard by using parameters of step down and transfer latency. Induction was carried out by MES and scopolamine for 7 days. On 7th day the brain was isolated for evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The alcoholic extracts (200mg/kg.B.W showed significant effect when compare to control, there was significant increase in step down latency and decrease in the transfers latency and also decrease in acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity, which was as effective as that of standard drug. Hence it can by conclude that fruits of Vitis vinifera contain favonoid and hence possess significant cognitive enhancing activity.

  17. Isolation of Resveratrol from Vitis Viniferae Caulis and Its Potent Inhibition of Human Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaa Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase (TYR catalyzes rate-limiting reactions of cellular melanin synthesis, and its inhibitors are of commercial interest as potential skin whitening agents. However, the limited availability of human TYR makes the screening of TYR inhibitors difficult. To overcome this hurdle, we transformed nonmelanocytic human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells to express human TYR constitutively. Using these cells as a source of human TYR, the ethanolic extracts of 52 medicinal plants grown in Korea were tested for human TYR activity, and the extract of Vitis Viniferae Caulis (dried stems of the grape tree, Vitis vinifera L. was found to inhibit human TYR activity potently. An active compound was isolated from this extract by solvent fractionation followed by liquid column chromatography and identified as resveratrol by spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses. Resveratrol was determined to be a highly potent inhibitor of human TYR (IC50=0.39 μg mL−1 as compared with p-coumaric acid (IC50=0.66 μg mL−1 and arbutin (IC50>100 μg mL−1 and inhibited melanin synthesis by human epidermal melanocytes at subtoxic concentrations. This study suggests that resveratrol and resveratrol-containing extracts of Vitis Viniferae Caulis have a potential use as skin whitening agents.

  18. Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137: biocontrol properties, colonization and induced systemic resistance towards Botrytis cinerea on grapevine and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Muzammil, Saima

    2012-01-01

    Au cours de cette thèse, un isolat de sol de désert, Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137, a été évalué pour ses propriétés bioactives contre le champignon phytopathogène Botrytis cinerea, pour sa colonization sur Vitis vinifera L., et Arabidopsis thaliana ainsi qu’en vue d’étudier les méchanismes de résistance systémique induite (ISR) contre B. cinerea. Les résultats obtenus nous ont permis premièrement de montrer que Sa. algeriensis NRRL B-24137 peut présenter des activités antifongiques ...

  19. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  20. Pollen development and multi-nucleate microspores of Populus bolleana Lauche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-hai; KANG Xiang-yang; WANG Shang-de; LI Dai-li; CHEN Hong-wei

    2008-01-01

    Populus bolleana is a variety of P. alba, commonly used in poplar breeding programs in China. Developmental biology that involves staminate flowers, microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis ofP bolleana is essential for Populus improvement in cross breeding for better characteristics in sexual reproduction. Flower morphology and pollen development were described and illustrated using anatomical, sectioning and stain-clearing techniques. The results show that microsporocytes undergo a regular meioticprocess, but some multi-nucleate microspores occur at the microspore stage. It takes five days for microsporocytes to develop to mature pollen by forcing flower branches under greenhouse conditions. Additionally, an important relationship was found between stages of meiosis and anther colors. Microspore tetrads formed when the anther color turned yellow, whereas, when the pollen matured, the anther was red and the tapetum degenerated completely. When mature pollen grains are formed, flower buds develop into male eatkins. In the end, filament elongated and pollen grains were released from dehisced anthers.

  1. Increase in radiosensitivity with increase in age of Populus tremuloides seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populus tremuloides seeds from one tree were irradiated with a 260-Ci 137 Cs gamma source to exposures of 0.47, 0.94, 1.4, 1.8, 3.7, 7.5, 15, 22, 30, 45, and 60 kr at increasing time intervals after seed collection. Two methods of seed storage were used prior to irradiation, refrigerator storage at 50C and freezer storage at -190C with vacuum desiccation. Gamma radiation had no effect upon germination percentage. However, marked decreases in the LD/sub 50-30/ of Populus tremuloides seedlings, grown from seed that was gamma irradiated at increasing time intervals after seed collection, indicated that the seed radiosensitivity increases with increasing age of the seed. Seed storage under vacuum desiccation in a freezer at -190C prolonged the viable storage life of the seed over refrigerator storage

  2. Biochemical basis of drought tolerance in hybrid Populus grown under field production conditions. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wierman, C. [Boise Cascade Corp., Wallula, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to assess the use of osmotically active compounds as molecular selection criteria for drought tolerance in Populus in a large-scale field trial. It is known that some plant species, and individuals within a plant species, can tolerate increasing stress associated with reduced moisture availability by accumulating solutes. The biochemical matrix of such metabolites varies among species and among individuals. The ability of Populus clones to tolerate drought has equal value to other fiber producers, i.e., the wood products industry, where irrigation is used in combination with other cultural treatments to obtain high dry weight yields. The research initially involved an assessment of drought stress under field conditions and characterization of changes in osmotic constitution among the seven clones across the six moisture levels. The near-term goal was to provide a mechanistic basis for clonal differences in productivity under various irrigation treatments over time.

  3. Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Pär K Ingvarsson; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod ...

  4. Exploring the metal phytoremediation potential of three Populus alba L. clones using an in vitro screening

    OpenAIRE

    S. Di Lonardo; Capuana, M.; Arnetoli, M.; R. GABBRIELLI; Gonnelli, C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This work was planned for providing a useful screening tool for the selection of Populus alba clones suitable for phytoremediation techniques. To this aim, we investigated variation in arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three poplar clones through an in vitro screening. Poplars have been widely proposed for phytoremediation, as they are adaptable to grow on contaminated areas and able to accumulate metals...

  5. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF TETRA ACETYL ETHYLENE DIAMINE ACTIVATED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF POPULUS NIGRA CTMP

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhao; Junwen Pu; Shulei Mao; Guibo Qi

    2010-01-01

    To enhance the bleaching efficiency, the activator of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) was used in conventional H2O2 bleaching. The H2O2/TAED bleaching system can accelerate the reaction rate and shorten bleaching time at relative low temperature, which can reduce the production cost. In this research, the process with hydrogen peroxide activated by TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp was optimized. Suitable bleaching conditions were confirmed as follows: pulp con...

  6. A simple and efficient transient transformation for hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takata Naoki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Populus is accepted as a model system for molecular tree biology. To investigate gene functions in Populus spp. trees, generating stable transgenic lines is the common technique for functional genetic studies. However, a limited number of genes have been targeted due to the lengthy transgenic process. Transient transformation assays complementing stable transformation have significant advantages for rapid in vivo assessment of gene function. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and efficient transient transformation for hybrid aspen and to provide its potential applications for functional genomic approaches. Results We developed an in planta transient transformation assay for young hybrid aspen cuttings using Agrobacterium-mediated vacuum infiltration. The transformation conditions such as the infiltration medium, the presence of a surfactant, the phase of bacterial growth and bacterial density were optimized to achieve a higher transformation efficiency in young aspen leaves. The Agrobacterium infiltration assay successfully transformed various cell types in leaf tissues. Intracellular localization of four aspen genes was confirmed in homologous Populus spp. using fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein. Protein-protein interaction was detected in transiently co-transformed cells with bimolecular fluorescence complementation technique. In vivo promoter activity was monitored over a few days in aspen cuttings that were transformed with luciferase reporter gene driven by a circadian clock promoter. Conclusions The Agrobacterium infiltration assay developed here is a simple and enhanced throughput method that requires minimum handling and short transgenic process. This method will facilitate functional analyses of Populus genes in a homologous plant system.

  7. Successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Populus tomentosa with apple SPDS gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting-ting; PANG Xiao-ming; LONG Cui; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2008-01-01

    The problem of salinized soils has become one of the most serious constraints to agricultural and forest productivity. With the purpose of enhancing salt stress tolerance of Populus tomentosa, we transformed this tree species with spermidine synthase (SPDS) genes derived from an apple by an Agrobacterium-mediatod method. Four transgenic clones were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. As well, the expression of introduced SPDS genes was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR.

  8. Morphological study of the leaves of two European black poplar (Populus nigra L.) populations in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jarni, Kristjan; Vaupotič, Urška; BOŽIČ, Gregor; Brus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Conservation efforts across Europe and a substantial lack of information regarding the present status of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) in Slovenia led us to conduct this research. The objectives were to determine the presence of preserved native black poplar in Slovenia, to evaluate the variation within and between two selected populations, and to evaluate the condition of these populations, which is important for enabling their long-term gene pool conservation. ...

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungus (Paxillus involutus) and hydrogels affect performance of Populus euphratica exposed to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; Li, Ke; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi and hydrogels (water-absorbing polymers) can improve water availability for trees. The combination of both factors for plant performance under water limitation has not yet been studied. • To investigate the influence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus, hydrogel and the combination of both factors, a drought-sensitive poplar, Populus euphratica, was examined in this study. • After 16 weeks of inoculation, no ectomycorrhizas were found. Nevertheles...

  10. Recent Y chromosome divergence despite ancient origin of dioecy in poplars (Populus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, A; Hefer, C A; Capron, A; Kolosova, N; Martinez-Nuñez, F; Soolanayakanahally, R Y; Stanton, B; Guy, R D; Mansfield, S D; Douglas, C J; Cronk, Q C B

    2015-07-01

    All species of the genus Populus (poplar, aspen) are dioecious, suggesting an ancient origin of this trait. Despite some empirical counter examples, theory suggests that nonrecombining sex-linked regions should quickly spread, eventually becoming heteromorphic chromosomes. In contrast, we show using whole-genome scans that the sex-associated region in Populus trichocarpa is small and much younger than the age of the genus. This indicates that sex determination is highly labile in poplar, consistent with recent evidence of 'turnover' of sex-determination regions in animals. We performed whole-genome resequencing of 52 P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood) and 34 Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) individuals of known sex. Genomewide association studies in these unstructured populations identified 650 SNPs significantly associated with sex. We estimate the size of the sex-linked region to be ~100 kbp. All SNPs significantly associated with sex were in strong linkage disequilibrium despite the fact that they were mapped to six different chromosomes (plus 3 unmapped scaffolds) in version 2.2 of the reference genome. We show that this is likely due to genome misassembly. The segregation pattern of sex-associated SNPs revealed this to be an XY sex-determining system. Estimated divergence times of X and Y haplotype sequences (6-7 Ma) are much more recent than the divergence of P. trichocarpa (poplar) and Populus tremuloides (aspen). Consistent with this, in P. tremuloides, we found no XY haplotype divergence within the P. trichocarpa sex-determining region. These two species therefore have a different genomic architecture of sex, suggestive of at least one turnover event in the recent past. PMID:25728270

  11. Local Selection Across a Latitudinal Gradient Shapes Nucleotide Diversity in Balsam Poplar, Populus balsamifera L

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Stephen R.; Levsen, Nicholas; Ingvarsson, Pär K.; Olson, Matthew S.; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Molecular studies of adaptive evolution often focus on detecting selective sweeps driven by positive selection on a species-wide scale; however, much adaptation is local, particularly of ecologically important traits. Here, we look for evidence of range-wide and local adaptation at candidate genes for adaptive phenology in balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera, a widespread forest tree whose range extends across environmental gradients of photoperiod and growing season length. We examined nucleo...

  12. Continental-scale assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Colin M.; Rowe, Carol A.; Ryel, Ronald J.; Shaw, John D.; Madritch, Michael D.; Mock, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) has the largest natural distribution of any tree native to North America. The primary objectives of this study were to characterize range-wide genetic diversity and genetic structuring in quaking aspen, and to assess the influence of glacial history and rear-edge dynamics. Location: North America. Methods: Using a sample set representing the full longitudinal and latitudinal extent of the species’ distribution, we examined geographical patterns o...

  13. Sub-Soiling and Genotype Selection Improves Populus Productivity Grown on a North Carolina Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Dayson Shifflett; Dennis W. Hazel; Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the stem volume of 10 Populus genotypes in a randomized split-plot design with different tillage treatments (disking versus sub-soiling) after two years of growth. Height, diameter at breast height (DBH), stem aboveground volume index, survival, Melampsora rust resistance, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, and foliar nitrogen concentration (Foliar N) were measured to identify how tillage treatments might alter poplar growth. Stem volume index and LAI were positive...

  14. Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of populus deltoides

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Bisht; Piyush Pandey; Anchal Sood; Shivesh Sharma; Bisht, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Several naphthalene and anthracene degrading bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, which were growing in non-contaminated soil. Among these, four isolates, i.e. Kurthia sp., Micrococcus varians, Deinococcus radiodurans and Bacillus circulans utilized chrysene, benzene, toluene and xylene, in addition to anthracene and naphthalene. Kurthia sp and B. circulans showed positive chemotactic response for naphthalene and anthracene. The mean growth rate constant (K) of isolat...

  15. Selecting and utilizing Populus and Salix for landfill covers: implications for leachate irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesny, Ronald S; Bauer, Edmund O

    2007-01-01

    The success of using Populus and Salix for phytoremediation has prompted further use of leachate as a combination of irrigation and fertilization for the trees. A common protocol for such efforts has been to utilize a limited number of readily-available genotypes with decades of deployment in other applications, such as fiber or windbreaks. However, it may be possible to increase phytoremediation success with proper genotypic screening and selection, followed by the field establishment of clones that exhibited favorable potential for cleanup of specific contaminants. There is an overwhelming need for testing and subsequent deployment of diverse Populus and Salix genotypes, given current availability of clonal material and the inherent genetic variation among and within these genera. Therefore, we detail phyto-recurrent selection, a method that consists of revising and combining crop and tree improvement protocols to meet the objective of utilizing superior Populus and Salix clones for remediation applications. Although such information is lacking for environmental clean-up technologies, centuries of plant selection success in agronomy, horticulture, and forestry validate the need for similar approaches in phytoremediation. We bridge the gap between these disciplines by describing project development, clone selection, tree establishment, and evaluation of success metrics in the context of their importance to utilizing trees for phytoremediation. PMID:18246776

  16. Palaeogene fossil Populus leaves from Lanzhou Basin and their palaeoclimatic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bainian; YAN Defei; XIE Sanping; CONG Peiyun; XIN Cunlin; YUN Fei

    2004-01-01

    An angiosperm compression flora is found in Palaeogene from Lanzhou Basin and the cuticular analysis of Populus davidiana Dode in the flora is carefully made. Furthermore, the fossil cuticles are compared with the epidermal structures of extant Populus leaves growing in different environments, I.e. Moist, semimoist, and semiarid to arid climatic regions. The present experiments indicate that mature leaves of P. Davidiana show leaf size from big to small, leaf cuticles from thick to thin and anticlinal walls of epidermal cells from faintness to clarity along with the increase of latitudes of the plant distributions, the climatic variation from moist to arid, the annual precipitation from more to less and the annual mean temperature from high to low. The fossil P.davidiana differs from the specimens collected from Shandan in semiarid to arid climatic regions but closely resembles the Wushan leaves in a semi-moist climatic area in a lot of features. In a word, the new research may reflect that the flora lives in a semi-moist climatic environment. The present discovery of compression of Paleogene Populus davidiana is of great significance to studying vegetation types, climatic and environmental changes during the primal uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  17. Estimating Stem Volume Using QuickBird Imagery and Allometric Relationships for Open Populus xiaohei Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qing Wang; Zeng-Yuan Li; Xing-E Liu; Guang Deng; Ze-Hui Jiang

    2007-01-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in studying the crown of trees using remote sensing data. In this study, crown width was extracted from high-resolution QuickBird images for open Populus xiaohei plantations. Regression models for predicting the individual stem volumes of Populus xiaohei were established using extracted crown width, as well as estimated tree parameters (i.e. diameter at breast height [DBH] and tree height) as predictors. Our results indicated that crown width could be accurately extracted from QuickBird images using a multi-scale segmentation approach with a mean relative error of 5.74%, especially for wide-spacing stands. Using either extracted crown width alone or with estimated DBH and tree height can successfully estimate individual stem volume of Populus xiaohei with the R2 value ranging from 0.87 to 0.92 depending on different model forms. In particular, the two second-order polynomial models (model2 and model 6), based on QuickBird image-derived crown widths and estimated DBH and tree heights, respectively, were the best at describing the relationship between stem volume and tree characteristics.

  18. Plants remember past weather: a study for atmospheric pollen concentrations of Ambrosia, Poaceae and Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-10-01

    After extreme dry (wet) summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease (increase) substantially. Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance. The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa. Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used. The 11-year (1997-2007) data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia (ragweed), Poaceae (grasses) and Populus (poplar), as well as daily values of four climate variables (temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation). Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia, but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae. Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements. However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods. Higher climate sensitivity (especially water sensitivity) of the herbaceous taxa ( Ambrosia and Poaceae) can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus. Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production.

  19. Ontology-oriented retrieval of putative microRNAs in Vitis vinifera via GrapeMiRNA: a web database of de novo predicted grape microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two complete genome sequences are available for Vitis vinifera Pinot noir. Based on the sequence and gene predictions produced by the IASMA, we performed an in silico detection of putative microRNA genes and of their targets, and collected the most reliable microRNA predictions in a web database. The application is available at http://www.itb.cnr.it/ptp/grapemirna/. Description The program FindMiRNA was used to detect putative microRNA genes in the grape genome. A very high number of predictions was retrieved, calling for validation. Nine parameters were calculated and, based on the grape microRNAs dataset available at miRBase, thresholds were defined and applied to FindMiRNA predictions having targets in gene exons. In the resulting subset, predictions were ranked according to precursor positions and sequence similarity, and to target identity. To further validate FindMiRNA predictions, comparisons to the Arabidopsis genome, to the grape Genoscope genome, and to the grape EST collection were performed. Results were stored in a MySQL database and a web interface was prepared to query the database and retrieve predictions of interest. Conclusion The GrapeMiRNA database encompasses 5,778 microRNA predictions spanning the whole grape genome. Predictions are integrated with information that can be of use in selection procedures. Tools added in the web interface also allow to inspect predictions according to gene ontology classes and metabolic pathways of targets. The GrapeMiRNA database can be of help in selecting candidate microRNA genes to be validated.

  20. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens. PMID:25132131

  1. Differential Roles for VviGST1, VviGST3, and VviGST4 in Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Transport in Vitis vinífera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Madrid-Espinoza, José; Salinas-Cornejo, Josselyn; González-Villanueva, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, flavonoids are synthesized in the cytosol and then are transported and accumulated in the vacuole. Glutathione S-transferase-mediated transport has been proposed as a mechanism involved in flavonoid transport, however, whether binding of flavonoids to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or their transport is glutathione-dependent is not well understood. Glutathione S-transferases from Vitis vinífera (VviGSTs) have been associated with the transport of anthocyanins, however, their ability to transport other flavonoids such as proanthocyanidins (PAs) has not been established. Following bioinformatics approaches, we analyzed the capability of VviGST1, VviGST3, VviGST4, and Arabidopsis TT19 to bind different flavonoids. Analyses of protein-ligand interactions indicate that these GSTs can bind glutathione and monomers of anthocyanin, PAs and flavonols. A total or partial overlap of the binding sites for glutathione and flavonoids was found in VviGST1, and a similar condition was observed in VviGST3 using anthocyanin and flavonols as ligands, whereas VviGST4 and TT19 have both sites for GSH and flavonoids separated. To validate the bioinformatics predictions, functional complementation assays using the Arabidopsis tt19 mutant were performed. Overexpression of VviGST3 in tt19-1 specifically rescued the dark seed coat phenotype associated to correct PA transport, which correlated with higher binding affinity for PA precursors. VviGST4, originally characterized as an anthocyanin-related GST, complemented both the anthocyanin and PA deposition, resembling the function of TT19. By contrast, VviGST1 only partially rescued the normal seed color. Furthermore the expression pattern of these VviGSTs showed that each of these genes could be associated with the accumulation of different flavonoids in specific tissues during grapevine fruit development. These results provide new insights into GST-mediated PA transport in grapevine and suggest that VviGSTs present

  2. Comparative transcriptomics of drought responses in Populus: a meta-analysis of genome-wide expression profiling in mature leaves and root apices across two genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamby Jean-Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics has emerged as a promising means of unravelling the molecular networks underlying complex traits such as drought tolerance. Here we assess the genotype-dependent component of the drought-induced transcriptome response in two poplar genotypes differing in drought tolerance. Drought-induced responses were analysed in leaves and root apices and were compared with available transcriptome data from other Populus species. Results Using a multi-species designed microarray, a genomic DNA-based selection of probesets provided an unambiguous between-genotype comparison. Analyses of functional group enrichment enabled the extraction of processes physiologically relevant to drought response. The drought-driven changes in gene expression occurring in root apices were consistent across treatments and genotypes. For mature leaves, the transcriptome response varied weakly but in accordance with the duration of water deficit. A differential clustering algorithm revealed similar and divergent gene co-expression patterns among the two genotypes. Since moderate stress levels induced similar physiological responses in both genotypes, the genotype-dependent transcriptional responses could be considered as intrinsic divergences in genome functioning. Our meta-analysis detected several candidate genes and processes that are differentially regulated in root and leaf, potentially under developmental control, and preferentially involved in early and long-term responses to drought. Conclusions In poplar, the well-known drought-induced activation of sensing and signalling cascades was specific to the early response in leaves but was found to be general in root apices. Comparing our results to what is known in arabidopsis, we found that transcriptional remodelling included signalling and a response to energy deficit in roots in parallel with transcriptional indices of hampered assimilation in leaves, particularly in the drought

  3. Twenty-One Genome Sequences from Pseudomonas Species and 19 Genome Sequences from Diverse Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere and Endosphere of Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Martin, Stanton [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome we generated draft genome sequences for twenty one Pseudomonas and twenty one other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Burkholderia, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium and Variovorax were generated.

  4. Identification and Expression Profiles of Six Transcripts Encoding Carboxylesterase Protein in Vitis flexuosa Infected with Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Zaherul; Yun, Hae Keun

    2016-01-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogen attacks via several mechanisms, including hypersensitive cell death. Recognition of pathogen attack by the plant resistance gene triggers expression of carboxylesterase genes associated with hypersensitive response. We identified six transcripts of carboxylesterase genes, Vitis flexuosa carboxylesterase 5585 (VfCXE5585), VfCXE12827, VfCXE13132, VfCXE17159, VfCXE18231, and VfCXE47674, which showed different expression patterns upon transcriptome analysis of V. flexuosa inoculated with Elsinoe ampelina. The lengths of genes ranged from 1,098 to 1,629 bp, and their encoded proteins consisted of 309 to 335 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed hydrolase like domains in all six transcripts and contained two conserved motifs, GXSXG of serine hydrolase characteristics and HGGGF related to the carboxylesterase family. The deduced amino acid sequence also contained a potential catalytic triad consisted of serine, aspartic acid and histidine. Of the six transcripts, VfCXE12827 showed upregulated expression against E. ampelina at all time points. Three genes (VfCXE5585, VfCXE12827, and VfCXE13132) showed upregulation, while others (VfCXE17159, VfCXE18231, and VfCXE47674) were down regulated in grapevines infected with Botrytis cinerea. All transcripts showed upregulated expression against Rhizobium vitis at early and later time points except VfCXE12827, and were downregulated for up to 48 hours post inoculation (hpi) after upregulation at 1 hpi in response to R. vitis infection. All tested genes showed high and differential expression in response to pathogens, indicating that they all may play a role in defense pathways during pathogen infection in grapevines. PMID:27493610

  5. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence. PMID:23667822

  6. Sviluppo di approcci di gene silencing in vite (Vitis vinifera L.) per studi di genomica funzionale.

    OpenAIRE

    Urso, Simona

    2009-01-01

    Sviluppo di approcci di gene silencing in vite (Vitis vinifera L.) per studi di genomica funzionale. Nel corso del lavoro è stato messo a punto un sistema per la micropropagazione della vite in modo tale da disporre delle piantine durante tutto il corso dell’anno evitando pause di lavoro dovute al fisiologico riposo vegetativo annuale della vite. Utilizzando le banche dati del NSBI, TIGR e IASMA Genomics sono state trovate le sequenze in vite dei geni che regolano la risposta di difesa co...

  7. Volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. Fernão-Pires variety from Bairrada appellation : 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Paula Raquel da Silva Jorge Coutinho

    2007-01-01

    A Bairrada é uma das regiões vitivinícolas mais antigas de Portugal, apesar de a Região Demarcada da Bairrada só ter sido oficialmente criada em 1979. A casta Fernão-Pires (FP) Vitis vinifera L. é a principal casta branca cultivada nesta região, onde é conhecida pelo nome de Maria-Gomes. As castas Bical (Bic), Arinto (Ari) e Cerceal (Cer), são outras castas brancas relevantes igualmente cultivadas na Região Demarcada da Bairrada. Estas quatro castas representam, respectivame...

  8. Spatial distribution of root activity in Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial distribution of root activity was studied in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv., Thompson Seedless during vegetative and reproductive phases using the 32p soil injection technique. In 9-year old vines, a large proportion of the active roots amounting to 68 per cent was located deeper in the soil at 45 to 75 cm depth and as much as 80 per cent was concentrated within a radius of 120 cm. There was no change in the pattern of distribution of root activity during the two seasons although the intensity of activity during the vegetative phase was slightly more than that observed during the reproductive phase. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana on Knee Damage Associated with Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ching-Fent; Wang, Kun-Teng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. var. taiwaniana Lu (VT) is an indigenous plant in Taiwan that is traditionally used for promoting joint health. In this study, we used in vitro primary human chondrocytes (PHCs) and two in vivo animal models to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of VT on arthritis. Results showed that the water extract of the stems and roots from VT (VT-SR) was rich in flavones and phenols with 1.1 mg/g of resveratrol, 6.7 mg/g of hopeaphenol, and 5.1 mg/g of (+)-ɛ-viniferi...

  10. Effect of Vitis Vinifera Leaf Extract on Ileum Mechanical Activity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Etemad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitis vinifera (grape is from Vitaceae family and many researches have performed on its seed but not on leaf. It has been reported that Vitis vinifera leaf extract induces relaxation in rat uterus, aorta, trachea and vas deferens precontracted by KCl. According to these reports, the inhibitory effects have been evoked through the voltage dependent calcium channels blockade. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of Vitis vinifera leaf hydroalcoholic extract (VHLE on rat ileum contractions induced by KCl, acetylcholine (ACh and barium chloride. Methods: Vitis vinifera leaf powder was extracted using manerated method by 70% alcohol for 72 h at ambient temperature and then solvent was evaporated. From Sprague Dawley rats (male and female pieces of ileum (2cm were isolated and placed in an organ bath (10ml containing Tyrode’s solution gassed with oxygen. An isotonic transducer recorded contractions under 0.5g initial tension. The mean±SEM of changes in length (mm or the percentages of length changes were calculated. Results: The results indicate that VHLE (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4mg/ml reduces the ileum contractions induced by KCl (60mM dose dependently (P<0.001. This inhibitory effect was unaffected by propranolol (1μM. VHLE (1mg/ml also inhibited the ileum contractions induced by ACh (0.05 and 0.5μg/ml P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively. Ileum contraction induced by BaCl2 (4mM was unaffected by VHLE (2mg/ml. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that VHLE inhibits ileum contractions via blocking the voltage dependent calcium channels. Ineffectiveness of propranolol on inhibitory effect of extract indicates that the adrenoceptors are not involved in this inhibitory effect. VHLE failed to relax ileum precontracted by BaCl2 probably because, BaCl2 increases intracellular calcium concentration via releasing calcium ions from intracellular pools that was not affected by VHLE.

  11. Taninos condensados en Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. "tala salado" (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vonka, Carlos A.; Chifa, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Debido a la astringencia que manifiesta Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. (Celastraceae), se abordó el estudio de los taninos condensados presentes en los extractos acuosos obtenidos de hojas frescas y secas, determinándose la presencia de delfinidina, principalmente bajo la forma de compuestos de alto peso molecular (polímeros). Por su estructura química, los taninos condensados presentes en las hojas podrían actuar, además, como atrapadores de radicales libres y agentes antivirales.

  12. Biosynthesis of phenolic glycosides from phenylpropanoid and benzenoid precursors in populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2010-03-01

    Salicylate-containing phenolic glycosides (PGs) are abundant and often play a dominant role in plant-herbivore interactions of Populus and Salix species (family Salicaceae), but the biosynthetic pathway to PGs remains unclear. Cinnamic acid (CA) is thought to be a precursor of the salicyl moiety of PGs. However, the origin of the 6-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-on-oyl (HCH) moiety found in certain PGs, such as salicortin, is not known. HCH is of interest because it confers toxicity and antifeedant properties against herbivores. We incubated Populus nigra leaf tissue with stable isotope-labeled CA, benzoates, and salicylates, and measured isotopic incorporation levels into both salicin, the simplest PG, and salicortin. Labeling of salicortin from [13C6]-CA provided the first evidence that HCH, like the salicyl moiety, is a phenylpropanoid derivative. Benzoic acid and benzaldehyde also labeled both salicyl and HCH, while benzyl alcohol labeled only the salicyl moiety in salicortin. Co-administration of unlabeled benzoates with [13C6]-CA confirmed their contribution to the biosynthesis of the salicyl but not the HCH moiety of salicortin. These data suggest that benzoate interconversions may modulate partitioning of phenylpropanoids to salicyl and HCH moieties, and hence toxicity of PGs. Surprisingly, labeled salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde were readily converted to salicin, but did not result in labeled salicortin. Co-administration of unlabeled salicylates with labeled CA suggested that salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde may have inhibited salicortin biosynthesis. A revised metabolic grid model of PG biosynthesis in Populus is proposed, providing a guide for functional genomic analysis of the PG biosynthetic pathway. PMID:20177744

  13. Stress Responsive Zinc-finger Protein Gene of Populus euphratica in Tobacco Enhances Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Populus euphratica stress responsive zinc-finger protein gene PSTZ, which encodes a protein including typical Cys2/His2 zinc finger structure, was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from P. euphratica.Northern hybridization revealed that its expression was induced under drought and salt stress conditions. To examine its function, cDNA of the PSTZ gene, driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector pBin438 and introduced into tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco showed an enhanced salt tolerance, suggesting that PSTZ may play a role in plant responsiveness to salt stress.

  14. Diversity of insect communities with different development phases in natural Populus euphratica forests in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Hai-li; LUO You-qing; TIAN Chengming; SUN Jian-hua; FENG Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    An investigation method with sample plots was used to study insect communities in four different growth phases of natural Populus euphratica forests, which are juvenile, middle aged, over-mature and degraded forests, in Tarim, Xinjiang in July, 2005 and April, 2006. In our studies, 5,116 insect specimens, belonging to 12 orders, 61 families and 141 species, were collected. Lepidoptera and Coleoptera were the dominant orders. In middle-aged forests, species, individual numbers and diversity indices of insect communities were higher than those in other woodlands. The species richness and diversity indices were lowest in degraded forests because of extremely scarce vegetation.

  15. Reproductive Characteristics of a Populus euphratica Population and Prospects for Its Restoration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dechang; Li, Jingwen; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Hao, Peng; Zhou, Weilei; Li, Junqing

    2012-01-01

    Populus euphratica is a dominant tree in riparian ecosystems in arid areas of northwest China, but it fails to regenerate in these systems. This study evaluates causes for the failure of sexual and asexual regeneration of this species in the wild. P. euphratica disperses as many as 85743 seeds/m2 during summer, and the seeds germinate to 92.0% in distilled water and to 60.8% on silt. However, very few seeds (3.6%) can germinate on unflooded soil. The seed-rain season is prolonged by temporal ...

  16. Modification of water vapor diffusion in poplar wood (Populus nigra L.) by steaming at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    SAYAR, Maedeh; TARMIAN, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of steaming on the water vapor diffusion coefficient of poplar wood (Populus nigra L.) was studied. Boards with dimensions of 50 × 50 × 150 (W × H × L) mm3 and average moisture content of 12% were steamed at temperatures of 120, 140, 160, and 180 °C for 1, 2, and 3 h. The diffusion coefficients were then measured based on Fick's law of diffusion in steady-state conditions using the cup method. Results showed that the steaming of poplar wood at all mentio...

  17. Generalized allometric regression to estimate biomass of Populus in short-rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Brahim, Mohammed; Gavaland, Andre; Cabanettes, Alain [INRA Centre de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosane Cedex (France). Unite Agroforesterie et Foret Paysanne

    2000-07-01

    Data from four different stands were combined to establish a single generalized allometric equation to estimate above-ground biomass of individual Populus trees grown on short-rotation coppice. The generalized model was performed using diameter at breast height, the mean diameter and the mean height of each site as dependent variables and then compared with the stand-specific regressions using F-test. Results showed that this single regression estimates tree biomass well at each stand and does not introduce bias with increasing diameter.

  18. Populus spp.: supervivencia y crecimiento en clones implantados en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marlats, Raúl M.; Senisterra, Gabriela; Marquina, Jorge; Ciocchini, Gabriel R.

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la supervivencia, evolución de las alturas y áreas basales de rebrotes de clones de Populus spp. de diferentes procedencias implantados en Argiudoles típicos del borde Sur de la Pampa Ondulada, Buenos Aires, Argentina (34°55' S; 57°57' W; 15 m snm). Los clones evaluados fueron ‘Delta Gold’, ‘Stoneville 71’, ‘Catfish 2’, ‘Harvard’, ‘Onda’ e ‘I-74/51’. Se compararon, para el conjunto de clones, los comportamientos para el primero y segundo corte. Se re...

  19. Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Burke T; Still, Christopher; Howe, Glenn T; Tague, Christina; Roberts, Dar A

    2016-05-01

    Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic data with species distribution modeling for predicting aspens' distribution. PMID:27217950

  20. Integrating biotechnological advancements with induced mutagenesis: New opportunities for horticulture with special reference to Vitis vinifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation assisted breeding (MAB) is a highly effective way of enhancing natural genetic resources. Increasing mutation rates is important when natural variation is insufficient, when a single trait in a desirable variety needs improvement or when the species is apomictic or seedless. Development of cell and tissue culture-based regeneration techniques in many horticultural crops and increased knowledge of biochemical pathways provide ample opportunities to exploit MAB at an advanced level. Traditionally buds, bulbs, corms, cuttings or whole plants are treated in vegetatively propagated crops, but this results in chimeras. We have initiated a collaborative project to use embryogenic cell lines of Sicilian and international cultivars of Vitis vinifera to produce mutant populations for use in genetic studies as well as for selecting disease-resistant mutants in vitro. We have established embryogenic cell lines of Sicilian and New Zealand cultivars and established the LD 20 for ethylmethane sulphonate for several cultivars. The cell lines will be subjected to treatment with mutagenic agents, and mutants with tolerance to Botrytis toxins will be selected in vitro and regenerated. With the genome sequencing of Vitis vinifera being completed and the resistance to genetically modified crops in both Europe and New Zealand very high, our mutant collection will provide a valuable resource for genetic studies of this species. (author)

  1. Comparison of the clinical effects of white brand toothbrushes versus Vitis Suave®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra-Vidal, Marta; Lucas-Alcahuz, Eduardo; López-Roldán, Andrés; Gil-Loscos, Francisco; Alpiste-Illueca, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of white label manual toothbrushes and a greater increase in inquiries for discomfort of the gingiva and mucosa. Material and Methods A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial was made of four white brand toothbrushes versus a control brush (Vitis Suave®), with the recording of plaque index, bleeding upon probing, and gingival abrasions following utilization of the different brushes. Results All the brushes except Deliplus® were equally effective in terms of plaque removal (p<0.05). Vitis Suave® and Veckia® were the brushes associated to the greatest increase in minor abrasions (p<0.01), while Veckia®, Carrefour® and Deluxe® significantly increased the number of medium intensity abrasions (p<0.05). These brushes also increased the number of large abrasions, though statistical significance was not reached in this case. Conclusions The white brand brushes proved effective in controlling bacterial plaque, but were associated to more intense soft tissue abrasion. Key words:Gingival abrasions, manual tooth brushing, white brand, clinical effects. PMID:26535095

  2. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity. PMID:23425100

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the Vitis vinifera fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vitis vinifera dual-activity fucose and nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme l-fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) has been purified to homogeneity and the 118.8 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized by vapor diffusion in Zeppezauer tubes at 277 K. The Vitis vinifera dual-activity fucose and nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme l-fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) has been purified to homogeneity and the 118.8 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized by vapor diffusion in Zeppezauer tubes at 277 K. Crystals of the apoenzyme diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212. There is a single FKP monomer in the asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 3.22 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 61.8%. A complete native data set has been collected as a first step in determining the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme

  4. Determination of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca cv. baile berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Grape juice and grape skin extracts are important commercial source of polyphenolic compounds which exert different functional properties such as color potential, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, and health benefits. In this paper we describe a sensitive and specific assay for determination of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile). Five polyphenolic components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 Column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 μm) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.2%, v/v); and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25 degrees C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 280, 360, and 520 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.90%, and the average recoveries were 95.5-105% for analytes. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH radical assay, ranged from 86-105 for extracts, and 165-252 for studied standards (μM trolox/100 g dry wt.). The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for quality control in functional food and modernization of Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile) as potent antioxidant agents. PMID:26665298

  5. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  6. Wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) color associates with allelic variation in the domestication gene VvmybA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the process of crop domestication and early selection, numerous changes occur in the genetic and physiological make-up of crop plants. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera) numerous changes have occurred as a result of human selection, including the emergence of hermaphroditism and greatly increased...

  7. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (vitis amurensis Rupr.) by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Chen; Han Jian; Liu Chonghuai; Kibet Korir; Kayesh Emrul; Shangguan Lingfei; Li Xiaoying; Fang Jinggui

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs) from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. a...

  8. Reproductive characteristics of a Populus euphratica population and prospects for its restoration in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechang Cao

    Full Text Available Populus euphratica is a dominant tree in riparian ecosystems in arid areas of northwest China, but it fails to regenerate in these systems. This study evaluates causes for the failure of sexual and asexual regeneration of this species in the wild. P. euphratica disperses as many as 85743 seeds/m(2 during summer, and the seeds germinate to 92.0% in distilled water and to 60.8% on silt. However, very few seeds (3.6% can germinate on unflooded soil. The seed-rain season is prolonged by temporal variability in seed dispersal among individuals, which ensures that seedling emergence can occur during favorable conditions (i.e., floods and rainfall. As a result of water shortage and river channeling due to water usage and altered river flows, there are no safe sites on river banks for seed germination, which has led to the failure of P. euphratica to regenerate from seed. Root suckers of P. euphratica were present in 86% of the forest gaps investigated. However, extensive grazing has destroyed many of them and thus has reduced this form of regeneration. This research suggests that human activities are resulting in the failure of P. euphratica to regenerate. Changes in land management such as reduced use of concrete canals in Populus forests and/or reduced sheep grazing in these areas may promote their regeneration.

  9. How to Regenerate and Protect Desert Riparian Populus euphratica Forest in Arid Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hongbo; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Hailiang; Zhao, Xinfeng

    2015-10-01

    We found that the most suitable flooding disturbance model for regenerating Populus euphratica forest was two to three times per year with a duration of 15-20 days and an intensity of 25-30 m3/s. The flooding should take place during the seed emergence to young tree growth stages, and should be based on flooding experiments and data from vegetation quadrats and ecological water conveyance. Furthermore, we found that tree-ring width index for P. euphratica declined as the groundwater depth increased, and ascertained that the minimum groundwater depths for young trees, near-mature trees, mature trees and over-mature trees were 4.0 m, 5.0-5.4 m, 6.9 m and 7.8 m, respectively. These were derived from a quantitative relationship model between groundwater depth and tree-ring width index. The range for ecological water conveyance volume was 311-320 million m3 in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. This study not only provides a technical basis for sustainable ecological water conveyance in the Tarim River Basin, but also offers a theoretical guide and scientific information that could be used in similar areas to regenerate and protect Populus euphratica around the world.

  10. The transcriptome of Populus in elevated CO2 reveals increased anthocyanin biosynthesis during delayed autumnal senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, M.J.; Rogers, A.; Lin, Y.; Zhang, J.; Street, N. R.; Miglietta, F.; Karnosky, D. F.; Angelis, P. D.; Calfapietra, C.; Taylor, G.

    2010-03-01

    The delay in autumnal senescence that has occurred in recent decades has been linked to rising temperatures. Here, we suggest that increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} may partly account for delayed autumnal senescence and for the first time, through transcriptome analysis, identify gene expression changes associated with this delay. Using a plantation of Populus x euramericana grown in elevated [CO{sub 2}] (e[CO{sub 2}]) with free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technology, we investigated the molecular and biochemical basis of this response. A Populus cDNA microarray was used to identify genes representing multiple biochemical pathways influenced by e[CO{sub 2}] during senescence. Gene expression changes were confirmed through real-time quantitative PCR, and leaf biochemical assays. Pathways for secondary metabolism and glycolysis were significantly up-regulated by e[CO{sub 2}] during senescence, in particular, those related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing the two most significantly up-regulated transcripts in e[CO{sub 2}], LDOX (leucoanthocyanidin dioxgenase) and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), gave (e[CO{sub 2}]/ambient CO{sub 2} (a[CO{sub 2}])) expression ratios of 39.6 and 19.3, respectively. We showed that in e[CO{sub 2}] there was increased autumnal leaf sugar accumulation and up-regulation of genes determining anthocyanin biosynthesis which, we propose, prolongs leaf longevity during natural autumnal senescence.

  11. Degradation of Populus euphratica community in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-zhen; CHEN Ya-ning; CHEN Yong-jin; ZHANG Na; LI Wei-hong

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between the degradation of plant community and groundwater level in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, nine monitored sections were set along the main stream, where there had been no runoff for nearly 30 years. The characteristics of plant communities were analyzed. It was found that the coverage of trees gradually decreased along the groundwater depth gradient, while the coverage of shrubs slightly increased rather than decreased at first and then gradually decreased, and the coverage of herbs steadily decreased at the beginning and then quickly decreased. The species diversity and species richness of both herbs and woody plants showed obvious degrading trends, while the variations in species evenness were slight. The degrading sequences of species were related to their physiological and ecological characteristics, especially their sensitivity to changes of groundwater table. The herbs with shallow roots first degenerated or disappeared when the groundwater table fell, and then did the deep-rooted herbs, and finally the trees and shrubs with strong tolerance to drought degenerated. The Populus euphratica communities showed typical degrading characteristics, namely the dominant species Populus euphratica remained its dominant status during the degradation. Overall, the existence of strongly tolerant-drought species was the obvious indication of plant species degradation; while simplification of community structure and the decrease of species richness were the obvious indication of plant community degradation.

  12. Response of photosynthesis and cellular antioxidants to ozone in Populus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric ozone causes formation of various highly reactive intermediates (e.g. peroxyl and superoxide radicals, H2O2, etc.) in plant tissues. A plant's productivity in environments with ozone may be related to its ability to scavenge the free radicals formed. The effects of ozone on photosynthesis and some free radical scavengers were measured in the fifth emergent leaf of poplars. Clonal poplars (Populus deltoides x Populus cv caudina) were fumigated with 180 parts per billion ozone for 3 hours. Photosynthesis was measured before, during, and after fumigation. During the first 90 minutes of ozone exposure, photosynthetic rates were unaffected but gluthathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity increased. After 90 minutes of ozone exposure photosynthetic rates began to decline while glutathione and superoxide dismutase continued to increase. Total glutathione (reduced plus oxidized) increased in fumigated leaves throughout the exposure period. The ratio of GSH/GSSG also decreased from 12.8 to 1.2 in ozone exposed trees. Superoxide dismutase levels increased twofold in fumigated plants. After 4 hours of ozone exposure, the photosynthetic rate was approximately half that of controls while flutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity remained above that of the controls. The elevated antioxidant levels were maintained 21 hours after ozone exposure while photosynthetic rates recovered to about 75% of that of controls. Electron transport and NADPH levels remained unaffected by the treatment. Hence, elevated antioxidant metabolism may protect the photosynthetic apparatus during exposure to ozone

  13. Gene Structures, Classification, and Expression Models of the DREB Transcription Factor Subfamily in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified 75 dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB protein genes in Populus trichocarpa. We analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplications, genome localizations, and expression profiles. The phylogenic construction suggests that the PtrDREB gene subfamily can be classified broadly into six subtypes (DREB A-1 to A-6 in Populus. The chromosomal localizations of the PtrDREB genes indicated 18 segmental duplication events involving 36 genes and six redundant PtrDREB genes were involved in tandem duplication events. There were fewer introns in the PtrDREB subfamily. The motif composition of PtrDREB was highly conserved in the same subtype. We investigated expression profiles of this gene subfamily from different tissues and/or developmental stages. Sixteen genes present in the digital expression analysis had high levels of transcript accumulation. The microarray results suggest that 18 genes were upregulated. We further examined the stress responsiveness of 15 genes by qRT-PCR. A digital northern analysis showed that the PtrDREB17, 18, and 32 genes were highly induced in leaves under cold stress, and the same expression trends were shown by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analyses to unravel the biological roles of Populus’ DREB genes.

  14. Ultrastructural and Extracellular Protein Changes in Cell Suspension Cultures of Populus euphratica Associated with Low Temperature-induced Cold Acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Huanqin; Lu Cunfu; Zhang Hui; Zhang Xujia

    2003-01-01

    Populus euphratica Olive is the only tree species that can grow in the saline land and also survive cold winters in northwest China, and it plays a very important role in stabilizing the vulnerable ecosystem there. A cell suspension culture was initiated from callus derived from plantlets of Populus euphratica. Cold acclimation was induced (LT50 of-17.5 ℃) in cell suspension at 4-5 ℃ in the dark for 30 days and the freezing tolerance increased from LT50 of-12.5 ℃ in nonacclimated cells to LT50 of-17.5 ℃ in cold-acclimated cells. Microvacuolation, cytoplasmic augmentation and accumulation of starch granules were observed in cells that were cold-acclimated by exposure to low temperatures. Several qualitative and quantitative changes in proteins were noted during cold acclimation. Antibodies to carrot extracellular (apoplastic) 36 kD antifreeze protein did not cross react on immunoelectroblots with extracellular proteins in cell suspension culture medium of Populus euphratica, indicating no common epitopes in the carrot 36 kD antifreeze protein and P euphratica extracellular proteins. The relationship of these changes to cold acclimation in Populus euphratica cell cultures was discussed.

  15. Phylogeny of Populus (Salicaceae) based on nucleotide sequences of chloroplast TRNT-TRNF region and nuclear rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Mona; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2004-09-01

    The species of the genus Populus, collectively known as poplars, are widely distributed over the northern hemisphere and well known for their ecological, economical, and evolutionary importance. The extensive interspecific hybridization and high morphological diversity in this group pose difficulties in identifying taxonomic units for comparative evolutionary studies and systematics. To understand the evolutionary relationships among poplars and to provide a framework for biosystematic classification, we reconstructed a phylogeny of the genus Populus based on nucleotide sequences of three noncoding regions of the chloroplast DNA (intron of trnL and intergenic regions of trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF) and ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear rDNA. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed polyphyletic relationships among species in the sections Tacamahaca and Aigeiros. Based on chloroplast DNA sequence data, P. nigra had a close affinity to species of section Populus, whereas nuclear DNA sequence data suggested a close relationship between P. nigra and species of the section Aigeiros, suggesting a possible hybrid origin for P. nigra. Similarly, the chloroplast DNA sequences of P. tristis and P. szechuanica were similar to that of the species of section Aigeiros, while the nuclear sequences revealed a close affinity to species of the section Tacamahaca, suggesting a hybrid origin for these two Asiatic balsam poplars. The incongruence between phylogenetic trees based on nuclear- and chloroplast-DNA sequence data suggests a reticulate evolution in the genus Populus. PMID:21652373

  16. Comparative physiology of allopatric Populus species: geographic clines in photosynthesis, height growth, and carbon isotope discrimination in common gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Street, Nathaniel R; Robinson, Kathryn M; Silim, Salim N; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Jansson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Populus species with wide geographic ranges display strong adaptation to local environments. We studied the clinal patterns in phenology and ecophysiology in allopatric Populus species adapted to similar environments on different continents under common garden settings. As a result of climatic adaptation, both Populus tremula L. and Populus balsamifera L. display latitudinal clines in photosynthetic rates (A), whereby high-latitude trees of P. tremula had higher A compared to low-latitude trees and nearly so in P. balsamifera (p = 0.06). Stomatal conductance (g s) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) follow similar latitudinal trends. However, foliar nitrogen was positively correlated with latitude in P. balsamifera and negatively correlated in P. tremula. No significant trends in carbon isotope composition of the leaf tissue (δ(13)C) were observed for both species; but, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) was negatively correlated with the latitude of origin in P. balsamifera. In spite of intrinsically higher A, high-latitude trees in both common gardens accomplished less height gain as a result of early bud set. Thus, shoot biomass was determined by height elongation duration (HED), which was well approximated by the number of days available for free growth between bud flush and bud set. We highlight the shortcoming of unreplicated outdoor common gardens for tree improvement and the crucial role of photoperiod in limiting height growth, further complicating interpretation of other secondary effects. PMID:26236324

  17. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  18. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D'Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  19. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Baldan

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%, release ammonium (39%, secrete siderophores (38% and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%. Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay,; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide impor...

  1. Selenium Speciation in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoou

    2011-01-01

    Selenium has been proved as an essential micronutrient and is beneficial to animals and humans. It is a structural component of the important antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which catalyzes reactions to detoxify reactive oxygen species. However, the essentiality of Se in plants remains controversial and the protective role of Se in plants has rarely been investigated. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was grown in controlled environments having selenate or selenite enriched medi...

  2. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  3. Elicitation Phenolic Compounds in Cell Culture of Vitis vinifera L. by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. St. Laurent were treated with two elicitors - synthetic methyl jasmonate and natural, prepared from grapevine plant infected with the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the agent causing the Esca disease of grapevine. Efficiency of phenolic compounds production after elicitation of cell culture was analysed immediately after treatment (15 min, 30 min, 60 min and later (after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The cell growth and content of phenolic compounds (+-catechin, (--epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde, rutin, vanillic acid, and trans-resveratrol were analysed in cultivated cells as well as in cultivation medium. Pch-treatment increased production of total polyphenols the most significantly 15 min after the elicitation and in optimal time was 2.86 times higher than in nonelicited culture and 1.44 times higher than in MeJa induced cell culture.

  4. A simple and efficient protocol for high quality of DNA from Vitis quandrangularis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi M. Nakum, Viralkumar B. Mandaliya, Rohan V. Pandya, Vrinda S. Taker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitis quadrangularis L., popularly known as Hadsankal in Saurashtra region, exhibits quadrangular and flat stems structure. Thepresent study was aimed to establish efficient protocol for DNA extraction and to evaluate taxonomic status of morphologicalvariants using molecular characterization method RAPD. Three protocols were tested and the final protocol was modified andoptimized for high quality DNA. Third protocol was CTAB and SDS based method, developed by adding higher concentration ofCTAB and NaCl with an aim to remove polysaccharides, and extra PVP as a phenols and polyphenols remover. It resulted intohigh quality DNA with average purity of 1.8 and yield 200g per gm stem tissue that appropriate for molecular characterization.For molecular marker analysis total 20 decamer primers of OPA series were tested and among them four primers successfullyrevealed 42.10 % polymorphism. Thus, the results adequately discriminate the morphological variants.

  5. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  6. Ampelographic Characterization and Sanitary Status of Grapevine Cultivar ‘Prč bijeli’ (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Zdunić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Prč bijeli’ is an old Croatian autochthonous grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera L., which has not been ampelographically characterized in detail until now. Ampelographic description was performed following 52 morphological, 22 phyllometric and seven bunches dimension characteristics. ‘Prč bijeli’ showed acceptable yield and a must composition suitable for oenological purposes, with low acidity value and medium sugar content. The following synonyms were established: ‘Ćimavica’, ‘Parč’ and ‘Muškat’. The results of sanitary analysis (ELISA test on four viruses on twenty-seven vines revealed that 92.6 % samples were GLRaV-3 positive, while ArMV was not detected. Only one vine was free of the tested viruses.

  7. Gain-of-function analysis of poplar CLE genes in Arabidopsis by exogenous application and over-expression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisen; Yang, Shaohui; Song, Yingjin; Men, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiehua

    2016-04-01

    Among 50CLEgene family members in thePopulus trichocarpagenome, three and sixPtCLEgenes encode a CLE motif sequence highly homologous toArabidopsisCLV3 and TDIF peptides, respectively, which potentially make them functional equivalents. To test and compare their biological activity, we first chemically synthesized each dodecapeptide and analysed itsin vitrobioactivity on Arabidopsis seedlings. Similarly, but to a different extent, three types of poplar CLV3-related peptides caused root meristem consumption, phyllotaxis disorder, anthocyanin accumulation and failure to enter the bolting stage. In comparison, application of two poplar TDIF-related peptides led to root length promotion in a dose-dependent manner with an even stronger effect observed for poplar TDIF-like peptide than TDIF. Next, we constructedCaMV35S:PtCLEtransgenic plants for each of the ninePtCLEgenes. Phenotypic abnormalities exemplified by arrested shoot apical meristem and abnormal flower structure were found to be more dominant and severe in35S:PtCLV3and35S:PtCLV3-like2lines than in the35S:PtCLV3-like1line. Disordered vasculature was detected in both stem and hypocotyl cross-sections in Arabidopsis plants over-expressing poplarTDIF-relatedgenes with the most defective vascular patterning observed forTDIF2and twoTDIF-likegenes. Phenotypic difference consistently observed in peptide application assay and transgenic analysis indicated the functional diversity of nine poplarPtCLEgenes under investigation. This work represents the first report on the functional analysis ofCLEgenes in a tree species and constitutes a basis for further study of the CLE peptide signalling pathway in tree development. PMID:26912800

  8. In Vitro Propagarion and Cryopreservation of Important Grape Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L. and Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. is among the most important species that is cultivated almost all around the world. There are over one thousand varieties that are grown for raisin, fresh consumption and wine making purposes. The grape germplasm resources are generally maintained as whole plants under field conditions. The traditional way of germplasm preservation is very risky due to natural uncertainties. In vitro technologies can help producing healthy propagation materials free from viroids, viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, and nematodes. When combined with cryopreservation technologies in vitro preservation systems can allow safe protection and propagation of valuable Vitis genetic resources. In this study, 12 commercial cultivar and two rootstock materials were tested for the applicability of long term preservation by in vitro clonal propagation and cryopreservation techniques. Axillary shoot tips collected from newly emerging shoots were placed in Magenda boxes containing 30 g/l sucrose on MS medium and cultured in a growth chamber adjusted to 16 h ligth/25o C and 8 h dark/17o C. All grape genotypes tested responded well to this application and produced healthy root and shoots. Shoot explants from these in vitro stocks were subcultured in every three months for one year. Apical dome explants excised from in vitro grape plants were stored in liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation. Genotypes varied in their responses to cryopservation treatment. Five genotypes showed shoot or callus formation. Regenerated shoots continued to grow and produced normal shoots and roots, but no plants could be developed from calli. Flow cytometry analysis of regenerants from continuous subculture and cryopreservation did not show any chromosome number abnormalities. In vitro micropropagation is an excellent choice for a long-term conservation of grape germplasm, which allows access to actively growing plant materials without seasonal restriction. Such cultures are

  9. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106750 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106750 002-115-C09 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104851 001-043-A10 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100909 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100909 J023132G24 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058950 001-020-A07 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059821 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059821 006-205-D11 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064944 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064944 J013000P14 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068400 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068400 J013151M04 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066013 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066013 J013047I12 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100241 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100241 J023054P13 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318553 J075145A22 At3g45810.1 68416.m04958 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component famil ... y protein similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  20. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) genetic…

  1. Genotypic variation in a foundation tree (Populus tremula L.) explains community structure of associated epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Chantel; Ellis, Christopher J; Iason, Glenn R; Ennos, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Community genetics hypothesizes that within a foundation species, the genotype of an individual significantly influences the assemblage of dependent organisms. To assess whether these intra-specific genetic effects are ecologically important, it is required to compare their impact on dependent organisms with that attributable to environmental variation experienced over relevant spatial scales. We assessed bark epiphytes on 27 aspen (Populus tremula L.) genotypes grown in a randomized experimental array at two contrasting sites spanning the environmental conditions from which the aspen genotypes were collected. We found that variation in aspen genotype significantly influenced bark epiphyte community composition, and to the same degree as environmental variation between the test sites. We conclude that maintaining genotypic diversity of foundation species may be crucial for conservation of associated biodiversity. PMID:24789141

  2. Population genomics of Populus trichocarpa identifies signatures of selection and adaptive trait associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Luke M [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Rodgers-Melnick, Eli [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Martin, Joel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Brunner, Amy M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Schackwitz, Wendy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Difazio, Stephen P. [West Virginia University, Morgantown

    2014-01-01

    Forest trees are dominant components of terrestrial ecosystems that have global ecological and economic importance. Despite distributions that span wide environmental gradients, many tree populations are locally adapted, and mechanisms underlying this adaptation are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of whole-genome selection scans and association analyses of 544 Populus trichocarpa trees to reveal genomic bases of adaptive variation across a wide latitudinal range. Three hundred ninety-seven genomic regions showed evidence of recent positive and/or divergent selection and enrichment for associations with adaptive traits that also displayed patterns consistent with natural selection. These regions also provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary dynamics of duplicated genes and their roles in adaptive trait variation.

  3. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers based on expressed sequence tags in Populus cathayana (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z Z; Zhang, F Q; Cai, Z Y; Chen, S L

    2016-01-01

    Populus cathayana occupies a large area within the northern, central, and southwestern regions of China, and is considered to be an important reforestation species in western China. In order to investigate the population genetic structure of this species, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified based on expressed sequence tags from de novo sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. All microsatellite primers were tested on 48 P. cathayana individuals from four locations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 1.000, and the null-allele frequency ranged from 0.000 to 0.904. These microsatellite markers may be a useful tool in genetic studies on P. cathayana and closely related species. PMID:27525845

  4. Cloning of plasma membrane H+-ATPase gene in Populus euphratica Oliv.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning De-juan; Hou Pei-chen; Hu Zan-min; Shen Xin; Chen Shao-liang

    2006-01-01

    For this paper, the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase gene has been cloned from Populus euphratica Oliv. through a homology based strategy. The isolated 3,210 bp cDNA contains a single 2,862 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative H+-ATPase protein of 953 amino acid residues, with a significant homology to plasma membrane H+-ATPase of Prunus persica,Phaseolus vulgaris, Sesbania rostrata and Daucus carota. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 104,553 Da. The copy number analysis revealed multiple copies of the PM H+-ATPase in the P. euphratica genome after digestion of their genomic DNA by the restriction enzymes EcoRⅠ, NdeⅠ, FbaⅠ and BglⅡ, and Southern blot.

  5. Seed yield and quality in Populus tremuloides following pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pollen mixture from three male quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) trees was irradiated at exposures of 484, 968, 1453, 1937, 3874, 7747, and 15 494 R and used to control-pollinate cut branches from three female trees. The pollen LD50 exposure varied with the end point evaluated, ranging from 255 R for number of 50-mesh seed per catkin to 8800 R for total seeds per catkin. The mean LD50 for nine seed yield and seed quality end points was 3995 R. A significant stimulatory response in seed yield was noted at low pollen irradiation levels, particularly at the 484-R exposure. The LD100 was approached but not reached at 15 494 R. Irradiated quaking aspen pollen may be useful in breeding experiments. (author)

  6. Conversion of water consumption of a single tree and a forest stand of Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-you; MENG Tong-tong; KANG Er-si

    2008-01-01

    Our study dear with the determination of sapwood sap flow of a single Populus euphratica tree by heat pulse technique and the calculation of water consumption of an entire forest stand, given the correlation between sap flow and sapwood area of P. euphratica. The relation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and sapwood area constitutes a powerful model; these variables are highly correlated. By means of an analysis of DBH in the sample plot, the distribution of the sapwood area of the forest land was obtained and the water consumption of this P. euphratica forest, in the lower reaches of the Heihe River, calculated as 214.9 mm by standard specific conductivity of the sample tree.

  7. Dynamics of the volatile defense of winter "dormant" balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas P; Chen, Janice; Bryant, John P; Provenza, Frederick D; Villalba, Juan

    2010-05-01

    6-Hydroxycylohex-2-en-1-one (6-HCH) has been reported as a major chemical defense of the winter-dormant internodes of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) against feeding by herbivores such as the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). We report that the concentration of 6-HCH in the fall internodes is triggered by a single hard frost, and then undergoes an exponential decline through volatilization over the winter that results in barely detectable quantities by early spring. We conclude that the role of 6-HCH in the defense of mature balsam poplar is more complex than simply acting as a toxin. Rather, 6-HCH's role as a defensive agent must evolve over the course of the winter from being a co-toxin to a cue for a conditioned flavor aversion (CFA) to finally having no role by late spring. PMID:20411311

  8. Restriction map and polymorphisms of nuclear ribosomal genes of Populus balsamifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoehr, M U; Singh, R S

    1993-06-01

    Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) clones from five populations, which were collected along a transect from northern Wisconsin to the northern tree line, were evaluated for polymorphisms in nuclear ribosomal DNA. For this purpose, a restriction map was constructed using four six-cutter enzymes in single and double digests of genomic DNA. After electrophoretic separation on agarose gels and Southern transfer, blots were hybridized to non-radioactively labeled heterologous rDNA probes of soybean. Among populations, variation was detected in the length of the intergenic spacer between the tandem repeats of the coding regions and in the degree of methylation of one restriction enzyme recognition site. Based on a comparison of the derived restriction map of balsam poplar and other poplars, high homology was evident in the rDNA coding regions among species, whereas the intergenic spacer varied slightly in both length and number of restriction sites. PMID:14969912

  9. The essential oil of Populus balsamifera buds: its chemical composition and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piochon-Gauthier, Marianne; Legault, Jean; Sylvestre, Muriel; Pichette, André

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of Populus balsamifera essential oils obtained from spring buds, fall buds, and young leaves were determined by GC and GC-MS analyses. The major constituent, (+)-alpha-bisabolol, a rare sesquiterpene, was isolated from spring oil using reverse-phase preparative HPLC. The cytotoxic activity of balsam poplar oils and isolated (+)-alpha-bisabolol was assessed in vitro against human lung carcinoma (A549) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cell lines. Essential oils were cytotoxic with IC50 ranging from 35 to 50 microg/mL. (+)-alpha-Bisabolol exhibited pronounced activity (IC50 14 microg/mL) against both cancer cell lines. It also exhibited interesting cytotoxic activity (IC50 23 microg/mL) against human glioma (U251), higher than the one observed for (-)-alpha-bisabolol (IC50 34 microg/mL), which is known for its apoptosis-inducing effect against glioma cells. PMID:24689304

  10. Stomata morphological traits in two different genotypes of Populus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Populus nigra L. (black poplar possesses amphistomatic leaves, with large (giant and normal sized stomata. The role of giant stomata in leaf development, and the consequences on stomatal density in adult leaves remains elusive. This paper describes the characteristics of ordinary and giant stomata in leaves of two black poplar genotypes (58-861 with large leaves from northern Italy, and Poli with small leaves from southern Italy. Stomatal traits in both genotypes were studied using light microscopy on mature leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermal impressions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy was applied to study giant and normal stomata in early, young, and mature leaves. Leaf abaxial surfaces in the two genotypes revealed variable sizes and patterns of stomata related to differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (Wi. These observations provided evidence of different stomatal types in mature black poplar leaves, and new information regarding the presence and potential role of giant stomata in black poplar leaves.

  11. Interrelationships between leaf heat conductivity and tissue structures of different varieties of Populus tomentosa Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; ZHANG Wen-jie; XIAO Jian; ZHANG Zhi-yi; LIU Jing

    2008-01-01

    Plant heat conductivity largely depends on tissue structure. Different structures lead to different heat conductivity. As well, water transfer also plays a very important role in heat transfer in plants. We have studied leaf heat conductivity and tissue structure of 3- and 30-year-old Populus tomentosa Carr. trees using mildred thermal imaging, steady state heat conductivity surveys and paraffin section and investigated the relationship between leaf heat conductivity, tissue structure and water content of leaves. The results show that the temperature on leaf surfaces among the various varieties of trees was almost the same. Leaf heat conductivity, temperature and water content of leaves are positively correlated. The thicker the leaf tissue structures, the larger the heat resistance. That is, the tighter the cells and the smaller the interspaces, the smaller the heat conductivity, which is not conducive for heat transfer.

  12. Structural Characteristics and Eco-adaptability of Heteromorphic Leaves of Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao-xia; Zheng Cai-xia

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural and ultrastructural traits of three kinds of typical leaves of Populus euphratica Olive, including lanceolate, broad-ovate and dentate broad-ovate leaves, were studied by using electron microscope and optical microscope. The results showed that with the leaves changing from lanceolate shape to dentate broad-ovate shape, their structure obviously tended to be xeromorph: developed palisade tissue, undeveloped spongy tissue, thick cutin layer and sunken stomas. The amount of mitochondria tended to be increased, and the shape of chloroplasts varied from regular spindle to irregular rotundity or oval. The leaves were covered with wax without cilium, and the stomas on the upper and lower epidermis of the leaves opened unevenly. The stomas on the lower epidermis were deeper than those on the upper epidermis under the scanning electron microscope. The results implied that the structural characteristics of the diversiform-leaves of P. euphratica are related to its eco-adaptability.

  13. Impact du stress hydrique sur le fonctionnement hydraulique foliaire du peuplier Populus tremula x alba

    OpenAIRE

    Daaboul, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Afin d’aborder l’impact du stress hydrique sur le fonctionnement hydraulique foliaire, des plants de Populus tremula x alba ont été soumis à un stress hydrique modéré ou sévère pendant une semaine par ajout de PEG dans la solution nutritive. La mesure de paramètres écophysiologiques et moléculaires tissus spécifiques a permis de dégager plusieurs tendances sur la caractérisation de l’influence du stress. Les deux types de stress n’ont que peu d’impact sur la croissance et la capacité de synth...

  14. Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of populus deltoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several naphthalene and anthracene degrading bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, which were growing in non-contaminated soil. Among these, four isolates, i.e. Kurthia sp., Micrococcus varians, Deinococcus radiodurans and Bacillus circulans utilized chrysene, benzene, toluene and xylene, in addition to anthracene and naphthalene. Kurthia sp and B. circulans showed positive chemotactic response for naphthalene and anthracene. The mean growth rate constant (K of isolates were found to increase with successive increase in substrate concentration (0.5 to 1.0 mg/50ml. B. circulans SBA12 and Kurthia SBA4 degraded 87.5% and 86.6% of anthracene while, Kurthia sp. SBA4, B. circulans SBA12, and M. varians SBA8 degraded 85.3 %, 95.8 % and 86.8 % of naphthalene respectively after 6 days of incubation as determined by HPLC analysis.

  15. Targeted enrichment of the black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa gene space using sequence capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lecong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput re-sequencing is rapidly becoming the method of choice for studies of neutral and adaptive processes in natural populations across taxa. As re-sequencing the genome of large numbers of samples is still cost-prohibitive in many cases, methods for genome complexity reduction have been developed in attempts to capture most ecologically-relevant genetic variation. One of these approaches is sequence capture, in which oligonucleotide baits specific to genomic regions of interest are synthesized and used to retrieve and sequence those regions. Results We used sequence capture to re-sequence most predicted exons, their upstream regulatory regions, as well as numerous random genomic intervals in a panel of 48 genotypes of the angiosperm tree Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood, or ‘poplar’. A total of 20.76Mb (5% of the poplar genome was targeted, corresponding to 173,040 baits. With 12 indexed samples run in each of four lanes on an Illumina HiSeq instrument (2x100 paired-end, 86.8% of the bait regions were on average sequenced at a depth ≥10X. Few off-target regions (>250bp away from any bait were present in the data, but on average ~80bp on either side of the baits were captured and sequenced to an acceptable depth (≥10X to call heterozygous SNPs. Nucleotide diversity estimates within and adjacent to protein-coding genes were similar to those previously reported in Populus spp., while intergenic regions had higher values consistent with a relaxation of selection. Conclusions Our results illustrate the efficiency and utility of sequence capture for re-sequencing highly heterozygous tree genomes, and suggest design considerations to optimize the use of baits in future studies.

  16. Native Venturia inopina sp. nov., specific to Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George

    2003-01-01

    Venturia populina, first described on European Populus nigra, has been thought to be the only species of Venturia in Europe and North America to cause leaf and shoot blight of balsam poplars and cottonwoods in Populus sects. Tacamahaca and Aigeiros. The species of Venturia occurring on introduced P. nigra and native P. trichocarpa in the Pacific northwest were examined. Venturia populina was consistently found on P. nigra (i.e. the widespread P. nigra cv. 'italica') in the region, but V. inopina sp. nov. was present on native P. trichocarpa and its hybrids. There were neither examples of V. populina on P. trichocarpa and its hybrids nor of V. inopina on P. nigra cv. 'italica' (27 collections from 16 sites in Oregon, Washington, and Vancouver Island were made during 1995-2002). In an inoculation study, host-range separation was confirmed in that V. inopina caused sporulating leaf lesions on P. trichocarpa and its hybrids, but only non-sporulating lesions on P. nigra cv. 'italica'. These two species of Venturia can readily be distinguished by conidial septation; V. populina is primarily 2-septate, whereas V. inopina is primarily 1-septate. Growth rates on PDA at 15 degrees C, and ITS sequences (2.3% divergence) were also distinct in isolates of these congeners. Conidial shape was of more value in discriminant analysis than conidial length. Venturia inopina is homothallic, given the sexual fertility of cultures of single ascospores that were overwintered under ambient conditions. Its geographic range appears to be restricted even within the Pacific northwest, leaving open the possibility that still other undescribed, native species of Venturia occur elsewhere in North America on sects. Tacamahaca and Aigeiros. PMID:12735251

  17. Influence of irrigation and fertilization on transpiration and hydraulic properties of Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Lisa J; Stokes, Thomas A; Coleman, Mark D

    2007-05-01

    Long-term hydraulic acclimation to resource availability was explored in 3-year-old Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. clones by examining transpiration, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance (G(L)), canopy stomatal conductance (G(S)) and leaf to sapwood area ratio (A(L):A(S)) in response to irrigation (13 and 551 mm year(-1) in addition to ambient precipitation) and fertilization (0 and 120 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Sap flow was measured continuously over one growing season with thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization had a greater effect on growth and hydraulic properties than irrigation, and fertilization effects were independent of irrigation treatment. Transpiration on a ground area basis (E) ranged between 0.3 and 1.8 mm day(-1), and increased 66% and 90% in response to irrigation and fertilization, respectively. Increases in G(L), G(S) at a reference vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa, and transpiration per unit leaf area in response to increases in resource availability were associated with reductions in A(L):A(S) and consequently a minimal change in the water potential gradient from soil to leaf. Irrigation and fertilization increased leaf area index similarly, from an average 1.16 in control stands to 1.45, but sapwood area was increased from 4.0 to 6.3 m(2) ha(-1) by irrigation and from 3.7 to 6.7 m(2) ha(-1) by fertilization. The balance between leaf area and sapwood area was important in understanding long-term hydraulic acclimation to resource availability and mechanisms controlling maximum productivity in Populus deltoides. PMID:17267367

  18. Distinct Microbial Communities within the Endosphere and Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides Roots across Contrasting Soil Types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottel, Neil R [ORNL; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The root-rhizosphere interface of Populus is the nexus of a variety of associations between bacteria, fungi, and the host plant and an ideal model for studying interactions between plants and microorganisms. However, such studies have generally been confined to greenhouse and plantation systems. Here we analyze microbial communities from the root endophytic and rhizospheric habitats of Populus deltoides in mature natural trees from both upland and bottomland sites in central Tennessee. Community profiling utilized 454 pyrosequencing with separate primers targeting the V4 region for bacterial 16S rRNA and the D1/D2 region for fungal 28S rRNA genes. Rhizosphere bacteria were dominated by Acidobacteria (31%) and Alphaproteobacteria (30%), whereas most endophytes were from the Gammaproteobacteria (54%) as well as Alphaproteobacteria (23%). A single Pseudomonas-like operational taxonomic unit (OTU) accounted for 34% of endophytic bacterial sequences. Endophytic bacterial richness was also highly variable and 10-fold lower than in rhizosphere samples originating from the same roots. Fungal rhizosphere and endophyte samples had approximately equal amounts of the Pezizomycotina (40%), while the Agaricomycotina were more abundant in the rhizosphere (34%) than endosphere (17%). Both fungal and bacterial rhizosphere samples were highly clustered compared to the more variable endophyte samples in a UniFrac principal coordinates analysis, regardless of upland or bottomland site origin. Hierarchical clustering of OTU relative abundance patterns also showed that the most abundant bacterial and fungal OTUs tended to be dominant in either the endophyte or rhizosphere samples but not both. Together, these findings demonstrate that root endophytic communities are distinct assemblages rather than opportunistic subsets of the rhizosphere.

  19. Determination of the relative uptake of ground vs. surface water by Populus deltoides during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, B.D.; Vose, J.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Harvey, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of plants to remediate polluted groundwater is becoming an attractive alternative to more expensive traditional techniques. In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of the phytoremediation treatment, a clear understanding of water-use habits by the selected plant species is essential. We examined the relative uptake of surface water (i.e., precipitation) vs. groundwater by mature Populus deltoides by applying irrigation water at a rate equivalent to a 5-cm rain event. We used stable isotopes of hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) to identify groundwater and surface water (irrigation water) in the xylem sap water. Pretreatment isotopic ratios of both deuterium and 18O, ranked from heaviest to lightest, were irrigation water > groundwater > xylem sap. The discrepancy in preirrigation isotopic signatures between groundwater and xylem sap suggests that in the absence of a surface source of water (i.e., between rain events) there is an unknown amount of water being extracted from sources other than groundwater (i.e., soil surface water). We examined changes in volumetric soil water content (%), total hourly sapflux rates, and trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations. Following the irrigation treatment, volumetric soil water increased by 86% and sapflux increased by as much as 61%. Isotopic signatures of the xylem sap became substantially heavier following irrigation, suggesting that the applied irrigation water was quickly taken up by the plants. TCE concentrations in the xylem sap were diluted by an average of 21% following irrigation; however, dilution was low relative to the increase in sapflux. Our results show that water use by Populus deltoides is variable. Hence, studies addressing phytoremediation effectiveness must account for the relative proportion of surface vs. groundwater uptake.

  20. Putting the Pieces Together: High-performance LC-MS/MS Provides Network-, Pathway-, and Protein-level Perspectives in Populus*

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Paul; Giannone, Richard J.; Adams, Rachel M.; Kalluri, Udaya; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-performance mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics enabled the construction of a detailed proteome atlas for Populus, a woody perennial plant model organism. Optimization of experimental procedures and implementation of current state-of-the-art instrumentation afforded the most detailed look into the predicted proteome space of Populus, offering varying proteome perspectives: (1) network-wide, (2) pathway-specific, and (3) protein-level viewpoints. Together, enhanced protein retrieval t...

  1. The Tonoplast-Localized Sucrose Transporter in Populus (PtaSUT4) Regulates Whole-Plant Water Relations, Responses to Water Stress, and Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Christopher J; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Harding, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Populus sucrose (Suc) transporter 4 (PtaSUT4), like its orthologs in other plant taxa, is tonoplast localized and thought to mediate Suc export from the vacuole into the cytosol. In source leaves of Populus, SUT4 is the predominantly expressed gene family member, with transcript levels several times higher than those of plasma membrane SUTs. A hypothesis is advanced that SUT4-mediated tonoplast sucrose fluxes contribute to the regulation of osmotic gradients between cellular compartments,...

  2. Variação sazonal do enraizamento de estacas de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia Seasonal variation of rooting on stem cuttings of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Denega

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o enraizamento de 9 cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia nas quatro épocas do ano (verão, outono, inverno e primavera. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Topsail, Magnolia, Creek, Noble, Roanoke, Magoon, Regale, Bontiful e Dixie, sendo a estaquia realizada em câmara de nebulização intermitente, com o intervalo de rega controlado de acordo com a época do ano. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, nove tratamentos e 15 estacas por parcela. Todos os experimentos foram avaliados após 75 dias, levando-se em consideração as seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de estacas com folha e porcentagem de estacas enraizadas por parcela; número de raízes; comprimento (cm das raízes principais e massa seca das raízes por estaca (mg. Nas estacas lenhosas, retiradas no outono e no inverno, não se obteve enraizamento. Com as estacas semilenhosas, retiradas no verão e na primavera, ocorreu enraizamento em todas as cultivares, com destaque para as cultivares Magnolia e Noble na primavera, que apresentaram 61,66% e 51,66% de enraizamento, respectivamente. Nessa época, também ocorreu maior retenção foliar. A cultivar Bontiful demonstrou grande dificuldade de enraizamento. Para a propagação de cultivares de V. rotundifolia, recomenda-se a estaquia semilenhosa durante a primavera.The objective of this work was to evaluate the rooting on cuttings of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the seasons of the year (summer, autumn, winter and spring. The evaluated cultivars were: Topsail, Magnolia, Creek, Noble, Roanoke, Magoon, Regale, Bontiful e Dixie. The experiment was carried out under intermittent mist chamber, with irrigation controled according with the season of the year. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with nine treatments, each one with 4 replicates containing 15 stem cuttings. All experiments were evaluated after 75 days after planting and the

  3. Effect of Partial Grapevine Defoliation (Vitis vinifera on Wine Quality / Efecto de la Defoliación Parcial en Uva (Vitis vinifera sobre la Calidad del Vino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine quality was determined for partially-defoliatedgrapevines grown in Villa de Leyva, Colombia at an elevation of2,143 masl. The experimental design was totally randomized,with two treatments (50% defoliation and 0% defoliation andthree repetitions per treatment. The planting material consistedof five-year-old vines of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay, trainedto trellises, with a spacing of 2.1 m x 1 m. Every fifteen days,the plants in the defoliation treatment underwent the removalof half of the newly-emerged leaves. Before undertaking themicro-vinification process, the total soluble solids (TSS weremeasured in the grape must, and after a fermentation of 100days, wine quality parameters were measured, namely: residual sugars (TSS of the wine, pH, total titratable acid (TTA, and potential alcohol content of the wine. In the plants undergoing partial defoliation, the total soluble solids in the grape must increased, as well as the wine pH and potential alcohol content. At the same time, total titratable acid decreased in the wine of partially-defoliated plants. These results demonstrate that the wine quality was greatly improved by the reduction of leaf area in Chardonnay variety grape plants. / Con el uso de un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y sin defoliación parcial y tres repeticiones por tratamiento, se determinó la calidad del vino en plantas de uva sometidas a defoliación parcial temprana en Villa de Leyva – Colombia a una altitud de 2.143 msnm. Como material vegetal se utilizaron plantas de Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay de cinco años de edad, sembradas en un sistema de espalderas a 2,1 x 1 m. Quincenalmente, se realizó la defoliación parcial a las plantas, la cual consistió en retirar una de cada doshojas recién emergidas en cada una de las plantas sometidas al tratamiento de defoliación. Antes de iniciar el proceso de microvinificación se determinaron los sólidos solubles

  4. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs. So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutantions in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa homologue of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein-protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana Homeobox Gene 8 was reduced in transgenic plants.

  5. Microcollinearity in an ethylene receptor coding gene region of the Coffea canephora genome is extensively conserved with Vitis vinifera and other distant dicotyledonous sequenced genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campa Claudine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffea canephora, also called Robusta, belongs to the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm family. This diploid species (2x = 2n = 22 has a fairly small genome size of ≈ 690 Mb and despite its extreme economic importance, particularly for developing countries, knowledge on the genome composition, structure and evolution remain very limited. Here, we report the 160 kb of the first C. canephora Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clone ever sequenced and its fine analysis. Results This clone contains the CcEIN4 gene, encoding an ethylene receptor, and twenty other predicted genes showing a high gene density of one gene per 7.8 kb. Most of them display perfect matches with C. canephora expressed sequence tags or show transcriptional activities through PCR amplifications on cDNA libraries. Twenty-three transposable elements, mainly Class II transposon derivatives, were identified at this locus. Most of these Class II elements are Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITE known to be closely associated with plant genes. This BAC composition gives a pattern similar to those found in gene rich regions of Solanum lycopersicum and Medicago truncatula genomes indicating that the CcEIN4 regions may belong to a gene rich region in the C. canephora genome. Comparative sequence analysis indicated an extensive conservation between C. canephora and most of the reference dicotyledonous genomes studied in this work, such as tomato (S. lycopersicum, grapevine (V. vinifera, barrel medic M. truncatula, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa and Arabidopsis thaliana. The higher degree of microcollinearity was found between C. canephora and V. vinifera, which belong respectively to the Asterids and Rosids, two clades that diverged more than 114 million years ago. Conclusion This study provides a first glimpse of C. canephora genome composition and evolution. Our data revealed a remarkable conservation of the microcollinearity

  6. Response of the accumulation of proline in the bodies of Populus euphratica to the change of groundwater level at the lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yaning; CHEN Yapeng; LI Weihong; ZHANG Hongfeng

    2003-01-01

    The content of proline in the plant bodies is closely related to the converse-succession-resistant capability of the plants. In this paper, the relationship between the proline accumulation in the bodies of Populus euphratica and the change of groundwater level is analyzed by taking Populus euphratica, the main community-building species of the desert riparian forests along the Tarim River, as the research object. The research results show that the accumulation of proline in the bodies of Populus euphratica is closely related to the change of groundwater level gradient under drought stress, it increases with the drawdown of groundwater level and the increase of moisture stress degree; the accumulation of proline in the bodies of Populus euphratica has two extremely high points at the groundwater depth ranges of 3.64-5.14 m and 9.46-10.16 m. Combining the field investigation and the analysis of the plots, it is considered that the groundwater level of 3.5-4.5 m is rational for the growth of Populus euphratica. The stress groundwater depth for the normal growth and the critical one for the survival of Populus euphratica are below 4.5 m and 9-10 m respectively at the lower reaches of the Tarim River.

  7. Electronic Nose Analysis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatile Differences during Cold Soak and Postfermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D. M.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Mallikarjunan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cold soak is a prefermentation maceration process at cold temperatures, traditionally used to enhance red wine color. This study monitored changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon volatiles using a commercial conducting polymer electronic nose (ENose) during a five-day cold soak and postfermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) of juice volatiles detected by the ENose during cold soak showed PCI accounted for 95.7% of the variation. Various volatile associations were made wi...

  8. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Xiao-Xi Li; Mei-Mei Han; Xiao-Fan Yang; Zheng Li; Jun Wang; Qiu-Hong Pan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. ...

  9. The effect of lignin as a natural adhesive on the physico-mechanical properties of Vitis vinifera fiberboards

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Mancera; Nour-Eddine El Mansouri; Fabiola Vilaseca; Francesc Ferrando; Joan Salvado

    2011-01-01

    Lignin was used as a natural adhesive to manufacture Vitis vinifera fiberboards. The fiberboards were produced at laboratory scale by adding powdered lignin to material that had previously been steam-exploded under optimized pretreatment and pressing conditions. The kraft lignin used was washed several times with an acidic solution to eliminate any contaminants and low molecular weight compounds. This research studied the effects of amounts of lignin ranging from 5% to 20% on the properties o...

  10. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Liu; Jun Zhao; Long Ma; Yusong Ding; Deqi Su

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree...

  11. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin...... lignin. The data moreover suggest that p-coumaric acid was also released during enzyme catalyzed degradation of acylated anthocyanins, probably as a result of cinnamate esterase activity. The data thus provided unexpected new clues as to how the enzymatic treatment with multicomponent pectinolytic...

  12. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    OpenAIRE

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; Dinischiotu, Anca; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then anal...

  13. Shared and divergent pathways for flower abscission are triggered by gibberellic acid and carbon starvation in seedless Vitis vinifera L

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Cardoso, Vânia; Sánchez, Claudia; Ramalho, José C; Larcher, Roberto; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Abscission is a highly coordinated developmental process by which plants control vegetative and reproductive organs load. Aiming at get new insights on flower abscission regulation, changes in the global transcriptome, metabolome and physiology were analyzed in ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences, using gibberellic acid (GAc) spraying and shading as abscission stimuli, applied at bloom. Results Natural flower drop rates increased from 63.1 % in non-trea...

  14. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Koppula Sushruta; Kolanukonda Rajabhanu; Nammi Srinivas; Sreemantula Satyanarayana; Boini Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress...

  15. Population Trends and Vertical Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Vitis labrusca L. in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, G W; Ransdell, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nematode population trends and vertical distribution were monitored in a southwest Michigan vineyard (Vitis labrusca cv. Concord) from 1976 through 1983. Shallow (20 cm) and deep (90 cm) applications of 1,3-dichloropropene applied at 281 (shallow) plus 658 or 1,122 (deep) liters/ ha provided excellent control of Xiphinema americanum, Criconemella xenoplax, and Meloidogyne hapla. Populations of X. americanum remained below detectable levels for the entire 8-year experimental period where the f...

  16. Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wines produced from Vitis labrusca grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Braga de Lima; Bruna Carla Agustini; Eliz Guimarães da Silva; Fernanda Gaensly; Rodrigo Becker Cordeiro; Maria Luiza Drechsel Fávero; Debora Brand; Marcelo Maraschin; Tania Maria Bordin Bonfim

    2011-01-01

    Wine production in the northern Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, specifically the communes of Colombo and Almirante Tamandaré, is based mainly on the utilization of Vitis labrusca grapes var. Bordô (Ives). Total sugar content, pH, and total acidity were analyzed in red wine samples from 2007 and 2008 vintages following official methods of analysis. Moreover, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were analyzed by colorimetric methodologies and the antioxidant activity was determined using th...

  17. EFFECT OF THE BROWN ALGA ASCOPHYLLUM NODOSUM AS BIOFERTILIZER ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH IN GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu; Monica Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Environmental growing farm technology involves utilization of agricultural inputs which are friendly with the production and ecosystem. Seaweed extracts are used as biofertilizers in horticulture in special to increase plant growth and productivity. In this study, we investigated the effect of seaweed extracts made from Ascophyllum nodosum, on vegetative growth of Vitis vinifera cv. Feteasca Alba. We used three different concentrations of seaweed extracts to asset the effect on fertility coe...

  18. Biodiversity in Replanted Mangrove Forests : A Study in the Southern Viti Levu Island Mangrove Ecosystem in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAI, Kei

    2005-01-01

    The biodiversity level of mollusks and environmental conditions in replanted as well as natural mangrove forests were investigated to determine the restoration level in replanted mangroves. This study was performed in 2 replanted and 2 natural mangrove forests in 2003 and 2004 in Viti Levu Island, Fiji. The ages of the trees in each replanted mangrove were 1-3 and 7 years old. The main mangrove tree species replanted in both areas was Rhizophora stylosa. The mangrove trees in the natural f...

  19. Seasonal pattern of apoplastic solute accumulation and loss of cell turgor during ripening of Vitis vinifera fruit under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Hiroshi; MATTHEWS, MARK A.; Shackel, Ken A

    2009-01-01

    Using a novel pressure membrane (PM) apparatus for the extraction of apoplastic fluid from field-grown grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, our hypothesis that significant apoplast solutes accumulate at the beginning of the ripening process (i.e. veraison), and that this accumulation might contribute to progressive berry softening due to a progressive loss of mesocarp cell turgor pressure (P) was tested. It was necessary to correct the solute potential (Ψs) of fluid collected with the PM for di...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA) SEED EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Anand M. Ingale; Vijaya Rajendran; Venkata BharatKumar Pinnelli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease is a common condition of present day life, and its incidence is markedly increasing. The available drugs for the treatment are associated with adverse effects. Hence, there is a need for newer and better treatment for the same. Objectives: To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Vitis Vinifera (seed) by Water Immersion stress induced gastric ulcer model in Wistar albino rats using two doses (100, 200mg/kg body weight.) Methods: The antiu...

  1. Studies on uptake pattern of the phosphorus employing radioisotopes as tracer on the xPopulus albaglandulosa (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake ratio of supplying P32 labelled double superphosphate and the hastening efficiency of the uptake by addition of magnesium sulfate to the fertilizer were studied on the xPopulus albaglandulosa planted with 0/1 cutting in 1975. The results are summerized as follows. Average 13% of supplying double superphosphate was absorbed into xPopulus albaglandulosa planted on the reddish heavy clay soil in Institute of Forest Genetics. The accumulation of absorbed magnesium was more amount in leaf than in stem. The uptake ratio of supplying double superphosphate was able to increase up to 16%-33% by the addition of magnesium sulfate to the fertilizer. It might be possible to increase the tree growth following the acceleration of photosynthesis due to the increasing amount of magnesium known to be a component of chlorophyll in leaf as well as to hasten the efficiency of uptake of phosphorus by the addition of magnesium to double superphosphate. (Author)

  2. Identification of additive, dominant, and epistatic variation conferred by key genes in cellulose biosynthesis pathway in Populus tomentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qingzhang; Tian, Jiaxing; Yang, Xiaohui; Pan, Wei; Xu, Baohua; Li, Bailian; Pär K Ingvarsson; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Economically important traits in many species generally show polygenic, quantitative inheritance. The components of genetic variation (additive, dominant and epistatic effects) of these traits conferred by multiple genes in shared biological pathways remain to be defined. Here, we investigated 11 full-length genes in cellulose biosynthesis, on 10 growth and wood-property traits, within a population of 460 unrelated Populus tomentosa individuals, via multi-gene association. To validate positiv...

  3. Populus euphratica XTH overexpression enhances salinity tolerance by the development of leaf succulence in transgenic tobacco plants

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yansha; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jian; Ding, Mingquan; Zhao, Rui; Deng, Shurong; Wang, Feifei; Hu, Yue; Wang, Yang; Lu, Yanjun; Du, Liping; Hu, Zanmin; Diekmann, Heike; SHEN, XIN; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Populus euphratica is a salt-tolerant tree species that develops leaf succulence after a prolonged period of salinity stress. In the present study, a putative xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene (PeXTH) from P. euphratica was isolated and transferred to tobacco plants. PeXTH localized exclusively to the endoplasmic reticulum and cell wall. Plants overexpressing PeXTH were more salt tolerant than wild-type tobacco with respect to root and leaf growth, and survival. The increased cap...

  4. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  5. Anatomía de leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Giménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Es objetivo del trabajo describir el leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. y M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae y determinar rasgos ecoanatómicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas del bosque natural en la localidad Guampacha, Sierras de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (distrito chaqueño serrano. Cinco individuos de cada especie fueron seleccionados al azar, obteniéndose una rodaja a 0.3 m. En las descripciones del leño se usó la terminología del Comité de Nomenclatura de IAWA. Los rasgos fundamentales del leño de Maytenus se resumen en: poros pequeños, numerosos, vasos pequeños, miembros de vasos cortos y anillos de crecimiento angostos. El leño de las dos especies estudiadas se caracteriza por presentar porosidad difusa a semicircular, anillos de crecimiento tipo 5b; poros numerosos y pequeños, parénquima axial de distribución apotraqueal en bandas discontinuas de una sola hilera de células, con tendencia a reticulado; escaso paratraqueal unilateral y difuso en agregados, radios heterogéneos; presencia de fibrotraqueidas. Las principales diferencias anatómicas radican en el tipo de poros, fundamentalmente solitarios en M. vitis-idaea y la presencia de radios de mayor longitud en M. viscifolia. Ambas maderas presentan rasgos xerofiticos notorios.Wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea. y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae. Is objective of this study to describe the wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. and M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae and to determine ecoanatomy features. The samples were collected from natural forest in Guampacha, Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Chaco Serrano district. Five individuals were randomly selected; being obtained a track to 0.3 m. IAWA Committee on Nomenclature terminology was used in wood descriptions. Xylem features of Maytenus be summarized as: numerous small pores, short vessel members and growth rings narrow. The wood of the two species were characterized by diffuse to

  6. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression causes structural changes of the glucuronoxylan in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang eSong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available DUF579 (domain unknown function 579 genes have been reported to play diverse roles in cell wall biosynthesis, such as in glucuronoxylan (GX synthesis. As GX is a major type of hemicelluloses in hard wood species, how DUF579 genes function in wood formation remains to be demonstrated in planta. This study reports a Populus DUF579 gene, PtrDUF579-3, which is characterized for its function in wood cell wall formation. PtrDUF579-3 is localized in Golgi apparatus and catalyzes methylation of the glucuronic acid (GlcA in GX biosynthesis. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression in Populus caused a reduction in both the GlcA side chain number and GlcA side chain methylation on the GX backbone. The modified GX polymer through PtrDUF579-3 suppression was more susceptible to acid treatment and the PtrDUF579-3 suppressed plants displayed enhanced cellulose digestibility. These results suggest that PtrDUF579-3 is involved in GX biosynthesis and GX structure can be modified through PtrDUF579-3 suppression in Populus.

  7. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 Expression Causes Structural Changes of the Glucuronoxylan in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongliang; Gui, Jinshan; Liu, Chenchen; Sun, Jiayan; Li, Laigeng

    2016-01-01

    DUF579 (domain unknown function 579) genes have been reported to play diverse roles in cell wall biosynthesis, such as in glucuronoxylan (GX) synthesis. As GX is a major type of hemicelluloses in hard wood species, how DUF579 genes function in wood formation remains to be demonstrated in planta. This study reports a Populus DUF579 gene, PtrDUF579-3, which is characterized for its function in wood cell wall formation. PtrDUF579-3 is localized in Golgi apparatus and catalyzes methylation of the glucuronic acid (GlcA) in GX biosynthesis. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression in Populus caused a reduction in both the GlcA side chain number and GlcA side chain methylation on the GX backbone. The modified GX polymer through PtrDUF579-3 suppression was more susceptible to acid treatment and the PtrDUF579-3 suppressed plants displayed enhanced cellulose digestibility. These results suggest that PtrDUF579-3 is involved in GX biosynthesis and GX structure can be modified through PtrDUF579-3 suppression in Populus. PMID:27148318

  8. Characteristics of the stem sap flux of Populus euphratica in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Populus euphratica trees are the sole natural perennial riparian woodlands native to the river oases in the lower reaches of Heihe River Basin in northwestern China.This study investigated characteristics of the stem sap flux of Populus euphratica and its rela-tionship to environmental factors using the thermal dissipation probe(TDP) method.The results showed that(1) daily variation of sap flow of P.euphratica on clear days exhibited an obvious unimodal curve;sap flow rates in June,July,August,and September were 13.39,12.07,12.69,and 5.10 L/d,respectively;(2) the average transpiration of the Populus euphratica from June through September amounted to 1,309.84 L;(3) stem sap flow can be affected by a number of environmental factors that,in terms of the influential degree,can be arranged in the descending order of air temperature,soil moisture,relative humidity,total solar radiation,soil temperature,and wind velocity.

  9. Anti-adipogenic activities of Alnus incana and Populus balsamifera bark extracts, part I: sites and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Louis C; Hervé, Jessica; Muhamad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory S; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-09-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in most developed countries and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. In the course of a screening project of medicinal plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree of Canada and having potential for the treatment of diabetes, we have identified several products that inhibit adipogenesis, suggesting potential antiobesity activities. The inhibitory activity of two of these, the extract of the inner bark of the deciduous trees Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Speckled Alder) and Populus balsamifera L. (Balsam Poplar), was analyzed using the 3T3-L1 cell model of adipogenesis. Intracellular triglyceride accumulation, pre-adipocyte proliferation, and PPAR- γ activity were measured. Alnus incana extracts acted early in the differentiation process but did not affect clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes nor the morphological transformation from fibroblast-like to rounded fat-laden cells. Alnus incana extracts were found to act as partial agonists toward PPAR- γ activity. In contrast, Populus balsamifera extracts completely abrogated adipogenesis, severely limited clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes and generally maintained cells in an undifferentiated fibroblast-like morphology. Populus balsamifera extracts exerted antagonistic action against PPAR- γ activity. It is concluded that, through their actions on the adipocyte, these plant products may be useful for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:20301057

  10. Field Supervisory Test of DREB-Transgenic Populus: Salt Tolerance, Long-Term Gene Stability and Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving saline resistance may be useful for reducing environmental susceptibility and improving yields in poplar plantations. However, the instability of genetically engineered traits and gene transfer reduce their usefulness and commercial value. To investigate whether the foreign gene is still present in the genome of receptor plants after seven years (i.e., long-term foreign gene stability and gene transfer, we randomly analyzed ten field-grown transgenic hybrid Populus ((Populus tomentosa × Populus bolleana × P. tomentosa carrying the DREB1 gene from Atriplex hortensis. The results of PCR and tissue culture experiments showed that AhDREB1 was present in the transgenic trees and was still expressed. However, the transcriptional expression level had decreased compared with that four years earlier. The PCR results also indicated no foreign gene in the genomic DNA of microorganisms in the soil near the transgenic poplars, indicating that no significant gene transfer had occurred from the transgenic poplars to the microorganisms at seven years after planting.

  11. Defining the Boundaries and Characterizing the Landscape of Genome Expression in Vascular Tissues of Populus using Shotgun Proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Paul E [ORNL; Adams, Rachel M [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Erickson, Brian K [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art experimental and computational proteomic approaches were integrated to obtain a comprehensive protein profile of Populus vascular tissue. This featured: 1) a large sample set consisting of two genotypes grown under normal and tension stress conditions, 2) bioinformatics clustering to effectively handle gene duplication, and 3) an informatics approach to track and identify single amino acid polymorphisms (SAAPs). By applying a clustering algorithm to the Populus database, the number of protein entries decreased from 64,689 proteins to a total of 43,069 protein groups, thereby reducing 7,505 identified proteins to a total of 4,226 protein groups, in which 2,016 were singletons. This reduction implies that ~50% of the measured proteins were clustered into groups that shared extensive sequence homology. Using conservative search criteria, we were able to identify 1,354 peptides containing a SAAP and 201 peptides that become tryptic due to a K or R substitution. These newly identified peptides correspond to 502 proteins, including 97 proteins that were not previously identified. In total, the integration of deep proteome measurements on an extensive sample set with protein clustering and peptide sequence variants provided an unprecedented level of proteome characterization for Populus, allowing us to spatially resolve the vascular tissue proteome.

  12. Comparative physiology of allopatric Populus species: Geographic clines in photosynthesis, height growth and carbon isotope discrimination in common gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Yaranna Soolanayakanahally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Populus species with wide geographic ranges display strong adaptation to local environments. We studied the clinal patterns in phenology and ecophysiology in allopatric Populus species adapted to similar environments on different continents under common garden settings. As a result of climatic adaptation, both P. tremula L. and Populus balsamifera L. display latitudinal clines in photosynthetic rates (A, whereby high-latitude trees of P. tremula had higher A compared to low-latitude trees and nearly so in P. balsamifera (p = 0.06. Stomatal conductance (gs and chlorophyll content index (CCI follow similar latitudinal trends. However, foliar nitrogen was positively correlated with latitude in P. balsamifera and negatively correlated in P. tremula. No significant trends in carbon isotope composition of the leaf tissue (δ13C were observed for both species; but, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi was negatively correlated with the latitude of origin in P. balsamifera. In spite of intrinsically higher A, high-latitude trees in both common gardens accomplished less height gain as a result of early bud set. Thus, shoot biomass was determined by height elongation duration (HED, which was well approximated by the number of days available for free growth between bud flush and bud set. In doing so, we highlight the shortcoming of unreplicated outdoor common gardens for tree improvement and the crucial role of photoperiod in limiting height growth, further complicating interpretation of other secondary effects.

  13. The absorption, utilization and distribution of nitrate 15N and ammonium 15N in Populus Tomentosa seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of different nitrogen sources (NO3-, NH4+) on the absorption, distribution and utilization of nitrogen on Populus tenement's seedlings (clone 50) was studied by using the 15N trace technique. Results showed that the Populus tenement's seedlings had the same nitrogen take up pattern: tissue nitrogen content grew up after fertilization, remarkbaly rising up after one week and reached peak after 28 days. Although the treatments are different, the tissue N content was about the same between 0.6g · plant-1. The maximum absorption of NO3-15N and NH4-15N was 0.26g · plant-1 and 0.12g · plant -1, which accounted for 39.15% and 19.95% of total nitrogen, respectively. The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of two nitrogen sources varied gignificantly. The maximum NUE of NO3-15N reached 25.83%, nearly twice of that of NH4-15N (12.03%). Hence we conclude that Populus tomentosa seedlings (clone 50) prefer to absorb NO3-. Nitrogen distribution rate changed obviously among different organs and the trend was leaf>root>stem. In the leaf, the distribution of NO3-15N was higher than that of NH4-15N. (authors)

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifen Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape Genome Array (15,700 transcripts. A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58% probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87% probe sets and 1242 (23.55% probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold. CONCLUSIONS: UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have

  15. Cloning and Expression Patterns of PtSUS1 in Populus tomentosa%毛白杨蔗糖合酶基因PtSUS1的克隆及其表达模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英; 陈仲; 李昊; 郭斌; 王佳; 安新民

    2012-01-01

    蔗糖合酶(sucrose synthase)与植物库强调节、次生壁的形成和纤维素合成等有着密切的联系,其中在纤维素合成过程中的作用尤为显著.本研究根据我们已获得的毛白杨PtSUS1基因片段设计引物,采用RACE技术,获得了毛白杨PtSUS1的基因序列,测序结果显示该基因序列全长为2 669 bp,包括一个完整的阅读框,编码805个氨基酸.通过Blast检索分析表明,PtSUS1与拟南芥、巨桉、陆地棉、温州蜜柑、毛果杨SUS1的核酸和氨基酸序列的同源性分别达到76%~97%和82%~97%.运用生物信息软件对PtSUS1编码的蛋白进行了二级结构预测和功能位点分析,结果显示该蛋白氨基酸序列包括两个功能域,存在可能的磷酸化位点38个,无跨膜结构域存在.系统进化分析表明PtSUS1与PtSUS2关系最为接近.RT-PCR分析结果显示,PtSUS1在被检测的毛白杨根、茎、叶及雌雄花芽组织和器官中均有表达,呈现组成型表达模式.该研究为进一步深入探索毛白杨蔗糖合酶基因PtSUS1的功能奠定了基础.%Sucrose synthase (SUS) was closely associated with sink strength, secondary wall formationand cellulose synthesis in plant. Among these items, cellulose synthesis is considered to be the most important. According to the known gene fragment of PtSUSl and the principle of RACE amplification, we got the gene sequence of PtSUSl from Populous tomentosa. The full sequence of PtSUSl which contains an open reading frame (ORF) is 2 669 bp encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 805 residues. Blast analysis results indicated that the homology was as high as 76% to 97% and 81% to 97%, respectively, when compared PtSUSl sequence of amino acid and nucle-otide with the ones of Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus grandis, Gossypium hirsutum, Citrus unshiu, and Populus trichocarpa. Furthermore, secondary structure and functional sites in amino acid sequences have been predicted by the bioinformatics

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119708 002-157-E08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060981 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060981 006-202-H08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111736 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111736 J023047L09 At1g68370.1 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... protein ... (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070093 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070093 J023041M10 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-78 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060009 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060009 006-302-D03 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-71 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058419 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058419 001-015-D06 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to S ... P|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073225 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073225 J033023C04 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to SP ... |O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288002 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288002 J075110B01 At1g68510.1 68414.m07826 LOB domain protein 42 ... / lateral organ boundaries do ... main protein 42 ... (LBD42 ) identical to LOB DOMAIN 42 ... [Arabidopsis th ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111785 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111785 J023089N11 At5g62310.1 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kinase, putative ... nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243050 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243050 J100011E04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242758 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242758 J090051H03 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242717 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242717 J090043H19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242638 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242638 J090023J02 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242651 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242651 J090026B08 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287631 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287631 J065073J24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288923 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288923 J090081P06 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242271 J075187A19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242681 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242681 J090032N04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241519 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241519 J065170E12 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240655 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240655 J023135E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242733 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242733 J090047O22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242859 J090073L24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243187 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243187 J100039E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101368 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101368 J033035L13 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111570 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111570 J013071C24 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243065 J100015N03 At5g24270.1 68418.m02855 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... or homolog (SOS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  13. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070528 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070528 J023060D13 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... supe ... roxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119904 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119904 002-182-A05 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104030 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104030 001-020-C01 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104160 006-211-E09 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287459 J043019O07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288034 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288034 J075140H07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111576 J013075J23 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120838 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120838 J023022B11 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111921 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111921 001-013-A10 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly i...dentical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profil

  3. Genotypic Variation in Nutrient Selectivity in Populus under NaCl Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shaoliang; Bai Genben; Liu Xiangfen; Li Jinke; Wang Shasheng; Andrea Polle; Aloys Huttermann

    2003-01-01

    We used a salt-resistant poplar genotype Populus euphratica and two salt-sensitive genotypes, Populus ‘popularis35-44' (P. popularis) and the hybrid P. talassica Kom × (P. euphratica + Salix alba L.) to examine genotypic differences in nutrientselectivity under NaCl stress. One-year-old seedlings ofP. euphratica and one-year-old hardwood cuttings ofP. popularis were usedin a short-term study (24 hours), while in a long-term study, up to 4 weeks, two-year-old seedlings ofP. euphratica and the hybrid P.talassica Kom × (P. euphratica + Salix alba L.) were compared. In the short-term study, K+ concentration in the xylem sap ([K+]xylem)of P. euphratica significantly increased after salt stress was initiated, and maintained 1-2 fold higher than control levels during theperiod of salt stress (24 hours). Xylem Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]xylem, [Mg2+]xylem) in P. euphratica resembled the patternof K+ despite a lesser magnitude in elevation. However, [K+]xylem, [Ca2+]xylem and [Mg2+]xylem in P. popularis exhibited a transient in-crease at the beginning of salt treatment, thereafter, they all returned to control levels at 4 hours and no further rise was observed inthe following hours. Xylem Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/Mg2+ in P. popularis increased sharply upon NaCl stress and steadily reachedthe maximum at 24 hours. In contrast, xylem Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/Mg2+ in NaCl-treated plants of P. euphratica did not signifi-cantly increase during the period of salt stress (24 hours). Noteworthy, Na+/K+ markedly declined after the onset of stress. These re-sults suggest that P. euphratica had a higher nutrient selectivity in face of salinity. A same trend was observed in a 4-week study.Xylem Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/Mg2+ in salinised plants of the hybrid abruptly increased after 4 days of stress, and then continu-ously increased to reach the highest level at day 8 or day 15. In comparison, the magnitude of Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/Mg2+ eleva-tion in the xylem of P

  4. [Physiological-ecological effects of Populus davidiana--Quercus liaotungensis mixed forest in Ziwuling forest area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juan; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2006-06-01

    This paper studied the soil physical- properties under Populus davidiana, Quercus liaotungensis, and Populus davidiana--Quercus liaotungensis mixed forest in the Ziwuling forest area of Loess Plateau, and the leaf photosysthetic characteristics of these three types of forests. The results showed that soil moisture content in 0 - 300 cm layer was the highest under P. davidiana forest, and obviously increased below 200 cm in depth under P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest, which was 10.5% - 19.76% higher than that under Q. liaotungensis forest. In 0 - 60 cm layer, P. davidiana forest showed the highest soil bulk density and the lowest soil porosity, while P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest presented the lowest soil bulk density and the highest soil porosity, and both of these indices surpassed their corresponding values under pure forests, which indicated that the mixed forest could make effective use of water in deep soil, and obviously improved soil physical and chemical properties. P. davidiana and Q. liaotungensis had a higher content of leaf chlorophyll than P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest, and Q. liaotungensis presented the highest leaf chlorophyll content. Q. liaotungensis had the highest photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, followed by P. davidiana, and by P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest. The water use efficiency of the forests ranked in the decreasing order of Q. liaotungensis in pure forest, Q. liaotungensis in mixed forest, P. davidiana in mixed forest, and P. davidiana in pure forest. Q. liaotungensis in mixed forest presented the highest F(v)/F(m) and F(v)/F(o), and did not remarkably differ from those in pure forest, but in the mixed forest, the F(v)/F(m) and F(v)/F(o) of P. davidiana were markedly lower than those of P. davidiana in pure forest. Both the q(p) and NPQ of P. davidiana and Q. liaotungensis in pure forests were higher than those in mixed forest, respectively. In Ziwuling forest area, Q

  5. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Poff, N LeRoy

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight ecoregions in arid and semiarid portions of the western United States, measuring Tamarix and native Populus recruitment and abundance at 64 sites along 13 perennial rivers spanning a range of altered flow regimes. We quantified biologically relevant attributes of flow alteration as an integrated measure (the index of flow modification, IFM), which was then used to explain between-site variation in abundance and recruitment of native and nonnative riparian plant species. We found the likelihood of successful recruitment of Tamarix to be highest along unregulated river reaches and to remain high across a gradient of regulated flows. Recruitment probability for Populus, in contrast, was highest under free-flowing conditions and declined abruptly under even slight flow modification (IFM > 0.1). Adult Tamarix was most abundant at intermediate levels of IFM. Populus abundance declined sharply with modest flow regulation (IFM > 0.2) and was not present at the most flow-regulated sites. Dominance of Tamarix was highest along rivers with the most altered flow regimes. At the 16 least regulated sites, Tamarix and Populus were equally abundant. Given observed patterns of Tamarix recruitment and abundance, we infer that Tamarix would likely have naturalized, spread, and established widely in riparian communities in the absence of dam construction, diversions, and flow regulation in western North America. However, Tamarix dominance over native species would likely be less extensive in the absence of human alteration of river-flow regimes. Restoration that combines active mechanical removal of established stands of Tamarix with a program of flow releases conducive to

  6. Arabidopsis EDT1/HDG11 improves drought and salt tolerance in cotton and poplar and increases cotton yield in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Shen-Jie; Peng, Yi-Shu; Liu, Rui-Na; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Jian-Bo; Jiao, Gai-Li; Pei, Yan; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are two major environmental factors limiting crop production worldwide. Improvement of drought and salt tolerance of crops with transgenic approach is an effective strategy to meet the demand of the ever-growing world population. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a homeodomain-START transcription factor, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tall fescue and rice. Here we report that AtHDG11 also confers drought and salt tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and woody plant poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.). Our results showed that both the transgenic cotton and poplar exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress with well-developed root system. In the leaves of the transgenic cotton plants, proline content, soluble sugar content and activities of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes were significantly increased after drought and salt stress compared with wild type. Leaf stomatal density was significantly reduced, whereas stomatal and leaf epidermal cell size were significantly increased in both the transgenic cotton and poplar plants. More importantly, the transgenic cotton showed significantly improved drought tolerance and better agronomic performance with higher cotton yield in the field both under normal and drought conditions. These results demonstrate that AtHDG11 is not only a promising candidate for crops improvement but also for woody plants. PMID:25879154

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073140 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK073140 J033022I01 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-168 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120439 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK120439 J013098H20 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK121378 J023127F14 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-142 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK063856 001-122-D05 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isoz... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-46 ...

  11. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mech...

  12. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  13. Polyphenols isolated from leaves of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana regulate APP related pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; Lin, Ting; Xu, Junyue; Ding, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Shen, Ruichi; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Chen, Haifeng

    2016-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The major component of the plaques, amyloid-β (Aβ), is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavages. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/accumulation of Aβ in vulnerable brain regions is a primary cause of the pathogenesis of AD. Among the twelve polyphenols isolated from the leaf extracts of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT), stenophyllol C, stenophyllol B, ampelopsin C, vitisin A, and davidiol A were shown to significantly reduce both Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in N2a695 cells. Further studies revealed that ampelopsin C and vitisin A reduce Aβ production through inhibiting β-secretase activity, while the effects of the other active polyphenols on reducing Aβ generation are through different mechanisms. These results suggest that VTT extracts may be beneficial for AD prevention and treatment. PMID:26675439

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca) in liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Thays K; Wohlenberg, Mariane F; Medeiros, Niara; Martins, Jéssica B; Agostini, Fabiana; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca). The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg) for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or mineral oil (i.p.). After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT) was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders. PMID:26959325

  15. Treatment strategies for high resveratrol induction in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu V. Vuong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioprocesses capable of producing large scales of resveratrol at nutraceutical grade are in demand. This study herein investigated treatment strategies to induce the production of resveratrol in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures. Among seven investigated elicitors, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid, β-glucan (GLU, and chitosan enhanced the production of intracellular resveratrol manyfold. The combined treatment of JA and GLU increased extracellular resveratrol production by up to tenfold. The application of Amberlite XAD-7 resin for in situ removal and artificial storage of secreted resveratrol further increased resveratrol production by up to four orders of magnitude. The level of resveratrol produced in response to the combined treatment with 200 g/L XAD-7, 10 μM JA and 1 mg/mL GLU was approximately 2400 mg/L, allowing the production of resveratrol at an industrial scale. The high yield of resveratrol is due to the involvement of a number of mechanisms working in concert.

  16. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml). PMID:22992888

  18. Characterization of expression dynamics of WOX homeodomain transcription factors during somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giorgio; Minuto, Martina; Boccacci, Paolo; Perrone, Irene; Vallania, Rosalina; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Different cultivars of Vitis vinifera vary in their potential to form embryogenic tissues. The WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) genes have been shown to play an important role in coordinating the gene transcription involved in the early phases of embryogenesis. The expression dynamics of 12 VvWOX genes present in the V. vinifera genome in embryogenic and other tissues of 'Chardonnay' were analysed. In order to understand the influence of WOX genes on the somatic embryogenic process, their expression profiles were compared in two cultivars of V. vinifera ('Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon') that show different aptitudes for embryogenesis. The expression of all VvWOX genes was influenced by culture conditions. VvWOX2 and VvWOX9 were the principal WOX genes expressed during the somatic embryogenesis process, and the low aptitude for embryogenesis of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was generally correlated with the low expression levels of these VvWOX genes. VvWOX3 and VvWOX11 were strongly activated in correspondence to torpedo and cotyledonary stages of somatic embryos, with low expression in the earlier developmental stages (pre-embryogenic masses and globular embryos) and during embryo germination. VvWOX genes appeared to be key regulators of somatic embryogenesis in grapevine, and the regulation of these genes during early phases of somatic embryogenesis differed between the two cultivars of the same species. PMID:21127025

  19. Evaluation on Anti-hepatitis Viral Activity of Vitis vinifer L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Suosuo grape (Vitis vinifer L is traditionally used as a therapeutic agent for measles and hepatitis by the ethnic Uighurs. This work aimed to investigate the anti-HBV effect of total triterpene (VTT, total flavonoids (VTF and total polysaccharides (VTP from Suosuo grape, and their synergistic effects were also tested. The viral antigens of cellular secretion, HBsAg and HBeAg, were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.The quantity of HBV-DNA released in the supernatant was assayed by real-time PCR. It was found that it effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg from HepG2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as the HBV DNA. The results of orthogonal design experiment showed that the combination of VTT 20 μg/mL, VTF 50 μg/mL and VTP 50 μg/mL had the best optimistic inhibitory effects on HBeAg secretion.

  20. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  1. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26800498

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and histological analysis from zygotic embryos in Vitis vinifera L. 'Moldova'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We examined the somatic embryogenesis from and histological studies of zygotic embryos of seeds in European Grape 'Moldova' (Vitis vinifera L. 'Moldova'). Primary calli were initiated on Nitsch and Nitsch (NN) medium supplemented with 1.0mg'L-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg'L-1 6-BA. Embryogenic calli were produced upon transfer to a NN medium with 0.5 mg-L-1 6-BA and 2 mg.L-1 NAA and somatic embryos were obtained on a half strength MS medium without plant growth regulators. During the somatic embryo germination, an addition of 1.0 mg.L-1 6-BA in the medium could accelerate somatic embryos to develop into normal plants and increase the conversion rate from 0 to 43.3%. Histological studies of embryogenic calli and somatic embryos demonstrated dy-namic changes of proteins and starch grains. The developmental processes of somatic embryos were similar to those of zygotic em-bryos, including typical epiderma, cotyledon primordium and vascular tissue.

  3. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. PMID:26048582

  4. Hydrogen sulfide is involved in the chilling stress response in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peining Fu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important signaling molecule involved in several stress-resistance processes in plants, such as drought and heavy metal stresses. However, little is known about the roles of H2S in responses to chilling stress. In this paper, we demonstrated that chilling stress enhance the H2S levels, the H2S synthetase (L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase, L/DCD activities, and the expression of L/DCD gene in Vitis vinifera L. ‘F-242’. Furthermore, the seedlings were treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor and hypotaurine (HT, a H2S scavenger at 4°C to examine the effects of exogenous H2S on grape. The results revealed that the high activity of superoxide dismutase and enhanced expression of VvICE1 and VvCBF3 genes, but low level of super oxide anion radical, malondialdehyde content and cell membrane permeability were detected after addition of NaHS. In contrast, HT treatment displayed contrary effect under the chilling temperature. Taken together, these data suggested that H2S might be directly involved in the cold signal transduction pathway of grape.

  5. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valletta, Alessio [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy); Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe, E-mail: cleofe.palocci@uniroma1.it [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Baldan, Barbara [University of Padua, Department of Biology (Italy); Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  6. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the grapevine Vitis vinifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the common grapevine V. vinifera has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of the substrate pyruvate by in-drop hexahistidine-tag cleavage. A diffraction data set has been collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria, plants and some fungi. This study describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of DHDPS from the grapevine Vitis vinifera (Vv-DHDPS). Following in-drop cleavage of the hexahistidine tag, cocrystals of Vv-DHDPS with the substrate pyruvate were grown in 0.1 M Bis-Tris propane pH 8.2, 0.2 M sodium bromide, 20%(w/v) PEG 3350. X-ray diffraction data in space group P1 at a resolution of 2.2 Å are presented. Preliminary diffraction data analysis indicated the presence of eight molecules per asymmetric unit (VM = 2.55 Å3 Da−1, 52% solvent content). The pending crystal structure of Vv-DHDPS will provide insight into the molecular evolution in quaternary structure of DHDPS enzymes

  7. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients. PMID:25694686

  8. Clone lineages of grape phylloxera differ in their performance on Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, K S; Umina, P A; Mitrovski, P J; Powell, K S; Viduka, K; Hoffmann, A A

    2010-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Vitaceae). The distribution and frequency of phylloxera clone lineages vary within infested regions of Australia, suggesting the introduction of separate lineages of D. vitifoliae with host associations. Virulence levels of particular phylloxera clones may vary on V. vinifera, but much of this evidence is indirect. In this study, we directly tested the performance of phylloxera clones on V. vinifera using an established excised root assay and a new glasshouse vine assessment. In the root assay, grape phylloxera clones differed in egg production and egg to adult survivorship. In the vine assay, clones differed in the number of immature and adult life stages on roots. In addition vine characteristics, including mean stem weight, root weight, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area, were affected by different phylloxera clones. The two most widespread clones displayed high levels of virulence. These results point to only some phylloxera clones being highly virulent on V. vinifera, helping to explain patterns of field damage, phylloxera distributions and continued survival and production of V. vinifera vines in some infested areas. PMID:20482931

  9. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  10. Vitis International Variety Catalogue (VIVC: A cultivar database referenced by genetic profiles and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maul Erika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Vitis International Variety Catalogue (VIVC dates back to 1984. The idea was to virtually assemble all accessions maintained in the worldwide existing collections to face genetic erosion. In many cases synonymy, homonymy and misnaming hampered the clear assignment of cultivars/accessions to prime names. In the past 15 years nuclear microsatellites, in particular the nine SSR-markers VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD27, VVMD28, VVMD32, VrZAG62 and VrZAG79 were extensively applied for cultivar recognition in combination with ampelography. Genetic fin- gerprints of more than 15,000 cultivars/accessions were collected. They were taken from more than 300 articles and from microsatellite databases on the web. Allele sizes were adapted according to own internal reference varieties. Comparison of profiles revealed new identities like: “Corbeau” = “Sevilhao”, “Gragnelut” = “Fer”, “Beretinjak” = “Bianco d’Alessano”. The activities aim to equip the prime names of VIVC with reliable genetic profiles combined with the validation of their identity by ampelography. Fingerprints from 1,500 cultivars were already uploaded in VIVC. Two distinct search modules were imple- mented: “Microsatellites by varieties” and “Microsatellites by profiles”. The implementation assists the management of grape- vine genetic resources, e.g. trueness to type assessment in grapevine collections and serves research and breeding.

  11. Regulation of cell wall remodeling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) callus under individual mineral stress deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João C; Goulao, Luis F; Amâncio, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that determines the plant form, growth and response to environmental conditions. Vitis vinifera callus grown under nitrogen (-N), phosphorous (-P) and sulfur (-S) deficiency were used as a model system to address the influence of mineral stress in CW remodeling. Callus cells morphology was altered, mostly under -N, resulting in changes in cell length and width compared with the control. CW composition ascertained with specific staining and immuno-detection showed a decrease in cellulose and altered pattern of pectin methylesterification. Under mineral stress genes expression from candidate families disclosed mainly a downregulation of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9C (GH9C), xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) with predicted hydrolytic activity and pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Conversely, upregulation of PMEs inhibitors (PMEIs) was observed. While methylesterification patterns can be associated to PME/PMEI gene expression, the lower cellulose content cannot be attributed to altered cellulose synthase (CesA) gene expression suggesting the involvement of other gene families. Salt extracts from -N and -P callus tissues increased plastic deformation in cucumber hypocotyls while no effect was observed with -S extracts. The lower endo-acting glycosyl hydrolase activity of -N callus extracts pinpoints a more expressive impact of -N on CW-remodeling. PMID:26735749

  12. Effects of solar radiation on grape (Vitis vinifera L.) composition and dried fruit colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most sun-exposed fruit (Vitis vinifera L.) produced dark brown berries with low L-values, whereas most dried berries from shade fruit were acceptable in lightness although some had a green tinge. Fruit shaded by the natural vine canopy or exposed to direct solar radiation had similar drying ratios. However, berry weights were significantly higher in the shade than in the sun for both cultivars. The difference in berry weight between the two positions was less pronounced in the heat affected year. Solar radiation changed the composition of fresh berries and the colour of the dried fruit. The soluble-solid concentration was higher in fresh fruit exposed to direct solar radiation than in fruit grown in shaded conditions within the canopy. In the heat affected year the berries from both positions had the same soluble-solid concentrations, possibly due to dehydration of the fruit. No significant difference was found between the pH of sun fruit and shade fruit, but the titratable acidity was higher in shade fruit. Malate and tartrate concentrations in berry skin and the polyphenol oxidase activities had carotenoid concentrations in whole fresh berries were not significantly different for sun and shade fruit. Total phenol concentrations in berry skin were higher in sun fruit and chlorophyll concentrations in whole, fresh berries were higher in shade fruit. (author)

  13. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  14. Proteomic analysis of the compatible interaction between Vitis vinifera and Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milli, Alberto; Cecconi, Daniela; Bortesi, Luisa; Persi, Anna; Rinalducci, Sara; Zamboni, Anita; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Lovato, Arianna; Zolla, Lello; Polverari, Annalisa

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the proteome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) leaves 24, 48 and 96 h post infection (hpi) with the downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola. Total proteins were separated on 2-DE gels. By MS analysis, we identified 82 unique grapevine proteins differentially expressed after infection. Upregulated proteins were often included in the functional categories of general metabolism and stress response, while proteins related to photosynthesis and energy production were mostly downregulated. As expected, the activation of a defense reaction was observed more often at the late time point, consistent with the establishment of a compatible interaction. Most proteins involved in resistance were isoforms of different PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins. Although >50 differentially expressed protein isoforms were observed at 24 and 96 hpi, only 18 were detected at 48 hpi and no defense-related proteins were among this group. This profile suggests a transient breakdown in defense responses accompanying the onset of disease, further supported by gene expression analyses and by a western blot analysis of a PR-10 protein. Our data reveal the complex modulation of plant metabolism and defense responses during compatible interactions, and provide insight into the underlying molecular processes which may eventually yield novel strategies for pathogen control in the field. PMID:22120121

  15. Study of Cytostatic and Cytotoxic Activity of Several Polyphenolic Extracts Obtained from Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta NECHITA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of polyphenolic extracts from skins, seeds, grape pomace and lees is justified by the huge amount of information from specialized literature, drawing attention to the many pharmacological effects of these biomolecules. The concentrated vegetal extracts obtained from seeds, skins, grape pomace and lees (yeast deposit after fermentation were characterized according to their content of total polyphenols, anthocyanins, dry matter, ash and pH. The biological material used in the in vitro testing experiments in order to study cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were stabilized cultures of HeLa cancer cells, uncontaminated with mycoplasma and derived from a human uterine cervix carcinoma. Another action of the cytostatic substances could be exerted upon the cell proliferation process. The cell division process of the HeLa cell cultures treated with seeds by-product showed remarkable quantitative changes. The study has also evidenced a great number of dead cells in the composition of the treated HeLa cell cultures, their existence pointing out that the bioactive agent induced a major decrease of the cells viability. The obtained results in the context of the complex evaluation of the in vitro antitumoral property of the extracts, obtained from seeds, skins, grape pomace and wine lees from the ‘Arcaş’ grape variety, on HeLa cells cultures, have demonstrated the significant cytostatic and cytotoxic potential of the seeds polyphenolic biopreparate. The results obtained show that polyphenolic extracts from Vitis vinifera seeds act as cytostatic and cytotoxic agents.

  16. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12705-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Leishmania infantum chromosome 32. 228 4e-58 EU365390_1( EU365390 |pid:none) Euplotes octocarina...AL161545_37( AL161545 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromoso... 236 1e-60 EF144593_1( EF144593 |pid:none) Populus trichoc...ne) Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP133... 175 2e-42 AM484190_1( AM484190 |pid:none) Vitis vinifera contig VV7... = 2e-14 Identities = 53/60 (88%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 955 cataaattaataataatatacnnnnnnnactattaacaaacaatatattattact...ne) Drosophila melanogaster LD29476 fu... 293 8e-78 BT076415_1( BT076415 |pid:none) Ca

  18. Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Partially Defoliated Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay / Fluorescencia de la Clorofila en Plantas de Uva (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Defoliadas Parcialmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll content and fluorescence weredetermined in five-year-old grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv.Chardonnay that were subjected to early partial defoliation,in Villa de Leyva, Colombia. The experimental design wascompletely randomized, consisting of two treatments (50%defoliation and control, each with four replications of 35 plants. Every two weeks, one of every two recently-emerged leaves was removed from the non-control plants. The determination of total chlorophyll content was carried out on six leaves per plant using a CCM-200 Plus chlorophyll meter, while chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were taken with one darkadapted leaf per plant using a Junior-PAM fluorometer. Initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, terminal fluorescence (Ft, variable fluorescence (Fv, electron transport rate (ETR, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/ Fm, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Y(II, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (qP, two non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qN and NPQ,quantum yield of light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (Y(NPQ, and quantum yield of non-light-induced non-photochemical quenching (Y(NO were measured. The chlorophyll concentration index showed higher values in the defoliated plants. There were no significant differences for the values of Fm, Ft and Fv. Fo was higher in the defoliated plants, while ETR, Fv/Fm and Y(II showed higher values in the control plants. It is evident that a reduction in leaf area modifies thepartitioning of excitation energy destined for photochemicaland non-photochemical processes, thus directly influencing the photosynthetic process of the plants evaluated. / Utilizando un diseño completamente aleatorizado,con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y control y cuatrorepeticiones de 35 plantas cada una, se determinó el contenido y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de uva, sometidas a defoliación parcial

  19. Efeito de indutores no controle de míldio em Vitis labrusca Effect of elicitors in the control of downy mildew in Vitis labrusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ceres Torres da Rosa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da uva, Vitis labrusca, é de grande importância econômica para a região do vale do Siriji - PE. No entanto, nos últimos anos, o míldio da videira vem pondo em risco essa atividade, fazendo com que os produtores invistam bastante recurso com o uso de fungicida visando o seu controle. Visando substituir o uso de agrotóxico foi avaliado nos municípios de São Vicente Férrer - PE (área 1, Natuba - PB (área 2 e Macaparana - PE (área 3 o efeito da indução de resistência promovida por ácido DL- â - aminobutírico (BABA, Agro-Mos (AM + Crop-set (Cs, Codavit (Cd e Ecolife (Ec em videiras da variedade 'Isabel'. Os resultados obtidos em relação à severidade do míldio demonstraram que o indutor AM + Cs destacou-se dos demais tratamentos, não diferindo estatisticamente dos indutores AM + Cs e Cd, na área 2, e de AM + Cs e Cd, e Ec na área 3. Quanto a eficiência de controle o AM + Cs foi capaz de reduzir a severidade da doença em 37,46%, 35,97% e 18, 57% nas áreas 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Nas áreas 1, 2 e 3 a severidade da doença desenvolveu-se obedecendo as seguintes equações, gompertz Y= e-3,36 . e -0,019 t-0,0199(R= 0,66**, logístico Y= 1/1 + 14,63 .e 0,037t (R= 0,84** e gompertz Y= e-4,13 . e-0,034 t-0,034t,(R= 0,62**, respectivamente. A severidade do míldio da videira em função do tempo na área 1, na maioria dos tratamentos, obedeceu ao modelo de gompertz, exceto o tratamento com BABA cujo modelo que se ajustou foi o logístico. Na área 2, o aumento da severidade da doença nos tratamentos estudados não apresentou predominância de um modelo. O modelo monomolecular apareceu com uma freqüência maior do que os demais, nos tratamentos da área 3.The culture of the grape, Vitis labrusca, is of great economic importance for the region of the valley of the Siriji - PE. However, in recent years, the mildew of the grapevine comes putting in rich this activity, making with that the producers sufficiently invest

  20. Characteristics and dynamics analysis of Populus euphratica populations in the middle reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunXia WU; XiMing ZHANG; ChaoZhou DENG; GuoJun LIU; Hong LI

    2010-01-01

    Populus euphratica Oliv.is widely distributed along the Tarim River.Maintaining stability of P.euphratica population is important to local development.This study explored the static life table,survivorship curves and four function curves(survival rate,cumulative mortality rate,mortality density,and hazard rate),and development index of P.euphratica population in the middle reaches of Tarim River.The results indicated that the age structure of P.euphratica population belonged to positive pyramidal type,which meant young age-class individuals occupied most populations.The number of Ⅰ-Ⅱ age classes accounted for 66.2% of whole population,and this indicated that there were abundant subsequent seedlings resources to support the growth of P.euphratica population in the middle reaches of Tarim River.The survivorship curve of P.euphratica belonged to the Deevey Ⅲ(concave-type)and the development index was 47.72%.Four function curves revealed that the individuals of P.euphratica sharply decreased at the initial stage and then leveled off at the late stage of survival curve.Time sequence prediction models predicted that the number of midlife individuals would increase in future 10,20,30 years,and P.euphratica population grew steadily as a result of rich saplings.

  1. Pharmacological potential of Populus nigra extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadjet Debbache-Benaida; Dina Atmani-Kilani; Valrie Barbara Schini-Keirth; Nouredine Djebbli; Djebbar Atmani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities of Populus nigra flower buds ethanolic extract. Methods: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed using respectively the ABTS test and the animal model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Protection from hepatic toxicity caused by aluminum was examined by histopathologic analysis of liver sections. Vasorelaxant effect was estimated in endothelium-intact and-rubbed rings of porcine coronary arteries precontracted with high concentration of U46619. Results:The results showed a moderate antioxidant activity (40%), but potent anti-inflammatory activity (49.9%) on carrageenan-induced mice paw edema, and also as revealed by histopathologic examination, complete protection against AlCl3-induced hepatic toxicity. Relaxant effects of the same extract on vascular preparation from porcine aorta precontracted with high concentration of U46619 were considerable at 10-1 g/L, and comparable (P>0.05) between endothelium-intact (67.74%, IC50=0.04 mg/mL) and-rubbed (72.72%, IC50=0.075 mg/mL) aortic rings. Conclusions: The extract exerted significant anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities, the latter being endothelium-independent believed to be mediated mainly by the ability of components present in the extract to exert antioxidant properties, probably related to an inhibition of Ca2+influx.

  2. Duplication of Locus Coding of Malate Dehydrogenase in Populus tomentosa Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis was used to study crude enzyme extraction from young leaves of 234 clones of Populus tomentosa Carr. selected from nine provenances in North China. Ten enzyme systems were resolved. One hundred and fifty-six clones showing unusual allozyme band patterns at locus Mdh-1 were found. Three allozyme bands at locus Mdh-1 were 9:6:1 in concentration. Further studies on the electrophoretic patterns of ground mixed pollen extraction of 30 male clones selected at random from the 156 clones were conducted and it was found that allozyme bands at locus Mdh-1 were composed of two dark-stained bands and a weak band. Only one group of the malate dehydrogenase (MDH) zymogram composed of two bands was obtained from the electrophoretic segregation of pollen leachate of the same clones. A comparison of the electrophoretic patterns one another suggested that the locus Mdh-1 coding malate dehydrogenase in diploid species of P. tomentosa was duplicated. The duplicate gene locus possessed three same alleles and was located in mitochondria. The locus duplication of alleles coding malate dehydrogenase in P. tomentosa was discovered and reported for the first time.

  3. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses of poplar (Populus yunnanensis plantlets exposed to high temperature and drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantlets of Populus yunnanensis Dode were examined in a greenhouse for 48 h to analyze their physiological and proteomic responses to sustained heat, drought, and combined heat and drought. Compared with the application of a single stress, simultaneous treatment with both stresses damaged the plantlets more heavily. The plantlets experienced two apparent response stages under sustained heat and drought. During the first stage, malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS contents were induced by heat, but many protective substances, including antioxidant enzymes, proline, abscisic acid (ABA, dehydrin, and small heat shock proteins (sHSPs, were also stimulated. The plants thus actively defended themselves against stress and exhibited few pathological morphological features, most likely because a new cellular homeostasis was established through the collaborative operation of physiological and proteomic responses. During the second stage, ROS homeostasis was overwhelmed by substantial ROS production and a sharp decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, while the synthesis of some protective elements, such as proline and ABA, was suppressed. As a result, photosynthetic levels in P. yunnanensis decreased sharply and buds began to die, despite continued accumulation of sHSPs and dehydrin. This study supplies important information about the effects of extreme abiotic environments on woody plants.

  4. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  5. Flow regime effects on mature Populus fremontii (Fremont cottonwood) productivity on two contrasting dryland river floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    I compared riparian cottonwood (Populus fremontii) productivity-discharge relationships in a relictual stand along the highly regulated Green River and in a naturally functioning stand along the unregulated Yampa River in semiarid northwest Colorado. I used multiple regression to model flow effects on annual basal area increment (BAI) from 1982 to 2011, after removing any autocorrelation present. Each BAI series was developed from 20 trees whose mean size (67 cm diameter at breast height [DBH]) was equivalent in the two stands. BAI was larger in the Yampa River stand except in 2 y when defoliating leaf beetles were present there. I found no evidence for a Yampa flood-magnitude threshold above which BAI declined. Flow variables explained ∼45% of residual BAI variability, with most explained by current-year maximum 90-d discharge (QM90) in the Yampa River stand and by a measure of the year-to-year change in QM90 in the Green River stand. The latter reflects a management-imposed ceiling on flood magnitude—Flaming Gorge Dam power plant capacity—infrequently exceeded during the study period. BAI in the relictual stand began to trend upward in 1992 when flows started to mimic a natural flow regime. Mature Fremont cottonwoods appear to be ecologically resilient. Their productivity along regulated rivers might be optimized using multiyear environmental flow designs.

  6. White poplar (Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trees can be used to monitor the level of pollution of trace elements in the soil and atmosphere. In this paper, we surveyed the content of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in leaves and stems of white poplar (Populus alba) trees. We selected 25 trees in the riparian forest of the Guadiamar River (S. Spain), one year after this area was contaminated by a mine spill, and 10 trees in non-affected sites. The spill-affected soils had significantly higher levels of available cadmium (mean of 1.25 mg kg-1), zinc (117 mg kg-1), lead (63.3 mg kg-1), copper (58.0 mg kg-1) and arsenic (1.70 mg kg-1), than non-affected sites. The concentration of trace element in poplar leaves was positively and significantly correlated with the soil availability for cadmium and zinc, and to a lesser extent for arsenic (log-log relationship). Thus, poplar leaves could be used as biomonitors for soil pollution of Cd and Zn, and moderately for As

  7. The yield of natural trembling aspen (populus tremula L.) stands (northern and eastern anatolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremula L.) is one of the most resistant to cold natural species in Turkey. In spite of its importance, there is no research on the yield. Hence, site productivity was determined and yield Table for undisturbed natural trembling aspen stands in Turkey was developed. Data were obtained from a total of 46 plots ranging in age from 17 to 82 years. Yield Table indicates that trembling aspen is very slow growing in young and middle age and Current Annual Increment (CAI) and Mean Annual Increment (MAI) values do not reach its maximum value, even at age 70. This is a proof that trembling aspen is not a fast growing species as expected. The reason for its slow growth is attributed to very short period of growth at very high altitudes. However, in the event of 50 years rotation age, mean annual volume increments of 8.0, 3.6 and 1.1 m3 are estimated for trembling aspen for site classes I, II and III, respectively. At extended rotations, trees of pole sizes could be obtained on all site classes. (author)

  8. Improved salt tolerance of Populus davidiana × P. bolleana overex-pressed LEA from Tamarix androssowii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanshuang Sun; Su Chen; Haijiao Huang; Jing Jiang; Shuang Bai; Guifeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Development of transgenic plants with tolerance to environ-mental stress is an important goal of plant biotechnology. Late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate in seeds dur-ing late embryogenesis, where they protect cellular membranes and macromolecules against drought. In this work, we transferred the Tamarix androssowii LEA gene into hybrids of Populus davidiana×P. bolleana. We compared relative rates of height growth, chlorophyll fluo-rescence kinetic parameters, and leaf Na+ levels of six TaLEA-containing lines with non-transferred plants (NT), all grown under 0.8% NaCl stress condition. Survival percentages of transgenic lines were all higher than for NT controls after rehydration and the sur-vival percentage of SL2 was five-fold higher than for NT controls. Seed-ling height increased 48.7%in SL2 (from the onset of induced stress to the end of the growing season), 31% more than for the NT controls. Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters showed a marked increase in photosynthetic capacity in SL2 and SL5. Na+levels in young leaves of transgenic lines were lower than in control NT leaves, but higher in yel-low and withered leaves, indicating improved salt tolerance in transgenic lines.

  9. Urbanization-related changes in European aspen (Populus tremula L.): Leaf traits and litter decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated foliar and litter responses of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) to urbanization, including factors such as increased temperature, moisture stress and nitrogen (N) deposition. Leaf samples were collected in 2006-2008 from three urban and three rural forest stands in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, southern Finland, and reciprocal litter transplantations were established between urban and rural sites. Urban leaves exhibited a higher amount of epicuticular waxes and N concentration, and a lower C:N ratio than rural ones, but there was no difference in specific leaf area. Urban litter had a slightly higher N concentration, lower concentrations of lignin and total phenolics, and was more palatable to a macrofaunal decomposer. Moreover, litter decay was faster at the urban site and for urban litter. Urbanization thus resulted in foliar acclimatization in terms of increased amount of epicuticular waxes, as well as in accelerated decomposition of the N-richer leaf litter. - Urbanization can modify leaf traits of aspen and accelerate litter decomposition through changes in litter traits as well as in environmental conditions at the decomposition site.

  10. Adaptive mechanisms and genomic plasticity for drought tolerance identified in European black poplar (Populus nigra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, Maud; Smith, Hazel K; Cohen, David; Dewoody, Jennifer; Trewin, Harriet; Steenackers, Marijke; Bastien, Catherine; Taylor, Gail

    2016-07-01

    Summer droughts are likely to increase in frequency and intensity across Europe, yet long-lived trees may have a limited ability to tolerate drought. It is therefore critical that we improve our understanding of phenotypic plasticity to drought in natural populations for ecologically and economically important trees such as Populus nigra L. A common garden experiment was conducted using ∼500 wild P. nigra trees, collected from 11 river populations across Europe. Phenotypic variation was found across the collection, with southern genotypes from Spain and France characterized by small leaves and limited biomass production. To examine the relationship between phenotypic variation and drought tolerance, six genotypes with contrasting leaf morphologies were subjected to a water deficit experiment. 'North eastern' genotypes were collected at wet sites and responded to water deficit with reduced biomass growth, slow stomatal closure and reduced water use efficiency (WUE) assessed by Δ(13)C. In contrast, 'southern' genotypes originating from arid sites showed rapid stomatal closure, improved WUE and limited leaf loss. Transcriptome analyses of a genotype from Spain (Sp2, originating from an arid site) and another from northern Italy (Ita, originating from a wet site) revealed dramatic differences in gene expression response to water deficit. Transcripts controlling leaf development and stomatal patterning, including SPCH, ANT, ER, AS1, AS2, PHB, CLV1, ERL1-3 and TMM, were down-regulated in Ita but not in Sp2 in response to drought. PMID:27174702

  11. Genomic diversity, population structure, and migration following rapid range expansion in the Balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephen R; Olson, Matthew S; Silim, Salim; Schroeder, William; Tiffin, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Rapid range expansions can cause pervasive changes in the genetic diversity and structure of populations. The postglacial history of the Balsam Poplar, Populus balsamifera, involved the colonization of most of northern North America, an area largely covered by continental ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. To characterize how this expansion shaped genomic diversity within and among populations, we developed 412 SNP markers that we assayed for a range-wide sample of 474 individuals sampled from 34 populations. We complemented the SNP data set with DNA sequence data from 11 nuclear loci from 94 individuals, and used coalescent analyses to estimate historical population size, demographic growth, and patterns of migration. Bayesian clustering identified three geographically separated demes found in the Northern, Central, and Eastern portions of the species' range. These demes varied significantly in nucleotide diversity, the abundance of private polymorphisms, and population substructure. Most measures supported the Central deme as descended from the primary refuge of diversity. Both SNPs and sequence data suggested recent population growth, and coalescent analyses of historical migration suggested a massive expansion from the Centre to the North and East. Collectively, these data demonstrate the strong influence that range expansions exert on genomic diversity, both within local populations and across the range. Our results suggest that an in-depth knowledge of nucleotide diversity following expansion requires sampling within multiple populations, and highlight the utility of combining insights from different data types in population genomic studies. PMID:20163548

  12. In Silico Identification and Characterization of N-Terminal Acetyltransferase Genes of Poplar (Populus trichocarpa

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    Hang-Yong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nats complex is responsible for protein N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation, which is one of the most common covalent modifications of eukaryotic proteins. Although genome-wide investigation and characterization of Nat catalytic subunits (CS and auxiliary subunits (AS have been conducted in yeast and humans they remain unexplored in plants. Here we report on the identification of eleven genes encoding eleven putative Nat CS polypeptides, and five genes encoding five putative Nat AS polypeptides in Populus. We document that the expansion of Nat CS genes occurs as duplicated blocks distributed across 10 of the 19 poplar chromosomes, likely only as a result of segmental duplication events. Based on phylogenetic analysis, poplar Nat CS were assigned to six subgroups, which corresponded well to the Nat CS types (CS of Nat A–F, being consistent with previous reports in humans and yeast. In silico analysis of microarray data showed that in the process of normal development of the poplar, their Nat CS and AS genes are commonly expressed at one relatively low level but share distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. This exhaustive survey of Nat genes in poplar provides important information to assist future studies on their functional role in poplar.

  13. Effects of Planting Density on Growth of New Clones in Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zihui; Zhang Zhiyi; Lin Shanzhi; Li Xinguo

    2003-01-01

    Effects of seven planting densities on the growth and tree form of nine 5-year-old new clones in Populus tomentosa were studied. The plantations, arranged with completely random block design, were located in Wuzhi County, Henan Province. Results indicated that effects of planting density on the diameter at breast height (DBH), individual volume and growing stock increment of all new clones in P. tomentosa were significant at the 1% level of probability, effects of planting density on the tree height increment of new clones B2 and B31 and on the live branches height (LBH) increment of new clones B5 and B30 were significant at the 5% level of probability, while the interaction between planting density and clone was not significant at the 5% level of probability. It was concluded that the degree of differences among new clones within the same planting density was different with different planting densities and traits. For short rotation industrial timber, clones B1, B3, B4, B5, B7, B9, B31 were suitable with the density of 1 000-2 500 trees per hectare, while for bigger diameter timber, clones B1, B3, B4, B7, B9, B31 could be used with the planting density of 660-833 trees per hectare. Clonal repeatability was also different in different planting densities.

  14. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POPLAR WOOD (POPULUS ALBA DRIED BY THREE KILN DRYING SCHEDULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahverdi,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three drying schedules on the selected mechanical properties of poplar wood (Populus alba L. was evaluated in terms of suitability for structural applications. For this purpose, 70 mm-thick poplar lumber was conventionally dried by three different moisture content based schedules of T5-D2, T5-D4, and T5-D6. In these schedules, the wet bulb depression was changed as a means of increasing of the drying intensity. After drying, the mechanical properties of the lumber, including bending properties (MOE and MOR, toughness, shear strength parallel to grain, and tensile strength perpendicular to grain, were measured. Results revealed that the severe drying schedule (T5-D6 caused higher reductions in the mechanical properties of the dried boards, particularly the MOE and MOR. Furthermore, toughness and tensile strength perpendicular to grain were not affected by the increasing of the wet bulb depression. The influence of all the three adopted schedules on the mechanical properties was evaluated using the drying rate, final moisture content gradient, and qualitative characteristics of the dried boards.

  15. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF TETRA ACETYL ETHYLENE DIAMINE ACTIVATED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF POPULUS NIGRA CTMP

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    Qiang Zhao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the bleaching efficiency, the activator of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED was used in conventional H2O2 bleaching. The H2O2/TAED bleaching system can accelerate the reaction rate and shorten bleaching time at relative low temperature, which can reduce the production cost. In this research, the process with hydrogen peroxide activated by TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp was optimized. Suitable bleaching conditions were confirmed as follows: pulp consistency 10%, bleaching temperature 70oC, bleaching time 60 min when the charge of H2O2 was 4%, NaOH charge 2%, and molar ratio of TAED to H2O2 0.3. The pulp brightness gain reached 23.6% ISO with the optimized bleaching conditions. FTIR analysis indicated that the H2O2/TAED bleaching system can decrease carbonyl group further than that of conventional H2O2 bleaching, which contributed to the higher bleaching efficiency and final brightness. The H2O2/TAED bleaching had stronger oxidation ability on lignin than that of H2O2 bleaching.

  16. Map and analysis of microsatellites in the genome of Populus: The first sequenced perennial plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; ShuXian; YIN; TongMing

    2007-01-01

    We mapped and analyzed the microsatellites throughout 284295605 base pairs of the unambiguously assembled sequence scaffolds along 19 chromosomes of the haploid poplar genome. Totally, we found 150985 SSRs with repeat unit lengths between 2 and 5 bp. The established microsatellite physical map demonstrated trat SSRs were distributed relatively evenly across the genome of Populus. On average, These SSRs occurred every 1883 bp within the poplar genome and the SSR densities in intergenic regions, introns, exons and UTRs were 85.4%, 10.7%, 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively. We took di-, tri-, tetra-and pentamers as the four classes of repeat units and found that the density of each class of SSRs decreased with the repeat unit lengths except for the tetranucleotide repeats. It was noteworthy that the length diversification of microsatellite sequences was negatively correlated with their repeat unit length and the SSRs with shorter repeat units gained repeats faster than the SSRs with longer repeat units. We also found that the GC content of poplar sequence significantly correlated with densities of SSRs with uneven repeat unit lengths (tri- and penta-), but had no significant correlation with densities of SSRs with even repeat unit lengths (di- and tetra-). In poplar genome, there were evidences that the occurrence of different microsatellites was under selection and the GC content in SSR sequences was found to significantly relate to the functional importance of microsatellites.

  17. Influence of climatic factors on fruit morphological traits in Populus euphratica Oliv.

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    Azam Soleimani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Populus euphratica Oliv. is a native species in arid and semi- arid zone of Iran distributing naturally in the vast regions. We studied the variation in fruit morphological traits in P. euphratica trees originating from seven provenances of Iran. P. euphratica samples were prepared from Karaj Research Station. In this study, catkin length, number of capsules in each catkin, capsule length, capsule width, capsule length to capsule width ratio, number of seeds in each capsule, seed length, seed width, seed length to seed width ratio, the weight of 1000 seeds and germination rate were measured. Analysis of variance on all morphological traits except germination showed significant differences (P < 0.05 among provenances. In addition, positive significant correlations were observed in some of the fruit morphological traits. Capsule length, seed length and number of seeds in each capsule showed a significant positive correlation with mean annual  precipitation, mean annual temperature and longitude. Seed width showed a significant negative correlation with longitude and latitude. The results show that morphological fruit characteristics in P. euphratica are mainly influenced by the mean annual temperature of the origins.

  18. Deep annotation of Populus trichocarpa microRNAs from diverse tissue sets.

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    Joshua R Puzey

    Full Text Available Populus trichocarpa is an important woody model organism whose entire genome has been sequenced. This resource has facilitated the annotation of microRNAs (miRNAs, which are short non-coding RNAs with critical regulatory functions. However, despite their developmental importance, P. trichocarpa miRNAs have yet to be annotated from numerous important tissues. Here we significantly expand the breadth of tissue sampling and sequencing depth for miRNA annotation in P. trichocarpa using high-throughput smallRNA (sRNA sequencing. miRNA annotation was performed using three individual next-generation sRNA sequencing runs from separate leaves, xylem, and mechanically treated xylem, as well as a fourth run using a pooled sample containing vegetative apices, male flowers, female flowers, female apical buds, and male apical and lateral buds. A total of 276 miRNAs were identified from these datasets, including 155 previously unannotated miRNAs, most of which are P. trichocarpa specific. Importantly, we identified several xylem-enriched miRNAs predicted to target genes known to be important in secondary growth, including the critical reaction wood enzyme xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase and vascular-related transcription factors. This study provides a thorough genome-wide annotation of miRNAs in P. trichocarpa through deep sRNA sequencing from diverse tissue sets. Our data significantly expands the P. trichocarpa miRNA repertoire, which will facilitate a broad range of research in this major model system.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of BURP domain-containing genes in Populus trichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuanhua; Wei, Guo; Wang, Ling; Dong, Qing; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Beijiu; Xiang, Yan

    2011-09-01

    BURP domain-containing proteins have a conserved structure and are found extensively in plants. The functions of the proteins in this family are diverse, but remain unknown in Populus trichocarpa. In the present study, a complete genome of P. trichocarpa was analyzed bioinformatically. A total of 18 BURP family genes, named PtBURPs, were identified and characterized according to their physical positions on the P. trichocarpa chromosomes. A phylogenetic tree was generated from alignments of PtBURP protein sequences, while phylogenetic relationships were also examined between PtBURPs and BURP family genes in other plants, including rice, soybean, maize and sorghum. BURP genes in P. trichocarpa were classified into five classes, namely PG1β-like, BNM2-like, USP-like, RD22-like and BURP V. The multiple expectation maximization for motif elicitation (MEME) and multiple protein sequence alignments of PtBURPs were also performed. Results from the transcript level analyses of 10 PtBURP genes under different stress conditions revealed the expression patterns in poplar and led to a discussion on genome duplication and evolution, expression profiles and function of PtBURP genes. PMID:21767343

  20. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Khaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticum vulgare (Wheat based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar. During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed’s germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  1. Sexually different physiological responses of Populus cathayana to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Hongxia; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that there are significant sexual differences in the morphological and physiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehder under stressful conditions. However, little is known about sex-specific differences in responses to nutrient deficiencies. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies on the morphological, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural traits of P. cathayana males and females were investigated. The results showed that N and P deficiencies significantly decreased plant growth, foliar N and P contents, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and instantaneous photosynthetic N- and P-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) in both sexes. Males had higher photosynthesis, higher PNUE and PPUE rates, and a lower accumulation of plastoglobules in chloroplasts than did females when exposed to N- and P-deficiency conditions. Nitrogen-deficient males had higher glutamate dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities, and a more intact chloroplast ultrastructure, but less starch accumulation than did N-deficient females. Phosphorus-deficient males had higher nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and acid phosphatase activities, but a lower foliar N : P ratio and less PSII damage than did P-deficient females. These results suggest that N and P deficiencies cause greater negative effects on females than on males, and that the different sexes of P. cathayana may employ different strategies to cope with N and P deficiencies. PMID:24739232

  2. Assessment of Rhizospheric Microorganisms of Transgenic Populus tomentosa with Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor (CpTI) Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To have a preliminary insight into biosafety of genetically transformed hybrid triploid poplars (Populus tomentosa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa with the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) gene, two layers of rhizospheric soil (from 0 to 20 cm deep and from 20 to 40 cm deep, respectively) were collected for microorganism culture, counting assay and PCR analysis to assess the potential impact of transgenic poplars on non-target microorganism population and transgene dispersal. When the same soil layer of suspension stock solution was diluted at both 1:1 000 and 1:10 000 rates, there were no significant differences in bacterium colony numbers between the inoculation plates of both transgenic and non-transgenic poplars. The uniform results were revealed for both soil layer suspension solutions of identical poplars at both dilution rates except for non-transgenic poplars at 1:10 000 dilution rates from the same type of soil. No significant variation in morphology of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was observed under the microscope. The potential transgene dispersal from root exudates or fallen leaves to non-target microbes was repudiated by PCR analysis, in which no CpTI gene specific DNA band was amplified for 15 sites of transgenic rhizospheric soil samples. It can be concluded that transgenic poplar with the CpTI gene has no severe impact on rhizospheric microorganisms and is tentatively safe to surrounding soil micro-ecosystem.

  3. Drying Kinetics of Poplar (Populus Deltoides Wood Particles by a Convective Thin Layer Dryer

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    Hamid Zarea Hosseinabadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying of poplar wood (Populus Deltoides particles was carried out at different drying conditions using a laboratory convective thin layer dryer. Drying curves were plotted and in order to analyze the drying behavior, the curves were fi tted to different semi-theoretical drying kinetics models. The effective moisture diffusivity was also determined from the integrated Fick’s second law equation and correlated with temperature using an Arrhenius- type model to calculate activation energy of diffusion. The results showed that Midilli et al. model was found to satisfactorily describe the drying characteristics of poplar wood particles dried at all temperatures and air flow velocities. In general, the drying rate increases with increasing air temperature and air fl ow velocity. A short constant drying rate period was observed and drying frequently took place at falling rate period in all cases. The effective moisture diffusivity of poplar wood particles increased from 1.01E-10 to 2.53E-10 m2·s-1 as the drying air temperature increased from 65 to 85 °C. The activation energy of diffusion for 1 m·s-1 and 1.5 m·s-1 air flow velocities were calculated as 27.8 kJ·mol-1 and 50.8 kJ·mol-1, respectively.

  4. Temperature Evolution in Poplar (Populus nigra Tension Wood and Normal Wood during a Conventional Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar TARMIAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, temperature evolution through tension wood and normal wood in poplar (Populus nigra under a convective drying condition was investigated. Flat-sawn boards with green dimensions 80�40�25 mm were dried at constant dry-bulb temperature of 60�C and relative humidity (RH of 50% to a final moisture content of about 8%. They were coated on four surfaces using aluminum foil bonded with polyurethane (PU glue to confine moisture movement along the board thickness. The measurement of board temperature was carried out at 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mm along the board thickness every 20 minutes by means of 1 mm-thermocouples. The pattern of temperature profile was observed to be almost similar for both tension wood and normal wood. However, a slightly steeper temperature gradient occurred in the normal wood compared to the tension wood. In both types of woods, the surface temperature rose progressively from the initial value to the dry-bulb temperature but the core temperature remained at an almost constant value as the wet-bulb temperature even at the end of drying.

  5. Comparison of stomatal characteristics and photosynthesis of polymorphic Populus euphratica leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Caixia; QIU Jian; JIANG Chunning; YUE Ning; WANG Xiuqin; WANG Wanfu

    2007-01-01

    The leaf shapes of adult Populus euphratica vary from lanceolate to dentate broad-ovate.In order to find the mechanism regarding the ecological adaptation of the polymorphic leaves,the dentate broad-ovate,broad-ovate,and lanceolate leaves were chosen to study their stomatal and photosynthetic characteristics.It is observed that the stomas on the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the same leaves open non-uniformly with similar densities.The stomatal densities are different among the three typical leaves,which decrease from broad-ovate to lanceolate leaves.Their stomatal sunken degree varied obviously,decreasing from broad-ovate to lanceolate leaves.The changes of the diurnal photosynthetic rate of the three typical leaves follow a single peak curve.The mean diurnal photosynthetic rates of these leaves rank from high to low as broad-ovate>dentate broad-ovate>lanceolate leaves.The light compensation points are similar in the three typical leaves,while the light saturation points vary obviously.The efficiency of solar energy conversion and potential activity of the PSⅡ in the leaves differ significantly,with the dentate broad-ovate leaves the highest.The results suggest that their leaf shapes,anatomic structures,and photosynthetic characteristics change during the leaf development.

  6. Population genetics of freeze tolerance among natural populations of Populus balsamifera across the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mitra; Barnes, William J; Olson, Matthew S

    2015-08-01

    Protection against freeze damage during the growing season influences the northern range limits of plants. Freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance are the two major freeze resistance strategies. Winter survival strategies have been extensively studied in perennials, but few have addressed them and their genetic basis during the growing season. We examined intraspecific phenotypic variation in freeze resistance of Populus balsamifera across latitude and the growing season. To investigate the molecular basis of this variation, we surveyed nucleotide diversity and examined patterns of gene expression in the poplar C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene family. Foliar freeze tolerance exhibited latitudinal and seasonal variation indicative of natural genotypic variation. CBF6 showed signatures of recent selective sweep. Of the 46 SNPs surveyed across the six CBF homologs, only CBF2_619 exhibited latitudinal differences consistent with increased freeze tolerance in the north. All six CBF genes were cold inducible, but showed varying patterns of expression across the growing season. Some Poplar CBF homologs exhibited patterns consistent with historical selection and clinal variation in freeze tolerance documented here. However, the CBF genes accounted for only a small amount of the variation, indicating that other genes in this and other molecular pathways likely play significant roles in nature. PMID:25809016

  7. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiainen, Katri; Saranpää, Pekka; Lundqvist, Sven-Olof; Kubiske, Mark E; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2014-06-01

    We studied the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 on radial growth and wood properties of four trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) saplings. The material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander (WI, USA). Trees had been exposed to four treatments [control, elevated CO2 (560 ppm), elevated O3 (1.5 times ambient) and combined CO2 + O3 ] during growing seasons 1998-2008. Most treatment responses were observed in the early phase of experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport. Under elevated CO2, radial growth was enhanced and the trees had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger diameter vessels. In contrast, elevated O3 decreased radial growth and the diameters of vessels and fibres. Clone-specific decrease in wood density and cell wall thickness was observed under elevated CO2 . In birch, the treatments had no major impacts on wood anatomy or wood density. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses. PMID:24372544

  8. Characteristics and dynamics analysis of Populus euphratica populations in the middle reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Populus euphratica Oliv. is widely distributed along the Tarim River. Maintaining stability of P. euphratica population is important to local development. This study explored the static life table, survivorship curves and four function curves (survival rate, cumulative mortality rate, mortality density, and hazard rate), and development index of P. euphratica population in the middle reaches of Tarim River. The results indicated that the age structure of P. euphratica population belonged to positive pyramidal type, which meant young age-class individuals occupied most populations. The number ofⅠ-Ⅱage classes accounted for 66.2% of whole population, and this indicated that there were abundant subsequent seedlings resources to support the growth of P. euphratica population in the middle reaches of Tarim River. The survivorship curve of P. euphratica belonged to the Deevey Ⅲ (concave-type) and the development index was 47.72%. Four function curves revealed that the individuals of P. euphratica sharply decreased at the initial stage and then leveled off at the late stage of survival curve. Time sequence prediction models predicted that the number of midlife individuals would increase in future 10, 20, 30 years, and P. euphratica population grew steadily as a result of rich saplings.

  9. Water stress induces changes in polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity in poplar plants (Populus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tumbas-Šaponjac, V; Čanadanović-Brunet, J; Orlović, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper is aimed to characterize young poplar plants under the influence of water stress provoked by polyethileneglycol 6000 (PEG 6000). Three polar genotypes (M1, B229, and PE19/66) were grown in hydroponics and subjected to 100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000 during six days. Polyphenol characterization, two enzymatic markers and antioxidant capacity in leaves and roots were investigated in stressed plants. Total phenol content, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and DPPH antiradical power (DPPH ARP) were determined for estimating total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were determined as enzymatic markers. Polyphenol characterization of poplar samples was performed by HPLC-PDA analysis. All results were subjected to correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Inspite of the decrease of total phenol content in investigated genotypes, as well as total antioxidant capacity, some of polyphenols were affected by stress like flavonoids chrysin, myricetine, kaempferol and isoferulic acid in roots of B229 genotype (Populus deltoides). Genotype B229 also showed the increase of antioxidant capacity and PAL activity in root and leaves under stress what could be the indicator of the adaptability of poplar plants to water stress. Significant positive correlations were obtained between PAL, antioxidant capacity as well as phenolic acids among themselves. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between flavonoids, FRAP, DPPH antiradical power and both investigated enzymes of polyphenol metabolism, PAL and PPO. PMID:27116372

  10. Degradation of exogenous caffeine by Populus alba and its effects on endogenous caffeine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierattini, Erika C; Francini, Alessandra; Raffaelli, Andrea; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-04-01

    This is the first study reporting the presence of endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in all organs of poplar plants. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used in order to evaluate the uptake, translocation, and metabolism of caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) in Populus alba L. Villafranca clone grown in hydroponic conditions. We investigated the remediation of caffeine since it is one of the most widely consumed drugs and it is frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface water, and groundwater worldwide. Our results demonstrated that poplar can absorb and degrade exogenous caffeine without negative effects on plant health. Data showed that concentrations of all endogenous compounds varied depending on caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) treatments. In particular, in control conditions, endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were mainly distributed in roots. On the other hand, once caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) was provided, this compound and its dimethy-(13)C metabolites are mainly localized at leaf level. In conclusion, our results support the possible use of Villafranca clone in association with other water treatment systems in order to complete the process of caffeine remediation. PMID:26681326

  11. [Simulation of soil water dynamics in triploid Populus tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ben-Ye; Jia, Li-Ming; Wang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2011-01-01

    Based on the observed data of triploid Populus tomentosa root distribution, a one-dimensional root water uptake model was proposed. Taking the root water uptake into account, the soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation was simulated by using HYDRUS model, and the results were validated with field experiment. Besides, the HYDRUS model was used to study the effects of various irrigation technique parameters on soil wetting patterns. The RMAE for the simulated soil water content by the end of irrigation and approximately 24 h later was 7.8% and 6.0%, and the RMSE was 0.036 and 0.026 cm3 x cm(-3), respectively, illustrating that the HYDRUS model performed well in simulating the short-term soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under drip irrigation, and the root water uptake model was reasonable. Comparing with 2 and 4 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and continuous irrigation, both the 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and the pulsed irrigation with water applied intermittently in 30 min periods could increase the volume of wetted soil and reduce deep percolation. It was concluded that the combination of 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and pulsed irrigation should be the first choice when applying drip irrigation to triploid P. tomentosa root zone at the experiment site. PMID:21548283

  12. Molecular and dendrochronological analysis of natural root grafting in Populus tremuloides (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínková, Hana; Tremblay, Francine; Desrochers, Annie

    2009-08-01

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) is a clonal tree species, which regenerates mostly through root suckering. In spite of vegetative propagation, aspen maintains high levels of clonal diversity. We hypothesized that the maintenance of clonal diversity in this species can be facilitated by integrating different clones through natural root grafts into aspen's communal root system. To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed root systems of three pure aspen stands where clones had been delineated with the help of molecular markers. Grafting between roots was frequent regardless of their genotypes. Root system excavations revealed that many roots were still living below trees that had been dead for several years. Some of these roots had no root connections other than grafts to living ramets of different clones. The uncovered root systems did not include any unique genotypes that would not occur among stems. Nevertheless, acquiring roots of dead trees helps to maintain extensive root systems, which increases the chances of clone survival. Substantial interconnectivity within clones as well as between clones via interclonal grafts results in formation of large genetically diverse physiological units. Such a clonal structure can significantly affect interpretations of diverse ecophysiological processes in forests of trembling aspen. PMID:21628295

  13. Survey of Plant Drought-Resistance Promoting Bacteria from Populus euphratica Tree Living in Arid Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Ouyang, Liming; Ju, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yanbin

    2014-12-01

    Two hundred and thirty-two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Populus euphratica which is the dominant tree living in extreme arid regions in northwest China. Some strains with plant growth-promoting bacteria related metabolic characteristics were able to promote drought resistance in plants after inoculation. Ten strains with the greatest effects increased the dry weight of wheat shoots from 0.5 to 34.4 %, and the surface area of the root systems from 12.56 to 212.17 % compared to the control after drought treatment whereas no obvious promoting effect was observed in normal water conditions. These 10 strains were identified to be of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Stenotrophomonas and Serratia by 16S rRNA (rrs) gene sequence alignment. Among these strains, Serratia sp. 1-9 and Pseudomonas sp. 5-23 were the two most effective strains. Both of them produced auxin and the production increased significantly when cultured under simulated drought conditions which are inferred to be the most plausible mechanism for their plant growth-promoting effect under drought stress. PMID:25320440

  14. Ectopic expression of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene PtCYP714A3 from Populus trichocarpa reduces shoot growth and improves tolerance to salt stress in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiting; Yang, Yang; Wang, Haihai; Ran, Xiaojuan; Li, Bei; Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2016-09-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 714 protein family represents a unique group of CYP monooxygenase, which functions as a shoot-specific regulator in plant development through gibberellin deactivation. Here, we report the functional characterizations of PtCYP714A3, an OsCYP714D1/Eui homologue from Populus trichocarpa. PtCYP714A3 was ubiquitously expressed with the highest transcript level in cambium-phloem tissues, and was greatly induced by salt and osmotic stress in poplar. Subcellular localization analyses indicated that PtCYP714A3-YFP fusion protein was targeted to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression of PtCYP714A3 in the rice eui mutant could rescue its excessive-shoot-growth phenotype. Ectopic expression of PtCYP714A3 in rice led to semi-dwarfed phenotype with promoted tillering and reduced seed size. Transgenic lines which showed significant expression of PtCYP714A3 also accumulated lower GA level than did the wild-type (WT) plants. The expression of some GA biosynthesis genes was significantly suppressed in these transgenic plants. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt and maintained more Na(+) in both shoot and root tissues under salinity stress. All these results not only suggest a crucial role of PtCYP714A3 in shoot responses to salt toxicity in rice, but also provide a molecular basis for genetic engineering of salt-tolerant crops. PMID:26970512

  15. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  16. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Sandra; Naessens, Tania; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2006-04-21

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is developed to analyze the total saponin content, also referred to as the aescin content, in a herbal medicinal product (HMP) containing two dry extracts in capsules. The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients. After a purification step using C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the samples are analyzed on a silica-gel HPTLC plate with the upper layer of a mixture of acetic acid/water/butanol (10/40/50 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Spots are visualized by spraying with anisaldehyde reagent and heating the plate for 5-10 min (100-105 degrees C) and measured at a wavelength of 535 nm. This method, applicable for the quality control and stability investigation of both the Aesculus dry extract and HMP capsules thereof containing Vitis dry extract in combination with the Aesculus dry extract, is validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed assay method is specific for aescin in the presence of Vitis dry extract and formulation excipients. Analysis of stressed samples in forced degradation tests proves the method to be applicable for stability evaluation. The standard aescin curve is linear (r > 0.99) over a concentration range of 0.16-0.80 microg/spot. Recovery from the HMP capsules is statistically equal to 100%. The precision of the method with respect to time and concentration is acceptable, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.28 and 1.49%, respectively. PMID:16364347

  17. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  18. Nonspecific lipid-transfer protein genes expression in grape (vitis sp.) Cells in response to fungal elicitor treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gomès, Eric; Sagot, Emeric; Gaillard, Cécile; Laquitaine, Laurent; Poinssot, Benoît; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. Three cDNAs coding nsLTPs from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) were cloned by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR. The expression of nsLTP genes was investigated in 41B-rootstock grape cell suspension, in response to various defense-related signal molecules. Ergosterol (a fungi-specific sterol) and a proteinaceous elicitor puri...

  19. Two Poplar Glycosyltransferase Genes, PdGATL1.1 and PdGATL1.2, Are Functional Orthologs to PARVUS/AtGATL 1 in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhen Kong; Gongke Zhou; Utku Avci; Xiaogang Gu; Chelsea Jones; Yanbin Yin; Ying Xu; Michael G. Hahn

    2009-01-01

    Several genes in Arabidopsis, including PARVUS/AtGATL1, have been implicated in xylan synthesis. However, the biosynthesis of xylan in woody plants, where this polysaccharide is a major component of wood, is poorly understood. Here, we characterize two Populus genes, PdGATL1.1 and PdGATL1.2, the closest orthologs to the Arabidopsis PARVUS/GATL 1 gene, with respect to their gene expression in poplar, their sub-cellular localization, and their ability to complement the parvus mutation in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of the two poplar genes in the parvus mutant rescued most of the defects caused by the parvus mutation, including morphological changes, collapsed xylem, and altered cell wall mono-saccharide composition. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that PdGATL1.1 is expressed most strongly in developing xylem of poplar. In contrast, PdGATL1.2 is expressed much more uniformly in leaf, shoot tip, cortex, phloem, and xylem, and the transcript level of PdGATL1.2 is much lower than that of PdGATL1.1 in all tissues examined. Sub-cellular localization experi-ments showed that these two proteins are localized to both ER and Golgi in comparison with marker proteins resident to these sub-cellular compartments. Our data indicate that PdGATLI.1 and PdGATL1.2 are functional orthologs of PARVUS/ GATL1 and can play a role in xylan synthesis, but may also have role(s) in the synthesis of other wall polymers.

  20. A genomics investigation of partitioning into and among flavonoid-derived condensed tannins for carbon sequestration in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Scott, A; Tsai, Chung-jui; Lindroth, Richard, L

    2013-03-24

    The project set out to use comparative (genotype and treatment) and transgenic approaches to investigate the determinants of condensed tannin (CT) accrual and chemical variability in Populus. CT type and amount are thought to effect the decomposition of plant detritus in the soil, and thereby the sequestering of carbon in the soil. The stated objectives were: 1. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling (microarrays) to analyze structural gene, transcription factor and metabolite control of CT partitioning; 2. Transcriptomic (microarray) and chemical analysis of ontogenetic effects on CT and PG partitioning; and 3. Transgenic manipulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes to modify the control of CT composition. Objective 1: A number of approaches for perturbing CT content and chemistry were tested in Objective 1, and those included nitrogen deficit, leaf wounding, drought, and salicylic acid spraying. Drought had little effect on CTs in the genotypes we used. Plants exhibited unpredictability in their response to salicylic acid spraying, leading us to abandon its use. Reduced plant nitrogen status and leaf wounding caused reproducible and magnitudinally striking increases in leaf CT content. Microarray submissions to NCBI from those experiments are the following: GSE ID 14515: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 1979. Public on Jan 04, 2010; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 14893: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 3200. Public on Feb 19, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16783 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 1 week; clone RM5. Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16785 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 90 hours; clone RM5 Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C Although CT amount changed in response to treatments, CT composition was essentially

  1. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping for fruit skin anthocyanidin in grape (vitis vinifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an F1 population was created by the cross 87-1*9-22. The female parent 87-1 was a black purple cultivar and the male parent was an excellent breeding line with green pericarp. the skin color separation of population and distribution, and determined the content of each individual fruit peel pigment. On the basis of the genetic map of Vitis vinifera L. We carried out the grape skin pigment content quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. The results show that the fruit color performance for continuous variation and the inheritance of fruit skin anthocyanidin content was a quantitative inheritance. The color of offspring ranges from green and black-blue and existing distribution. Using SSR and SRAP molecular markers to construct 188 female parent maps,175 male parent maps and 251 consensus maps, and the total map distance is 1047.5 cM,1100.2 cM and 1264.2 cM respectively. The result of QTL showed that there were more QTLs exist in the linkage group of 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 14, 16 and 19 and in the linkage group of 3, 4, 13 and 14, we detected QTLs in the similar position with the result of the study in the year of 2011 and 2012, and based on this we will conduct the fine QTL location in the future, this result will lay a good foundation for the grape in the department of molecular assistant breeding in the future. (author)

  2. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  3. The combined effect of deuterium depleted water and magnetic nano particles on Vitis vinifera (L) organogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The combined effect of Deuterium Depleted Water (DDW) associated with Magnetic Nano Particles (MNPs) on organogenesis evolution of the Vitis vinifera (L) was investigated. A total of 10 cuttings of first year shoots belonging to three varieties were put into liquid medium (500 cm3 / jar) in three experimental groups and one control (C) each in four replications. The experiment was one year long being divided in two parts, laboratory and greenhouse conditions respectively. During the laboratory experiment, no nutrients were added in experimental solutions. The number of roots, sprouts and leafs were determined periodically. The capacity to perform organogenesis depended on genotype. Each of them pointed out a particular behaviour. In lab conditions the shoot number significantly differs in each variety/liquid composition (P≤0.001). In greenhouse condition on Burgund variety the shoot growth was very fast. In 90 pottings the shoots length varied from 7.36±1.88 to 14.39±4.53 cm in DDW and Negative Control (NC). The number of leafs after 3 months varied from 3.75±0.41 to 7.59±0.45 on Silvania NC and Socodor TW and MNPs respectively. The largest leaves area was 20.32±0.04 cm2 on Burgund variety in DDW conditions. The DDW and MNPs repressed the organogenesis on Silvania and Burgund varieties. The association DDW and MNPs enhanced the leaves area. Generally, the single action of DDW enhanced the plantlet traits and improved the chlorophyll content. The single action of DDW or in association with MNPs had a favourable influence in organogenesis, growth and synthesis of chlorophyll involved in metabolic activity. The deuterium amount decreased in leave juice if the plantlets grew in DDW presence. (authors)

  4. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  5. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boursiquot Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats, due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol, is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L. has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars.

  6. Regulated deficit irrigation as a water management strategy in Vitis vinifera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial six-year study in a commercial vineyard located in the Columbia River Valley of Washington State, United States of America, examined the management practices and potential benefits of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on Vitis vinifera cv. Sauvignon blanc. The objective of the treatments was to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation prior to, compared with after, veraison. Each of four irrigation treatments was applied to 1.6 ha and replicated four times for a total 27.0 ha. Irrigation treatments were based on desired soil moisture levels in the top metre of the profile where most of the root system is found. Soil moisture was monitored using a neutron probe and the information was combined with calculations of evaporative demand to determine the irrigation required on a weekly basis. Vine growth, yield, fruit quality and cold hardiness were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that RDI prior to veraison was effective in controlling shoot growth, as determined by shoot length and elongation rate, as well as pruning weights. Sixteen wine lots, each of approximately 12,000 litres, were prepared each season. Although there was some effect on berry weight, yield was not always significantly reduced. Full irrigation prior to veraison resulted in excessive shoot growth. RDI applied after veraison to vines with large canopies resulted in greater water deficit stress. Fruit quality was increased by pre-veraison RDI compared to postveraison RDI based on wines made. Regulated deficit irrigation applied at anytime resulted in better early-season lignification of canes and cold hardening of buds. There was a slight improvement in mid-winter cold hardiness of vines subjected to RDI. However, this effect was inconsistent. Studies on Cabernet Sauvignon and White Riesling are underway to confirm these results and to investigate the impact of RDI on fruit quality and winemaking practices. (author)

  7. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  8. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  9. Geochemical peculiarities of black poplar leaves (Populus nigra L.) in the sites with heavy metals intensive fallouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaltdinova, Albina; Baranovskaya, Natalya; Rikhvanov, Leonid; Matveenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the content of 28 chemical elements in the leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) growing in Ust-Kamenogorsk city area. It is the major industrial center of Kazakhstan Republic on the territory where the industrial giants of non-ferrous metallurgy and nuclear energy are situated. Comparative analysis with the similar data obtained from leaves ash of Populus nigra L. in Tomsk, Ekibastuz, and Pavlodar cities has revealed that in comparison with other urban areas, leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) from Ust-Kamenogorsk city is characterized by elevated concentration rates of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, As, Sb, Br, Sr and Na. Within the city, the sites and areas with abnormal contents of typomorphic pollutants have been revealed. In the central part of the city, in the vicinity of lead-zinc plant and Ulba metallurgical plant, the highest concentrations of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, Au, As, Sb, Cr and Fe were marked. In the northeast, where the titanium-magnesium plant is located, elevated concentrations of Br and Sr were stated. Thus, the impact of major city enterprises which are the main sources of heavy metals is reflected in the element composition. Zn, As, Sb, Ag and Au comes from lead-zinc plant and its refinery plants, while Ulba metallurgical plant can be considered source of Ta and U in the environment, producing tantalum and fuel pellets for nuclear power plants. These companies, due to the current objective circumstances, are located in the central part of the city, have a significant negative effect on the environment and form the risk factors for human health.

  10. Growth under field conditions affects lignin content and productivity in transgenic Populus trichocarpa with altered lignin biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the potential of transgenic Populus trichocarpa with antisense 4CL for reduced total lignin and sense Cald5H for increased S/G ratio in a short rotation woody cropping (SRWC) system for bioethanol production in the Southeast USA. Trees produced from tissue-culture were planted in the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Mountain regions of North Carolina, USA. Trees were observed for growth differences and biomass recorded for two coppices. Insoluble lignin and S/G ratio were determined by molecular beam mass spectroscopy after the second coppice. Survival, growth form, and biomass were very consistent within construct lines. Higher total lignin content and S/G ratio were positively correlated with total aboveground biomass. The low-lignin phenotype was not completely maintained in the field, with total lignin content increasing on average more than 30.0% at all sites by the second coppice The capacity to upregulate lignin in the event of environmental stress may have helped some low-lignin lines to survive. More research focused on promising construct lines in appropriate environmental conditions is needed to clarify if a significant reduction in lignin can be achieved on a plantation scale, and whether that reduction will translate into increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. - Highlights: • We evaluate growth of transgenic Populus in a short rotation system in Southeast USA. • Populus was transformed for reduced total lignin and increased S/G ratio. • Higher total lignin and S/G ratio were positively correlated with biomass. • Total lignin increased on average more than 30.0% at all sites by the second coppice. • Transgenics showed the capacity to upregulate lignin during environmental stress

  11. Response of Coarse Root Distribution of Populus euphratica Oliv. to Soil Moisture in Extreme Arid Region China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianlin; Feng, Qi; SI, Jianhua; CHANG, Zongqiang; Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Generally root systems of tree are divided into coarse root system and fine root system. As well as fine root system, coarse root system is important to well growth of tree too. Based on the data observed at Ejina Banner Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China from May to July of 2006, using fractal theory and statistical method, the relationship between coarse root system distribution of Populus euphratica Oliv. and soil moisture in root zone was analyzed. Root system of tree has a typical f...

  12. Isolation of protoplast from callus of Populus euphratica and H+ fluxes across plasma membrane under NaCl stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhun; Dai Song-xiang; Chen Shao-liang; Shen Xin; Wang Rui-gang

    2007-01-01

    We used callus of Populus euphratica Olive to isolate protoplasts, and H+ fluxes across plasma membrane were investigated. The concentration of enzymes for protoplast isolation, e.g. cellulase, pectolyase, macerozyme, hemicellulase, and sorbitol content, incubation time were systemically studied. High yield and viability of protoplast was achieved after 6-8 hours incubation of P. euphratica callus in enzyme solution containing 1.5% (w:v) cellulase R-10, 0.1% (w:v) pectolyase Y-23, 0.2% (w:v) macerozyme membrane of P. euphratica cells. The shift of H+ flux response to NaCl shock and the relevance to salt tolerance were discussed.

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis and Heavy Metal-Induced Expression Profiling of the HMA Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dandan; Xu, Xuemei; Hu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Quangang; Wang, Zhanchao; Zhang, Haizhen; Wang, Han; Wei, Ming; Wang, Hanzeng; Liu, Haimei; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal ATPase (HMA) family plays an important role in transition metal transport in plants. However, this gene family has not been extensively studied in Populus trichocarpa. We identified 17 HMA genes in P. trichocarpa (PtHMAs), of which PtHMA1–PtHMA4 belonged to the zinc (Zn)/cobalt (Co)/cadmium (Cd)/lead (Pb) subgroup, and PtHMA5–PtHMA8 were members of the copper (Cu)/silver (Ag) subgroup. Most of the genes were localized to chromosomes I and III. Gene structure, gene chromosomal ...

  14. Paxillus involutus mycorrhiza attenuate NaCl-stress responses in the salt-sensitive hybrid poplar Populus×canescens

    OpenAIRE

    Langenfeld-Heyser, R.; Gao, J.; Ducic, T.; Tachd, Ph.; Lu, C F; Fritz, E.; Gafur, Abdul; Polle, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In order to characterise the effect of ectomycorrhiza on Na+-responses of the salt-sensitive poplar hybrid Populus x canescens, growth and stress responses of Paxillus involutus (strain MAJ) were tested in liquid cultures in the presence of 20 to 500 mM NaCl, and the effects of mycorrhization on mineral nutrient accumulation and oxidative stress were characterised in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal poplar seedlings exposed to 150 mM NaCl. Paxillus involutus was salt tolerant, showing biomass ...

  15. Population genetic structure of Iberian white poplar (Populus alba L.): the role of mating system, hybridization and demographical history

    OpenAIRE

    Macaya Sanz, David

    2015-01-01

    El género Populus representa un caso interesante para el estudio de los sistemas reproductivos y de la evolución. En esta tesis se estudia su filogeografía y su estructura genética espacial en la Península Ibérica, su capacidad para la adaptación local a nivel molecular y fenotípico, el impacto que tiene la clonalidad y la hibridación y se aporta nueva información sobre el desarrollo de su incipiente cromosoma sexual y del hermafroditismo que a veces presenta. Se concluye que (i) ...

  16. Energy dynamics in Populus deltoides G3 Marsh agroforestry systems in eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency of Populus deltoides G3 Marsh agroforestry of a 3-year-old system with intercropping of maize-wheat in crop I and pigeonpea in crop II and of a 9-year-old system with turmeric, a shade loving crop was studied at Pusa, Bihar in eastern India. Energy fixation, storage, net allocation in agronomic yield and energy released and exit from the 9-year-old system was 1.53, 4.30, 0.43 and 3.37 times in crop I and 1.67, 4.60, 0.53 and 3.30 times in crop II of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy conservation efficiency in the 9-year-old system was higher (1.91%) as compared to crop I (1.24%) and crop II (1.15%) of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy accumulation ratio in the 9-year-old system was 2.82 and 2.77 times higher in crop I and crop II, respectively, of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The 3-year-old agroforestry system showed lower energy accumulation ratio resulting from less energy accumulation in perennial turnover in the from of leaf of tree and agricultural crops. The crop II system of the 3-year-old poplar agroforestry was more efficient system of management due to higher quanta of energy and higher cash return but one has to opt for shade loving intercrop turmeric with increase in age of the poplar plantation and more canopy closure

  17. Genetic variations and miRNA-target interactions contribute to natural phenotypic variations in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhui; Xie, Jianbo; Chen, Beibei; Quan, Mingyang; Li, Ying; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-10-01

    Variation in regulatory factors, including microRNAs (miRNAs), contributes to variation in quantitative and complex traits. However, in plants, variants in miRNAs and their target genes that contribute to natural phenotypic variation, and the underlying regulatory networks, remain poorly characterized. We investigated the associations and interactions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs and their target genes with phenotypes in 435 individuals from a natural population of Populus. We used RNA-seq to identify 217 miRNAs differentially expressed in a tension wood system, and identified 1196 candidate target genes; degradome sequencing confirmed 60 of the target sites. In addition, 72 miRNA-target pairs showed significant co-expression. Gene ontology (GO) term analysis showed that most of the genes in the co-regulated pairs participate in biological regulation. Genome resequencing found 5383 common SNPs (frequency ≥ 0.05) in 139 miRNAs and 31 037 SNPs in 819 target genes. Single-SNP association analyses identified 232 significant associations between wood traits (P ≤ 0.05) and SNPs in 102 miRNAs and 1387 associations with 478 target genes. Among these, 102 miRNA-target pairs associated with the same traits. Multi-SNP associations found 102 epistatic pairs associated with traits. Furthermore, a reconstructed regulatory network contained 12 significantly co-expressed pairs, including eight miRNAs and nine targets associated with traits. Lastly, both expression and genetic association showed that miR156i, miR156j, miR396a and miR6445b were involved in the formation of tension wood. This study shows that variants in miRNAs and target genes contribute to natural phenotypic variation and annotated roles and interactions of miRNAs and their target genes by genetic association analysis. PMID:27265357

  18. Energy dynamics in Populus deltoides G{sub 3} Marsh agroforestry systems in eastern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, O.P. [National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi (India); Das, D.K. [Rajendra Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Forestry, Bihar (India)

    2005-08-01

    Energy efficiency of Populus deltoides G{sub 3} Marsh agroforestry of a 3-year-old system with intercropping of maize-wheat in crop I and pigeonpea in crop II and of a 9-year-old system with turmeric, a shade loving crop was studied at Pusa, Bihar in eastern India. Energy fixation, storage, net allocation in agronomic yield and energy released and exit from the 9-year-old system was 1.53, 4.30, 0.43 and 3.37 times in crop I and 1.67, 4.60, 0.53 and 3.30 times in crop II of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy conservation efficiency in the 9-year-old system was higher (1.91%) as compared to crop I (1.24%) and crop II (1.15%) of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy accumulation ratio in the 9-year-old system was 2.82 and 2.77 times higher in crop I and crop II, respectively, of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The 3-year-old agroforestry system showed lower energy accumulation ratio resulting from less energy accumulation in perennial turnover in the form of leaf of tree and agricultural crops. The crop II system of the 3-year-old poplar agroforestry was more efficient system of management due to higher quanta of energy and higher cash return but one has to opt for shade loving intercrop turmeric with increase in age of the poplar plantation and more canopy closure. (Author)

  19. Sex-specific responses of Populus deltoides to Glomus intraradices colonization and Cd pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianghua; Zhang, Danju; Yang, Wanqin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Li; Gao, Shun

    2016-07-01

    The positive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) on the survival, growth and physiology of plants under various stress conditions have been widely recognized. However, whether sex-dependent susceptibility to AM colonization exists, which can induce a differential tolerance between the sexes to stress conditions, is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Glomus intraradices on Cd-stressed males and females of Populus deltoides (spiked with 10 mg Cd per kg dry substrate) in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ultrastructure, and toxin storage and translocation. Exposure to Cd promoted the colonization by G. intraradices in males, but not in females. Generally, females suffered more impairments than males in response to Cd stress, reflected by leaf symptoms, the extent of lipid peroxidation, and integrity of the cellular ultrastructure, whether they were inoculated or not. Inoculation with G. intraradices alleviated the phytotoxic effects of Cd in females by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, decreasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restricting Cd transfer to the shoots. In contrast, these beneficial effects induced by AM were not detected in mycorrhizal males compared to non-mycorrhizal males, based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and cellular ultrastructure. Inoculation with AM promoted Cd accumulation in males but not in females, and caused the sequestration of more toxic Cd in the root systems in both sexes. Therefore, our results suggest that inoculated males of P. deltoides are suitable candidates for phytostabilization in Cd-polluted soils, due to their higher accumulation ability and greater tolerance relative to inoculated females. PMID:27115844

  20. Structure and expression profile of the phosphate Pht1 transporter gene family in mycorrhizal Populus trichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth-Pereda, Verónica; Orsini, Elena; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lota, Frédéric; Kohler, Annegret; Diss, Loic; Blaudez, Damien; Chalot, Michel; Nehls, Uwe; Bucher, Marcel; Martin, Francis

    2011-08-01

    Gene networks involved in inorganic phosphate (Pi) acquisition and homeostasis in woody perennial species able to form mycorrhizal symbioses are poorly known. Here, we describe the features of the 12 genes coding for Pi transporters of the Pht1 family in poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Individual Pht1 transporters play distinct roles in acquiring and translocating Pi in different tissues of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal poplar during different growth conditions and developmental stages. Pi starvation triggered the up-regulation of most members of the Pht1 family, especially PtPT9 and PtPT11. PtPT9 and PtPT12 showed a striking up-regulation in ectomycorrhizas and endomycorrhizas, whereas PtPT1 and PtPT11 were strongly down-regulated. PtPT10 transcripts were highly abundant in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) roots only. PtPT8 and PtPT10 are phylogenetically associated to the AM-inducible Pht1 subfamily I. The analysis of promoter sequences revealed conserved motifs similar to other AM-inducible orthologs in PtPT10 only. To gain more insight into gene regulatory mechanisms governing the AM symbiosis in woody plant species, the activation of the poplar PtPT10 promoter was investigated and detected in AM of potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. These results indicated that the regulation of AM-inducible Pi transporter genes is conserved between perennial woody and herbaceous plant species. Moreover, poplar has developed an alternative Pi uptake pathway distinct from AM plants, allowing ectomycorrhizal poplar to recruit PtPT9 and PtPT12 to cope with limiting Pi concentrations in forest soils. PMID:21705655

  1. The adaptive potential of Populus balsamifera L. to phenology requirements in a warmer global climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Matthew S; Levsen, Nicholas; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Guy, Robert D; Schroeder, William R; Keller, Stephen R; Tiffin, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The manner in which organisms adapt to climate change informs a broader understanding of the evolution of biodiversity as well as conservation and mitigation plans. We apply common garden and association mapping approaches to quantify genetic variance and identify loci affecting bud flush and bud set, traits that define a tree's season for height growth, in the boreal forest tree Populus balsamifera L. (balsam poplar). Using data from 478 genotypes grown in each of two common gardens, one near the southern edge and another near the northern edge of P. balsamifera's range, we found that broad-sense heritability for bud flush and bud set was generally high (H(2) > 0.5 in most cases), suggesting that abundant genetic variation exists for phenological response to changes in the length of the growing season. To identify the molecular genetic basis of this variation, we genotyped trees for 346 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 27 candidate genes for the CO/FT pathway in poplar. Mixed-model analyses of variance identified SNPs in 10 genes to be associated with variation in either bud flush or bud set. Multiple SNPs within FRIGIDA were associated with bud flush, whereas multiple SNPs in LEAFY and GIGANTEA 5 were associated with bud set. Although there was strong population structure in stem phenology, the geographic distribution of multilocus association SNP genotypes was widespread except at the most northern populations, indicating that geographic regions may harbour sufficient diversity in functional genes to facilitate adaption to future climatic conditions in many sites. PMID:23094714

  2. Populus Responses to Edaphic and Climatic Cues: Emerging Evidence from Systems Biology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Davis, John M [University of Florida

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of Populus as a model system for tree biology continues to be driven by a community of scientists dedicated to developing the resources needed to undertake genetic and functional genomic studies in this genus. As a result, understanding the molecular processes that underpin the growth and development of cottonwood, aspen, and hybrid poplar has steadily increased over the last several decades. Recently, our ability to examine the basic mechanisms whereby trees respond to a changing climate and resource limitations has benefited greatly from the sequencing of the P. trichocarpa genome. This landmark event has laid a solid foundation upon which biologists can now quantify, in breathtaking and unprecedented detail, the diversity of genes, proteins, and metabolites that govern the growth and development of some of the longest living and tallest growing organisms on Earth. Although the challenges likely to be encountered by scientists who work with trees are many, recent literature provides a few examples where a systems approach, one that focuses on integrating transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, is beginning to provide insights into the molecular-scale response of poplars to their climatic and edaphic environment. In this review, our objectives are to look at evidence from studies that examine the molecular response of poplar to edaphic and climatic cues and highlight instances where two or more omic-scale measurements confirm and hopefully expand our inferences about mechanisms contributing to observed patterns of response. Based on conclusions drawn from these studies, we propose that three requirements will be essential as systems biology in poplar moves to reveal unique insights. These include use of genetically-defined individuals (e.g., pedigrees or transgenics) in studies; incorporation of modeling as a complement to transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data; and inclusion of whole-tree and stand-level phenotypes to place

  3. Nitrate and Ammonium Contribute to the Distinct Nitrogen Metabolism of Populus simonii during Moderate Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Meng

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stressor affecting plant growth. Salinity affects nitrification and ammonification in the soil, however, limited information is available on the influence of different N sources on N metabolism during salt stress. To understand the N metabolism changes in response to different N sources during moderate salt stress, we investigated N uptake, assimilation and the transcript abundance of associated genes in Populus simonii seedlings treated with moderate salt stress (75mM NaCl under hydroponic culture conditions with nitrate (NO3- or ammonium (NH4+. Salt stress negatively affected plant growth in both NH4+-fed and NO3--fed plants. Both NH4+ uptake and the total N concentration were significantly increased in the roots of the NH4+-fed plants during salt stress. However, the NO3- uptake and nitrate reductase (NR and nitrite reductase (NiR activity primarily depended on the NO3- supply and was not influenced by salt stress. Salt stress decreased glutamine synthetase (GS and glutamate synthase (GOGAT activity in the roots and leaves. Most genes associated with NO3-uptake, reduction and N metabolism were down-regulated or remained unchanged; while two NH4+ transporter genes closely associated with NH4+ uptake (AMT1;2 and AMT1;6 were up-regulated in response to salt stress in the NH4+-fed plants. The accumulation of different amino acid compounds was observed in the NH4+- and NO3-- fed plants during salt treatment. The results suggested that N metabolism in P. simonii plants exposed to salt enhanced salt resistance in the plants that were fed with NO3- instead of NH4+ as the sole N source.

  4. Responses of germination and radicle growth of two Populus species to water potential and salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zhang Xi-ming; Michael Runge; Li Xiao-ming; He Xing-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water potential, NaCl and Na2SO4 on germination and radicle growth of two riparian tree species, Populus euphratica Oliv. and P. pruinosa Schrenk (Salicaceae), were tested. Growth chamber studies revealed an optimum temperature range for seed germination of both species between 15-35℃. The final germination percentage of both species decreases with decreasing water potential in all types of solution applied in the experiments. P. pruinosa was less tolerant to low Ψw stress than P. euphratica,especially in salt solutions. Germination percentages fell below 20% for P. pruinosa at -0.6 MPa (NaCl) or -0.4 MPa (Na2SO4) and for P. euphratica at -1.2 MPa (NaCl) or -0.6 MPa (Na2SO4). Radicle growth of both species was inhibited by high concentrations of PEG, NaCl and Na2SO4. However, growth was enhanced at -0.13 and -0.29 MPa in PEG or at -0.13 MPa in NaCl solutions compared to distilled water. Radicle growth of P. euphratica was higher than that of P. pruinosa. Germination and radicle growth of both species exhibited ion toxicity. Na2SO4 was more toxic than iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl. Radicle growth proved to be more sensitive than seed germination. Thus, flooding does not only yield the necessary soil moisture for germination but also favors seedling establishment of both species through leaching of salts from the soil surface. The different sensitivity of the species during their early growth stages might, moreover, contribute to the observed differences in their distribution in the Talim Basin (northwest China).

  5. Leaf hydraulic conductance in relation to anatomical and functional traits during Populus tremula leaf ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasamaa, Krõõt; Niinemets, Ulo; Sõber, Anu

    2005-11-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) and several characteristics of hydraulic architecture and physiology were measured during the first 10 weeks of leaf ontogeny in Populus tremula L. saplings growing under control, mild water deficit or elevated temperature conditions. During the initial 3 weeks of leaf ontogeny, most measured characteristics rapidly increased. Thereafter, a gradual decrease in K(leaf) was correlated with a decrease in leaf osmotic potential under all conditions, and with increases in leaf dry mass per area and bulk modulus of elasticity under mild water deficit and control conditions. From about Week 3 onward, K(leaf) was 33% lower in trees subjected to mild water deficit and 33% higher in trees held at an elevated temperature relative to control trees. Mild water deficit and elevated temperature treatment had significant and opposite effects on most of the other characteristics measured. The ontogenetic maximum in K(leaf) was correlated positively with the width of xylem conduits in the midrib, but negatively with the overall width of the midrib xylem, number of lateral ribs, leaf dry mass per area and bulk modulus of elasticity. The ontogenetic maximum in K(leaf) was also correlated positively with the proportion of intercellular spaces and leaf osmotic potential, but negatively with leaf thickness, volume of mesophyll cells and epidermis and number of cells per total mesophyll cell volume, the closest relationships being between leaf osmotic potential and number of cells per total mesophyll cell volume. It was concluded that differences in protoplast traits are more important than differences in xylem or parenchymal cell wall traits in determining the variability in K(leaf) among leaves growing under different environmental conditions. PMID:16105808

  6. Evapotranspiration in a cottonwood (Populus fremontii) restoration plantation estimated by sap flow and remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P.; Jetton, A.; Fleming, J.; Didan, K.; Glenn, E.; Erker, J.; Morino, K.; Milliken, J.; Gloss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Native tree plantations have been proposed for the restoration of wildlife habitat in human-altered riparian corridors of western U.S. rivers. Evapotranspiration (ET) by riparian vegetation is an important, but poorly quantified, term in river water budgets. Native tree restoration plots will potentially increase ET. We used sap flow sensors and satellite imagery to estimate ET in a 8 ha, cottonwood (Populus fremontii) restoration plot on the Lower Colorado River. Biometric methods were used to scale leaf area to whole trees and stands of trees. This technique was used to validate our estimates of ET obtained by scaling from branch level to stand (or plot) level measurements of ET. Cottonwood trees used 6-10 mm day-1 of water during the peak of the growing season as determined by sap flow sensors, and annual rates scaled by time-series MODIS satellite imagery were approximately 1.2 m year-1. Although irrigation was not quantified, the field had been flood irrigated at 2 week intervals during the 3 years prior to the study, receiving approximately 2 m year-1 of water. A frequency-domain electromagnetic induction survey of soil moisture content showed that the field was saturated (26-28% gravimetric water content) at the 90-150 cm soil depth under the field. Trees were apparently rooted into the saturated soil, and considerable saving of water could potentially be achieved by modifying the irrigation regime to take into account that cottonwoods are phreatophytes. The study showed that cottonwood ET can be monitored by remote sensing methods calibrated with ground measurements with an accuracy or uncertainty of 20-30% in western riparian corridors. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of tree-crop intercropping on a young Populus tomentosa plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yuezhong; QIN Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the effect of tree crop intercropping on a young plantation ofPopulus tomentosa in the plains along the Yellow River,field experiments were conducted by observing the growth of the plantation,the nutrient content in leaves,the nutrient and water content in the soil,and the output of crops.The relationship between forest growth and nutrient content in the tree leaves and the soil were analyzed.Results show that tree crop intercropping in young plantations can not only improve soil water content,but also enhance the contents of organic matter and the available nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in soil resulting in the vigorous growth of the individual trees.Diameter at breast height (DBH) was positively related to the contents of organic matter in the soil,and the contents of N,P and K in the tree leaves had correlation coefficients of 0.967,0.955,0.988 and 0.972,respectively.Whole tree leaf area,crown width,number of branches and the mean length of branches in the intercropped plantation (intercropped with watermelon and vegetables,peanut and winter wheat,and soybean) were,respectively,1.70-3.0 times,2.22-2.47 times,1.0-1.41 times and 1.70-2.32 times of those of CK (without intercropping).Diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height in the intercropped plantation were 50.5%-136.7% and 27%-59.5% higher than those of the CK,respectively.The study also showed that intercropping with watermelon and vegetables proved to have the highest economic return among the treatments adopted.Tree crop intercropping in young plantations is an effective measure to increase forest growth and economic benefit.

  8. Changes in soil characteristics during landfill leachate irrigation of Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Vesna; Justin, Maja Zupančič

    2010-11-01

    The effects of wastewater application on electrical conductivity, water retention and water repellency of soils planted with Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) and irrigated with different concentrations of landfill leachate and compost wastewater, tap water and nutrient solution were evaluated. Substrate water content at field capacity (-0.033 MPa) and at permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa) was determined with a pressure plate extractor to assess available water capacity of the substrate. A water drop penetration test was used to determine substrate water repellency. The biomass of nutrient and landfill leachate treatments was significantly (Pfield capacity and at permanent wilting point. Landfill leachate significantly increased available water capacity (up to 52%); treatment with compost wastewater significantly decreased it (25-47%). All substrates showed increased water repellency after the experiment at field capacity and permanent wilting point comparing to the original substrate. The strongest influence on water repellency at both field capacity and permanent wilting point showed irrigation with compost wastewater and tap water. Pronounced influence on substrate's water repellency of compost wastewater could be contributed to a high content of dissolved organic carbon, whereas Mg and Ca cations caused flocculation and consequent water repellency of the substrate irrigated with tap water. The results indicate that soil physical characteristics must be closely monitored when landfill leachate and compost wastewater are used for irrigation to avoid long term detrimental effects on the soil, and consequently on the environment. Due to the complexity of the compost wastewater quality the latter should be applied on open fields only after prior pre-treatment to reduce dissolved organic carbons, or alternatively, compost wastewater should be added only intermittently and in diluted ratios. PMID:20554192

  9. Sex-specific responses of Populus yunnanensis exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu (Switzerland); Jianxun Luo, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu (Switzerland)); Korpelainen, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Populus yunnanensis Dode., a native dioecious woody plant in southwestern China, was employed as a model species to study sex-specific morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, salinity and their combination, the cuttings were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient CO{sub 2} and double ambient CO{sub 2}) and two salt treatments in growth chambers. Males exhibited greater downregulation of net photosynthesis rate (A{sub net}) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) than females at elevated CO{sub 2}, whereas these sexual differences were lessened under salt stress. On the other hand, salinity induced a higher decrease in Anet and CE, more growth inhibition and leaf Cl{sup -} accumulation and more damage to cell organelles in females than in males, whereas the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth were lessened at elevated CO{sub 2}. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} exacerbated membrane lipid peroxidation and organelle damage in females but not in males under salt stress. Our results indicated that: (1) females are more sensitive and suffer from greater negative effects than do males under salt stress, and elevated CO{sub 2} lessens the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth under salt stress; (2) elevated CO{sub 2} tends to aggravate the negative effects of salinity in females; and (3) sex-specific reactions under the combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity are distinct from single-stress responses. Therefore, these results provide evidence for different adaptive responses between plants of different sexes exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. (Author)

  10. Biomass accumulation and soil nitrogen availability in an 87-year-old Populus grandidentata chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L.L.; Zak, D.R.; Barnes, B.V.

    2004-01-01

    The Upper Lake States region is marked by major disturbances of fire and logging over 100 years ago that created a landscape mosaic of early successional forests. Given the intimate link between soil N availability and forest growth in this region, it is important to understand how temporal changes in soil N constrain the rate at which forest biomass accumulates following a stand-destroying disturbance. Bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.) currently dominates sites where primarily old-growth pine-hemlock-oak forests once thrived, which provides an opportunity to observe nearly 100 years of succession following severe disturbance. In this study, we examine the relationship between soil N availability and biomass accrual in a series of plots undergoing secondary succession following logging and burning. Our results demonstrate that total aboveground biomass and nitrogen accrual patterns are strongly and positively related on a highly disturbed, bigtooth aspen-dominated ecosystem in northern Lower Michigan. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification were highest immediately following disturbance, and then decreased over the next approximately 20 years of succession. Following this short-term decrease, these processes increased and attained a maximum value after 70 years of forest succession. Understory biomass accumulation showed the opposite trend of nutrient availability, with highest values during the first 20 years of succession, followed by a dramatic decrease for the next 70 years. Understory biomass began to decrease as plants grew into the overstory or died. Total aboveground biomass was correlated with N mineralization (r=0.894; P=0.041) and nitrification (r=0.782; P=0.118) and appears to be increasing steadily to some maximum that has not yet been reached. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual dimorphism floral microRNA profiling and target gene expression in andromonoecious poplar (Populus tomentosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuepeng Song

    Full Text Available Although the molecular basis of poplar sex-specific flower development remains largely unknown, increasing evidence indicates an essential role for microRNAs (miRNAs. The specific miRNA types and precise miRNA expression patterns in dioecious plant flower development remain unclear. Here, we used andromonoecious poplar, an exceptional model system, to eliminate the confounding effects of genetic background of dioecious plants. This system, combined with high-throughput sequencing and computational analysis, allowed us to characterize sex-specific miRNAomes from female and male flowers. Comparative miRNAome analysis combined with quantitative real-time PCR revealed the expression patterns of 27 miRNAs in poplar flower and showed that the targets of these miRNAs are involved in flower organogenesis, Ca(2+ transport, phytohormone synthesis and metabolism, and DNA methylation. This paper describes a complex regulatory network consisting of these miRNAs expressed in sex-specific flower development in a dioecious plant. The conserved and novel miRNA locations were annotated in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Among these, miRNA Pto-F70 and 4 targets are located in the sex-determination regions of chromosome XIX. Furthermore, two novel miRNAs, Pto-F47 and Pto-F68, were shown for the first time to be regulatory factors in phytohormone interactions. To our knowledge, this report is the first systematic investigation of sex-specific flower-related miRNAs and their targets in poplar, and it deepens our understanding of the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in female and male flower development in this dioecious plant.

  12. The role of antioxidant system in freezing acclimation-induced freezing resistance of Populus suaveolens cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Lei; Lin Shan-zhi; Zheng Hui-quan; Lei Yang; Zhang Qian; Zhang Zhi-yi

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the contents of H2O2, malonaldehyde (MDA) and endogenous antioxidants, the activities of protective enzymes and some critical enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle as well as freezing resistance(expressed as LT50) and correlations mentioned above, in detail using Populus suaveolens cuttings. The purpose was to explore the physiological mechanism of the enhancement of freezing resistance induced by freezing acclimation at -20℃, and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms by which trees adapt to freezing. The results showed that freezing acclimation enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), ascorbate peroxidase(APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR). And it increased the contents of reduced ascorbate(ASA), reduced glutathione (GSH), dehydroascorbate (DHA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). However, H2O2 and MDA contents and LT50 of cuttings were decreased. LT50 in cuttings was found to be closely correlated to the levels of SOD, POD, CAT, APX,DHAR, MDAR, GR, H2O2, MDA, ASA, GSH, DHA and GSSG during freezing acclimation. This suggested that the enhancement of freezing resistance of cuttings induced by freezing acclimation may relate to the distinct increase for the levels of SOD, POD, CAT,APX, DHAR, MDAR,GR,ASA, GSH, DHA, and GSSG. In addition, the observed levels of APX, DHAR, MDAR, GR, ASA, DHA,GSH and GSSG were higher than those of SOD, POD and CAT during freezing acclimation. It indicated that a higher capacity of the ASA-GSH cycle is required for H2O2 detoxification, and growth and development of cuttings. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the ASA-GSH cycle plays an important role in enhancement of freezing resistance of P. suaveolens cuttings during freezing acclimation.

  13. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  14. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  15. Crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and preliminary structure determination of the polygalacturonase PehA from Agrobacterium vitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acidic polygalacturonase PehA from A. vitis has been crystallized. A molecular-replacement solution indicated a right-handed parallel β-helix fold. Polygalacturonases are pectate-degrading enzymes that belong to glycoside hydrolase family 28 and hydrolyze the α-1,4 glycosidic bond between neighboring galacturonasyl residues of the homogalacturonan substrate. The acidic polygalacturonase PehA from Agrobacterium vitis was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, where it accumulated in the periplasmic fraction. It was purified to homogeneity via a two-step chromatography procedure and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. PehA crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.387, b = 62.738, c = 149.165 Å, β = 89.98°. Crystals diffracted to 1.59 Å resolution and contained two molecules per asymmetric unit. An initial structure determination by molecular replacement indicated a right-handed parallel β-helix fold

  16. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES Methylesterase family encodes for Methyl Jasmonate Esterase and has a role in stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  17. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R;

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expressio...

  18. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243152 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ... ...AK243152 J100032N02 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-70 ... ...AK288069 J075158N05 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  1. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  2. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, "Pingli-5" (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, "Red Globe" were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on "Pingli-5" before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O[Formula: see text] accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O[Formula: see text] (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O[Formula: see text]) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in "Pingli-5" leaves than in "Red Globe" leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in "Red Globe" but not in "Pingli-5" with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant "Pingli-5" which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  3. Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO2, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 μM Ni (Ni30 and Ni200). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO2] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO2] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-β-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. - Graphical abstract: Visible damage caused by Ni treatment. 1 - Ni0 (control plants); 2 - Ni200; M = mature and D = developing Populus nigra leaves. Display Omitted Highlights: → We study the effect of Ni pollution on photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions. → Ni stress significantly decreases photosynthesis. The main limitations are attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. → Constitutive isoprene emission was significantly stimulated in Ni-stressed leaves. Exposure to enhanced Ni concentration induces cis-beta-ocimene and linalool emissions. - The study reveals consequences of Ni stress on plant physiology, namely increasing diffusional limitation to photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis and Heavy Metal-Induced Expression Profiling of the HMA Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Xu, Xuemei; Hu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Quangang; Wang, Zhanchao; Zhang, Haizhen; Wang, Han; Wei, Ming; Wang, Hanzeng; Liu, Haimei; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal ATPase (HMA) family plays an important role in transition metal transport in plants. However, this gene family has not been extensively studied in Populus trichocarpa. We identified 17 HMA genes in P. trichocarpa (PtHMAs), of which PtHMA1–PtHMA4 belonged to the zinc (Zn)/cobalt (Co)/cadmium (Cd)/lead (Pb) subgroup, and PtHMA5–PtHMA8 were members of the copper (Cu)/silver (Ag) subgroup. Most of the genes were localized to chromosomes I and III. Gene structure, gene chromosomal location, and synteny analyses of PtHMAs indicated that tandem and segmental duplications likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of the PtHMAs. Most of the HMA genes contained abiotic stress-related cis-elements. Tissue-specific expression of PtHMA genes showed that PtHMA1 and PtHMA4 had relatively high expression levels in the leaves, whereas Cu/Ag subgroup (PtHMA5.1- PtHMA8) genes were upregulated in the roots. High concentrations of Cu, Ag, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn differentially regulated the expression of PtHMAs in various tissues. The preliminary results of the present study generated basic information on the HMA family of Populus that may serve as foundation for future functional studies. PMID:26779188

  5. Moderate drought did not affect the effectiveness of ethylenediurea (EDU) in protecting Populus cathayana from ambient ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yue; Yuan, Xiangyang; Shang, Bo; Manning, William J; Yang, Aizhen; Wang, Younian; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2016-11-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ambient ozone (O3) on an O3-sensitive poplar (Populus cathayana) by using ethylenediurea (EDU) as a chemical protectant under two soil water treatments (well-watered (WW) and moderate drought (MD, 50-60% of WW in volumetric soil water content). EDU was applied as foliar spray at 0, 300, 450, and 600ppm. Photosynthetic parameters, pigment contents, leaf nitrogen, antioxidant capacity, growth, and biomass were measured. The 8h (9:00-17:00) average ambient O3 concentration was 71.7ppb, and AOT40 was 29.2ppmh during the experimental period (9 June to 21 September), which was high enough to cause plant injury. MD had significantly negative effects on P. cathayana, as indicated by reduced photosynthesis, growth, and biomass, and higher MDA contents. On the other hand, EDU significantly increased photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, Vcmax and Jmax, photosynthetic pigments, total antioxidant capacity, tree growth and biomass accumulation, and reduced lipid peroxidation, but there was no significant interaction between EDU and drought for most parameters, indicating that EDU can efficiently protect Populus cathayana against ambient O3 and the protection was not affected by soil water contents when soil water reached moderate drought level. Among all doses, EDU at 450ppm provided maximum protection. Comparison of EDU-treated and non-treated P. cathayana could be used as a biomarker system in risk assessment of the effects of ambient O3 on forest health. PMID:27424114

  6. Effect of heavy metal treatments on metallothionein expression profiles in white poplar (Populus alba L. cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MACOVEI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species and hybrids are intensively cultivated as sources of woody biomass and are good candidates for phytoremediation because of their rapid growth rate, extensive root system and ease of propagation and transformation. To date, the molecular mechanisms that regulate heavy metal tolerance have not been fully investigated. In the present work, white poplar (Populus alba L. cell suspension cultures were used as model system to investigate the response to heavy metal treatments. The VFMT2 cDNA, encoding a type 2 metallothionein from P. alba, was isolated by RT-PCR approach. The expression profiles of the VFMT2 gene were then investigated by Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR under oxidative stress conditions. The latter were induced by exposing the cell suspension cultures to different doses of cadmium (75 and 150 μM CdSO4, copper (50 and 100 μM CuCl2 and zinc (1 and 2 mM ZnSO4. Cell death was evidenced by Evans blue staining. The VFMT2 gene was up-regulated in response to heavy metal treatments and the highest mRNA level (up to 5-fold was observed 4 h following exposure to 100 μM CuCl2.

  7. Populus nigra (Salicaceae) absolute rich in phenolic acids, phenylpropanoïds and flavonoids as a new potent tyrosinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maack, A; Pegard, A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tyrosinase inhibitory capacity of Populus nigra buds absolute (PBA) and compare it to kojic acid (KA), controversial reference tyrosinase inhibitor. Populus nigra buds were extracted with hexane and ethanol to obtain PBA. The inhibitory effect of this absolute was first tested on the mushroom Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase. Then the depigmenting potential of PBA was tested on B16F10 murine melanocytes by assaying the activity of tyrosinase and melanin content. Consecutively, a microscopic analysis of intracellular melanin granules was performed. Finally, melanised reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) were used to assess the lightening potential activity of this PBA on human skin. Results show that PBA inhibits A. bisporus tyrosinase (IC50=77±8ppm) and inhibits melanocytes B16F10 tyrosinase (IC50=27±1ppm). PBA decreases intracellular melanin levels, with 50% loss at 39±9ppm. Finally, PBA at 1000ppm lightens RHE and decreases their melanin content of 20%. PBA is a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase and reduces melanogenesis in melanocytes B16F10. Thus, PBA has potential applications in skin-lightening cosmetics. PMID:27091790

  8. Morpho-physiological response of Populus alba to erythromycin: A timeline of the health status of the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierattini, Erika Carla; Francini, Alessandra; Raffaelli, Andrea; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Populus alba Villafranca clone was chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of antibiotics by trees. Plants were grown hydroponically and irrigated with a recirculating Hoagland's nutrient solution (control) and Hoagland's nutrient solution fortified with erythromycin at 0.01, 0.1 and 1mgL(-1). After 3 and 28days of treatment, poplar plants were separated into roots, stem, and leaves. Plants showed good health all over the period of treatment, and no differences in poplar growth for all the concentrations of erythromycin tested were observed. Quantification of erythromycin was performed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive ion mode using multiple reaction ion monitoring. Erythromycin was detected in all organs analyzed. Roots showed an erythromycin concentration tenfold higher than leaves. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II did not show a dose-dependant trend. From the quenching analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence, low nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and high photochemical quenching (qP) for the first week of erythromycin exposure was observed, depending on leaves position along the stem. Results suggest a short term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Populus alba in response to environmental realistic erythromycin concentrations. PMID:27366984

  9. Genome-wide analysis and heavy metal-induced expression profiling of the HMA gene family in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eLi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal ATPase (HMA family plays an important role in transition metal transport in plants. However, this gene family has not been extensively studied in Populus trichocarpa. We identified 17 HMA genes in P. trichocarpa (PtHMAs, of which PtHMA1–PtHMA4 belonged to the zinc (Zn/cobalt (Co/cadmium (Cd/lead (Pb subgroup, and PtHMA5–PtHMA8 were members of the copper (Cu/silver (Ag subgroup. Most of the genes were localized to chromosomes I and III. Gene structure, gene chromosomal location, and synteny analyses of PtHMAs indicated that tandem and segmental duplications likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of the PtHMAs. Most of the HMA genes contained abiotic stress-related cis-elements. Tissue-specific expression of PtHMA genes showed that PtHMA1 and PtHMA4 had relatively high expression levels in the leaves, whereas Cu/Ag subgroup (PtHMA5.1- PtHMA8 genes were upregulated in the roots. High concentrations of Cu, Ag, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb and Mn differentially regulated the expression of PtHMAs in various tissues. The preliminary results of the present study generated basic information on the HMA family of Populus that may serve as foundation for future functional studies.

  10. Genome-wide search for segregation distortion loci associated with the expression of complex traits in Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang De-qiang; Zhang Zhi-yi; Yang Kai

    2007-01-01

    Segregation distortion of molecular markers has been reported in a broad range of organisms. It has been detected in an interspecific BC1 Populus pedigree established by controlled crossing between clone "LM50" (Populus tomentosa) and its hybrid clone "TB01" (P. tomentosa×P. bolleana). The study with a total of 150 AFLP markers (approximately 18.9% of the total loci)exhibited significant deviation from the Mendelian ratio (1:1) (p<0.01). Twenty-five percent of the markers were mapped on the parental specific genetic linkage maps of clones "LM50" and "TB01" with a pseudo-test-cross mapping strategy. Twelve linkage groups had markers with skewed segregation ratios, but the major regions were on linkage groups TLG2, TLG4 and TLG6 in the linkage map of clone "LM50". We also analyzed the association between distorted loci and expression of complex traits with Mapmaker/QTL software. A total of 16 putative QTLs affecting 12 traits were identified in the distorted regions on seven linkage groups.Therefore we could detect the distribution of skewed loci along the entire genome and identify the association between quantitative traits and segregation loci via genetic mapping in an interspecific BC1 P. tomentosa family. Furthermore, the genetic nature and possible causes of these segregation distortions for differentiation between female and male parents were also discussed.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guo-Tian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts, followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery

  12. Expression of structural genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis of Vitis amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Zhao; Fei He; Malcolm J Reeves; Qiu-Hong Pan; Chang-Qing Duan; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to assess the changes in anthocyanin content in grape skins of Vitis amurensis and to explore mRNA transcriptions of 11 structural genes (PAL, CHS3, CHI1, F3H2, F30H, F3050H, DFR, LDOX, UFGT, OMT and GST) related to anthocyanin biosynthesis during grape berry development, by the use of HPLC-MS/MS and real-time Q-PCR analysis. Accumulation of anthocyanins began at veraison, continued throughout the later berry development and reached a peak at maturity. Veraison is the time when the berries turn from green to purple. Expression of PAL, CHI1, and LDOX were up-regulated from 2 to 4 weeks after flowering (WAF), down-regulated from 6 WAF to veraison, whereas DFR was up-regulated at 8 WAF, and then up-regulated from veraison to maturity. CHS3, F3050H, UFGT, GST, and OMT were down-regulated from 2 WAF to veraison, and then up-regulated from veraison to maturity. The transcriptional expressions of the 11 structural genes also showed positive correlations with the anthocyanin content from veraison to maturity. Positive correlations were also observed between OMT transcrip-tional level and the content of methoxyl-anthocyanins, and between F3050H transcriptional level and the content of delphinidin anthocyanins. F3H2 and F30H expression was up-regulated at 2 WAF. F3H2 expression was down-regu-lated from 4 WAF to veraison and then up-regulated again from veraison to maturity. F30H expression was down-reg-ulated at 4 WAF and then up-regulated again from 6 WAF to maturity. F30H transcriptional level was correlated posi-tively with the cyanidin anthocyanin concentration from veraison to maturity. These results indicate that the onset of anthocyanin synthesis during berry development coincides with a coordinated increase in the expression of a number of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  13. Patterns of sequence polymorphism in the fleshless berry locus in cultivated and wild Vitis vinifera accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coriton Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike in tomato, little is known about the genetic and molecular control of fleshy fruit development of perennial fruit trees like grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.. Here we present the study of the sequence polymorphism in a 1 Mb grapevine genome region at the top of chromosome 18 carrying the fleshless berry mutation (flb in order, first to identify SNP markers closely linked to the gene and second to search for possible signatures of domestication. Results In total, 62 regions (17 SSR, 3 SNP, 1 CAPS and 41 re-sequenced gene fragments were scanned for polymorphism along a 3.4 Mb interval (85,127-3,506,060 bp at the top of the chromosome 18, in both V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay and a genotype carrying the flb mutation, V. vinifera cv. Ugni Blanc mutant. A nearly complete homozygosity in Ugni Blanc (wild and mutant forms and an expected high level of heterozygosity in Chardonnay were revealed. Experiments using qPCR and BAC FISH confirmed the observed homozygosity. Under the assumption that flb could be one of the genes involved into the domestication syndrome of grapevine, we sequenced 69 gene fragments, spread over the flb region, representing 48,874 bp in a highly diverse set of cultivated and wild V. vinifera genotypes, to identify possible signatures of domestication in the cultivated V. vinifera compartment. We identified eight gene fragments presenting a significant deviation from neutrality of the Tajima's D parameter in the cultivated pool. One of these also showed higher nucleotide diversity in the wild compartments than in the cultivated compartments. In addition, SNPs significantly associated to berry weight variation were identified in the flb region. Conclusions We observed the occurrence of a large homozygous region in a non-repetitive region of the grapevine otherwise highly-heterozygous genome and propose a hypothesis for its formation. We demonstrated the feasibility to apply BAC FISH on the very small grapevine

  14. MINERAIS DE VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVADAS NA FRONTEIRA DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidi Garcia Penna

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc foram analizadas durante oito (8 anos, com o objetivo de quantificar Nitrogênio(N, Fósforo(P, Potássio (K, Cálcio (Ca, Magnésio (Mg, Ferro (Fe, Cobre (Cu, Sódio (Na, Manganês (Mn, Boro (Bo e Zinco(Zn nos pecíolos. As amostras peciolares foram secas numa estufa com circulação de ar a aproximadamente 70°C e moídas. Nitrogênio foi determinado pelo método microkjeldahl, Fósforo por colorimetria, Potássio e Sódio por emissão de chama, Cálcio, Magnésio, Ferro, Cobre, Manganês e Zinco por espectrometria de absorção atômica e Boro por colorimetria usando curcumina como derivatizante. Valores médios dos oito (8 anos encontrados na matéria seca (MS foram para Cabernet Sauvignon (g/100g: 1,59N, 0,76P, 3,28K, 0,93Ca, 0,28Mg e em mg/100g: 11,52Fe, 4,18Cu, 85,08Na, 70,17Mn, 2.07B e 13,97Zn; para Pinot Chardonnay (g/100g: 1,26N, 0,47P, 3,20K, 0,82Ca, 0,31 Mg e em mg/100g: 15,25Fe, 3,25Cu, 63,73Na, 42,91Mn, 2,08B e 11,13Zn; para Sauvignon Blanc (g/100g: 1,51 N, 0,49P, 2.29K, 0,79Ca, 0,32Mg e em mg/100g: 16,01 Fe, 5,91 Cu, 76,02Na, 70,61 Mn, 1,91 B e 11,9Zn.

  15. Effect of Auxins and Light on Rooting Stem Cuttings of Populus nigra Salix tetrasperma, Ipomea fistulosa and Hibiscus notodus in Relation to Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, K K; Purohit, A N; Kochhar, V K

    1969-01-01

    The apical and basal ends of stem cuttings of Populus nigra, Salix tetrasperma, Ipomoea fistulosa and Hibiscus notodus were treated with 10 mg/l solutions of IAA and IBA for 24 hours and were planted either erect or inverted both in light and dark. Observations for the number of cuttings that rooted and the roots produced on them were recorded at weekly intervals. In Salix, Ipomoea and Hibiscus rooting was more on cuttings planted erect, while in populus it did not differ much with the manner of planting. The reduced rooting in inverted cuttings may be ascribed to the low level of endogenous auxin at the apex due to polar transport. An exogenous application of auxins enhanced rooting on inverted cuttings. In dark, roots on Populus and Salix cuttings were produced both above and within the rooting medium. The weak polarity of these two plants may be due to the potential root primordia reported in their stem. The formation of callus occurred on the top of Populus cuttings whether planted erect or inverted but it differentiated into branches on erect cuttings only. In those planted in an inverted position the callus failed to differentiate in spite of the application of kinetin, auxins, TIBA, coumarin and sucrose, and dried ultimately. PMID:20925659

  16. Structure of the genetic diversity in Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) populations across European river systems: consequences for conservation and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Cottrell, J.E.; Lefevre, F.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.; Tabbener, H.E.; Grassi, F.; Fossati, T.; Castiglione, S.; Krystufek, V.; Fluch, S.; Burg, K.; Vornam, B.; Pohl, A.; Gebhardt, K.; Alba, N.; Agúndez, D.; Maestro, C.; Notivol, E.; Volosyanchuck, R.; Pospiskova, M.; Bordacs, S.; Bovenschen, J.; Dam, van B.C.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Halfmaerten, D.; Ivens, B.; Slycken, Van J.; Vanden Broeck, A.; Storme, V.; Boerjan, W.

    2008-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a keystone species for riparian ecosystems in Europe. We analysed the structure of genetic diversity of 17 populations from 11 river valleys that are part of seven catchment systems (Danube, Ebro, Elbe, Po, Rhine, Rhone, and Usk) in Europe, in relation to geography

  17. Whole plastome sequencing reveals deep plastid divergence and cytonuclear discordance between closely related balsam poplars, Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daisie I; Hefer, Charles A; Kolosova, Natalia; Douglas, Carl J; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2014-11-01

    As molecular phylogenetic analyses incorporate ever-greater numbers of loci, cases of cytonuclear discordance - the phenomenon in which nuclear gene trees deviate significantly from organellar gene trees - are being reported more frequently. Plant examples of topological discordance, caused by recent hybridization between extant species, are well known. However, examples of branch-length discordance are less reported in plants relative to animals. We use a combination of de novo assembly and reference-based mapping using short-read shotgun sequences to construct a robust phylogeny of the plastome for multiple individuals of all the common Populus species in North America. We demonstrate a case of strikingly high plastome divergence, in contrast to little nuclear genome divergence, in two closely related balsam poplars, Populus balsamifera and Populus trichocarpa (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa). Previous studies with nuclear loci indicate that the two species (or subspecies) diverged since the late Pleistocene, whereas their plastomes indicate deep divergence, dating to at least the Pliocene (6-7 Myr ago). Our finding is in marked contrast to the estimated Pleistocene divergence of the nuclear genomes, previously calculated at 75 000 yr ago, suggesting plastid capture from a 'ghost lineage' of a now-extinct North American poplar. PMID:25078531

  18. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  19. CHANGES OF CUTICLE SURFACE LIPIDS OF POPULUS ITALICA AND BETULA PENDULA CAUSED BY POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrovskaya O. M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arboreal plants intensively accumulate heavy metals, resulting in a corresponding revocation level of physiological processes. The lipid components operate an important role in the formation of plant resistance. Therefore, it was very important to determine the characteristics of lipid peroxidation flow in leaves of arboreal plants, and changes in the composition of cuticle surface lipids at different levels of heavy metal accumulation. Research objects were Populus italica (Du Roi Moench and Betula pendula Roth. of second age group, growing on the industrial site РJSC ‘Kryvyi Rig Factory of minium’ (with strong contamination and in the arboretum of Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (conventional control. Leaves were taken from the middle of the crown southwest exposure in phase of leaf full separation and 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth. It was shown that P. italica maximally accumulated zinc, content of which was increased in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase of leaf growth finishing point relative to the control to 12,6 and 23 times respectively. The accumulation level of heavy metals was typically less significant for assimilation organs of B. pendula compared to P. italica. Thus, the content of zinc and lead in the leaves during the study increased only in 2 times towards control. The leaves of B. pendula, unlike P. italica, more intensively accumulated cadmium in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth (it was 6 and 15 times higher relative to control respectively. It was obviously connected to the fact that the surface texture of poplar leaves may cause intense sticking of dust particles containing heavy metals and penetration into the leaves. The effect of heavy metals in both phases of leaf morphogenesis caused an increase in lipid peroxidation by 40-52% for P. italica and almost by 3 times for B. pendula

  20. [Evaluation of ecological services of Populus simonii forest on Heerqin sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengrui; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Liya; Yasuhito, Shirato

    2003-10-01

    The main ecological services of the sand-fixed forest are windbreak, soil erosion control, and atmospheric dust retention. In this paper, the ecological services of Populus simonii forest were assessed by simultaneous measurements of wind speeds, daily amount of soil surface wind erosion, and amount of atmospheric dust deposition at different observation sites located within and outside the forestland. The results showed that compared with the control site (mobile sand dune), the daily mean wind velocity at 2 m height was reduced by 18.3, 31.6, 66.1, 66.0, 62.3 and 45.2% for the observation sites over the distances of 6 and 3 H (H meant average tree height) from forest edge of the windward side, forest center, and observation sites over the distances of 0, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side, respectively. The greatest reduction in daily mean wind velocity was occurred in both forest center and forest edge of the leeward side. There was a significant positive relationship between leaf area index of the forest and monthly declining index of mean wind speed. The monthly declining index of mean wind speed increased with increasing the forest leaf area index by a cubic function. The daily wind erosion rates of soil surface in observation sites at 6 and 3 H from forest edge of the windward side, forest center, and at 0, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side were reduced by as much as 85.2%-99.9%, in comparison with the control site. The greatest reduction in daily wind erosion rate of soil surface occurred in forest edge of the leeward side, followed in decreasing order by forest center, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side, 3 and 6 H from forest edge of the windward side. During the observation period, the daily mean dust deposition within the forestland was 13.2 kg.hm-2, compared with 9.9 kg.hm-2 outside the forestland, with a 33% increase. All these results suggested that the poplar forest played an important role in reducing damaging

  1. Characterization and Role of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase of Populus suaveolens in Induction of Freezing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yuanzhen; Guo Huan; Liu Wenfeng; Lin Shanzhi; Zhang Qian; Hu Dongmei; Zhu Baoqing; Zhang Zhiyi

    2004-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) was purified from the leaves of 8-week-old Populus suaveolens cuttings. The enzyme activity in the absence and presence of reduced dithiothreitol (DTTred) was determined. The results show that the G6PDH activity is not inactivated by pre-incubation with DTTred, indicating that the purified enzyme probably presented in cytosol of P. suaveolens. The catalytic characteristics and kinetic parameters of cytosolic G6PDH purified from P. suaveolens cuttings were also studied. The results show that G6PDH is characterized by Km value of 360 (mol·L-1 for G6P and 16 (mol·L-1 for NADP, a pH range of 7.3-8.9, and the maximum activity around pH 8.2. The enzyme activity is inhibited by various metabolites such as NADPH, NADH, GTP, UTP, ATP, AMP, ADP, CoA, acetyl CoA, fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) (all at 1 mmol·L-1 except for NADPH and NADH) to different extents. NADPH is the most effective inhibitor of enzyme activity, with an inhibition of 72.0%. The addition of metal ions such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and KCl (all 1.0 mmol·L-1) to the standard reaction mixture has no remarkable influence on the cytosolic G6PDH activity. However, CdCl2 (1.0 mmol·L-1) causes high inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity. To explore the role of G6PDH on the enhancement of freezing resistance induced by freezing acclimation, the changes in the cytosolic G6PDH activity and freezing resistance (expressed as LT50) of P. suaveolens cuttings during freezing acclimation at -20 °C were investigated. The results reveal that freezing acclimation decreases LT50 of cuttings, and increases the activity of cytosolic G6PDH compared with control ones, while 2 d of de-acclimation at 25 °C result in a decrease in cytosolic G6PDH activity, and caused an increase in LT50. Furthermore, the change in cytosolic G6PDH activity is found to be closely correlated to the degree of freezing

  2. UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS determination of salicylate-like phenolic gycosides in Populus tremula leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Ahnlund, Maria; Moritz, Thomas; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2011-08-01

    Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. By considering the full diversity of PGs, we may improve our ability to recognize genotypes or chemotype groups and enhance our understanding of their ecological function. Here, we present a fast and efficient general method for salicylate determination in leaves of Eurasian aspen that uses ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS). The time required for the liquid chromatography separations was 13.5 min per sample, compared to around 60 min per sample for most HPLC protocols. In leaf samples from identical P. tremula genotypes with diverse propagation and treatment histories, we identified nine PGs. We found the compound-specific mass chromatograms to be more informative than the UV-visible chromatograms for compound identification and when quantitating samples with large variability in PG content. Signature compounds previously reported for P. tremoloides (tremulacin, tremuloidin, salicin, and salicortin) always were present, and five PGs (2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicin, acetyl-tremulacin, and salicyloyl-salicin) were detected for the first time in P. tremula. By using information about the formic acid adduct that appeared for PGs in the LTQ-Orbitrap MS environment, novel compounds like acetyl-tremulacin could be tentatively identified without the use of standards. The novel PGs were consistently either present in genotypes regardless of propagation and damage treatment or were not detectable. In some genotypes, concentrations of 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin and 2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin were similar to levels of biologically active PGs in other Salicaceous trees. Our study suggests that we may expect a wide variation in PG content in aspen

  3. Comparative Study on Antioxidative System in Normal and Vitrified Shoots of Populus suaveolens in Tissue Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Shanzhi; Zhang Zhiyi; Lin Yuanzhen; Liu Wenfeng; Guo Huan; Zhang Wei; Zhang Chong

    2004-01-01

    To explore the physiological and biochemical mechanism of the occurrence of vitrified shoots of Populus suaveolens in tissue culture, the changes in water, chlorphyll, lignin, H2O2, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), malonaldehyde (MDA), protective enzymatic systems, and some key enzymes involved in the ascorbate- glutathione cycle were comparatively studied in both normal and vitrified shoots of P. Suaveolens. The results show that the lower activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR) and PAL, and the less contents of chlorphyll, lignin, ascorbate (ASA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as the lower ratios of ASA / DHA and GSH / GSSG are observed in vitrified shoots than in normal ones during the whole culture period. While in comparison with normal shoots, the higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the more concentrations of water, H2O2, MDA, dehydroascorbate (DHA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) are found in vitrified shoots. Statistical analysis indicates that the enhanced activity of SOD and the decreased activities of CAT and POD as well as some enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle might be closely correlated to the accumulation of H2O2. The less regeneration of ASA and GSH and the lower capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle observed in vitrified shoots might be due to a significant decrease in APX, MDAR, DHAR and GR activities and a decline in redox status of ASA and GSH. The decreases in chlorphyll content might result in a decline in photosynthesis. The lower activities of POD and PAL could result in the decrease of lignin synthesis and cell wall ligination, which might be the key factor leading to the increase in water content. It is concluded that the deficiency of detoxification capacity caused by the lower capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway and the decreased activity of protective enzymatic system might lead to the

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066771 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066771 J013083K07 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative s...imilar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059353 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059353 001-026-D01 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059160 001-023-D05 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 3e-28 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242849 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242849 J090072M15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288959 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288959 J090084E19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243008 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243008 J090097H12 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288072 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288072 J075161I05 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243178 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243178 J100036P15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243505 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243505 J100074N19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287577 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287577 J065037N08 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 3e-12 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 6e-22 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 1e-160 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.1 68417.m02148 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063585 001-118-A04 At4g13870.2 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX) contains Pf...am profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 6e-16 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.2 68417.m02149 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...