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Sample records for arabidopsis nicotianamine synthase

  1. Contrasting effects of nicotianamine synthase knockdown on zinc and nickel tolerance and accumulation in the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Deinlein, Ulrich; Höreth, Stephan; Braun, Manuel; Schmidt, Holger; Weber, Michael; Persson, Daniel P; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K; Clemens, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Elevated nicotianamine synthesis in roots of Arabidopsis halleri has been established as a zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation factor. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of nicotianamine-dependent root-to-shoot translocation of metals. Metal tolerance and accumulation in wild-type (WT) and AhNAS2-RNA interference (RNAi) plants were analysed. Xylem exudates were subjected to speciation analysis and metabolite profiling. Suppression of root nicotianamine synthesis had no effect on Zn and cadmium (Cd) tolerance but rendered plants nickel (Ni)-hypersensitive. It also led to a reduction of Zn root-to-shoot translocation, yet had the opposite effect on Ni mobility, even though both metals form coordination complexes of similar stability with nicotianamine. Xylem Zn concentrations were positively, yet nonstoichiometrically, correlated with nicotianamine concentrations. Two fractions containing Zn coordination complexes were detected in WT xylem. One of them was strongly reduced in AhNAS2-suppressed plants and coeluted with (67) Zn-labelled organic acid complexes. Organic acid concentrations were not responsive to nicotianamine concentrations and sufficiently high to account for complexing the coordinated Zn. We propose a key role for nicotianamine in controlling the efficiency of Zn xylem loading and thereby the formation of Zn coordination complexes with organic acids, which are the main Zn ligands in the xylem but are not rate-limiting for Zn translocation. PMID:25545296

  2. Cloning and characterization of the nicotianamine synthase gene in Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B L; Cheng, C; Zhang, G Y; Su, J J; Zhi, Y; Xu, S S; Cai, D T; Zhang, X K; Huang, B Q

    2015-01-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a ubiquitous metabolite in plants that bind heavy metals, is crucial for metal homeostasis, and is also an important metal chelator that facilitates long-distance metal transport and sequestration. NA synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nicotianamine synthase (NAS). Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa is highly tolerant to Ni, Pb, and Zn. In this study, a gene encoding EvNAS was cloned and characterized in E. vesicaria subsp sativa. The full-length EvNAS cDNA sequence contained a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 155-bp 3'-UTR, and a 966-bp open reading frame encoding 322-amino acid residues. The EvNAS genomic sequence contained no introns, which is similar to previously reported NAS genes. The deduced translation of EvNAS contained a well-conserved NAS domain (1-279 amino acids) and an LIKI-CGEAEG box identical to some Brassica NAS and to the LIRL-box in most plant NAS, which is essential for DNA binding. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EvNAS was most closely related to Brassica rapa NAS3 within the Cruciferae, followed by Thlaspi NAS1, Camelina NAS3, and Arabidopsis NAS3. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that EvNAS expression was greatest in the leaves, followed by the flower buds and hypocotyls. EvNAS was moderately expressed in the roots. PMID:26782459

  3. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...

  4. Cellulose Synthases and Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Endler; Staffan Persson

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are complex structures composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides,proteins,and lignins. Among the wall polysaccharides,cellulose,a hydrogen-bonded β-1,4-linked glucan microfibril,is the main load-bearing wall component and a key precursor for industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized by large multi-meric cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes,tracking along cortical microtubules at the plasma membrane. The only known components of these complexes are the cellulose synthase proteins. Recent studies have identified tentative interaction partners for the CesAs and shown that the migratory patterns of the CesA complexes depend on phosphorylation status. These advances may become good platforms for expanding our knowledge about cellulose synthesis in the near future. In addition,our current understanding of cellulose chain polymerization in the context of the CesA complex is discussed.

  5. Enhanced Toxic Metal Accumulation in Engineered Bacterial Cells Expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochelatin Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Cuiné, Stéphan; Carrier, Patrick; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Luu, Doan-Trung; Peltier, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides, enzymatically synthesized in plants and yeasts from glutathione in response to heavy metal stress by PC synthase (EC 2.3.2.15). In an attempt to increase the ability of bacterial cells to accumulate heavy metals, the Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding PC synthase (AtPCS) was expressed in Escherichia coli. A marked accumulation of PCs was observed in vivo together with a decrease in the glutathione cellular content. When bacterial ...

  6. The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael (MSU); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets.

  7. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scheible, Wolf

    2007-07-10

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  8. Arabidopsis ETO1 specifically interacts with and negatively regulates type 2 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases

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    Saito Koji

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis, ETO1 (ETHYLENE-OVERPRODUCER1 is a negative regulator of ethylene evolution by interacting with AtACS5, an isoform of the rate-limiting enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACC synthase or ACS, in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. ETO1 directly inhibits the enzymatic activity of AtACS5. In addition, a specific interaction between ETO1 and AtCUL3, a constituent of a new type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, suggests the molecular mechanism in promoting AtACS5 degradation by the proteasome-dependent pathway. Because orthologous sequences to ETO1 are found in many plant species including tomato, we transformed tomato with Arabidopsis ETO1 to evaluate its ability to suppress ethylene production in tomato fruits. Results Transgenic tomato lines that overexpress Arabidopsis ETO1 (ETO1-OE did not show a significant delay of fruit ripening. So, we performed yeast two-hybrid assays to investigate potential heterologous interaction between ETO1 and three isozymes of ACC synthases from tomato. In the yeast two-hybrid system, ETO1 interacts with LE-ACS3 as well as AtACS5 but not with LE-ACS2 or LE-ACS4, two major isozymes whose gene expression is induced markedly in ripening fruits. According to the classification of ACC synthases, which is based on the C-terminal amino acid sequences, both LE-ACS3 and AtACS5 are categorized as type 2 isozymes and possess a consensus C-terminal sequence. In contrast, LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS4 are type 1 and type 3 isozymes, respectively, both of which do not possess this specific C-terminal sequence. Yeast two-hybrid analysis using chimeric constructs between LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS3 revealed that the type-2-ACS-specific C-terminal tail is required for interaction with ETO1. When treated with auxin to induce LE-ACS3, seedlings of ETO1-OE produced less ethylene than the wild type, despite comparable expression of the LE-ACS3 gene in the wild type. Conclusion These results suggest that ETO1

  9. Starch synthase 4 is essential for coordination of starch granule formation with chloroplast division during Arabidopsis leaf expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Crumpton-Taylor, Matilda; Pike, Marilyn; Lu, Kuan-Jen; Hylton, Christopher M.; Feil, Regina; Eicke, Simona; Lunn, John E.; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Smith, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the SS4 isoform of starch synthase have strongly reduced numbers of starch granules per chloroplast, suggesting that SS4 is necessary for the normal generation of starch granules. To establish whether it plays a direct role in this process, we investigated the circumstances in which granules are formed in ss4 mutants. Starch granule numbers and distribution and the accumulation of starch synthase substrates and products were investigated during ss4 leaf de...

  10. Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding of Arabidopsis trehalose-phosphate synthase 5 in response to 2-deoxyglucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthill, Jean E; Meek, Sarah E M; Morrice, Nick;

    2006-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate is a 'sugar signal' that regulates plant metabolism and development. The Arabidopsis genome encodes trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphatase (TPP) enzymes. It also encodes class II proteins (TPS isoforms 5-11) that contain both TPS-like and TPP...

  11. Overexpression of Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase in Arabidopsis Mitochondria Triggers Light-dependent Lesion Formation and Alters Cytokinin Homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manzano, D.; Busquets, A.; Closa, M.; Hoyerová, Klára; Schaller, H.; Kamínek, Miroslav; Arró, M.; Ferrer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, 1-2 (2006), s. 195-213. ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600380507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cytokinin * farnesyl diphosphate synthase * isoprenoid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.577, year: 2006

  12. Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

    2000-10-11

    Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  13. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Maass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As the first pathway-specific enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY is a prime regulatory target. This includes a number of biotechnological approaches that have successfully increased the carotenoid content in agronomically relevant non-green plant tissues through tissue-specific PSY overexpression. We investigated the differential effects of constitutive AtPSY overexpression in green and non-green cells of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. This revealed striking similarities to the situation found in orange carrot roots with respect to carotenoid amounts and sequestration mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis seedlings, carotenoid content remained unaffected by increased AtPSY levels although the protein was almost quantitatively imported into plastids, as shown by western blot analyses. In contrast, non-photosynthetic calli and roots overexpressing AtPSY accumulated carotenoids 10 and 100-fold above the corresponding wild-type tissues and contained 1800 and 500 microg carotenoids per g dry weight, respectively. This increase coincided with a change of the pattern of accumulated carotenoids, as xanthophylls decreased relative to beta-carotene and carotene intermediates accumulated. As shown by polarization microscopy, carotenoids were found deposited in crystals, similar to crystalline-type chromoplasts of non-green tissues present in several other taxa. In fact, orange-colored carrots showed a similar situation with increased PSY protein as well as carotenoid levels and accumulation patterns whereas wild white-rooted carrots were similar to Arabidopsis wild type roots in this respect. Initiation of carotenoid crystal formation by increased PSY protein amounts was further confirmed by overexpressing crtB, a bacterial PSY gene, in white carrots, resulting in increased carotenoid amounts deposited in crystals. CONCLUSIONS: The sequestration of carotenoids into crystals can be driven by the

  14. FERONIA receptor kinase interacts with S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and suppresses S-adenosylmethionine production and ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dandan; Yu, Feng; Li, Jian; Van de Poel, Bram; Tan, Dan; Li, Jianglin; Liu, Yanqionq; Li, Xiushang; Dong, Mengqiu; Chen, Liangbi; Li, Dongping; Luan, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Environmental inputs such as stress can modulate plant cell metabolism, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We report here that FERONIA (FER), a plasma membrane receptor-like kinase, may negatively regulate the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis by interacting with two S-adenosylmethionine synthases (SAM1 and SAM2). SAM participates in ethylene, nicotianamine and polyamine biosynthetic pathways and provides the methyl group for protein and DNA methylation reactions. The Arabidopsis fer mutants contained a higher level of SAM and ethylene in plant tissues and displayed a dwarf phenotype. Such phenotype in the fer mutants was mimicked by over-expressing the S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in transgenic plants, whereas sam1/2 double mutant showed an opposite phenotype. We propose that FER receptor kinase, in response to environmental stress and plant hormones such as auxin and BR, interacts with SAM synthases and down-regulates ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:25988356

  15. Regulation of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and isochorismate synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia J R Hunter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs function in anti-viral silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Salicylic acid (SA, an important defensive signal, increases RDR1 gene expression, suggesting that RDR1 contributes to SA-induced virus resistance. In Nicotiana attenuata RDR1 also regulates plant-insect interactions and is induced by another important signal, jasmonic acid (JA. Despite its importance in defense RDR1 regulation has not been investigated in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis, SA-induced RDR1 expression was dependent on 'NON-EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1', indicating regulation involves the same mechanism controlling many other SA- defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1. Isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1 is required for SA biosynthesis. In defensive signal transduction RDR1 lies downstream of ICS1. However, supplying exogenous SA to ics1-mutant plants did not induce RDR1 or PR1 expression to the same extent as seen in wild type plants. Analysing ICS1 gene expression using transgenic plants expressing ICS1 promoter:reporter gene (β-glucuronidase constructs and by measuring steady-state ICS1 transcript levels showed that SA positively regulates ICS1. In contrast, ICS2, which is expressed at lower levels than ICS1, is unaffected by SA. The wound-response hormone JA affects expression of Arabidopsis RDR1 but jasmonate-induced expression is independent of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1, which conditions expression of many other JA-responsive genes. Transiently increased RDR1 expression following tobacco mosaic virus inoculation was due to wounding and was not a direct effect of infection. RDR1 gene expression was induced by ethylene and by abscisic acid (an important regulator of drought resistance. However, rdr1-mutant plants showed normal responses to drought. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RDR1 is regulated by a much broader range of phytohormones than previously thought

  16. A cellulose synthase-like protein is required for osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jianhua

    2010-04-16

    Osmotic stress imposed by soil salinity and drought stress significantly affects plant growth and development, but osmotic stress sensing and tolerance mechanisms are not well understood. Forward genetic screens using a root-bending assay have previously identified salt overly sensitive (sos) mutants of Arabidopsis that fall into five loci, SOS1 to SOS5. These loci are required for the regulation of ion homeostasis or cell expansion under salt stress, but do not play a major role in plant tolerance to the osmotic stress component of soil salinity or drought. Here we report an additional sos mutant, sos6-1, which defines a locus essential for osmotic stress tolerance. sos6-1 plants are hypersensitive to salt stress and osmotic stress imposed by mannitol or polyethylene glycol in culture media or by water deficit in the soil. SOS6 encodes a cellulose synthase-like protein, AtCSLD5. Only modest differences in cell wall chemical composition could be detected, but we found that sos6-1 mutant plants accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under osmotic stress and are hypersensitive to the oxidative stress reagent methyl viologen. The results suggest that SOS6/AtCSLD5 is not required for normal plant growth and development but has a critical role in osmotic stress tolerance and this function likely involves its regulation of ROS under stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Role of callose synthases in transfer cell wall development in tocopherol deficient Arabidopsis mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eMaeda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols (vitamin E are lipid-soluble antioxidants produced by all plants and algae, and many cyanobacteria, yet their functions in these photosynthetic organisms are still not fully understood. We have previously reported that the vitamin E deficient 2 (vte2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is sensitive to low temperature (LT due to impaired transfer cell wall (TCW development and photoassimilate export, associated with massive callose deposition in transfer cells of the phloem. To further understand the role of tocopherols in LT induced TCW development we compared global transcript profiles of vte2 and wild type leaves during LT treatment. Tocopherol deficiency had no impact on global gene expression in permissive conditions, but affected expression of 77 genes after 48 hours of LT treatment. In vte2 relative to wild type, genes related with solute transport were repressed, while those involved in various pathogen responses and cell wall modifications, such as GLUCAN SYNTHASE LIKE genes (GSL4 and GSL11, were induced. However, introduction of gsl4 or gsl11 mutations into the vte2 background did not suppress callose deposition or the overall LT-induced phenotypes of vte2. Intriguingly, introduction of a mutation of GSL5, the major GSL responsible for pathogen-induced callose deposition, into vte2 substantially reduced vascular callose deposition at LT, but again had no effect on the photoassimilate export phenotype of LT-treated vte2. These results suggest that GSL5 plays a major role in TCW callose deposition in LT-treated vte2 but that this GSL5-dependent callose deposition is not the primary cause of the impaired photoassimilate export phenotype.

  18. Expression in Arabidopsis of a Strawberry Linalool Synthase Gene Under the Control of the Inducible Potato P12 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-mei; Per Mercke; Joop J A van Loon; FANG Zhi-yuan; Marcel Dicke; Maarten A Jongsma

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of inducible linalool in Arabidopsis-insect interactions, the FANESl linalool synthase (LIS) cDNA from strawberry with plastid targeting and a synthetic intron (LIS') was placed under the control of the wound inducible proteinase inhibitor 2 (PI2) promoter from potato. The construct pBin-PP12-LIS' was transformed to Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia O. Kanamycin resistant T0 seedlings were confirmed for the presence and transcription of the LIS' gene by PCR analysis on genomic DNA and by RT-PCR analysis on RNA. Genomic and RT-PCR products were sequenced to confirm correct splicing of the synthetic intron. The expression of active linalool synthase by the PP12-LIS' gene construct in the transgenic lines was assessed by measuring linalool emission using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS measurements after induction with methyl jasmonate. Among 30 tested independent T2 transgenic lines, 10 exhibited linalool production.Linalool expression could be induced by methyl jasmonate treatment, but not by diamondback moth larvae.

  19. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Harholt, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs are...... unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module......, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed....

  20. Agrobacterium mediated transfer of a mutant Arabidopsis acetolactate synthase gene confers resistance to chlorsulfuron in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, A; Vaucheret, H; Pautot, V; Chupeau, Y

    1992-06-01

    Leaf discs of C. intybus were inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene for kanamycin resistance and a mutant acetolactate synthase gene (csr1-1) from Arabidopsis thaliana conferring resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. A regeneration medium was optimized which permitted an efficient shoot regeneration from leaf discs. Transgenic shoots were selected on rooting medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin sulfate. Integration of the csr1-1 gene into genomic DNA of kanamycin resistant chicory plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridizations. Analysis of the selfed progenies (S1 and S2) of two independent transformed clones showed that kanamycin and chlorsulfuron resistances were inherited as dominant Mendelian traits. The method described here for producing transformed plants will allow new opportunities for chicory breeding. PMID:24203132

  1. Cloning,Characterization,and Gene Annotation of Cellulose Synthase Genes from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BALASUBRAMANI G; AMUDHA J; KATEGERI I S; KHADI B M

    2008-01-01

    @@ The mechanistic basis of cellulose biosynthesis in plants has gained ground during last decade or so.The isolation of plant eDNA clones encoding cotton homologs of the bacterial cellulose synthase catalytic subunit was a significant achievement,which promises the elucidation of cellulose biosynthesis.

  2. Molekulare Analyse der Biosynthese octadecanoid-abgeleiteter Signalmoleküle durch Allenoxid-Synthase und Allenoxid- Cyclase aus Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) HEYNH.

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbe, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Im Fokus dieser Dissertation stand die Untersuchung der Biosynthese des Phytohormons 12-oxo-Phytodiensäure durch die Allenoxid-Synthase (AOS) und die vier Allenoxid-Cyclase-Isoformen (AOC) aus Arabidopsis thaliana. Enzymatische Analysen der rekombinanten Proteine zeigten eine redundante Substratspezifität der AOC-Isoformen. Zudem belegen biochemische Interaktionsstudien, dass eine Komplexierung von AOS und AOC in vitro nicht essentiell ist. Gleichwohl lässt die erhöhte Stereoselek...

  3. The role of sugars and sugar metabolism genes (sucrose synthase) in arabidopsis thaliana seed development

    OpenAIRE

    Odunlami, Benjamin Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana, has been studied at several levels. However, little has been done to study the role of sugar metabolism genes in seed pod development in this species. As the fertilized egg progresses to a mature seed, the sugars composition during different stages of the developing changes. These changes are related to metabolic processes in the developing seeds, but also to the activity of sucrose- converting and transporting genes, active at the interphase between ...

  4. Isoflavonoids are present in Arabidopsis thaliana despite the absence of any homologue to known isoflavonoid synthases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčík, O.; Honys, David; Koblovská, R.; Macková, Z.; Vítková, M.; Klejdus, B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, 2-3 (2006), s. 106-114. ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/0352; GA AV ČR KJB6038409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Brassicaceae * HPLC-MS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.847, year: 2006

  5. Activation of nitric oxide synthase and induction of defense genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidler, Dana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are novel elicitors of plant innate immunity using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. LPS are the major outer membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria and consist of three distinct structural domains: O-antigen, core region and lipid A. They represent microbe-/pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in animal patho-systems and act as extremely potent stimulators of the mammalian and insect innate immunity. As fo...

  6. Innate immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana: Lipopolysaccharides activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and induce defense genes

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidler, Dana; Zähringer, Ulrich; Gerber, Isak; Dubery, Ian; Hartung, Thomas; Bors, Wolf; Hutzler, Peter; Durner, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are cell-surface components of Gram-negative bacteria and are microbe-/pathogen-associated molecular patterns in animal pathosystems. As for plants, the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction in response to LPS are not known. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana reacts to LPS with a rapid burst of NO, a hallmark of innate immunity in animals. Fifteen LPS preparations (among them Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Erwinia carotovora) as well as ...

  7. Cis-regulatory Evolution of Chalcone-Synthase Expression in the Genus Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    de Meaux, J. (Juliette); Pop, A.(National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania); Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulation to adaptive evolutionary change is believed to be essential, yet little is known about the evolutionary rules that govern regulatory sequences. Here, we characterize the short-term evolutionary dynamics of a cis-regulatory region within and among two closely related species, A. lyrata and A. halleri, and compare our findings to A. thaliana. We focused on the cis-regulatory region of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of plant sec...

  8. Insight into the early steps of root hair formation revealed by the procuste1 cellulose synthase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Manoj

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formation of plant root hairs originating from epidermal cells involves selection of a polar initiation site and production of an initial hair bulge which requires local cell wall loosening. In Arabidopsis the polar initiation site is located towards the basal end of epidermal cells. However little is currently understood about the mechanism for the selection of the hair initiation site or the mechanism by which localised hair outgrowth is achieved. The Arabidopsis procuste1 (prc1-1 cellulose synthase mutant was studied in order to investigate the role of the cell wall loosening during the early stages of hair formation. Results The prc1-1 mutant exhibits uncontrolled, preferential bulging of trichoblast cells coupled with mislocalised hair positioning. Combining the prc1-1 mutant with root hair defective6-1 (rhd6-1, which on its own is almost completely devoid of root hairs results in a significant restoration of root hair formation. The pEXPANSIN7::GFP (pEXP7::GFP marker which is specifically expressed in trichoblast cell files of wild-type roots, is absent in the rhd6-1 mutant. However, pEXP7::GFP expression in the rhd6-1/prc1-1 double mutant is restored in a subset of epidermal cells which have either formed a root hair or exhibit a bulged phenotype consistent with a function for EXP7 during the early stages of hair formation. Conclusion These results show that RHD6 acts upstream of the normal cell wall loosening event which involves EXP7 expression and that in the absence of a functional RHD6 the loosening and accompanying EXP7 expression is blocked. In the prc1-1 mutant background, the requirement for RHD6 during hair initiation is reduced which may result from a weaker cell wall structure mimicking the cell wall loosening events during hair formation.

  9. Effect of four classes of herbicides on growth and acetolactate-synthase activity in several variants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, G; King, J

    1992-11-01

    We have isolated a triazolopyrimidine-resistant mutant csrl-2, of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Here, we compare csrl-2 with the previously isolated mutants csrl and csr1-1, and with wild-type Arabidopsis for responses to members of four classes of herbicides, namely, sulfonylureas, triazolopyrimidines, imidazolinones, and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates. Two separable herbicide binding sites have been identified previously on the protein of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Here, the mutation giving rise to csrl, originating in a coding sequence towards the 5' end of the ALS gene, and that in csrl-2, affected the inhibitory action on growth and ALS activity of sulfonylurea and triazolopyrimidine herbicides but not that of the imidazolinones or pyrimidyl-oxybenzoates. The other mutation, in csrl-1, originating in a coding sequence towards the 3' end of the ALS gene, affected the inhibitory action of imidazolinones and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates but not that of the sulfonylureas or triazolopyrimidines. Additional, stimulatory effects of some of these herbicides on growth of seedlings was unrelated to their effect on their primary target, ALS. The conclusion from these observations is that one of the two previously identified herbicide-binding sites may bind sulfonylureas and triazolopyrimidines while the other may bind imidazolinones and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates within a herbicide-binding domain on the ALS enzyme. Such a comparative study using near-isogenic mutants from the same species allows not only the further definition of the domain of herbicide binding on ALS but also could aid investigation of the relationship between herbicide-, substrate-, and allosteric-binding sites on this enzyme.This research was supported by an Operating Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada to J.K. PMID:24178380

  10. A double mutant allele, csr1-4, of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes an acetolactate synthase with altered kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, G; Williams, D; King, J

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made of the kinetic characteristics of acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18) in extracts from Columbia wild type and four near-isogenic, herbicide-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The mutants used were the chlorsulfuron-resistant GH50 (csr1-1), the imazapyr-resistant GH90 (csr1-2), the triazolopyrimidine-resistant Tzp5 (csr1-3) and the multiherbicide-resistant, double mutant GM4.8 (csr1-4), derived from csr1-1 and csr1-2 by intragenic recombination (G. Mourad et al. 1994, Mol. Gen. Genet. 243, 178-184). Kmapp and Vmax values for the substrate pyruvate were unaffected by any of the mutations giving rise to herbicide resistance. Feedback inhibition by L-valine (L-Val), L-leucine (L-Leu) and L-isoleucine (L-Ile) of acetolactate synthase extracted from wild type and mutants fitted a mixed competitive pattern most closely. Ki values for L-Val, L-Leu and L-Ile inhibition were not significantly different from wild type in extracts from csr1-1, csr1-2, and csr1-3. Ki values were significantly higher than wild type by two- and five-fold, respectively, for csr1-4 with L-Val and L-Leu but not L-Ile. GM4.8 (csr1-4) plants were also highly resistant in their growth to added L-Val and L-Leu.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7767237

  11. NADH-dependent glutamate synthase participated in ammonium assimilation in Arabidopsis root

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Soichi; KONISHI Noriyuki; Beier, Marcel Pascal; Ishiyama, Keiki; Maru, Ikumi; Hayakawa, Toshihiko; Yamaya, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants have 2 GOGAT species, Fd-GOGAT and NADH-GOGAT. While Fd-GOGAT mainly assimilates ammonium in leaves, which is derived from photorespiration, the function of NADH-GOGAT, which is highly expressed in roots,1 needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of NADH-GOGAT in Arabidopsis roots. The supply of ammonium to the roots caused an accumulation of NADH-GOGAT, while Fd-GOGAT 1 and Fd-GOGAT 2 showed no response. A promoter–GUS fusion analysis and immunohist...

  12. Arabidopsis GERANYLGERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 11 is a hub isozyme required for the production of most photosynthesis-related isoprenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sola, M Águila; Coman, Diana; Beck, Gilles; Barja, M Victoria; Colinas, Maite; Graf, Alexander; Welsch, Ralf; Rütimann, Philipp; Bühlmann, Peter; Bigler, Laurent; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Vranová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Most plastid isoprenoids, including photosynthesis-related metabolites such as carotenoids and the side chain of chlorophylls, tocopherols (vitamin E), phylloquinones (vitamin K), and plastoquinones, derive from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthesized by GGPP synthase (GGPPS) enzymes. Seven out of 10 functional GGPPS isozymes in Arabidopsis thaliana reside in plastids. We aimed to address the function of different GGPPS paralogues for plastid isoprenoid biosynthesis. We constructed a gene co-expression network (GCN) using GGPPS paralogues as guide genes and genes from the upstream and downstream pathways as query genes. Furthermore, knock-out and/or knock-down ggpps mutants were generated and their growth and metabolic phenotypes were analyzed. Also, interacting protein partners of GGPPS11 were searched for. Our data showed that GGPPS11, encoding the only plastid isozyme essential for plant development, functions as a hub gene among GGPPS paralogues and is required for the production of all major groups of plastid isoprenoids. Furthermore, we showed that the GGPPS11 protein physically interacts with enzymes that use GGPP for the production of carotenoids, chlorophylls, tocopherols, phylloquinone, and plastoquinone. GGPPS11 is a hub isozyme required for the production of most photosynthesis-related isoprenoids. Both gene co-expression and protein-protein interaction likely contribute to the channeling of GGPP by GGPPS11. PMID:26224411

  13. The N-terminal Part of Arabidopsis thaliana Starch Synthase 4 Determines the Localization and Activity of the Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Sandy; Ragel, Paula; Rojas, Tomás; Mérida, Ángel

    2016-05-13

    Starch synthase 4 (SS4) plays a specific role in starch synthesis because it controls the number of starch granules synthesized in the chloroplast and is involved in the initiation of the starch granule. We showed previously that SS4 interacts with fibrillins 1 and is associated with plastoglobules, suborganelle compartments physically attached to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. Both SS4 localization and its interaction with fibrillins 1 were mediated by the N-terminal part of SS4. Here we show that the coiled-coil region within the N-terminal portion of SS4 is involved in both processes. Elimination of this region prevents SS4 from binding to fibrillins 1 and alters SS4 localization in the chloroplast. We also show that SS4 forms dimers, which depends on a region located between the coiled-coil region and the glycosyltransferase domain of SS4. This region is highly conserved between all SS4 enzymes sequenced to date. We show that the dimerization seems to be necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Both dimerization and the functionality of the coiled-coil region are conserved among SS4 proteins from phylogenetically distant species, such as Arabidopsis and Brachypodium This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of SS4 is conserved among different plant species. PMID:26969163

  14. A Sweetpotato Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthase Gene, IbGGPS, Increases Carotenoid Content and Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato highly produces carotenoids in storage roots. In this study, a cDNA encoding geranylgeranyl phyrophosphate synthase (GGPS, named IbGGPS, was isolated from sweetpotato storage roots. Green fluorescent protein (GFP was fused to the C-terminus of IbGGPS to obtain an IbGGPS-GFP fusion protein that was transiently expressed in both epidermal cells of onion and leaves of tobacco. Confocal microscopic analysis determined that the IbGGPS-GFP protein was localized to specific areas of the plasma membrane of onion and chloroplasts in tobacco leaves. The coding region of IbGGPS was cloned into a binary vector under the control of 35S promoter and then transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain transgenic plants. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed a significant increase of total carotenoids in transgenic plants. The seeds of transgenic and wild-type plants were germinated on an agar medium supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG. Transgenic seedlings grew significantly longer roots than wild-type ones did. Further enzymatic analysis showed an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in transgenic seedlings. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced in transgenics. qRT-PCR analysis showed altered expressions of several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis in transgenic plants. These data results indicate that IbGGPS is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in sweetpotato storage roots and likely associated with tolerance to osmotic stress.

  15. Transformation of Brassica napus canola cultivars with Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase genes and analysis of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, B L; Labbé, H; Hattori, J; Ouellet, T; Gabard, J; Sunohara, G; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N

    1990-10-01

    A survey of selected crop species and weeds was conducted to evaluate the inhibition of the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and seedling growth in vitro by the sulfonylurea herbicides chlorsulfuron, DPX A7881, DPX L5300, DPX M6316 and the imidazolinone herbicides AC243,997, AC263,499, AC252,214. Particular attention was given to the Brassica species including canola cultivars and cruciferous weeds such as B. kaber (wild mustard) and Thlaspi arvense (stinkweed). Transgenic lines of B. napus cultivars Westar and Profit, which express the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type AHAS gene or the mutant gene csr1-1 at levels similar to the resident AHAS genes, were generated and compared. The mutant gene was essential for resistance to the sulfonylurea chlorsulfuron but not to DPX A7881, which appeared to be tolerated by certain Brassica species. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones did not occur. The level of resistance to chlorsulfuron in transgenic canola greatly exceeded the levels that were toxic to the Brassica species or cruciferous weeds. Direct selection of transgenic lines with chlorsulfuron sprayed at field levels under greenhouse conditions was achieved. PMID:24221001

  16. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S; Mortimer, Jenny C; Brown, Steven P; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:27277162

  17. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E.; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S.; Mortimer, Jenny C.; Brown, Steven P.; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:27277162

  18. Overlapping functions of the starch synthases SSII and SSIII in amylopectin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Hulst Christophe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biochemical mechanisms that determine the molecular architecture of amylopectin are central in plant biology because they allow long-term storage of reduced carbon. Amylopectin structure imparts the ability to form semi-crystalline starch granules, which in turn provides its glucose storage function. The enzymatic steps of amylopectin biosynthesis resemble those of the soluble polymer glycogen, however, the reasons for amylopectin's architectural distinctions are not clearly understood. The multiplicity of starch biosynthetic enzymes conserved in plants likely is involved. For example, amylopectin chain elongation in plants involves five conserved classes of starch synthase (SS, whereas glycogen biosynthesis typically requires only one class of glycogen synthase. Results Null mutations were characterized in AtSS2, which codes for SSII, and mutant lines were compared to lines lacking SSIII and to an Atss2, Atss3 double mutant. Loss of SSII did not affect growth rate or starch quantity, but caused increased amylose/amylopectin ratio, increased total amylose, and deficiency in amylopectin chains with degree of polymerization (DP 12 to DP28. In contrast, loss of both SSII and SSIII caused slower plant growth and dramatically reduced starch content. Extreme deficiency in DP12 to DP28 chains occurred in the double mutant, far more severe than the summed changes in SSII- or SSIII-deficient plants lacking only one of the two enzymes. Conclusion SSII and SSIII have partially redundant functions in determination of amylopectin structure, and these roles cannot be substituted by any other conserved SS, specifically SSI, GBSSI, or SSIV. Even though SSIII is not required for the normal abundance of glucan chains of DP12 to DP18, the enzyme clearly is capable of functioning in production such chains. The role of SSIII in producing these chains cannot be detected simply by analysis of an individual mutation. Competition between

  19. GNC and CGA1 modulate chlorophyll biosynthesis and glutamate synthase (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT expression in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Hudson

    Full Text Available Chloroplast development is an important determinant of plant productivity and is controlled by environmental factors including amounts of light and nitrogen as well as internal phytohormones including cytokinins and gibberellins (GA. The paralog GATA transcription factors GNC and CGA1/GNL up-regulated by light, nitrogen and cytokinin while also being repressed by GA signaling. Modifying the expression of these genes has previously been shown to influence chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis while also altering aspects of germination, elongation growth and flowering time. In this work, we also use transgenic lines to demonstrate that GNC and CGA1 exhibit a partially redundant control over chlorophyll biosynthesis. We provide novel evidence that GNC and CGA1 influence both chloroplast number and leaf starch in proportion to their transcript level. GNC and CGA1 were found to modify the expression of chloroplast localized GLUTAMATE SYNTHASE (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT, which is the primary factor controlling nitrogen assimilation in green tissue. Altering GNC and CGA1 expression was also found to modulate the expression of important chlorophyll biosynthesis genes (GUN4, HEMA1, PORB, and PORC. As previously demonstrated, the CGA1 transgenic plants demonstrated significantly altered timing to a number of developmental events including germination, leaf production, flowering time and senescence. In contrast, the GNC transgenic lines we analyzed maintain relatively normal growth phenotypes outside of differences in chloroplast development. Despite some evidence for partial divergence, results indicate that regulation of both GNC and CGA1 by light, nitrogen, cytokinin, and GA acts to modulate nitrogen assimilation, chloroplast development and starch production. Understanding the mechanisms controlling these processes is important for agricultural biotechnology.

  20. GNC and CGA1 Modulate Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Glutamate Synthase (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT) Expression in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darryl; Guevara, David; Yaish, Mahmoud W.; Hannam, Carol; Long, Nykoll; Clarke, Joseph D.; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplast development is an important determinant of plant productivity and is controlled by environmental factors including amounts of light and nitrogen as well as internal phytohormones including cytokinins and gibberellins (GA). The paralog GATA transcription factors GNC and CGA1/GNL up-regulated by light, nitrogen and cytokinin while also being repressed by GA signaling. Modifying the expression of these genes has previously been shown to influence chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis while also altering aspects of germination, elongation growth and flowering time. In this work, we also use transgenic lines to demonstrate that GNC and CGA1 exhibit a partially redundant control over chlorophyll biosynthesis. We provide novel evidence that GNC and CGA1 influence both chloroplast number and leaf starch in proportion to their transcript level. GNC and CGA1 were found to modify the expression of chloroplast localized GLUTAMATE SYNTHASE (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT), which is the primary factor controlling nitrogen assimilation in green tissue. Altering GNC and CGA1 expression was also found to modulate the expression of important chlorophyll biosynthesis genes (GUN4, HEMA1, PORB, and PORC). As previously demonstrated, the CGA1 transgenic plants demonstrated significantly altered timing to a number of developmental events including germination, leaf production, flowering time and senescence. In contrast, the GNC transgenic lines we analyzed maintain relatively normal growth phenotypes outside of differences in chloroplast development. Despite some evidence for partial divergence, results indicate that regulation of both GNC and CGA1 by light, nitrogen, cytokinin, and GA acts to modulate nitrogen assimilation, chloroplast development and starch production. Understanding the mechanisms controlling these processes is important for agricultural biotechnology. PMID:22102866

  1. AtNOS/AtNOA1 Is a Functional Arabidopsis thaliana cGTPase and Not a Nitric-oxide Synthase*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Magali; Lee, Gyu In; Wang, Yongzeng; Crane, Brian R.; Klessig, Daniel F

    2008-01-01

    AtNOS1 was previously identified as a potential nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) in Arabidopsis thaliana, despite lack of sequence similarity to animal NOSs. Although the dwarf and yellowish leaf phenotype of Atnos1 knock-out mutant plants can be rescued by treatment with exogenous NO, doubts have recently been raised as to whether AtNOS1 is a true NOS. Moreover, depending on the type of physiological responses studied, Atnos1 is not always deficient in NO induction and/or ...

  2. Biosynthesis of isoprenoids in plants: Structure of the 2C-methyl-d-erithrytol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Comparison with the bacterial enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Calisto, Barbara M.; Perez-Gil, Jordi; Bergua, Maria; Querol-Audi, Jordi; Fita, Ignacio; Imperial, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MCS) from Arabidopsis thaliana has been solved at 2.3 Å resolution in complex with a cytidine-5-monophosphate (CMP) molecule. This is the first structure determined of an MCS enzyme from a plant. Major differences between the A. thaliana and bacterial MCS structures are found in the large molecular cavity that forms between subunits and involve residues that are highly conserved among plants. In some bact...

  3. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH is required for localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Seung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin or linear (amylose. The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM. We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is

  4. The thanatos mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana cellulose synthase 3 (AtCesA3) has a dominant-negative effect on cellulose synthesis and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daras, Gerasimos; Rigas, Stamatis; Penning, Bryan; Milioni, Dimitra; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C; Fasseas, Constantinos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2009-01-01

    Genetic functional analyses of mutants in plant genes encoding cellulose synthases (CesAs) have suggested that cellulose deposition requires the activity of multiple CesA proteins. Here, a genetic screen has led to the identification of thanatos (than), a semi-dominant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with impaired growth of seedlings. Homozygous seedlings of than germinate and grow but do not survive. In contrast to other CesA mutants, heterozygous plants are dwarfed and display a radially swollen root phenotype. Cellulose content is reduced by approximately one-fifth in heterozygous and by two-fifths in homozygous plants, showing gene-dosage dependence. Map-based cloning revealed an amino acid substitution (P578S) in the catalytic domain of the AtCesA3 gene, indicating a critical role for this residue in the structure and function of the cellulose synthase complex. Ab initio analysis of the AtCesA3 subdomain flanking the conserved proline residue predicted that the amino acid substitution to serine alters protein secondary structure in the catalytic domain. Gene dosage-dependent expression of the AtCesA3 mutant gene in wild-type A. thaliana plants resulted in a than dominant-negative phenotype. We propose that the incorporation of a mis-folded CesA3 subunit into the cellulose synthase complex may stall or prevent the formation of functional rosette complexes. PMID:19645738

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  10. Insight into the early steps of root hair formation revealed by the procuste1 cellulose synthase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Manoj; Fischer Urs; Singh Sunil K; Grebe Markus; Marchant Alan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Formation of plant root hairs originating from epidermal cells involves selection of a polar initiation site and production of an initial hair bulge which requires local cell wall loosening. In Arabidopsis the polar initiation site is located towards the basal end of epidermal cells. However little is currently understood about the mechanism for the selection of the hair initiation site or the mechanism by which localised hair outgrowth is achieved. The Arabidopsis procust...

  11. Cadmium tolerance and phytochelatin content of Arabidopsis seedlings over-expressing the phytochelatin synthase gene AtPCS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Patrizia; Zanella, Letizia; Proia, Alessandra; De Paolis, Angelo; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Sanità di Toppi, Luigi; Costantino, Paolo; Cardarelli, Maura

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that expression of the Arabidopsis phytochelatin (PC) biosynthetic gene AtPCS1 in Nicotiana tabacum plants increases the Cd tolerance in the presence of exogenous glutathione (GSH). In this paper, the Cd tolerance of Arabidopsis plants over-expressing AtPCS1 (AtPCSox lines) has been analysed and the differences between Arabidopsis and tobacco are shown. Based on the analysis of seedling fresh weight, primary root length, and alterations in root anatomy, evidence is provided that, at relatively low Cd concentrations, the Cd tolerance of AtPCSox lines is lower than the wild type, while AtPCS1 over-expressing tobacco is more tolerant to Cd than the wild type. At higher Cd concentrations, Arabidopsis AtPCSox seedlings are more tolerant to Cd than the wild type, while tobacco AtPCS1 seedlings are as sensitive as the wild type. Exogenous GSH, in contrast to what was observed in tobacco, did not increase the Cd tolerance of AtPCSox lines. The PC content in wild-type Arabidopsis at low Cd concentrations is more than three times higher than in tobacco and substantial differences were also found in the PC chain lengths. These data indicate that the differences in Cd tolerance and in its dependence on exogenous GSH between Arabidopsis and tobacco are due to species-specific differences in the endogenous content of PCs and GSH and may be in the relative abundance of PCs of different length. PMID:21841172

  12. Cadmium tolerance and phytochelatin content of Arabidopsis seedlings over-expressing the phytochelatin synthase gene AtPCS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Patrizia; Zanella, Letizia; Proia, Alessandra; De Paolis, Angelo; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Sanità di Toppi, Luigi; Costantino, Paolo; Cardarelli, Maura

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that expression of the Arabidopsis phytochelatin (PC) biosynthetic gene AtPCS1 in Nicotiana tabacum plants increases the Cd tolerance in the presence of exogenous glutathione (GSH). In this paper, the Cd tolerance of Arabidopsis plants over-expressing AtPCS1 (AtPCSox lines) has been analysed and the differences between Arabidopsis and tobacco are shown. Based on the analysis of seedling fresh weight, primary root length, and alterations in root anatomy, evidence is provided that, at relatively low Cd concentrations, the Cd tolerance of AtPCSox lines is lower than the wild type, while AtPCS1 over-expressing tobacco is more tolerant to Cd than the wild type. At higher Cd concentrations, Arabidopsis AtPCSox seedlings are more tolerant to Cd than the wild type, while tobacco AtPCS1 seedlings are as sensitive as the wild type. Exogenous GSH, in contrast to what was observed in tobacco, did not increase the Cd tolerance of AtPCSox lines. The PC content in wild-type Arabidopsis at low Cd concentrations is more than three times higher than in tobacco and substantial differences were also found in the PC chain lengths. These data indicate that the differences in Cd tolerance and in its dependence on exogenous GSH between Arabidopsis and tobacco are due to species-specific differences in the endogenous content of PCs and GSH and may be in the relative abundance of PCs of different length. PMID:21841172

  13. Expression of the tetrahydrofolate-dependent nitric oxide synthase from the green alga Ostreococcus tauri increases tolerance to abiotic stresses and influences stomatal development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresi, Noelia; Mayta, Martín L; Lodeyro, Anabella F; Scuffi, Denise; Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; García-Mata, Carlos; Casalongué, Claudia; Carrillo, Néstor; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule with diverse biological functions in plants. NO plays a crucial role in growth and development, from germination to senescence, and is also involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In animals, NO is synthesized by well-described nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. NOS activity has also been detected in higher plants, but no gene encoding an NOS protein, or the enzymes required for synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor of mammalian NOS activity, have been identified so far. Recently, an NOS gene from the unicellular marine alga Ostreococcus tauri (OtNOS) has been discovered and characterized. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with OtNOS under the control of the inducible short promoter fragment (SPF) of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Hahb-4 gene, which responds to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid. Transgenic plants expressing OtNOS accumulated higher NO concentrations compared with siblings transformed with the empty vector, and displayed enhanced salt, drought and oxidative stress tolerance. Moreover, transgenic OtNOS lines exhibited increased stomatal development compared with plants transformed with the empty vector. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that OtNOS, unlike mammalian NOS, efficiently uses tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor in Arabidopsis plants. The modulation of NO production to alleviate abiotic stress disturbances in higher plants highlights the potential of genetic manipulation to influence NO metabolism as a tool to improve plant fitness under adverse growth conditions. PMID:25880454

  14. Arabidopsis OR proteins are the major post-transcriptional regulators of phytoene synthase in mediating carotenoid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are indispensable natural pigments to plants and humans. Phytoene synthase (PSY), the rate-limiting enzyme in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, and ORANGE (OR), a regulator of chromoplast differentiation and enhancer of carotenoid biosynthesis, represent two key proteins that control caro...

  15. Functional analysis of the cellulose synthase-like genes CSLD1, CSLD2 and CSLD4 in tip-growing arabidopsis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Yoo, Cheol-Min; Mutwil, Marek;

    2008-01-01

    A reverse genetic approach was used to investigate the functions of three members of the cellulose synthase superfamily in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE D1 (CSLD1), CSLD2, and CSLD4. CSLD2 is required for normal root hair growth but has a different role from that...... previously described for CSLD3 (KOJAK). CSLD2 is required during a later stage of hair development than CSLD3, and CSLD2 mutants produce root hairs with a range of abnormalities, with many root hairs rupturing late in development. Remarkably, though, it was often the case that in CSLD2 mutants, tip growth...... would resume after rupturing of root hairs. In silico, semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and promoter-reporter construct analyses indicated that the expression of both CSLD2 and CSLD3 is elevated at reduced temperatures, and the phenotypes of mutants homozygous for...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106750 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106750 002-115-C09 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104851 001-043-A10 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100909 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100909 J023132G24 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058950 001-020-A07 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059821 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059821 006-205-D11 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064944 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064944 J013000P14 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  2. Elevated CO2-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase differentially affects nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis plants under different nitrate supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huijun; Yan, Minggang; Chen, Ni; Xie, Huaqiang; Ke, Shouwei

    2016-02-01

    CO2 elevation often alters the plant's nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the first enzyme acting in the nitrate assimilation pathway. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The association between elevated CO2-induced alterations of NR activity and nitric oxide (NO) was examined in Col-0 Arabidopsis fed with 0.2-10 mM nitrate, using NO donors, NO scavenger, and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. The noa1 mutant, in which most NOS activity was lost, and the NR activity-null mutant nia1 nia2 were also used to examine the above association. In response to CO2 elevation, NR activity increased in low-nitrate Col-0 plants but was inhibited in high-nitrate Col-0 plants. NO scavenger and NOS inhibitor could eliminate these two responses, whereas the application of NO donors mimicked these distinct responses in ambient CO2-grown Col-0 plants. Furthermore, in both low- and high-nitrate conditions, elevated CO2 increased NOS activity and NO levels in Col-0 and nia1 nia2 plants but had little effect on NO level and NR activity in noa1 plants. Considering all of these findings, this study concluded that, in response to CO2 elevation, either the NR activity induction in low-nitrate plants or the NR activity inhibition in high-nitrate plants is regulated by NOS-generated NO. PMID:26608644

  3. The Arabidopsis Cellulose Synthase Complex: A Proposed Hexamer of CESA Trimers in an Equimolar Stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Joseph L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Hammudi, Mustafa B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Tien, Ming [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we show a 1:1:1 stoichiometry between the three Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell wall isozymes: CESA4, CESA7, and CESA8. This ratio was determined utilizing a simple but elegant method of quantitative immunoblotting using isoform-specific antibodies and 35S-labeled protein standards for each CESA. Additionally, the observed equimolar stoichiometry was found to be fixed along the axis of the stem, which represents a developmental gradient. Our results complement recent spectroscopic analyses pointing toward an 18-chain cellulose microfibril. Taken together, we propose that the CSC is composed of a hexamer of catalytically active CESA trimers, with each CESA in equimolar amounts. This finding is a crucial advance in understanding how CESAs integrate to form higher order complexes, which is a key determinate of cellulose microfibril and cell wall properties.

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070093 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070093 J023041M10 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-78 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060009 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060009 006-302-D03 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-71 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-130 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 2e-65 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110534 002-168-A07 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-114 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-24 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-45 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 3e-66 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069071 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069071 J023010H01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-124 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060286 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060286 001-006-C08 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 6e-78 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-29 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-25 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-28 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105393 001-123-B04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-25 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-126 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 8e-63 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 1e-125 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-26 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-47 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-98 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-98 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109812 002-147-H02 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 5e-90 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-31 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121003 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121003 J023045B21 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-48 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-45 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 4e-27 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061162 006-209-A01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-35 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-50 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242817 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242817 J090063G17 At3g48560.1 68416.m05302 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-a ... cid synthase (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058963 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058963 001-020-C04 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-15 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109628 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109628 002-138-C02 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  1. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH Is Required for Localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to Starch Granules and for Normal Amylose Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Sedwick, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which plants make starch—a vital foodstuff for billions of humans—is poorly understood, with a clear role for just one enzyme, granular binding starch synthase. A new study identifies a protein needed to recruit this enzyme to the starch granule. Read the Research Article.

  2. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071200 J023086K07 At1g64200.1 vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E , putative ... / V-ATPase ... E ... subunit, ... putative ... / vacuolar proton pump E ... subunit, putative ... similar ... to SP|Q39258 Vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E ... (E C 3.6.3.14) (V-ATPase ... E ... subunit) (Vacu ... olar proton pump E ... subunit) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam pro ... file ... PF01991: ATP synthase ... (E /31 kDa) subunit 1e -86 ...

  4. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    OpenAIRE

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Edwin R Lampugnani; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated ...

  5. Dual-level regulation of ACC synthase activity by MPK3/MPK6 cascade and its downstream WRKY transcription factor during ethylene induction in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants under pathogen attack produce high levels of ethylene, which plays important roles in plant immunity. Previously, we reported the involvement of ACS2 and ACS6, two Type I ACS isoforms, in Botrytis cinerea-induced ethylene biosynthesis and their regulation at the protein stability level by MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. The residual ethylene induction in the acs2/acs6 double mutant suggests the involvement of additional ACS isoforms. It is also known that a subset of ACS genes, including ACS6, is transcriptionally induced in plants under stress or pathogen attack. However, the importance of ACS gene activation and the regulatory mechanism(s are not clear. In this report, we demonstrate using genetic analysis that ACS7 and ACS11, two Type III ACS isoforms, and ACS8, a Type II ACS isoform, also contribute to the B. cinerea-induced ethylene production. In addition to post-translational regulation, transcriptional activation of the ACS genes also plays a critical role in sustaining high levels of ethylene induction. Interestingly, MPK3 and MPK6 not only control the stability of ACS2 and ACS6 proteins via direct protein phosphorylation but also regulate the expression of ACS2 and ACS6 genes. WRKY33, another MPK3/MPK6 substrate, is involved in the MPK3/MPK6-induced ACS2/ACS6 gene expression based on genetic analyses. Furthermore, chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay reveals the direct binding of WRKY33 to the W-boxes in the promoters of ACS2 and ACS6 genes in vivo, suggesting that WRKY33 is directly involved in the activation of ACS2 and ACS6 expression downstream of MPK3/MPK6 cascade in response to pathogen invasion. Regulation of ACS activity by MPK3/MPK6 at both transcriptional and protein stability levels plays a key role in determining the kinetics and magnitude of ethylene induction.

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108840 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ynthase isozyme) (Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase isozyme) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam profile PF01717: Methionine synthase, vitamin-B12 independent 1e-136 ... ...ferase, putative / vitamin-B12-independent methionine synthase, putative / cobalamin-independent methionin...ferase (EC 2.1.1.14) (Vitamin-B12-independent methionine s...e synthase, putative very strong similarity to SP|O50008 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltrans...AK108840 002-151-H05 At3g03780.2 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltrans

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100850 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100850 J023123I11 At4g11150.1 vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E ... / V-ATPase ... E ... subunit / vacuolar ... proton pump E ... subunit (VATE ) ide ntical to SP|Q39258 Vacuolar ATP ... synthase ... subunit E ... (E C 3.6.3.14) (V-ATPase ... E ... subunit) (Vacu ... olar proton pump E ... subunit) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e -79 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072778 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072778 J023139P14 At4g11150.1 vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E ... / V-ATPase ... E ... subunit / vacuolar ... proton pump E ... subunit (VATE ) ide ntical to SP|Q39258 Vacuolar ATP ... synthase ... subunit E ... (E C 3.6.3.14) (V-ATPase ... E ... subunit) (Vacu ... olar proton pump E ... subunit) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e -72 ...

  9. Geranyllinalool synthases in solanaceae and other angiosperms constitute an ancient branch of diterpene synthases involved in the synthesis of defensive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Falara; J.M. Alba; M.R. Kant; R.C. Schuurink; E. Pichersky

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the

  10. Benzalacetone Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuro eAbe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Benzalacetone synthase, from the medicinal plant Rheum palmatum (Polygonaceae (RpBAS, is a plant-specific chalcone synthase (CHS superfamily of type III polyketide synthase (PKS. RpBAS catalyzes the one-step, decarboxylative condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to produce the C6-C4 benzalacetone scaffold. The X-ray crystal structures of RpBAS confirmed that the diketide-forming activity is attributable to the characteristic substitution of the conserved active-site "gatekeeper" Phe with Leu. Furthermore, the crystal structures suggested that RpBAS employs novel catalytic machinery for the thioester bond cleavage of the enzyme-bound diketide intermediate and the final decarboxylation reaction to produce benzalacetone. Finally, by exploiting the remarkable substrate tolerance and catalytic versatility of RpBAS, precursor-directed biosynthesis efficiently generated chemically and structurally divergent, unnatural novel polyketide scaffolds. These findings provided a structural basis for the functional diversity of the type III PKS enzymes.

  11. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant dde2-2 is defective in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene encoding one of the key enzymes of the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Malek, Bernadette; van der Graaff, Eric; Schneitz, Kay; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. mutant delayed-dehiscence2-2 (dde2-2) was identified in an En1/Spm1 transposon-induced mutant population screened for plants showing defects in fertility. The dde2-2 mutant allele is defective in the anther dehiscence process and filament elongation and thus e...

  12. Arabidopsis transcriptional responses differentiating closely related chemicals (herbicides) and cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using whole genome Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips we characterized the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 24 hours after treatment with five different herbicides. Four of them (chloransulam, imazapyr, primisulfuron, sulfometuron) inhibit acetolactate synthase (A...

  13. Geranyllinalool synthases in solanaceae and other angiosperms constitute an ancient branch of diterpene synthases involved in the synthesis of defensive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Falara, V.; Alba, J.M.; Kant, M.R.; Schuurink, R. C.; Pichersky, E

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the terpene synthase (TPS) family and two Fabaceae GLSs that belong to the TPS-g clade have been reported, making it unclear which is the main route to geranyllinalool in plants. We characterized a to...

  14. Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Chien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

  15. Overexpression of the PointMutated Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Alters Resis-tance to Valine and Enhances Production of Valine inArabidopsis%过表达拟南芥点突变乙酰羟酸合成酶基因改变植物对缬氨酸的抗性及增强缬氨酸合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菲佚; 焦成瑾; 王太术; 田春芳; 谢尚强; 刘亚萍

    2015-01-01

    拟南芥乙酰羟酸合成酶(acetohydroxyacid synthase, AHAS)在支链氨基酸合成中具有重要的作用。为考察AHAS不同亚基关键位点突变对植物缬氨酸抗性与缬氨酸合成的影响,对AHAS大小亚基上特定位点进行体外突变,构建AHAS点突变过表达转基因植物,研究AHAS不同亚基点突变转基因植物对缬氨酸抗性及其合成的影响。研究结果表明: AHAS小亚基G88D突变解除了终端产物对该酶的反馈抑制作用,使转基因植物缬氨酸含量提高。大亚基E305D突变增强小亚基G88D突变效应,而大亚基E482D突变对G88D突变具有相反的作用。AHAS全酶E305DG88D双突变转基因植物较E482DG88D具有更强的缬氨酸抗性表型和更高的缬氨酸含量。这些结果提示AHAS大小亚基间存在着相互作用,大小亚基不同位点突变对AHAS全酶活性具有不同的影响。%Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of brahched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) inArabidopsis. To investigate effects of various speciifc mutated sites harboring in the large and small subunits of AHAS on resistance to valine and production of valine inArabidopsis, transgenic plants overexpressing the point mutated AHAS were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, and the phenotype of re-sistance to valine and production of valine of the transgenic plants were evaluatedin planta. The results showed that the G88D mutation in the small unit of AHAS abolished the feedback-resistant of valine to AHAS and this mutation resulted in increase of valine in the transgenic plants. The E305D mutation in the large unit of AHAS strengthens the effect of the G88D mutation. Interestingly, the E482D mutation in the large unit of AHAS acts antagonistically on the G88D mutation in resistance to valine and production of valine in transgenic plants. Compared with the combined double E482DG88D AHAS mutant transgenic plants, the E305DG88D AHAS transgenic plants exhibited the

  16. The dominance of the herbicide resistance cost in several Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Fabrice; Gasquez, Jacques; Reboud, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Resistance evolution depends upon the balance between advantage and disadvantage (cost) conferred in treated and untreated areas. By analyzing morphological characters and simple fitness components, the cost associated with each of eight herbicide resistance alleles (acetolactate synthase, cellulose synthase, and auxin-induced target genes) was studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The use of allele-specific PCR to discriminate between heterozygous and homozygous plants was used to...

  17. Characterisation of the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierl Alfons

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, tryptophan is synthesized from indole-3-glycerole phosphate (IGP by a tryptophan synthase αββα heterotetramer. Plants have evolved multiple α (TSA and β (TSB homologs, which have probably diverged in biological function and their ability of subunit interaction. There is some evidence for a tryptophan synthase (TS complex in Arabidopsis. On the other hand maize (Zea mays expresses the TSA-homologs BX1 and IGL that efficiently cleave IGP, independent of interaction with TSB. Results In order to clarify, how tryptophan is synthesized in maize, two TSA homologs, hitherto uncharacterized ZmTSA and ZmTSAlike, were functionally analyzed. ZmTSA is localized in plastids, the major site of tryptophan biosynthesis in plants. It catalyzes the tryptophan synthase α-reaction (cleavage of IGP, and forms a tryptophan synthase complex with ZmTSB1 in vitro. The catalytic efficiency of the α-reaction is strongly enhanced upon complex formation. A 160 kD tryptophan synthase complex was partially purified from maize leaves and ZmTSA was identified as native α-subunit of this complex by mass spectrometry. ZmTSAlike, for which no in vitro activity was detected, is localized in the cytosol. ZmTSAlike, BX1, and IGL were not detectable in the native tryptophan synthase complex in leaves. Conclusion It was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that maize forms a tryptophan synthase complex and ZmTSA functions as α-subunit in this complex.

  18. Bottlenecks for metabolic engineering of isoflavone glycoconjugates in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Blount, Jack W.; Steele, Christopher L.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    In view of their perceived chemopreventive activities against hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease, and postmenopausal ailments, there is considerable interest in engineering plants to contain isoflavone phytoestrogens. However, attempts to date have only resulted in low levels of isoflavone accumulation in non-legumes. Introducing soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) into Arabidopsis thaliana leads to accumulation of low levels of genistein glycosides. Leaves of wild-type A. thalia...

  19. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  20. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  1. Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weibing; Schuster, Christoph; Beahan, Cherie T; Charoensawan, Varodom; Peaucelle, Alexis; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S; Wightman, Raymond; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-06-01

    The cell walls of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), containing the stem cell niche that gives rise to the above-ground tissues, are crucially involved in regulating differentiation. It is currently unknown how these walls are built and refined or their role, if any, in influencing meristem developmental dynamics. We have combined polysaccharide linkage analysis, immuno-labeling, and transcriptome profiling of the SAM to provide a spatiotemporal plan of the walls of this dynamic structure. We find that meristematic cells express only a core subset of 152 genes encoding cell wall glycosyltransferases (GTs). Systemic localization of all these GT mRNAs by in situ hybridization reveals members with either enrichment in or specificity to apical subdomains such as emerging flower primordia, and a large class with high expression in dividing cells. The highly localized and coordinated expression of GTs in the SAM suggests distinct wall properties of meristematic cells and specific differences between newly forming walls and their mature descendants. Functional analysis demonstrates that a subset of CSLD genes is essential for proper meristem maintenance, confirming the key role of walls in developmental pathways. PMID:27212401

  2. Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Weibing; Schuster, Christoph; Beahan, Cherie T.; Charoensawan, Varodom; Peaucelle, Alexis; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S.; Wightman, Raymond; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    The cell walls of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), containing the stem cell niche that gives rise to the above-ground tissues, are crucially involved in regulating differentiation. It is currently unknown how these walls are built and refined or their role, if any, in influencing meristem developmental dynamics. We have combined polysaccharide linkage analysis, immuno-labeling, and transcriptome profiling of the SAM to provide a spatiotemporal plan of the walls of this dynamic structure. We f...

  3. Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

    2000-02-01

    Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

  4. Structure of the human beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase from the mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Henriksen, Anette

    2007-01-01

    activities encoded by discrete genes. The beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase (KAS) moiety of the mitochondrial FAS (mtKAS) is targeted by the antibiotic cerulenin and possibly by the other antibiotics inhibiting prokaryotic KASes: thiolactomycin, platensimycin, and the alpha-methylene butyrolactone, C75. The high...... hexanoyl complex plus the hexanoyl complex of the plant mtKAS from Arabidopsis thaliana. The structures explain (1) the bimodal (C(6) and C(10)-C(12)) substrate preferences leading to the C(8) lipoic acid precursor and long chains for the membranes, respectively, and (2) the low cerulenin sensitivity of...

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana Yellow Stripe1-Like4 and Yellow Stripe1-Like6 localize to internal cellular membranes and are involved in metal ion homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Hsuan eChu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several members of the Yellow Stripe1-Like (YSL family of transporter proteins are able to transport metal-nicotianamine (NA complexes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the roles of the Arabidopsis YSLs that are most closely related to the founding member of the family, ZmYS1 (e.g., AtYSL1, AtYSL2 and AtYSL3, but there is little information concerning members of the other two well-conserved YSL clades. Here, we provide evidence that AtYSL4 and AtYSL6, which are the only genes in Arabidopsis belong to YSL Group II, are localized to vacuole membranes and to internal membranes resembling endoplasmic reticulum. Both single and double mutants for YSL4 and YSL6 were rigorously analyzed, and have surprisingly mild phenotypes, in spite of the strong and wide-ranging expression of YSL6. However, in the presence of toxic levels of Mn and Ni, plants with mutations in YSL4 and YSL6 and plants overexpressing GFP-tagged YSL6 showed growth defects, indicating a role for these transporters in heavy metal stress responses.

  6. CESA5 Is Required for the Synthesis of Cellulose with a Role in Structuring the Adherent Mucilage of Arabidopsis Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Stuart; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Diatloff, Eugene; Bischoff, Volker; Gonneau, Martine; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Imbibed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds are encapsulated by mucilage that is formed of hydrated polysaccharides released from seed coat epidermal cells. The mucilage is structured with water-soluble and adherent layers, with cellulose present uniquely in an inner domain of the latter. Using a reverse-genetic approach to identify the cellulose synthases (CESAs) that produce mucilage cellulose, cesa5 mutants were shown to be required for the correct formation of these layers. Expressio...

  7. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  8. Functional demonstrations of starch binding domains present in Ostreococcus tauri starch synthases isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Barchiesi, Julieta; Hedin, Nicolás; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.; Miguel A Ballicora; Busi, María V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Starch-binding domains are key modules present in several enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism. These non-catalytic modules have already been described as essential for starch-binding and the catalytic activity of starch synthase III from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In Ostreococcus tauri, a unicellular green alga of the Prasinophyceae family, there are three SSIII isoforms, known as Ostta SSIII-A, SSIII-B and SSIII-C. Results In this work, using in silico and in...

  9. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  10. Prenyldiphosphate synthases and gibberellin biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.N. van Schie; M.A. Haring; R.C. Schuurink

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins are derived from the diterpene precursor geranylgeranyl diphophosphate (GGPP). GGPP is converted to ent-kaurene, which contains the basic structure of gibberellins, in the plastids by the combined actions of copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS). Generally, ge

  11. Product Variability of the ‘Cineole Cassette'Monoterpene Synthases of Related Nicotiana Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anke F(a)hnrich; Katrin Krause; Birgit Piechulla

    2011-01-01

    Nicotiana species of the section Alatae characteristically emit the floral scent compounds of the ‘cineole cassere' comprising 1,8-cineole,limonene,myrcene,α-pinene,β-pinene,sabinene,and α-terpineol.We successfully isolated genes of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana langsdorfii that encoded enzymes,which produced the characteristic monoterpenes of this ‘cineole cassette' with α-terpineol being most abundant in the volatile spectra.The amino acid sequences of both terpineol synthases were 99% identical.The enzymes cluster in a monophyletic branch together with the closely related cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens and monoterpene synthase 1 of Solanum lycopersicum.The cyclization reactions (α-terpineol to 1,8-cineole) of the terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were less efficient compared to the ‘cineole cassette′ monoterpene synthases of Arabidopsis thaliana,N.suaveolens,Salvia fruticosa,Salvia officinalis,and Citrus unshiu.The terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were localized in pistils and in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the petals.The enzyme activities reached their maxima at the second day after anthesis when flowers were fully opened and the enzyme activity in N.alata was highest at the transition from day to night (diurnal rhythm).

  12. Oxylipin Pathway in Rice and Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Wassim Chehab; John V. Perea; Banu Gopalan; Steve Theg; Katayoon Dehesh

    2007-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex signaling pathways to coordinate responses to developmental and environmental information. The oxylipin pathway is one pivotal lipid-based signaling network, composed of several competing branch pathways, that determines the plant's ability to adapt to various stimuli. Activation of the oxylipin pathway induces the de novo synthesis of biologically active metabolltes called "oxylipins". The relative levels of these metabolltes are a distinct indicator of each plant species and determine the ability of plants to adapt to different stimuli. The two major branches of the oxylipln pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) are responsible for production of the signaling compounds,jasmonates and aldehydes respectively. Here, we compare and contrast the regulation of AOS and HPL branch pathways in rice and Arabidopsis as model monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous systems. These analyses provide new Insights into the evolution of JAs and aldehydes signaling pathways, and the complex network of processes responsible for stress adaptations in monocots and dicots.

  13. Cellulose synthase complexes: structure and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eLei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review is to update the most recent progress on characterization of the composition, regulation, and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes. We will highlight proteins that interact with cellulose synthases, e.g. cellulose synthase-interactive protein 1 (CSI1. The potential regulation mechanisms by which cellulose synthase interact with cortical microtubules in primary cell walls will be discussed.

  14. Momilactone sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kitajima, Shinya

    2015-05-01

    The labdane-related diterpenoid, momilactone B has potent growth inhibitory activity and was demonstrated to play a particularly critical role in the allelopathy of rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is limited information available about the mode of action of momilactone B on the growth inhibition. The present research describes the effects of momilactone B on protein expression in the early development of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling, which was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOFMS. Momilactone B inhibited the accumulation of subtilisin-like serine protease, amyrin synthase LUP2, β-glucosidase and malate synthase at 1 h after the momilactone application. Those proteins are involved in the metabolic turnover and the production of intermediates needed for cell structures resulting in plant growth and development. Momilactone B also inhibited the breakdown of cruciferin 2, which is essential for seed germination and seedling growth to construct cell structures. Momilactone B induced the accumulation of translationally controlled tumor protein, glutathione S-transferase and 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin 1. These proteins are involved in stress responses and increased stress tolerance. In addition, glutathione S-transferase has the activity of herbicide detoxification and 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin 1 has inhibitory activity for seed germination under unfavorable conditions. The present research suggests that momilactone B may inhibit the seedling growth by the inhibition of the metabolic turnover and the production of intermediates for cell structures. In addition, momilactone induced proteins associated with plant defense responses. PMID:26058145

  15. Gene coexpression analysis reveals complex metabolism of the monoterpene alcohol linalool in Arabidopsis flowers.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginglinger, J.-F.; Boachon, B.; Hofer, R.; Paetz, C.; Kollner, T. G.; Miesch, L.; Lugan, R.; Baltenweck, R.; Mutterer, J.; Ullmann, P.; Beran, F.; Claudel, P.; Verstappen, F.; Fischer, M. J. C.; Karst, F

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus predicted to be involved in monoterpenoid metabolism. We show that all four selected genes, the two terpene synthases (TPS10 and TPS14) and the two cytochrome P450s (CYP71B31 and CYP76C3), are simu...

  16. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. PMID:26880289

  17. Functional genomic analysis supports conservation of function among cellulose synthase-like a gene family members and suggests diverse roles of mannans in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liepman, Aaron H; Nairn, C Joseph; Willats, William G T;

    2007-01-01

    Mannan polysaccharides are widespread among plants, where they serve as structural elements in cell walls, as carbohydrate reserves, and potentially perform other important functions. Previous work has demonstrated that members of the cellulose synthase-like A (CslA) family of glycosyltransferases...... from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), and Populus trichocarpa catalyze beta-1,4-mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Mannan polysaccharides and homologs of CslA genes appear to be present in all lineages of land plants analyzed to date. In many plants......, the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced in...

  18. Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Cellular Physiology of Cysteine Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine is one of the most versatile molecules in biology, taking over such different functions as catalysis, structure, regulation and electron transport during evolution. Research on Arabidopsis has contributed decisively to the understanding of cysteine synthesis and its role in the assimilatory pathways of S, N and C in plants. The multimeric cysteine synthase complex is present in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria and forms the centre of a unique metabolic sensing and signaling sys...

  19. Gene silencing and homology-dependent gene silencing in Arabidopsis: genetic modifiers and DNA methylation.

    OpenAIRE

    Furner, I J; Sheikh, M. A.; Collett, C E

    1998-01-01

    Transgenes inserted into the plant genome can become inactive (gene silencing) or result in silencing of homologous cellular genes [homology-dependent gene silencing (HDG silencing)]. In an earlier study we reported HDG silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) in Arabidopsis. This study concerns genetic revertants of one of the CHS HDG-silencing transgenic homozygotes. Two monogenic recessive trans-acting mutations (hog1 and ddm1) that impair gene silencing and HDG silencing were identified. Thes...

  20. Differential regulation of two types of monogalactosyldiacylglylcerol synthase in membrane lipid remodeling under phosphate-limited conditions in sesame plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eShimojima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate (Pi limitation causes drastic lipid remodeling in plant membranes. Glycolipids substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded, thereby supplying Pi needed for essential biological processes. Two major types of remodeling of membrane lipids occur in higher plants: whereas one involves an increase in the concentration of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in plastids to compensate for a decreased concentration of phosphatidylglycerol, the other involves digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG synthesis in plastids and the export of DGDG to extraplastidial membranes to compensate for reduced abundances of phospholipids. Lipid remodeling depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, which is a substrate that supports the elevated rate of DGDG synthesis that is induced by low Pi availability. Regulation of MGDG synthesis has been analyzed most extensively using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, although orthologous genes that encode putative MGDG synthases exist in photosynthetic organisms from bacteria to higher plants. We recently hypothesized that two types of MGDG synthase diverged after the appearance of seed plants. This divergence might have both enabled plants to adapt to a wide range of Pi availability in soils and contributed to the diversity of seed plants. In the work presented here, we found that membrane lipid remodeling also takes place in sesame, which is one of the most common traditional crops grown in Asia. We identified two types of MGDG synthase from sesame (encoded by SeMGD1 and SeMGD2 and analyzed their enzymatic properties. Our results show that both genes correspond to the Arabidopsis type-A and -B isoforms of MGDG synthase. Notably, whereas Pi limitation up-regulates only the gene encoding the type-B isoform of Arabidopsis, low Pi availability up-regulates the expression of both SeMGD1 and SeMGD2. We discuss the significance of the different responses to low Pi availability in sesame and

  1. Arabidopsis CAPRICE (MYB and GLABRA3 (bHLH control tomato (Solanum lycopersicum anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Wada

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC and the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3 are central regulators of root-hair differentiation and trichome initiation. By transforming the orthologous tomato genes SlTRY (CPC and SlGL3 (GL3 into Arabidopsis, we demonstrated that these genes influence epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, suggesting that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. After transformation into tomato, 35S::CPC inhibited anthocyanin accumulation, whereas GL3::GL3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including Phe-ammonia lyase (PAL, the flavonoid pathway genes chalcone synthase (CHS, dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS were repressed in 35S::CPC tomato. In contrast, the expression levels of PAL, CHS, DFR, and ANS were significantly higher in GL3::GL3 tomato compared with control plants. These results suggest that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin pigment synthesis in tomato.

  2. Phylogenetic diversification of glycogen synthase kinase 3/SHAGGY-like kinase genes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinases (GSKs are non-receptor serine/threonine protein kinases that are involved in a variety of biological processes. In contrast to the two members of the GSK3 family in mammals, plants appear to have a much larger set of divergent GSK genes. Plant GSKs are encoded by a multigene family; analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed the existence of 10 GSK genes that fall into four major groups. Here we characterized the structure of Arabidopsis and rice GSK genes and conducted the first broad phylogenetic analysis of the plant GSK gene family, covering a taxonomically diverse array of algal and land plant sequences. Results We found that the structure of GSK genes is generally conserved in Arabidopsis and rice, although we documented examples of exon expansion and intron loss. Our phylogenetic analyses of 139 sequences revealed four major clades of GSK genes that correspond to the four subgroups initially recognized in Arabidopsis. ESTs from basal angiosperms were represented in all four major clades; GSK homologs from the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado appeared in all four clades. Gymnosperm sequences occurred in clades I, III, and IV, and a sequence of the red alga Porphyra was sister to all green plant sequences. Conclusion Our results indicate that (1 the plant-specific GSK gene lineage was established early in the history of green plants, (2 plant GSKs began to diversify prior to the origin of extant seed plants, (3 three of the four major clades of GSKs present in Arabidopsis and rice were established early in the evolutionary history of extant seed plants, and (4 diversification into four major clades (as initially reported in Arabidopsis occurred either just prior to the origin of the angiosperms or very early in angiosperm history.

  3. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs. PMID:26976449

  4. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions.

  5. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important role in the development of this model, based on interdisciplinary collaborations using genetics as a major tool to investigate aspects of physiology, development, plant-microbe interactions and evol...

  6. C-terminal phosphorylation is essential for regulation of ethylene synthesizing ACC synthase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2013-02-01

    The genetic and molecular biological studies mainly in Arabidopsis and in some other plants have begun to uncover the various components of ripening signaling pathway in plants. Although transcriptional regulation of major ripening genes have been studied in detail, information on role of phosphorylation in regulating the activity and stability of core ripening pathway associated proteins in relation to ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening is still limited. Recently we have demonstrated the evidence for post-translational regulation of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1), the rate limiting step enzyme regulating ripening ethylene production in banana, through phosphorylation at the C-terminal Ser 476 and 479 residues by a 41-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase. (1) Here we have further discussed role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of stability and activity of ACS enzymes and the mechanistic and evolutionary perspective of phosphorylation pattern of Type I ACC synthase enzymes. PMID:23221778

  7. S-Acylation of the cellulose synthase complex is essential for its plasma membrane localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Wightman, Raymond; Atanassov, Ivan; Gupta, Anjali; Hurst, Charlotte H; Hemsley, Piers A; Turner, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Plant cellulose microfibrils are synthesized by a process that propels the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) through the plane of the plasma membrane. How interactions between membranes and the CSC are regulated is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that all catalytic subunits of the CSC, known as cellulose synthase A (CESA) proteins, are S-acylated. Analysis of Arabidopsis CESA7 reveals four cysteines in variable region 2 (VR2) and two cysteines at the carboxy terminus (CT) as S-acylation sites. Mutating both the VR2 and CT cysteines permits CSC assembly and trafficking to the Golgi but prevents localization to the plasma membrane. Estimates suggest that a single CSC contains more than 100 S-acyl groups, which greatly increase the hydrophobic nature of the CSC and likely influence its immediate membrane environment. PMID:27387950

  8. Arabidopsis NATA1 Acetylates Putrescine and Decreases Defense-Related Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Aileen S.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine is induced in response to pathogen infection of plants. Putrescine, which is produced from Arg, serves as a metabolic precursor for longer polyamines, including spermidine and spermine. Polyamine acetylation, which has important regulatory functions in mammalian cells, has been observed in several plant species. Here we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY1 (NATA1) catalyzes acetylation of putrescine to N-acetylputrescine and thereby competes with spermidine synthase for a common substrate. NATA1 expression is strongly induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid and coronatine, an effector molecule produced by DC3000, a Pseudomonas syringae strain that initiates a virulent infection in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. DC3000 growth is reduced in nata1 mutant Arabidopsis, suggesting a role for NATA1-mediated putrescine acetylation in suppressing antimicrobial defenses. During infection by P. syringae and other plant pathogens, polyamine oxidases use spermidine and spermine as substrates for the production of defense-related H2O2. Compared to wild-type Columbia-0 Arabidopsis, the response of nata1mutants to P. syringae infection includes reduced accumulation of acetylputrescine, greater abundance of nonacetylated polyamines, elevated H2O2 production by polyamine oxidases, and higher expression of genes related to pathogen defense. Together, these results are consistent with a model whereby P. syringae growth is improved in a targeted manner through coronatine-induced putrescine acetylation by NATA1. PMID:27208290

  9. Differences in photosynthesis and terpene content in leaves and roots of wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch Roure, Josep-Salvador; Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià Benet, Joan; Sardans i Galobart, Jordi; Owen, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the hypotheses that two different varieties of Arabidopsis thaliana show differences in physiology and terpene production. The two varieties of A. thaliana used in this study were wildtype (WT) and transgenic line (CoxIVFaNES I) genetically modified to emit nerolidol with linalool/nerolidol synthase (COX). Photosynthetic rate, electron transport rate, fluorescence, leaf volatile terpene contents and root volatile terpene contents were analyzed. For both types, we found coeluti...

  10. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  11. Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonell, K. M.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol-1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. 'Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol-1) with 0.35 mmol mol-1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol-1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis.

  12. Characterization of Arabidopsis FPS isozymes and FPS gene expression analysis provide insight into the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors in seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Keim

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP synthase (FPS, the prenyl diphoshate synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP. In this study, we provide evidence that the two Arabidopsis short FPS isozymes FPS1S and FPS2 localize to the cytosol. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Despite FPS1S and FPS2 share more than 90% amino acid sequence identity, FPS2 was found to be more efficient as a catalyst, more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of NaCl, and more resistant to thermal inactivation than FPS1S. Homology modelling for FPS1S and FPS2 and analysis of the amino acid differences between the two enzymes revealed an increase in surface polarity and a greater capacity to form surface salt bridges of FPS2 compared to FPS1S. These factors most likely account for the enhanced thermostability of FPS2. Expression analysis of FPS::GUS genes in seeds showed that FPS1 and FPS2 display complementary patterns of expression particularly at late stages of seed development, which suggests that Arabidopsis seeds have two spatially segregated sources of FPP. Functional complementation studies of the Arabidopsis fps2 knockout mutant seed phenotypes demonstrated that under normal conditions FPS1S and FPS2 are functionally interchangeable. A putative role for FPS2 in maintaining seed germination capacity under adverse environmental conditions is discussed.

  13. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  14. Intragenic recombination in the CSR1 locus of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, G; Haughn, G; King, J

    1994-04-01

    Four classes of herbicides are known to inhibit plant acetolactate synthase (ALS). In Arabidopsis, ALS is encoded by a single gene, CSR1. The dominant csr1-1 allele encodes an ALS resistant to chlorsulfuron and triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide while the dominant csr1-2 allele encodes an ALS resistant to imazapyr and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoate. The molecular distance between the point mutations in csr1-1 and csr1-2 is 1369 bp. Here we used multiherbicide resistance as a stringent selection to measure the intragenic recombination frequency between these two point mutations. We found this frequency to be 0.008 +/- 0.0028. The recombinant multiherbicide-resistant allele, csr1-4, provides an ideal marker for plant genetic transformation. PMID:8177214

  15. Arabidopsis cortical microtubules position cellulose synthase delivery to the plasma membrane and interact with cellulose synthase trafficking compartments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, R.; Lindeboom, J.J.; Paredez, A.R.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ehrhardt, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis relies on the organization and function of two polymer arrays separated by the plasma membrane: the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton and cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Studies using in vivo markers confirmed that one function of the cortical microtubule array is t

  16. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  17. Decrease in Leaf Sucrose Synthesis Leads to Increased Leaf Starch Turnover and Decreased RuBP-limited Photosynthesis But Not Rubisco-limited Photosynthesis in Arabidopsis Null Mutants of SPSA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPS (Sucrose phosphate synthase) isoforms from dicots cluster into families A, B and C. In this study, we investigated the individual effect of null mutations of each of the four SPS genes in Arabidopsis (spsa1, spsa2, spsb and spsc) on photosynthesis and carbon partitioning. Null mutants spsa1 and ...

  18. Distribution of callose synthase, cellulose synthase, and sucrose synthase in tobacco pollen tube is controlled in dissimilar ways by actin filaments and microtubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, G.; Faleri, C.; Casino, C.; Emons, A.M.C.; Cresti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tub

  19. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr; Palmowski, Pawel; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Cieśla, Joanna; Zieliński, Zbigniew; Nizioł, Joanna; Jarmuła, Adam; Maj, Piotr; Gołos, Barbara; Wińska, Patrycja; Ostafil, Sylwia; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Shugar, David; Rode, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichin......Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat......, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous m......RNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and Fd...

  20. Nitric Oxide synthases and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CynthiaAnnCarnes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. There are multiple systems in the myocardium which contribute to redox homeostasis, and loss of homeostasis can result in oxidative stress. Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases, which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two nitric oxide synthase isoforms (1 and 3 are normally expressed in the heart. During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of nitric oxide synthase 2 in multiple cell types in the myocardium. In certain conditions, the NOS enzymes may become uncoupled, shifting from production of nitric oxide to superoxide anion, a potent free radical and oxidant. Multiple lines of evidence suggest a role for nitric oxide synthases in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Therapeutic approaches to reduce atrial fibrillation by modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity may be beneficial, although further investigation of this strategy is needed.

  1. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [32P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [32P] phosphothreonine. When the 32P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [32P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  2. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Sylvie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  3. A 22-nt artificial microRNA mediates widespread RNA silencing in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Marcus; Eamens, Andrew L.; Finnegan, E Jean; Waterhouse, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    It is known that 22-nucleotide (nt) microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from asymmetric duplexes trigger phased small-interfering RNA (phasiRNA) production from complementary targets. Here we investigate the efficacy of 22-nt artificial miRNA (amiRNA)-mediated RNA silencing relative to conventional hairpin RNA (hpRNA) and 21-nt amiRNA-mediated RNA silencing. CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) was selected as a target in Arabidopsis thaliana due to the obvious and non-lethal loss of anthocyanin accumulation upon ...

  4. A Mutation Causing Imidazolinone Resistance Maps to the Csr1 Locus of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughn, G W; Somerville, C R

    1990-04-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, two hundred times more resistant to the imidazolinone herbicide imazapyr than wild-type plants, was isolated by direct selection of seedlings from a mutagenized population. Genetic analysis showed that resistance is due to a single dominant nuclear mutation that could not be separated by recombination from a mutation in the CSR1 gene encoding acetohydroxy acid synthase. Acetohydroxy acid synthase activity in extracts isolated from the mutant was 1000-fold more resistant to inhibition by imazapyr than that of the wild type. The resistant enzyme activity cosegregated with whole plant resistance. These data strongly suggest that the mutation is an allele of CSR1 encoding an imazapyr-resistant AHAS. PMID:16667374

  5. Crystal structure of riboflavin synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.-I.; Wawrzak, Z.; Calabrese, J.C.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine to yield riboflavin and 4-ribitylamino-5-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits has no cofactor requirements for catalysis. The enzyme is nonexistent in humans and is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents of organisms whose pathogenicity depends on their ability to biosynthesize riboflavin. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on the Escherichia coli protein containing selenomethionine residues. The homotrimer consists of an asymmetric assembly of monomers, each of which comprises two similar {beta} barrels and a C-terminal {alpha} helix. The similar {beta} barrels within the monomer confirm a prediction of pseudo two-fold symmetry that is inferred from the sequence similarity between the two halves of the protein. The {beta} barrels closely resemble folds found in phthalate dioxygenase reductase and other flavoproteins. The three active sites of the trimer are proposed to lie between pairs of monomers in which residues conserved among species reside, including two Asp-His-Ser triads and dyads of Cys-Ser and His-Thr. The proposed active sites are located where FMN (an analog of riboflavin) is modeled from an overlay of the {beta} barrels of phthalate dioxygenase reductase and riboflavin synthase. In the trimer, one active site is formed, and the other two active sites are wide open and exposed to solvent. The nature of the trimer configuration suggests that only one active site can be formed and be catalytically competent at a time.

  6. Sequence of the bchG gene from Chloroflexus aurantiacus: relationship between chlorophyll synthase and other polyprenyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J. C.; Ryan, S.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The sequence of the Chloroflexus aurantiacus open reading frame thought to be the C. aurantiacus homolog of the Rhodobacter capsulatus bchG gene is reported. The BchG gene product catalyzes esterification of bacteriochlorophyllide a by geranylgeraniol-PPi during bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis. Homologs from Arabidopsis thaliana, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803, and C. aurantiacus were identified in database searches. Profile analysis identified three related polyprenyltransferase enzymes which attach an aliphatic alcohol PPi to an aromatic substrate. This suggests a broader relationship between chlorophyll synthases and other polyprenyltransferases.

  7. Trichinella pseudospiralis vs. T. spiralis thymidylate synthase gene structure and T. pseudospiralis thymidylate synthase retrogene sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Jagielska, Elżbieta; Płucienniczak, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Magdalena; Dowierciał, Anna; Rode, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Background Thymidylate synthase is a housekeeping gene, designated ancient due to its role in DNA synthesis and ubiquitous phyletic distribution. The genomic sequences were characterized coding for thymidylate synthase in two species of the genus Trichinella, an encapsulating T. spiralis and a non-encapsulating T. pseudospiralis. Methods Based on the sequence of parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase cDNA, PCR techniques were employed. Results Each of the respective gene...

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, D; Marino, M H

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), derived from L-arginine (L-Arg) by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is involved in acute and chronic inflammatory events. In view of the complexity associated with the inflammatory response, the dissection of possible mechanisms by which NO modulates this response will be profitable in designing novel and more efficacious NOS inhibitors. In this review we describe the consequences associated with the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its therapeutic implications. PMID:15991919

  9. Nitric Oxide Synthases and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    CynthiaAnnCarnes; ArunSridhar; SandorGyorke

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. There are multiple systems in the myocardium which contribute to redox homeostasis, and loss of homeostasis can result in oxidative stress. Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases, which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two nitric oxide synthase isoforms (1 and 3) are normally expressed in the heart. During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of nitric oxide syn...

  10. Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

    2009-06-01

    Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120054 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120054 J013000L05 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-148 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 7e-27 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111344 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111344 002-181-F12 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 2e-15 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102766 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102766 J033107E04 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 2e-22 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103810 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103810 J033147A19 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-179 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g24000.1 68417.m03449 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase from Gossypium hirsutum [gi:1706956], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-27 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g24000.1 68417.m03449 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase from Gossypium hirsutum [gi:1706956], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-48 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g24000.1 68417.m03449 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase from Gossypium hirsutum [gi:1706956], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-123 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061639 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061639 001-036-B01 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 4e-49 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-61 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g24000.1 68417.m03449 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase from Gossypium hirsutum [gi:1706956], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-27 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107881 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107881 002-134-D06 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 5e-51 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g24000.1 68417.m03449 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase from Gossypium hirsutum [gi:1706956], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-25 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101487 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101487 J033042D19 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 1e-131 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 1e-69 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067424 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067424 J013107C16 At1g02730.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-52 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073854 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073854 J033072A12 At4g26900.1 imidazole ... glycerol phosphate synthase hisHF, chloroplast / IGP s ... ase / ImGPP synthase / IGPS identical to SP|Q9SZ30 Imidazole ... glycerol phosphate synthase hisHF, chloroplast pre ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110236 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110236 002-162-F11 At1g74260.1 AIR synthase-related family protein contains Pfam profiles: PF00586 AI...R synthase related protein, N-terminal domain, PF02769 AIR synthase related protein, C-terminal domain 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106608 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106608 002-112-E12 At1g74260.1 AIR synthase-related family protein contains Pfam profiles: PF00586 AI...R synthase related protein, N-terminal domain, PF02769 AIR synthase related protein, C-terminal domain 0.0 ...

  15. Affinity Purification of O-Acetylserine(thiollyase from Chlorella sorokiniana by Recombinant Proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Salbitani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the unicellular green alga Chlorella sorokiniana (211/8 k, the protein O-acetylserine(thiollyase (OASTL, representing the key-enzyme in the biosynthetic cysteine pathway, was isolated and purified to apparent homogeneity. The purification was carried out in cells grown in the presence of all nutrients or in sulphate (S deprived cells. After 24 h of S-starvation, a 17-fold increase in the specific activity of OASTL was measured. In order to enable the identification of OASTL proteins from non-model organisms such as C. sorokiniana, the recombinant his-tagged SAT5 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was immobilized by metal chelate chromatography. OASTL proteins from C. sorokiniana were affinity purified in one step and activities were enhanced 29- and 41-fold, from S-sufficient and S-starved (24 h cells, respectively. The successful application of SAT/OASTL interaction for purification confirms for the first time the existence of the cysteine synthase complexes in microalgae. The purified proteins have apparent molecular masses between 32–34 kDa and are thus slightly larger compared to those found in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants. The enhanced OASTL activity in S-starved cells can be attributed to increased amounts of plastidic and the emergence of cytosolic OASTL isoforms. The results provide proof-of-concept for the biochemical analysis of the cysteine synthase complex in diverse microalgal species.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Citrate Synthase Gene in Rice( Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shan-shan; MING Feng; LU Qun; GUO Bin; SHEN Da-leng

    2005-01-01

    The full-length OsCS encoding citrate synthase was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica). OsCS is 1477-bp long and encodes a 474 amino acid polypeptide. Its putative protein sequence is highly identical to Daucus carota, Nicotiana tabacum,Beta vulgaris subsp., Arabidopsis thaliana, and Citrus junos (>70%). The deduced amino-terminal sequence of OsCS showes characteristics of mitochondrial targeting signal. Southern blot analysis using ORF of the OsCS as the probe indicated that this gene exists in multiple copies in rice genome. The band with predicated size of 82 kD was detected by Western blot after being induced by 0.4 mmol/L IPTG.

  17. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr; Palmowski, Paweł; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Cieśla, Joanna; Zieliński, Zbigniew; Nizioł, Joanna; Jarmuła, Adam; Maj, Piotr; Gołos, Barbara; Wińska, Patrycja; Ostafil, Sylwia; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Shugar, David; Rode, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous mRNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and FdUrd-resistant mouse leukemia L1210 cells, differing in sensitivity to inactivation by FdUMP, demonstrated phosphorylation of Ser(10) and Ser(16) in the resistant enzyme only, although PGS staining pointed to the modification of both L1210 TS proteins. The TS proteins phosphorylated in bacterial cells were shown by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent. PMID:26315778

  18. Molecular evolution of dihydrouridine synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzak Joanna M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrouridine (D is a modified base found in conserved positions in the D-loop of tRNA in Bacteria, Eukaryota, and some Archaea. Despite the abundant occurrence of D, little is known about its biochemical roles in mediating tRNA function. It is assumed that D may destabilize the structure of tRNA and thus enhance its conformational flexibility. D is generated post-transcriptionally by the reduction of the 5,6-double bond of a uridine residue in RNA transcripts. The reaction is carried out by dihydrouridine synthases (DUS. DUS constitute a conserved family of enzymes encoded by the orthologous gene family COG0042. In protein sequence databases, members of COG0042 are typically annotated as “predicted TIM-barrel enzymes, possibly dehydrogenases, nifR3 family”. Results To elucidate sequence-structure-function relationships in the DUS family, a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was carried out. We performed extensive database searches to identify all members of the currently known DUS family, followed by clustering analysis to subdivide it into subfamilies of closely related sequences. We analyzed phylogenetic distributions of all members of the DUS family and inferred the evolutionary tree, which suggested a scenario for the evolutionary origin of dihydrouridine-forming enzymes. For a human representative of the DUS family, the hDus2 protein suggested as a potential drug target in cancer, we generated a homology model. While this article was under review, a crystal structure of a DUS representative has been published, giving us an opportunity to validate the model. Conclusions We compared sequences and phylogenetic distributions of all members of the DUS family and inferred the phylogenetic tree, which provides a framework to study the functional differences among these proteins and suggests a scenario for the evolutionary origin of dihydrouridine formation. Our evolutionary and structural classification of the DUS

  19. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...... gene product had no PRPP synthase activity. In contrast, expression of five pairwise combinations of PRS genes resulted in the formation of active PRPP synthase. These combinations were PRS1 PRS2, PRS1 PRS3, and PRS1 PRS4, as well as PRS5 PRS2 and PRS5 PRS4. None of the remaining five possible pairwise...... combinations of PRS genes appeared to produce active enzyme. Extract of an E. coli strain containing a plasmid-borne PRS1 gene and a chromosome-borne PRS3 gene contained detectable PRPP synthase activity, whereas extracts of strains containing PRS1 PRS2, PRS1 PRS4, PRS5 PRS2, or PRS5 PRS4 contained no...

  20. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  1. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.;

    2005-01-01

    silencing. The metabolite profiles of the transgenic lines were examined for unintended effects of the modification. An apparently major effect on the glucosinolate composition was shown to result from an unusual genetic variation in the ecotype and not from the modification. The modification did produce a...

  2. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 1 (FLS1) -overexpression plants in response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Hoai; Kim, Jun Hyeok; Kwon, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Wonje; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2016-06-01

    Flavonoids are an important group of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant growth and contribute to human health. Many studies have focused on the biosynthesis pathway, biochemical characters, and biological functions of flavonoids. In this report, we showed that overexpression of FLS1 (FLS1-OX) not only altered seed coat color (resulting in a light brown color), but also affected flavonoid accumulation. Whereas fls1-3 mutants accumulated higher anthocyanin levels, FLS1-OX seedlings had lower levels than those of the wild-type. Besides, shoot tissues of FLS1-OX plants exhibited lower flavonol levels than those of the wild-type. However, growth performance and abiotic stress tolerance of FLS1-OX, fls1-3, and wild-type plants were not significantly different. Taken together, FLS1 can be manipulated (i.e., silenced or overexpressed) to redirect the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway toward anthocyanin production without negative effects on plant growth and development. PMID:26990404

  3. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  4. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-06-01

    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is a conserved enzyme that catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in inositol biosynthesis. Despite its wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and de novo inositol biosynthesis in cell signaling and organism development has been unclear. In this study, we isolated loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis MIPS1 gene from different ecotypes. It was found that all mips1 mutants are defective in embryogenesis, cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower rates of endocytosis. Treatment with brefeldin A induces slower PIN2 protein aggregation in mips1, indicating altered PIN2 trafficking. Our results demonstrate that MIPS1 is critical for maintaining phosphatidylinositol levels and affects pattern formation in plants likely through regulation of auxin distribution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. A pentacyclic reaction intermediate of riboflavin synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Illarionov, Boris; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Bacher, Adelbert

    2001-01-01

    The S41A mutant of riboflavin synthase from Escherichia coli catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine at a very low rate. Quenching of presteady-state reaction mixtures with trifluoroacetic acid afforded a compound with an absorption maximum at 412 nm (pH 1.0) that can be converted to a mixture of riboflavin and 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine by treatment with wild-type riboflavin synthase. The compound was shown to qualify as a kinetically competent intermedi...

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay,; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide impor...

  7. Selenium Speciation in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoou

    2011-01-01

    Selenium has been proved as an essential micronutrient and is beneficial to animals and humans. It is a structural component of the important antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which catalyzes reactions to detoxify reactive oxygen species. However, the essentiality of Se in plants remains controversial and the protective role of Se in plants has rarely been investigated. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was grown in controlled environments having selenate or selenite enriched medi...

  8. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  9. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068400 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068400 J013151M04 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066013 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066013 J013047I12 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100241 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100241 J023054P13 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318553 J075145A22 At3g45810.1 68416.m04958 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component famil ... y protein similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  14. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) genetic…

  15. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houštěk, Josef; Kmoch, S.; Mayr, J. A.; Sperl, W.; Zeman, J.

    Bari : University of Bari, 2008. L5.3-L5.3. [IUBMB Symposium S1. 22.06.2008-26.06.2008, Bari] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * mitochondrial disease * ATP synthase defects * nuclear mutation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; Vos, IH; Grone, HJ; Rabelink, TJ

    2002-01-01

    The importance of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been well established. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide has been shown to be essential for vascular homeostasis and modulation of eNOS has thus become a target in prevention of cardiovascular disease. The role of the induc

  17. Hyaluronan synthase in trabecular meshwork cells

    OpenAIRE

    Usui, T; Nakajima, F.; Ideta, R; Kaji, Y; Suzuki, Y; Araie, M.; Miyauchi, S; P. Heldin; Yamashita, H.

    2003-01-01

    Background/aims: Hyaluronan is present in the trabecular meshwork where it is involved in the pathophysiology of aqueous outflow environment. In this study, the expression and regulation of hyaluronan synthase (HAS), which is the enzyme synthesising hyaluronan, in trabecular meshwork cells were investigated.

  18. Activities and regulation of peptidoglycan synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egan, Alexander J F; Biboy, Jacob; van 't Veer, Inge; Breukink, Eefjan; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential component in the cell wall of nearly all bacteria, forming a continuous, mesh-like structure, called the sacculus, around the cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from bursting by its turgor. Although PG synthases, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), have b

  19. The tomato terpene synthase gene family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Falara; T.A. Akhtar; T.T.H. Nguyen; E.A. Spyropoulou; P.M. Bleeker; I. Schauvinhold; Y. Matsuba; M.E. Bonini; A.L. Schilmiller; R.L. Last; R.C. Schuurink; E. Pichersky

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play many roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of Solanum lycopersicum (cultivated tomato) contains 40 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 28

  20. Loop residues and catalysis in OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Gary P.; Hansen, Michael Riis; Grubmeyer, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Residue-to-alanine mutations and a two-amino acid deletion have been made in the highly conserved catalytic loop (residues 100?109) of Salmonella typhimurium OMP synthase (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.10). As described previously, the K103A mutant enzyme exhibited a 104-fold decrease...

  1. Expression of a yeast-derived invertase in the cell wall of tobacco and Arabidopsis plants leads to accumulation of carbohydrate and inhibition of photosynthesis and strongly influences growth and phenotype of transgenic tobacco plants.

    OpenAIRE

    von Schaewen, A; Stitt, M; Schmidt, R.; Sonnewald, U; Willmitzer, L

    1990-01-01

    Chimeric genes consisting of the coding sequence of the yeast invertase gene suc 2 and different N-terminal portions of the potato-derived vacuolar protein proteinase inhibitor II fused to the 35S CaMV promoter and the poly-A site of the octopine synthase gene were transferred into tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana plants using Agrobacterium based systems. Regenerated transgenic plants display a 50- to 500-fold higher invertase activity compared to non-transformed control plants. This invertas...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065368 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065368 J013021B13 At5g55130.1 molybdenum cofactor synthesis ... protein 3 / molybdopterin synthase ... (CNX5) identical to SP|Q9ZNW0 Molybdenum cofactor synthesis ... protein 3 (Molybdopterin synthase sulfurylase) (MP ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065255 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065255 J013002J12 At5g17920.1 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransf ... erase / vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase / cobalamin-in ... ate--homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.14) (Vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase isozyme) (Coba ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK099069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099069 J013163D13 At5g17920.1 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransf ... erase / vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase / cobalamin-in ... ate--homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.14) (Vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase isozyme) (Coba ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067726 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067726 J013116O11 At5g17920.1 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransf ... erase / vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase / cobalamin-in ... ate--homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.14) (Vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase isozyme) (Coba ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067757 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067757 J013116H17 At5g17920.1 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransf ... erase / vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase / cobalamin-in ... ate--homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.14) (Vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase isozyme) (Coba ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067958 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067958 J013128E22 At5g17920.1 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransf ... erase / vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase / cobalamin-in ... ate--homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.14) (Vitamin -B12-independent methionine synthase isozyme) (Coba ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107362 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107362 002-127-A06 At3g55010.2 phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase, chloroplast / p ... hosphoribosyl-aminoimidazole synthetase / AIR ... synthase (PUR5) identical to phosphoribosylformylg ... idopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF02769 AIR ... synthase related protein, C-terminal domain, PF005 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101211 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101211 J033031B01 At3g55010.2 phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase, chloroplast / ph ... osphoribosyl-aminoimidazole synthetase / AIR ... synthase (PUR5) identical to phosphoribosylformylg ... idopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF02769 AIR ... synthase related protein, C-terminal domain, PF005 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102151 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102151 J033086D21 At3g55010.2 phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase, chloroplast / ph ... osphoribosyl-aminoimidazole synthetase / AIR ... synthase (PUR5) identical to phosphoribosylformylg ... idopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF02769 AIR ... synthase related protein, C-terminal domain, PF005 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288107 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288107 J075197K20 At4g02610.1 68417.m00355 tryptophan ... synthase, alpha subunit, putative simila ... r to A. thaliana tryptophan ... synthase alpha chain (EC 4.2.1.20), GenBank access ...

  12. Evolution of polyketide synthases in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley, Christian P.; Lee, Ho Young; Khosla, Chaitan

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of resistant strains of human pathogens to current antibiotics, along with the demonstrated ability of polyketides as antimicrobial agents, provides strong motivation for understanding how polyketide antibiotics have evolved and diversified in nature. Insights into how bacterial polyketide synthases (PKSs) acquire new metabolic capabilities can guide future laboratory efforts in generating the next generation of polyketide antibiotics. Here, we examine phylogenetic and structura...

  13. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Moller, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

  14. Caffeine synthase and related methyltransferases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misako, Kato; Kouichi, Mizuno

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a purine alkaloid present in high concentrations in tea and coffee and it is also found in a number of beverages such as coca cola. It is necessary to elucidate the caffeine biosynthetic pathway and to clone the genes related to the production of caffeine not only to determine the metabolism of the purine alkaloid but also to control the content of caffeine in tea and coffee. The available data support the operation of a xanthosine-->7-methylxanthosine-->7-methylxanthine-->theobromine-->caffeine pathway as the major route to caffeine. Since the caffeine biosynthetic pathway contains three S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation steps, N-methyltransferases play important roles. This review focuses on the enzymes and genes involved in the methylation of purine ring. Caffeine synthase, the SAM-dependent methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was originally purified from young tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). The isolated cDNA, termed TCS1, consists of 1,483 base pairs and encodes a protein of 369 amino acids. Subsequently, the homologous genes that encode caffeine biosynthetic enzymes from coffee (Coffea arabica) were isolated. The recombinant proteins are classified into the three types on the basis of their substrate specificity i.e. 7-methylxanthosine synthase, theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase. The predicted amino acid sequences of caffeine biosynthetic enzymes derived from C. arabica exhibit more than 80% homology with those of the clones and but show only 40% homology with TCS1 derived from C. sinensis. In addition, they share 40% homology with the amino acid sequences of salicylic carboxyl methyltransferase, benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase and jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase which belong to a family of motif B' methyltransferases which are novel plant methyltransferases with motif B' instead of motif B as the conserved region. PMID:14977590

  15. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Casadei, Barbara; Kass, David A

    2013-01-01

    Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in unde...

  16. The tomato terpene synthase gene family

    OpenAIRE

    Falara, V.; Akhtar, T.A.; NGUYEN, T. T. H.; Spyropoulou, E.A.; Bleeker, P.M.; Schauvinhold, I.; Matsuba, Y.; Bonini, M.E.; Schilmiller, A.L.; Last, R.L.; Schuurink, R. C.; Pichersky, E

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play many roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of Solanum lycopersicum (cultivated tomato) contains 40 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 28 which are functional or potentially functional. Of these 28 TPS genes, 25 were expressed in at least some parts of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously r...

  17. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  18. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  19. Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis Flowers[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginglinger, Jean-François; Boachon, Benoit; Höfer, René; Paetz, Christian; Köllner, Tobias G.; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphael; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ullmann, Pascaline; Beran, Franziska; Claudel, Patricia; Verstappen, Francel; Fischer, Marc J.C.; Karst, Francis; Bouwmeester, Harro; Miesch, Michel; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Ehlting, Jürgen; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus predicted to be involved in monoterpenoid metabolism. We show that all four selected genes, the two terpene synthases (TPS10 and TPS14) and the two cytochrome P450s (CYP71B31 and CYP76C3), are simultaneously expressed at anthesis, mainly in upper anther filaments and in petals. Upon transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, the TPS enzymes colocalize in vesicular structures associated with the plastid surface, whereas the P450 proteins were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in N. benthamiana, the TPS enzymes formed two different enantiomers of linalool: (−)-(R)-linalool for TPS10 and (+)-(S)-linalool for TPS14. Both P450 enzymes metabolize the two linalool enantiomers to form different but overlapping sets of hydroxylated or epoxidized products. These oxygenated products are not emitted into the floral headspace, but accumulate in floral tissues as further converted or conjugated metabolites. This work reveals complex linalool metabolism in Arabidopsis flowers, the ecological role of which remains to be determined. PMID:24285789

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119708 002-157-E08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060981 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060981 006-202-H08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111736 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111736 J023047L09 At1g68370.1 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... protein ... (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058419 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058419 001-015-D06 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to S ... P|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073225 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073225 J033023C04 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to SP ... |O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288002 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288002 J075110B01 At1g68510.1 68414.m07826 LOB domain protein 42 ... / lateral organ boundaries do ... main protein 42 ... (LBD42 ) identical to LOB DOMAIN 42 ... [Arabidopsis th ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111785 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111785 J023089N11 At5g62310.1 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kinase, putative ... nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243050 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243050 J100011E04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242758 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242758 J090051H03 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242717 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242717 J090043H19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242638 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242638 J090023J02 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242651 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242651 J090026B08 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287631 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287631 J065073J24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288923 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288923 J090081P06 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242271 J075187A19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242681 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242681 J090032N04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241519 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241519 J065170E12 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240655 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240655 J023135E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242733 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242733 J090047O22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242859 J090073L24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243187 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243187 J100039E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101368 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101368 J033035L13 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111570 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111570 J013071C24 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243065 J100015N03 At5g24270.1 68418.m02855 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... or homolog (SOS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  10. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070528 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070528 J023060D13 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... supe ... roxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119904 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119904 002-182-A05 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104030 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104030 001-020-C01 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104160 006-211-E09 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287459 J043019O07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288034 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288034 J075140H07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111576 J013075J23 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120838 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120838 J023022B11 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111921 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111921 001-013-A10 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly i...dentical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profil

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073140 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK073140 J033022I01 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-168 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120439 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK120439 J013098H20 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK121378 J023127F14 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-142 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK063856 001-122-D05 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isoz... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-46 ...

  4. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mech...

  5. Multiple resistance to sulfonylureas and imidazolinones conferred by an acetohydroxyacid synthase gene with separate mutations for selective resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, J; Rutledge, R; Labbé, H; Brown, D; Sunohara, G; Miki, B

    1992-03-01

    The acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene from the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant line GH90 carrying the imidazolinone resistance allele imr1 was cloned. Expression of the AHAS gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in selective imidazolinone resistance, confirming that the single base-pair change found near the 3' end of the coding region of this gene is responsible for imidazolinone resistance. A chimeric AHAS gene containing both the imr1 mutation and the csr1 mutation, responsible for selective resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, was constructed. It conferred on transgenic tobacco plants resistance to both sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides. The data illustrate that a multiple-resistance phenotype can be achieved in an AHAS gene through combinations of separate mutations, each of which individually confers resistance to only one class of herbicides. PMID:1557022

  6. Cellulose synthase interacting protein: A new factor in cellulose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ying; Somerville, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the re...

  7. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava Anurag; Shukla Nootan K; DattaGupta Siddartha; Sawhney Meenakshi; Kaur Jatinder; Ralhan Ranju

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signa...

  8. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  9. Evolutinoary Consideration on 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh-Hama, Tamiko

    1997-08-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a universal precursor of tetrapyrrole compounds can be synthesized by two pathways: the C5 (glutamate) pathway and ALA synthase. From the phylogenetic distribution it is shown that distribution of ALA synthase is restricted to the α subclass of purple bacteria in prokaryotes, and further distributed to mitochondria of eukaryotes. The monophyletic origin of bacterial and eukaryotic ALA synthase is shown by sequence analysis of the enzyme. Evolution of ALA synthase in the α subclass of purple bacteria is discussed in relation to the energy-generating and biosynthetic devices in subclasses of this bacteria.

  10. A Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana as a New Selectable Marker for Production of Fertile Transgenic Rice Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Hayashimoto, A; Murai, N

    1992-10-01

    A mutant acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene, csr1-1, isolated from sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana, was placed under control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S). Rice protoplasts were transformed with the 35S/ALS chimeric gene and regenerated into fertile transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The 35S/ALS gene was expressed effectively as demonstrated by northern blot hybridization analysis, and conferred to transformed calli at least 200-fold greater chlorsulfuron resistance than nontransformed control calli. Effective selection of 35S/ALS-transformed protoplasts was achieved at extremely low chlorsulfuron concentrations of 10 nm. The results demonstrated that the 35S/ALS gene is an alternative selectable marker for rice protoplast transformation and fertile transgenic rice production. The results also suggest that the mutant form of Arabidopsis ALS enzyme operates normally in rice cells. Thus, the mechanism of protein transport to chloroplast and ALS inhibition by chlorsulfuron is apparently conserved among plant species as diverse as Arabidopsis (dicotyledon) and rice (monocotyledon). PMID:16653044

  11. Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Cellular Physiology of Cysteine Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine is one of the most versatile molecules in biology, taking over such different functions as catalysis, structure, regulation and electron transport during evolution. Research on Arabidopsis has contributed decisively to the understanding of cysteine synthesis and its role in the assimilatory pathways of S, N and C in plants. The multimeric cysteine synthase complex is present in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria and forms the centre of a unique metabolic sensing and signaling system. Its association is reversible, rendering the first enzyme of cysteine synthesis active and the second one inactive, and vice-versa. Complex formation is triggered by the reaction intermediates of cysteine synthesis in response to supply and demand and gives rise to regulation of genes of sulfur metabolism to adjust cellular sulfur homeostasis. Combinations of biochemistry, forward and reverse genetics, structural- and cell-biology approaches using Arabidopsis have revealed new enzyme functions and the unique pattern of spatial distribution of cysteine metabolism in plant cells. These findings place the synthesis of cysteine in the centre of the network of primary metabolism. PMID:22303278

  12. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T

    2016-03-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3(je5) mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface. PMID:26729799

  13. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  14. Triazolopyrimidines as a New Herbicidal Lead for Combating Weed Resistance Associated with Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chao; Qu, Ren-Yu; Chen, Qiong; Yang, Jing-Fang; Cong-Wei, Niu; Zhen, Xi; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-06-22

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; also known as acetolactate synthase; EC 2.2.1.6, formerly EC 4.1.3.18) is the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the branched-chain amino acids in plants and a wide range of microorganisms. Weed resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides, increasing at an exponential rate, is becoming a global problem and leading to an urgent demand of developing novel compounds against both resistant and wild AHAS. In the present work, a series of novel 2-aroxyl-1,2,4-triazolopyrimidine derivatives (a total of 55) were designed and synthesized with the aim to discover an antiresistant lead compound. Fortunately, the screening results indicated that many of the newly synthesized compounds showed a better, even excellent, inhibition effect against both the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS and P197L mutants. Among them, compounds 5-3 to 5-17, compounds 5-19 to 5-26, compounds 5-28 to 5-45, and compound 5-48 have the lower values of resistance factor (RF) and display a potential power to overcome resistance associated with the P197L mutation in the enzyme levels. Further greenhouse in vivo assay showed that compounds 5-15 and 5-20 displayed "moderate" to "good" herbicidal activity against both the wild type-and the resistant (P197L mutation) Descurainia sophia, even at a rate as low as 0.9375 (g of ai/ha). The above results indicated that these two compounds could be used as new leads for the future development of antiresistance herbicides. PMID:27265721

  15. Sphingomyelin Synthases Regulate Protein Trafficking and Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Subathra, Marimuthu; Qureshi, Asfia; Luberto, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS1 and 2) represent a class of enzymes that transfer a phosphocholine moiety from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide thus producing sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol (DAG). SMS1 localizes at the Golgi while SMS2 localizes both at the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that modulation of SMS1 and, to a lesser extent, of SMS2 affected the formation of DAG at the Golgi apparatus. As a consequence, down-regulation of SMS1 and SMS2 r...

  16. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243084 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243084 J100020N17 At4g10100.1 68417.m01652 molybdenum cofactor synthesis ... family protein simila ... r to Molybdenum cofactor synthesis ... protein 2 small subunit (Molybdopterin- synthase s ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243084 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243084 J100020N17 At4g10100.2 68417.m01653 molybdenum cofactor synthesis ... family protein simila ... r to Molybdenum cofactor synthesis ... protein 2 small subunit (Molybdopterin- synthase s ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073290 J033025L21 At5g17230.1 phytoene synthase (PSY) / geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl... transferase identical to GB:L25812; synonymous with geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl transferase 1e-142 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059535 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059535 001-029-E01 At5g17230.1 phytoene synthase (PSY) / geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl... transferase identical to GB:L25812; synonymous with geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl transferase 3e-56 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067762 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067762 J013116E15 At5g17230.1 phytoene synthase (PSY) / geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl... transferase identical to GB:L25812; synonymous with geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl transferase 2e-86 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108154 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108154 002-139-G05 At5g17230.1 phytoene synthase (PSY) / geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl... transferase identical to GB:L25812; synonymous with geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl transferase 1e-134 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063967 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063967 001-124-A11 At5g17230.1 phytoene synthase (PSY) / geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl... transferase identical to GB:L25812; synonymous with geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl transferase 1e-128 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070716 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070716 J023057D05 At5g17230.1 phytoene synthase (PSY) / geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl... transferase identical to GB:L25812; synonymous with geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyl transferase 1e-156 ...

  5. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. PMID:25912558

  6. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-03-15

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene-producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon-intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  7. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase UGT85A5 enhances salt stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Guo Sun

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses greatly influence plant growth and productivity. While glycosyltransferases are widely distributed in plant kingdom, their biological roles in response to abiotic stresses are largely unknown. In this study, a novel Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase gene UGT85A5 was identified as significantly induced by salt stress. Ectopic expression of UGT85A5 in tobacco enhanced the salt stress tolerance in the transgenic plants. There were higher seed germination rates, better plant growth and less chlorophyll loss in transgenic lines compared to wild type plants under salt stress. This enhanced tolerance of salt stress was correlated with increased accumulations of proline and soluble sugars, but with decreases in malondialdehyde accumulation and Na(+/K(+ ratio in UGT85A5-expressing tobacco. Furthermore, during salt stress, expression of several carbohydrate metabolism-related genes including those for sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, hexose transporter and a group2 LEA protein were obviously upregulated in UGT85A5-expressing transgenic plants compared with wild type controls. Thus, these findings suggest a specific protective role of this glycosyltransferase against salt stress and provide a genetic engineering strategy to improve salt tolerance of crops.

  8. The dominance of the herbicide resistance cost in several Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Gasquez, Jacques; Reboud, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Resistance evolution depends upon the balance between advantage and disadvantage (cost) conferred in treated and untreated areas. By analyzing morphological characters and simple fitness components, the cost associated with each of eight herbicide resistance alleles (acetolactate synthase, cellulose synthase, and auxin-induced target genes) was studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The use of allele-specific PCR to discriminate between heterozygous and homozygous plants was used to provide insights into the dominance of the resistance cost, a parameter rarely described. Morphological characters appear more sensitive than fitness (seed production) because 6 vs. 4 differences between resistant and sensitive homozygous plants were detected, respectively. Dominance levels for the fitness cost ranged from recessivity (csr1-1, ixr1-2, and axr1-3) to dominance (axr2-1) to underdominance (aux1-7). Furthermore, the dominance level of the herbicide resistance trait did not predict the dominance level of the cost of resistance. The relationship of our results to theoretical predictions of dominance and the consequences of fitness cost and its dominance in resistance management are discussed. PMID:15020435

  9. Multigenerational versus single generation studies to estimate herbicide resistance fitness cost in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Camilleri, Christine; Bérard, Aurélie; Reboud, Xavier

    2005-10-01

    The evolution of resistance in response to pesticide selection is expected to be delayed if fitness costs are associated with resistance genes. The estimate of fitness costs usually involves comparing major growth traits of resistant versus susceptible individuals in the absence of pesticide. Ideally, a measure of changes in resistance allele frequency over several generations would allow the best estimate of the overall fitness cost of a resistance gene. In greenhouse conditions, we monitored the dynamics of the evolution of the frequencies of six herbicide-resistant mutations (acetolactate synthase, cellulose synthase, and auxin-induced target genes) in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana in a multigenerational study covering five to seven nonoverlapping generations. The microevolutionary dynamics in experimental populations indicated a mean fitness cost of 38%, 73%, and 94% for the ixr1-2, axr1-3, and axr2-1 resistances, respectively; no fitness cost for the csr1-1, and ixr2-1 resistances; and a transient advantage for the aux1-7 resistance. The result for the csr1-1 resistance contrasts with a cost of 37% based on total seed number in a previous study, demonstrating that single generation studies could have limitation for detecting cost. A positive frequency dependence for the fitness cost was also detected for the ixr1-2 resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the maintenance of polymorphism at resistance loci. PMID:16405169

  10. Loss of LRPPRC causes ATP synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, Arnaud; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Brandt, Tobias; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-05-15

    Defects of the oxidative phosphorylation system, in particular of cytochrome-c oxidase (COX, respiratory chain complex IV), are common causes of Leigh syndrome (LS), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with severe progressive neurological symptoms that usually present during infancy or early childhood. The COX-deficient form of LS is commonly caused by mutations in genes encoding COX assembly factors, e.g. SURF1, SCO1, SCO2 or COX10. However, other mutations affecting genes that encode proteins not directly involved in COX assembly can also cause LS. The leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC) regulates mRNA stability, polyadenylation and coordinates mitochondrial translation. In humans, mutations in Lrpprc cause the French Canadian type of LS. Despite the finding that LRPPRC deficiency affects the stability of most mitochondrial mRNAs, its pathophysiological effect has mainly been attributed to COX deficiency. Surprisingly, we show here that the impaired mitochondrial respiration and reduced ATP production observed in Lrpprc conditional knockout mouse hearts is caused by an ATP synthase deficiency. Furthermore, the appearance of inactive subassembled ATP synthase complexes causes hyperpolarization and increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Our findings shed important new light on the bioenergetic consequences of the loss of LRPPRC in cardiac mitochondria. PMID:24399447

  11. Botrytis cinerea virulence is drastically reduced after disruption of chitin synthase class III gene (Bcchs3a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulié, Marie-Christine; Perino, Claude; Piffeteau, Annie; Choquer, Mathias; Malfatti, Pierrette; Cimerman, Agnès; Kunz, Caroline; Boccara, Martine; Vidal-Cros, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Botrytis cinerea is an important phytopathogenic fungus requiring new methods of control. Chitin biosynthesis, which involves seven classes of chitin synthases, could be an attractive target. A fragment encoding one of the class III enzymes was used to disrupt the corresponding Bcchs3a gene in the B. cinerea genome. The resulting mutant exhibited a 39% reduction in its chitin content and an 89% reduction in its in vitro chitin synthase activity, compared with the wild-type strain. Bcchs3a mutant was not affected in its growth in liquid medium, neither in its production of sclerotia, micro- and macroconidia. In contrast, the mutant Bcchs3a was severely impaired in its growth on solid medium. Counterbalancing this defect in radial growth, Bcchs3a mutant presented a large increase in hyphal ramification, resulting in an enhanced aerial growth. Observations by different techniques of microscopy revealed a thick extracellular matrix around the hyphal tips. Moreover, Bcchs3a mutant had a largely reduced virulence on Vitis vinifera and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. PMID:16882034

  12. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    different cellular compartments and suggest that NO may have specific actions in relation to its site of production. The localization of type I NO synthase in the vicinity of mitochondria supports a specific action of NO on mitochondrial respiration, whereas the localization of type III NO synthase in...

  13. The Cellulase KORRIGAN Is Part of the Cellulose Synthase Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vain, T.; Crowell, E.F.; Timpano, H.; Biot, E.; Desprez, T.; Mansoori Zangir, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Pagant, S.; Robert, S.; Hofte, H.; Gonneau, M.; Vernhettes, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and organ formation depend on the oriented deposition of load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Cellulose is synthesized by a large relative molecular weight cellulose synthase complex (CSC), which comprises at least three distinct cellulose synthases. Cellulose synthesis

  14. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  15. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  16. Modulation of biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and light-harvesting complex in wild-type and gun5 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana during impaired chloroplast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Gopal K; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2016-05-01

    Plants in response to different environmental cues need to modulate the expression of nuclear and chloroplast genomes that are in constant communication. To understand the signals that are responsible for inter-organellar communication, levulinic acid (LA), an inhibitor of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, was used to suppress the synthesis of pyrrole-derived tetrapyrroles chlorophylls. Although, it does not specifically inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, LA reduced the carotenoid contents during photomorphogenesis of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The expression of nuclear genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, i.e., geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, and phytoene desaturase, was downregulated in LA-treated seedlings. Similarly, the transcript abundance of nuclear genes, i.e., Lhcb1, PsbO, and RcbS, coding for chloroplastic proteins was severely attenuated in LA-treated samples. In contrast, LA treatment did not affect the transcript abundance of chalcone synthase, a marker gene for cytoplasm, and β-ATP synthase, a marker gene for mitochondria. This demonstrates the retrograde signaling from chloroplast to nucleus to suppress chloroplastic proteins during impaired chloroplast development. However, under identical conditions in LA-treated tetrapyrrole-deficient gun5 mutant, retrograde signal continued. The tetrapyrrole biosynthesis inhibitor LA suppressed formation of all tetrapyrroles both in WT and gun5. This rules out the role of tetrapyrroles as signaling molecules in WT and gun5. The removal of LA from the Arabidopsis seedlings restored the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and expression of nuclear genes coding for chloroplastic proteins involved in chloroplast biogenesis. Therefore, LA could be used to modulate chloroplast biogenesis at a desired phase of chloroplast development. PMID:27001427

  17. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF PHB SYNTHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Femlin Blessia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, a polymer belonging to polyesters class and is composed of hydroxy fatty acids. PHB is produced by microorganisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. PHB synthases are the key enzymes of PHB biosynthesis. The PHB synthases obtained from Chromobacterium violaceum, belongs to the class I PHA synthases. Due to the limited structural information of PHB synthase, its functional properties including catalysis are unknown. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the structural and functional properties of PHB synthase (phaC by predicting its three dimensional structure using bioinformatics methods. Present 15 ns molecular dynamics study provides an overall insight about some of the parameters such as energy, RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation, SASA (Solvent Accessible Surface Area, hydrogen bonds, etc., Protein-protein docking reveals the binding mode of the protein in the active dimer state.

  18. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  19. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  20. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Chalcone Synthase from Freesia hybrid in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase (CHS catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the cDNA (FhCHS1 encoding CHS from Freesia hybrida was successfully isolated and analyzed. Multiple sequence alignments showed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of FhCHS1. Meanwhile, crystallographic analysis revealed that protein structure of FhCHS1 is highly similar to that of alfalfa CHS2, and the biochemical analysis results indicated that it has an enzymatic role in naringenin biosynthesis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transcript levels of FhCHS1 in flowers and different tissues, and patterns of FhCHS1 expression in flowers showed significant correlation to the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin during flower development. To further characterize the functionality of FhCHS1, its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tt4 mutants and Petunia hybrida was performed. The results showed that overexpression of FhCHS1 in tt4 mutants fully restored the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coats, cotyledons and hypocotyls, while transgenic petunia expressing FhCHS1 showed flower color alteration from white to pink. In summary, these results suggest that FhCHS1 plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of flavonoid in Freesia hybrida and may be used to modify the components of flavonoids in other plants.

  1. Lineage-specific evolution of Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs involved in glucosinolates biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifang eZhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs encoded by MAM genes are central to the diversification of the glucosinolates, which are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae species. However, the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes is poorly understood. We analyzed the phylogenetic and synteny relationships of MAM genes from 13 sequenced Brassicaceae species. Based on these analyses, we propose that the syntenic loci of MAM genes, which underwent frequent tandem duplications, divided into two independent lineage-specific evolution routes and were driven by positive selection after the divergence from Aethionema arabicum. In the lineage I species Capsella rubella, Camelina sativa, Arabidopsis lyrata, and A. thaliana, the MAM loci evolved three tandem genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates with different carbon chain-lengths. In lineage II species, the MAM loci encode enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. Our proposed model of the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes will be useful for understanding the specific function of these genes in Brassicaceae species.

  2. Kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants of methionine synthase from Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal methionine synthase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to create methionine. The enzyme, called Met6p in fungi, is required for the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans, and is consequently a reasonable target for antifungal drug design. In order to understand the mechanism of this class of enzyme, we created a three-dimensional model of the C. albicans enzyme based on the known structure of the homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana. A fusion protein was created and shown to have enzyme activity similar to the wild-type Met6p. Fusion proteins containing mutations at eight key sites were expressed and assayed in this background. The D614 carboxylate appears to ion pair with the amino group of homocysteine and is essential for activity. Similarly, D504 appears to bind to the polar edge of the folate and is also required for activity. Other groups tested have lesser roles in substrate binding and catalysis.

  3. Lineage-specific evolution of Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs) involved in glucosinolates biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jifang; Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Yang, Wencai; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs) encoded by MAM genes are central to the diversification of the glucosinolates, which are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae species. However, the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes is poorly understood. We analyzed the phylogenetic and synteny relationships of MAM genes from 13 sequenced Brassicaceae species. Based on these analyses, we propose that the syntenic loci of MAM genes, which underwent frequent tandem duplications, divided into two independent lineage-specific evolution routes and were driven by positive selection after the divergence from Aethionema arabicum. In the lineage I species Capsella rubella, Camelina sativa, Arabidopsis lyrata, and A. thaliana, the MAM loci evolved three tandem genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates with different carbon chain-lengths. In lineage II species, the MAM loci encode enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. Our proposed model of the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes will be useful for understanding the specific function of these genes in Brassicaceae species. PMID:25691886

  4. Biosynthetic potential of sesquiterpene synthases: Alternative products of tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase

    OpenAIRE

    O’Maille, Paul E.; Chappell, Joe; Noel, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (TEAS) serves as an useful model for understanding the enzyme mechanisms of sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Despite extensive bio-chemical and structural characterization of TEAS, a more detailed analysis of the reaction product spectrum is lacking. This study reports the discovery and quantification of several alternative sesquiterpene products generated by recombinant TEAS in the single-vial GC–MS assay. The combined use of chiral and non...

  5. All members in the sphingomyelin synthase gene family have ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase activity[S

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Tingbo; Kabir, Inamul; Li, Yue; Lou, Caixia; Yazdanyar, Amirfarbod; Xu, Jiachen; Dong, Jibin; Zhou, Hongwen; Park, Taesik; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein (SMSr) synthesizes the sphingomyelin analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) in cells. Previous cell studies indicated that SMSr is involved in ceramide homeostasis and is crucial for cell function. To further examine SMSr function in vivo, we generated Smsr KO mice that were fertile and had no obvious phenotypic alterations. Quantitative MS analyses of plasma, liver, and macrophages from the KO mice revealed only marginal changes in CPE and ceramide a...

  6. Heterologous expression in Saccharopolyspora erythraea of a pentaketide synthase derived from the spinosyn polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christine J; Timoney, Máire C; Sheridan, Rose M; Kendrew, Steven G; Wilkinson, Barrie; Staunton, James C; Leadlay, Peter F

    2003-12-01

    A truncated version of the spinosyn polyketide synthase comprising the loading module and the first four extension modules fused to the erythromycin thioesterase domain was expressed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. A novel pentaketide lactone product was isolated, identifying cryptic steps of spinosyn biosynthesis and indicating the potential of this approach for the biosynthetic engineering of spinosyn analogues. A pathway for the formation of the tetracyclic spinosyn aglycone is proposed. PMID:14685317

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243152 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ... ...AK243152 J100032N02 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-70 ... ...AK288069 J075158N05 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  9. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  10. Structure and Function of Fusicoccadiene Synthase, a Hexameric Bifunctional Diterpene Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengbin; Chou, Wayne K W; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2016-04-15

    Fusicoccin A is a diterpene glucoside phytotoxin generated by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis amygdali that causes the plant disease constriction canker, first discovered in New Jersey peach orchards in the 1930s. Fusicoccin A is also an emerging new lead in cancer chemotherapy. The hydrocarbon precursor of fusicoccin A is the tricyclic diterpene fusicoccadiene, which is generated by a bifunctional terpenoid synthase. Here, we report X-ray crystal structures of the individual catalytic domains of fusicoccadiene synthase: the C-terminal domain is a chain elongation enzyme that generates geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and the N-terminal domain catalyzes the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to form fusicoccadiene. Crystal structures of each domain complexed with bisphosphonate substrate analogues suggest that three metal ions and three positively charged amino acid side chains trigger substrate ionization in each active site. While in vitro incubations reveal that the cyclase domain can utilize farnesyl diphosphate and geranyl diphosphate as surrogate substrates, these shorter isoprenoid diphosphates are mainly converted into acyclic alcohol or hydrocarbon products. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that full-length fusicoccadiene synthase adopts hexameric quaternary structure, and small-angle X-ray scattering data yield a well-defined molecular envelope illustrating a plausible model for hexamer assembly. PMID:26734760

  11. Bacterial phytoene synthase: molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of Erwinia herbicola phytoene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Math, Shivanand K; Desai, Shrivallabh B; Poulter, C Dale

    2003-03-25

    Phytoene synthase (PSase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to give prephytoene diphosphate (PPPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate to phytoene. These reactions constitute the first pathway specific step in carotenoid biosynthesis. The crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was isolated from a plasmid containing the carotenoid gene cluster in Erwinia herbicola and cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. Upon induction, recombinant phytoene synthase constituted 5-10% of total soluble protein. To facilitate purification of the recombinant enzyme, the structural gene for PSase was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to incorporate a C-terminal Glu-Glu-Phe (EEF) tripepetide to allow purification by immunoaffinity chromatography on an immobilized monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody YL1/2 column. Purified recombinant PSase-EEF gave a band at 34.5 kDa upon SDS-PAGE. Recombinant PSase-EEF was then purified to >90% homogeneity in two steps by ion-exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography. The enzyme required Mn(2+) for activity, had a pH optimum of 8.2, and was strongly stimulated by detergent. The concentration of GGPP needed for half-maximal activity was approximately 35 microM, and a significant inhibition of activity was seen at GGPP concentrations above 100 microM. The sole product of the reaction was 15,15'-Z-phytoene. PMID:12641468

  12. Class IV polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases and PHA-producing Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Takeharu; Hyakutake, Manami; Mizuno, Kouhei

    2015-08-01

    This review highlights the recent investigations of class IV polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases, the newest classification of PHA synthases. Class IV synthases are prevalent in organisms of the Bacillus genus and are composed of a catalytic subunit PhaC (approximately 40 kDa), which has a PhaC box sequence ([GS]-X-C-X-[GA]-G) at the active site, and a second subunit PhaR (approximately 20 kDa). The representative PHA-producing Bacillus strains are Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus; the nucleotide sequence of phaC and the genetic organization of the PHA biosynthesis gene locus are somewhat different between these two strains. It is generally considered that class IV synthases favor short-chain-length monomers such as 3-hydroxybutyrate (C4) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (C5) for polymerization, but can polymerize some unusual monomers as minor components. In Escherichia coli expressing PhaRC from B. cereus YB-4, the biosynthesized PHA undergoes synthase-catalyzed alcoholytic cleavage using endogenous and exogenous alcohols. This alcoholysis is thought to be shared among class IV synthases, and this reaction is useful not only for the regulation of PHA molecular weight but also for the modification of the PHA carboxy terminus. The novel properties of class IV synthases will open up the possibility for the design of new PHA materials. PMID:26135986

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066771 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066771 J013083K07 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative s...imilar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059353 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059353 001-026-D01 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059160 001-023-D05 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 3e-28 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242849 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242849 J090072M15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288959 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288959 J090084E19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243008 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243008 J090097H12 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288072 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288072 J075161I05 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243178 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243178 J100036P15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243505 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243505 J100074N19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287577 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287577 J065037N08 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  3. Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. Results We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced dicot genomes, Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa by using genes coding for proteases in the MEROPS database 1 for Arabidopsis to identify homologous sequences in Populus. A multigene-based phylogenetic analysis was performed. Most protease families were found to be larger in Populus than in Arabidopsis, reflecting recent genome duplication. Detailed studies on e.g. the DegP, Clp, FtsH, Lon, rhomboid and papain-Like protease families showed the pattern of gene family expansion and gene loss was complex. We finally show that different Populus tissues express unique suites of protease genes and that the mRNA levels of different classes of proteases change along a developmental gradient. Conclusion Recent gene family expansion and contractions have made the Arabidopsis and Populus complements of proteases different and this, together with expression patterns, gives indications about the roles of the individual gene products or groups of proteases.

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 3e-12 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 6e-22 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 1e-160 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.1 68417.m02148 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063585 001-118-A04 At4g13870.2 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX) contains Pf...am profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 6e-16 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.2 68417.m02149 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243230 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243230 J100044L04 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-65 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103452 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103452 J033129I11 At1g19850.1 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) / auxin-respon...sive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-166 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318617 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318617 J100090H20 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-63 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287832 J065187F20 At1g30950.1 68414.m03790 unusual floral organ (UFO ) / F-box family protein ( ... ubunit; almost identical to unusual floral organs (UFO )GI:4376159 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] Landsberg-e ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241547 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241547 J065176G22 At1g30950.1 68414.m03790 unusual floral organ (UFO ) / F-box family protein ( ... ubunit; almost identical to unusual floral organs (UFO )GI:4376159 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] Landsberg-e ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242616 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-34 ... ...AK242616 J090017C19 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242846 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 9e-12 ... ...AK242846 J090071I10 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241162 J065116A05 At5g54800.1 68418.m06826 glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator, putative identic...al to glucose 6 phosphate/phosphate translocator [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|7229675|gb|AAF42936 2e-11 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242098 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-22 ... ...AK242098 J075143H11 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243041 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-31 ... ...AK243041 J100008G07 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243539 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 6e-34 ... ...AK243539 J100078G04 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-22 ... ...AK242576 J090009A15 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289111 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-20 ... ...AK289111 J090096N14 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289248 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289248 J100079D02 At5g54800.1 68418.m06826 glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator, putative identic...al to glucose 6 phosphate/phosphate translocator [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|7229675|gb|AAF42936 7e-19 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-81 ... ...AK287695 J065129B08 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At1g07370.1 68414.m00786 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 1 (PCNA1) identi ... cal to SP|Q9M7Q7 Proliferating cellular nuclear ... antigen 1 (PCNA 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071591 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071591 J023105C08 At2g29570.1 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA2) identical to SP|Q9Z ... W35 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At2g29570.1 68415.m03591 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA2) identi ... cal to SP|Q9ZW35 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241265 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241265 J065132C02 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-81 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105739 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105739 001-202-A05 At3g19450.1 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to SP|P48523 Cin ... namyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-46 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243022 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243022 J100001E20 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-64 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287708 J065132C02 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-81 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121261 J023104H13 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100867 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100867 J023124E13 At2g29640.1 josephin family protein contains Pfam domain PF02099: Jose...phin; similar to Josephin-like protein (Swiss-Prot:O82391) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-59 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065851 J013041L15 At1g79010.1 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 23 kDa subunit, mitochondrial (TY ... ursor (EC 1.6.5.3) (EC 1.6.99.3) (Complex I-23KD) (CI -23KD) (Complex I- 28.5KD) (CI -28.5KD) {Arabidopsis ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119532 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119532 001-203-F01 At1g79010.1 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 23 kDa subunit, mitochondrial (T ... ursor (EC 1.6.5.3) (EC 1.6.99.3) (Complex I-23KD) (CI -23KD) (Complex I- 28.5KD) (CI -28.5KD) {Arabidopsis ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243512 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243512 J100075C18 At4g16280.3 68417.m02471 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) id ... entical to SP|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243512 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243512 J100075C18 At4g16280.2 68417.m02470 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) id ... entical to SP|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066153 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287906 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit / ClpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF028...61: Clp amino terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069552 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058510 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amin...o terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  4. Shotgun Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shotgun tandem mass spectrometry proteomics approaches, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS, were used to identify Arabidopsis thaliana leaf proteins. These methods utilize different protein/peptide separation strategies. Detergents not compatible wit...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318553 J075145A22 At4g11230.1 68417.m01819 respiratory burst ... oxidase, putative / NADPH oxidase ... , putative similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase homolog F [gi:3242456], RbohAp108 [gi:2654 ... 868] from Arabidopsis thaliana, respiratory burst ... oxidase homolog [GI:16549087] from Solanum tuberos ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110694 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110694 002-170-A08 At5g59560.2 sensitivity to red light reduced protein (SRR1) id...entical to sensitivity to red light reduced protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:25527089; supporting cDNA gi|25527088|gb|AY127047.1| 1e-18 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK099399 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 079; contains weak similarity to the SAPB protein (TR:E236624) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to seven transme...AK099399 J013000O17 At3g05010.1 transmembrane protein, putative similar to GB:AAB61...mbrane domain orphan receptor (GI:4321619) [Mus musculus] contains 7 transmembrane domains; 2e-89 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241202 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241202 J065122B10 At3g20600.1 68416.m02607 non-race specific disease resistance protein (NDR1) ... protein (NDR1) GB:AF021346 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Science ... 278 (5345), 1963-1965 (1997)) 2e-11 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240830 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240830 J065014C16 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121431 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121431 J023138G19 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064987 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064987 J013001D03 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241627 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241627 J065187G05 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241568 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241568 J065179E12 At3g56700.1 68416.m06307 male ... sterility protein, putative similar to SP|Q088 ... 91 Male ... sterility protein 2 {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF03015: Male ... sterility protein 2e-70 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242888 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242888 J090079L06 At3g56700.1 68416.m06307 male ... sterility protein, putative similar to SP|Q088 ... 91 Male ... sterility protein 2 {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF03015: Male ... sterility protein 8e-81 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287630 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287630 J065073I15 At5g22260.1 68418.m02593 male ... sterility 1 protein, putative (MS1) identical ... to male ... sterility 1 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|1555 ... fam profile PF00628: PHD-finger; identical to cDNA male ... sterility 1 protein (ms1 gene) GI:15554514 3e-78 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058440 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 20S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-92 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119246 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119246 001-121-C04 At5g26570.1 glycoside hydrolase starch -binding domain-containing protein si ... milar to SEX1 (starch ... excess) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:12044358; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF00686: Starch ... binding domain 1e-116 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072331 J023039L19 At5g26570.1 glycoside hydrolase starch -binding domain-containing protein sim ... ilar to SEX1 (starch ... excess) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:12044358; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF00686: Starch ... binding domain 0.0 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107208 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ala hydrolase, putative virtually identical to gr1-protein from [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3559811; similar t...AK107208 002-125-B11 At1g44350.1 IAA-amino acid hydrolase 6, putative (ILL6) / IAA-

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 1e-150 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287447 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287447 J043016O04 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-30 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-129 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243298 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243298 J100053J04 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 2e-44 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241385 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241385 J065156D02 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 1e-11 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241333 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241333 J065144I22 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 2e-35 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 6e-11 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241521 J065170L14 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 9e-32 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288402 J090030B22 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 7e-25 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 7e-12 ...

  10. Engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Just how these crystals form remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating calcium oxalate crystal formation, a crystal engineering approach was initiated utilizing the non-crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis. The success of t...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288349 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288349 J090023P19 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-23 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241364 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241364 J065152E11 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-20 ...

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase in family GT14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant cell-surface proteoglycans in plants and are involved in many cellular processes including somatic embryogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and cell elongation. We reported a glucuronosyltransferase encoded by Arabidopsis AtGlcAT14A, which catalyzes an addition of glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14 in the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database (CAZy; www.cazy.org), in which a total of 11 proteins, including AtGLCAT14A, are classified from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report the enzyme activities for the rest of the Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, analyzed in the same way as for AtGlcAT14A. Evidently, two other Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, At5g15050 and At2g37585, also possess the glucuronosyltransferase activity adding glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans. Therefore, we named At5g15050 and At2g37585 as AtGlcAT14B and AtGlcAT14C, respectively. PMID:24739253

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242722 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242722 J090045F10 At3g16857.2 68416.m02153 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 2e-22 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111864 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111864 J033025G23 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 1e-92 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241362 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241362 J065151H17 At3g16857.1 68416.m02152 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 5e-13 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK112039 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112039 001-044-C11 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 4e-18 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111899 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111899 J023034P21 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 1e-92 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242722 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242722 J090045F10 At3g16857.1 68416.m02152 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 2e-22 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241362 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241362 J065151H17 At3g16857.2 68416.m02153 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 5e-13 ...

  1. HYDROPONIC METHOD FOR CULTURING POPULATIONS OF ARABIDOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A plant life-cycle bioassay using Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. was developed to detect potential chemical phytotoxicity. The bioassay requires large numbers of plants to maximize the probability of detecting deleterious effect and to avoid any bias that could occur if only a ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119521 001-202-D09 At3g57050.2 cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast / beta-cystathionase...thionase) (Cysteine lyase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-173 ... ... / cysteine lyase (CBL) identical to SP|P53780 Cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast precursor (EC 4.4.1.8) (CBL) (Beta-cysta

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108403 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108403 002-142-G06 At3g57050.2 cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast / beta-cystathionase...thionase) (Cysteine lyase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-36 ... ... / cysteine lyase (CBL) identical to SP|P53780 Cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast precursor (EC 4.4.1.8) (CBL) (Beta-cysta

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065345 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK065345 J013008D19 At1g19720.1 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-87 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243514 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243514 J100075D15 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 7e-40 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243585 J100082O14 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 5e-20 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287666 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287666 J065117E22 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 1e-41 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242010 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242010 J075106F03 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 7e-14 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243244 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243244 J100046N20 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 4e-29 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288271 J090017A22 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 3e-24 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242268 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242268 J075186C19 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 1e-45 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069545 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069545 J023025I06 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pro ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065420 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065420 J013022D10 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pro ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 1e-166 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062262 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062262 001-047-H04 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pr ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060612 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060612 001-025-F03 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pr ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067323 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067323 J013106B16 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pro ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  17. The CELLULOSE-SYNTHASE LIKE C (CSLC) Family of Barley Includes Members that Are Integral Membrane Proteins Targeted to the Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenny M. Dwivany; Dina Yuli; Rachel A. Burton; Neil J. Shirley; Sarah M. Wilson; Geoffrey B. Fincher; Antony Bacic; Ed Newbigin; Monika S. Doblin

    2009-01-01

    The CELLULOSESYNTHASE-LIKE C(CSLC) family is an ancient lineage within the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE/CEL-LULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CESA/CSL) polysaccharide synthase superfamily that is thought to have arisen before the diver-gence of mosses and vascular plants. As studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis have suggested synthesis of the (1,4)-β-glucan backbone of xyloglucan (XyG), a wall polysaccharide that tethers adjacent cellulose microfibrils to each other, as a probable function for the CSLCs, CSLC function was investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a species with low amounts of XyG in its walls. Four barley CSLC genes were identified (designated HvCSLC1-4). Phylogenetic analysis reveals three well supported clades of CSLCs in flowering plants, with barley having representatives in two of these clades. The four barley CSLCs were expressed in various tissues, with in situ PCR detecting transcripts in all cell types of the coleoptile and root, including cells with primary and secondary cell walls. Co-expression analysis showed that HvCSLC3 was coor-dinately expressed with putative XyG xylosyltransferase genes. Both immuno-EM and membrane fractionation showed that HvCSLC2 was located in the plasma membrane of barley suspension-cultured cells and was not in internal membranes such as endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. Based on our current knowledge of the sub-cellular locations of poly-saccharide synthesis, we conclude that the CSLC family probably contains more than one type of polysaccharide synthase.

  18. Suites of Terpene Synthases Explain Differential Terpenoid Production in Ginger and Turmeric Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identificat...

  19. Enhancement of cellulose production by expression of sucrose synthase in Acetobacter xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Tomonori; Tonouchi, Naoto; Konishi, Teruko; Kojima, Yukiko; Tsuchida, Takayasu; Yoshinaga, Fumihiro; Sakai, Fukumi; Hayashi, Takahisa

    1999-01-01

    Higher plants efficiently conserve energy ATP in cellulose biosynthesis by expression of sucrose synthase, in which the high free energy between glucose and fructose in sucrose can be conserved and used for the synthesis of UDP-glucose. A mixture of sucrose synthase and bacterial cellulose synthase proceeded to form UDP-glucose from sucrose plus UDP and to synthesize 1,4-β-glucan from the sugar nucleotide. The mutant sucrose synthase, which mimics phosphorylated sucrose synthase, enhanced the...

  20. Glycogen synthase kinase 3: more than a namesake

    OpenAIRE

    Rayasam, Geetha Vani; Tulasi, Vamshi Krishna; Sodhi, Reena; Davis, Joseph Alex; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a constitutively acting multi-functional serine threonine kinase is involved in diverse physiological pathways ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, development and oncogenesis to neuroprotection. These diverse multiple functions attributed to GSK3 can be explained by variety of substrates like glycogen synthase, τ protein and β catenin that are phosphorylated leading to their inactivation. GSK3 has been implicated in various diseases such as...

  1. Subcellular Targeting Domains of Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Yeang Calvin; Ding Tingbo; Chirico William J; Jiang Xian-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) sits at the crossroads of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide, diacylglycerol (DAG) metabolism. It utilizes ceramide and phosphatidylcholine as substrates to produce SM and DAG, thereby regulating lipid messengers which play a role in cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, its product SM has been implicated in atherogenic processes such as retention of lipoproteins in the blood vessel intima. There are two mammalian sphingomyelin synthases: SMS1 and SMS2. SMS...

  2. Assembly Line Polyketide Synthases: Mechanistic Insights and Unsolved Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Khosla, Chaitan; Herschlag, Daniel; Cane, David E.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Two hallmarks of assembly line polyketide synthases have motivated an interest in these unusual multienzyme systems, their stereospecificity and their capacity for directional biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge regarding the mechanistic origins of these two remarkable features, using the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase as a prototype. Of the 10 stereocenters in 6-deoxyerythronolide B, the stereochemistry of nine carbon atoms is directly set by ketoreductase doma...

  3. Genetic organization of the cellulose synthase operon in Acetobacter xylinum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, H C; Fear, A L; Calhoon, R D; Eichinger, G H; Mayer, R; Amikam, D; Benziman, M; Gelfand, D H; Meade, J H; Emerick, A W

    1990-01-01

    An operon encoding four proteins required for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis (bcs) in Acetobacter xylinum was isolated via genetic complementation with strains lacking cellulose synthase activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the cellulose synthase operon is 9217 base pairs long and consists of four genes. The four genes--bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD--appear to be translationally coupled and transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with an initiation site 97 bases upstream of the co...

  4. Computational design and selections for an engineered, thermostable terpene synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, JE; Lin, CS; Kunishiro, K; Feld, BK; Avrantinis, SK; Bronson, J.; J. Greaves; Saven, JG; Weiss, GA

    2011-01-01

    Terpenoids include structurally diverse antibiotics, flavorings, and fragrances. Engineering terpene synthases for control over the synthesis of such compounds represents a long sought goal. We report computational design, selections, and assays of a thermostable mutant of tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (TEAS) for the catalysis of carbocation cyclization reactions at elevated temperatures. Selection for thermostability included proteolytic digestion followed by capture of intact protein...

  5. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  6. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs.

  7. Tapentadol and nitric oxide synthase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Wolińska, Renata; Gąsińska, Emilia; Nagraba, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    Tapentadol, a new analgesic drug with a dual mechanism of action (μ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition), is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. In this paper, the possible additional involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in the antinociceptive activity of tapentadol was investigated using an unspecific inhibitor of NOS, L-NOArg, a relatively specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, 7-NI, a relatively selective inhibitor of inducible NOS, L-NIL, and a potent inhibitor of endothelial NOS, L-NIO. Tapentadol (1-10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) increased the threshold for mechanical (Randall-Selitto test) and thermal (tail-flick test) nociceptive stimuli in a dose-dependent manner. All four NOS inhibitors, administered intraperitoneally in the dose range 0.1-10 mg/kg, potentiated the analgesic action of tapentadol at a low dose of 2 mg/kg in both models of pain. We conclude that NOS systems participate in tapentadol analgesia. PMID:25485639

  8. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  9. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  10. Physiological and molecular basis of Azospirillum-Arabidopsis Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at revealing the early signalling events during the interaction of the diazotrophic soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense with its host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, taking advantage of the micro array technique, a comprehensive overview of Arabidopsis genes has been undertaken which are affected upon association with A. brasilense The characterization of the early responses of Arabidopsis plants upon inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7 ...

  11. RcLEA, a late embryogenesis abundant protein gene isolated from Rosa chinensis, confers tolerance to Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana and stabilizes enzyme activity under diverse stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Songchong; Jiang, Changhua; Wang, Yaofeng; Lv, Bo; Shen, Jiabin; Ming, Feng

    2014-07-01

    The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family is a large protein family that is closely associated with resistance to abiotic stresses in many organisms, such as plants, bacteria and animals. In this study, we isolated a LEA gene, RcLEA, which was cytoplasm-localized, from Rosa chinensis. RcLEA was found to be induced by high temperature through RT-PCR. Overexpression of RcLEA in Escherichia coli improved its growth performance compared with the control under high temperature, low temperature, NaCl and oxidative stress conditions. RcLEA was also overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed better growth after high and low temperature treatment and exhibited less peroxide according to 3, 3-diaminobenzidine staining. However, RcLEA did not improve the tolerance to NaCl or osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. In vitro analysis showed that RcLEA was able to prevent the freeze-thaw-induced inactivation or heat-induced aggregation of various substrates, such as lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. It also protected the proteome of E. coli from denaturation when the proteins were heat-shocked or subjected to acidic conditions. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays suggested that RcLEA proteins function in a complex manner by making the form of homodimers. PMID:24760474

  12. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Glucan Branching Enzymes from Plants and Bacteria in Arabidopsis Reveals Marked Differences in Their Functions and Capacity to Mediate Starch Granule Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kuan-Jen; Streb, Sebastian; Meier, Florence; Pfister, Barbara; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2015-11-01

    The major component of starch is the branched glucan amylopectin, the branching pattern of which is one of the key factors determining its ability to form semicrystalline starch granules. Here, we investigated the functions of different branching enzyme (BE) types by expressing proteins from maize (Zea mays BE2a), potato (Solanum tuberosum BE1), and Escherichia coli (glycogen BE [EcGLGB]) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant plants that are deficient in their endogenous BEs and therefore, cannot make starch. The expression of each of these three BE types restored starch biosynthesis to differing degrees. Full complementation was achieved using the class II BE ZmBE2a, which is most similar to the two endogenous Arabidopsis isoforms. Expression of the class I BE from potato, StBE1, resulted in partial complementation and high amylose starch. Expression of the glycogen BE EcGLGB restored only minimal amounts of starch production, which had unusual chain length distribution, branch point distribution, and granule morphology. Nevertheless, each type of BE together with the starch synthases and debranching enyzmes were able to create crystallization-competent amylopectin polymers. These data add to the knowledge of how the properties of the BE influence the final composition of starch and fine structure of amylopectin. PMID:26358415

  13. The better growth phenotype of DvGS1-transgenic arabidopsis thaliana is attributed to the improved efficiency of nitrogen assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chenguang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of the algal glutamine synthetase (GS gene DvGS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in higher plant biomass and better growth phenotype. The purpose of this study was to recognize the biological mechanism for the growth improvement of DvGS1-transgenic Arabidopsis. A series of molecular and biochemical investigations related to nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the DvGS1-transgenic line was conducted. Analysis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE-related gene transcription and enzymatic activity revealed that the transcriptional level and enzymatic activity of the genes encoding GS, glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly upregulated, especially from leaf tissues of the DvGS1-transgenic line under two nitrate conditions. The DvGS1-transgenic line showed increased total nitrogen content and decreased carbon: nitrogen ratio compared to wild-type plants. Significant reduced concentrations of free nitrate, ammonium, sucrose, glucose and starch, together with higher concentrations of total amino acids, individual amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, methionine, soluble proteins and fructose in leaf tissues confirmed that the DvGS1-transgenic line demonstrated a higher efficiency of nitrogen assimilation, which subsequently affected carbon metabolism. These improved metabolisms of nitrogen and carbon conferred the DvGS1-transgenic Arabidopsis higher NUE, more biomass and better growth phenotype compared with the wild-type plants.

  14. Arabidopsis ERF1 Mediates Cross-Talk between Ethylene and Auxin Biosynthesis during Primary Root Elongation by Regulating ASA1 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Li Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gaseous phytohormone ethylene participates in the regulation of root growth and development in Arabidopsis. It is known that root growth inhibition by ethylene involves auxin, which is partially mediated by the action of the WEAK ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2/ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE α1 (WEI2/ASA1, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan (Trp biosynthesis, from which auxin is derived. However, the molecular mechanism by which ethylene decreases root growth via ASA1 is not understood. Here we report that the ethylene-responsive AP2 transcription factor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1, plays an important role in primary root elongation of Arabidopsis. Using loss- and gain-of-function transgenic lines as well as biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that ERF1 can directly up-regulate ASA1 by binding to its promoter, leading to auxin accumulation and ethylene-induced inhibition of root growth. This discloses one mechanism linking ethylene signaling and auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots.

  15. Arabidopsis ERF1 Mediates Cross-Talk between Ethylene and Auxin Biosynthesis during Primary Root Elongation by Regulating ASA1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Yu, Lin-Hui; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The gaseous phytohormone ethylene participates in the regulation of root growth and development in Arabidopsis. It is known that root growth inhibition by ethylene involves auxin, which is partially mediated by the action of the WEAK ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2/ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE α1 (WEI2/ASA1), encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis, from which auxin is derived. However, the molecular mechanism by which ethylene decreases root growth via ASA1 is not understood. Here we report that the ethylene-responsive AP2 transcription factor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1), plays an important role in primary root elongation of Arabidopsis. Using loss- and gain-of-function transgenic lines as well as biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that ERF1 can directly up-regulate ASA1 by binding to its promoter, leading to auxin accumulation and ethylene-induced inhibition of root growth. This discloses one mechanism linking ethylene signaling and auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:26745809

  16. Gradual shifts in sites of free-auxin production during leaf-primordium development and their role in vascular differentiation and leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Roni; Schwalm, Katja; Langhans, Markus; Ullrich, Cornelia I

    2003-03-01

    The major regulatory shoot signal is auxin, whose synthesis in young leaves has been a mystery. To test the leaf-venation hypothesis [R. Aloni (2001) J Plant Growth Regul 20: 22-34], the patterns of free-auxin production, movement and accumulation in developing leaf primordia of DR5::GUS-transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were visualized. DR5::GUS expression was regarded to reflect sites of free auxin, while immunolocalization with specific monoclonal antibodies indicated total auxin distribution. The mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in the synthesis, conjugate hydrolysis, accumulation and basipetal transport of auxin, namely indole-3-glycerol-phosphate-synthase, nitrilase, IAA-amino acid hydrolase, chalcone synthase and PIN1 as an essential component of the basipetal IAA carrier, was investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Near the shoot apex, stipules were the earliest sites of high free-auxin production. During early stages of primordium development, leaf apical dominance was evident from strong beta-glucuronidase activity in the elongating tip, possibly suppressing the production of free auxin in the leaf tissues below it. Hydathodes, which develop in the tip and later in the lobes, were apparently primary sites of high free-auxin production, the latter supported by auxin-conjugate hydrolysis, auxin retention by the chalcone synthase-dependent action of flavonoids and also by the PIN1-component of the carrier-mediated basipetal transport. Trichomes and mesophyll cells were secondary sites of free-auxin production. During primordium development there are gradual shifts in sites and concentrations of free-auxin production occurring first in the tip of a leaf primordium, then progressing basipetally along the margins, and finally appearing also in the central regions of the lamina. This developmental pattern of free-auxin production is suggested to control the basipetal maturation sequence of leaf development and vascular

  17. Effects of sulfanilamide and methotrexate on 13C fluxes through the glycine decarboxylase/serine hydroxymethyltransferase enzyme system in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In C3 plants large amounts of photorespiratory glycine (Gly) are converted to serine by the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-dependent activities of the Gly decarboxylase complex (GDC) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). Using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, we monitored the flux of carbon through the GDC/SHMT enzyme system in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Columbia exposed to inhibitors of THF-synthesizing enzymes. Plants exposed for 96 h to sulfanilamide, a dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor, showed little reduction in flux through GDC/SHMT. Two other sulfonamide analogs were tested with similar results, although all three analogs competitively inhibited the partially purified enzyme. However, methotrexate or aminopterin, which are confirmed inhibitors of Arabidopsis dihydrofolate reductase, decreased the flux through the GDC/SHMT system by 60% after 48 h and by 100% in 96 h. The uptake of [alpha-13C]Gly was not inhibited by either drug class. The specificity of methotrexate action was shown by the ability of 5-formyl-THF to restore flux through the GDC/SHMT pathway in methotrexate-inhibited plants. The experiments with sulfonamides strongly suggest that the mitochondrial THF pool has a long half-life. The studies with methotrexate support the additional, critical role of dihydrofolate reductase in recycling THF oxidized in thymidylate synthesis

  18. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3je5 mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface. PMID:26729799

  19. Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

  20. SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 Mediates Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Adherence and Organization through Pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Xue, Hui; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Sola, Krešimir; Seifert, Georg J; Mansfield, Shawn D; Haughn, George W

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between cell wall polymers are critical for establishing cell wall integrity and cell-cell adhesion. Here, we exploit the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage system to examine cell wall polymer interactions. On hydration, seeds release an adherent mucilage layer strongly attached to the seed in addition to a nonadherent layer that can be removed by gentle agitation. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) is the primary component of adherent mucilage, with homogalacturonan, cellulose, and xyloglucan constituting minor components. Adherent mucilage contains rays composed of cellulose and pectin that extend above the center of each epidermal cell. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) and the arabinogalactan protein SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 (SOS5) are required for mucilage adherence through unknown mechanisms. SOS5 has been suggested to mediate adherence by influencing cellulose biosynthesis. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between SOS5 and CESA5. cesa5-1 seeds show reduced cellulose, RG I, and ray size in adherent mucilage. In contrast, sos5-2 seeds have wild-type levels of cellulose but completely lack adherent RG I and rays. Thus, relative to each other, cesa5-1 has a greater effect on cellulose, whereas sos5-2 mainly affects pectin. The double mutant cesa5-1 sos5-2 has a much more severe loss of mucilage adherence, suggesting that SOS5 and CESA5 function independently. Double-mutant analyses with mutations in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 and FLYING SAUCER1 that reduce mucilage release through pectin modification suggest that only SOS5 influences pectin-mediated adherence. Together, these findings suggest that SOS5 mediates adherence through pectins and does so independently of but in concert with cellulose synthesized by CESA5. PMID:24808103

  1. Co-expression Analysis Identifies CRC and AP1 the Regulator of Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Han; Linlin Yin; Hongwei Xue

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development,however,the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood.To study the relevant regulatory network,fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases,desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network.Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT)identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes.Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism,and function in many processes.Interestingly,63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched.Two TF genes,CRC and AP1,both correlating with 8 FA guide genes,were further characterized.Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds.The contents of palmitoleic acid,stearic acid,arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased,whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds,which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes.In addition,yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15,indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis.

  2. Indole-3-butyric acid synthesis in ecotypes and mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2007-01-01

    Although IBA is a naturally occurring auxin, its role in plant development is still under debate. In this study a set of Arabidopsis mutants was used to analyze the biosynthesis of IBA in vitro. The mutants chosen for this study can be classified as: (1) involvement in auxin metabolism, transport or synthesis (amt1, aux1, ilr1, nit1, rib1, sur1, trp1-100); (2) other hormones possibly involved in the regulation of IBA synthesis (aba1, aba3, eto2, fae1, hls1, jar1); (3) photomorphogenesis (det1, det2, det3); and (4) root architecture (cob1, cob2, scr1). In addition, two transgenic lines overexpressing the IAA glucose synthase (iaglu) gene from maize were analyzed. The ecotypes No-0 and Wassilewskija showed the highest IBA synthetase activity under control conditions, followed by Columbia, Enkheim and Landsberg erecta. In the mutant lines IBA synthetase activity differed in most cases from the wild type, however no particular pattern of up- or down-regulation, which could be correlated to their possible function, was found. For rib1 mutant seedlings it was tested whether reduced IBA synthetase activity correlates with the endogenous IBA levels. Free IBA differed only depending on the culture conditions, but gave no clear correlation with IBA synthetase activity compared to the wild type. Since drought and osmotic stress as well as abscisic acid (ABA) application enhanced IBA synthesis in maize, it was tested whether IBA synthetase from Arabidopsis is also inducible by drought stress conditions. This was confirmed for the two ecotypes Col and Ler which showed different IBA synthetase activity when cultivated with various degrees of drought stress. IBA synthetase was also determined in photomorphogenic mutants under different light regimes. Induction of IBA synthetase in det1 and det3 plants was found under short day plus a red light pulse or in the dark, respectively. The results are discussed with respect to the functions of the mutated genes. PMID:16325963

  3. Ethylene modulates flavonoid accumulation and gravitropic responses in roots of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buer, Charles S; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria K

    2006-04-01

    Plant organs change their growth direction in response to reorientation relative to the gravity vector. We explored the role of ethylene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root gravitropism. Treatment of wild-type Columbia seedlings with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) reduced root elongation and gravitropic curvature. The ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 and etr1-3 had wild-type root gravity responses, but lacked the growth and gravity inhibition by ACC found in the wild type. We examined the effect of ACC on tt4(2YY6) seedlings, which have a null mutation in the gene encoding chalcone synthase, the first enzyme in flavonoid synthesis. The tt4(2YY6) mutant makes no flavonoids, has elevated indole-3-acetic acid transport, and exhibits a delayed gravity response. Roots of tt4(2YY6), the backcrossed line tt4-2, and two other tt4 alleles had wild-type sensitivity to growth inhibition by ACC, whereas the root gravitropic curvature of these tt4 alleles was much less inhibited by ACC than wild-type roots, suggesting that ACC may reduce gravitropic curvature by altering flavonoid synthesis. ACC treatment induced flavonoid accumulation in root tips, as judged by a dye that becomes fluorescent upon binding flavonoids in wild type, but not in ein2-5 and etr1-3. ACC also prevented a transient peak in flavonoid synthesis in response to gravity. Together, these experiments suggest that elevated ethylene levels negatively regulate root gravitropism, using EIN2- and ETR1-dependent pathways, and that ACC inhibition of gravity response occurs through altering flavonoid synthesis. PMID:16489132

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100975 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK100975 J023143J04 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphatase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha... 1) (Choline phosphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK240654 J023098I11 At3g15730.1 68416.m01993 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065102 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK065102 J013001N03 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...AK119523 001-202-E03 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066556 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-63 ... ...AK066556 J013073D11 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072121 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK072121 J013122J23 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119861 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...AK119861 002-178-H08 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121264 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK121264 J023105D06 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243041 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243041 J100008G07 At3g11410.1 68416.m01392 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putative identic...osphatase 2C; identical to cDNA protein phosphatase 2C GI:633027 2e-21 ... ...al to protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) GB:P49598 [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00481: Protein ph

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK100278 J023073L15 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK120459 J013106C05 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain famil...y cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  16. Flavonoid-specific staining of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, J J; Rechnitz, G A

    1992-12-01

    Crop yields may be threatened by increases in UV-B radiation resulting from depletion of the ozone layer. In higher plants, the presence of flavonols provides a protective mechanism, and we report a novel staining procedure for the visualization of such protectants in plant tissue. It is shown that the proposed technique provides sensitive and specific fluorescence of flavonoids in chlorophyll-bleached tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:1282347

  17. Unraveling the circadian clock in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system responsible for coordinating an organism’s biological processes with its environment. Interlocked transcriptional feedback loops constitute the fundamental architecture of the circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, three feedback loops, the core loop, morning loop and evening loop, comprise a network that is the basis of the circadian clock. The components of these three loops are regulated in distinct ways, including transcriptional, post-transcri...

  18. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is now widely used as a model system in molecular and developmental biology, as well as in physiology and cell biology. However, ecologists and evolutionary biologists have turned their attention to the mouse ear cress only much more recently and almost reluctantly. The reason for this is the perception that A. thaliana is not particularly interesting ecologically and that it represents an oddity from an evolutionary standpoint. While there is some truth in both these att...

  19. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241580 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241580 J065181H03 At4g23640.1 68417.m03404 potassium transporter / tiny root hair ... 1 protein (T ... RH1) identical to tiny root hair ... 1 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|11181958|emb|C ... MID:11500563; identical to cDNA mRNA for tiny root hair ... 1 protein (trh1) GI:11181957 1e-139 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110331 002-164-D12 At2g31510.1 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADNE-like prote...in ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contains similarit...y to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 3e-59 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242789 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242789 J090057B20 At2g31510.1 68415.m03850 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADN...E-like protein ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contai...ns similarity to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 8e-12 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065950 J013049M07 At3g11820.1 syntaxin 121 (SYP121) / syntaxin-related protein (SYR1) conta...ins Pfam profiles: PF00804 syntaxin and PF05739: SNARE domain; identical to cDNA syntaxin-related ...protein At-SYR1 (At-Syr1) GI:4206788, SP|Q9ZSD4 Syntaxin 121 (AtSYP121) (Syntaxin-related protein At-Syr1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-88 ...

  4. A Superfamily of Arabidopsis Thaliana Retrotransposons

    OpenAIRE

    Konieczny, A; Voytas, D. F.; Cummings, M. P.; Ausubel, F M

    1991-01-01

    We describe a superfamily of Arabidopsis thaliana retrotransposable elements that consists of at least ten related families designated Ta1-Ta10. The Ta1 family has been described previously. Two genomic clones representing the Ta2 and Ta3 elements were isolated from an A. thaliana (race Landsberg erecta) λ library using sequences derived from the reverse transcriptase region of Ta1 as hybridization probes. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the Ta1, Ta2 and Ta3 families share >75% amino...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243366 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK243366 J100062A03 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 3e-33 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241693 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241693 J065195J20 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-31 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240979 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK240979 J065049G14 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-40 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242723 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK242723 J090045G15 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 7e-31 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241693 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241693 J065195J20 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-15 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289251 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK289251 J100081E23 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 9e-17 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318555 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK318555 J075159J07 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 8e-83 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288980 J090085N06 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-67 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288612 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288612 J090053J15 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-34 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241656 J065191E22 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 3e-44 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288115 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288115 J080036I11 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 3e-15 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK242521 J080313L24 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 5e-27 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241784 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241784 J065206N09 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 5e-16 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240965 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK240965 J065046D15 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-30 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243366 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK243366 J100062A03 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 2e-16 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288938 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288938 J090082P07 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 5e-38 ...