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Sample records for arabidopsis mucilage secretory

  1. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

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    Cătălin eVoiniciuc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50% to 200% of Col-0 levels in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10, which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads

  2. LASSO modeling of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed/seedling transcriptome: a model case for detection of novel mucilage and pectin metabolism genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Giorgi, Federico M; Bertinetti, Luca; Usadel, Björn

    2012-10-01

    Whole genome transcript correlation-based approaches have been shown to be enormously useful for candidate gene detection. Consequently, simple Pearson correlation has been widely applied in several web based tools. That said, several more sophisticated methods based on e.g. mutual information or Bayesian network inference have been developed and have been shown to be theoretically superior but are not yet commonly applied. Here, we propose the application of a recently developed statistical regression technique, the LASSO, to detect novel candidates from high throughput transcriptomic datasets. We apply the LASSO to a tissue specific dataset in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to identify novel players in Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat mucilage synthesis. We built LASSO models based on a list of genes known to be involved in a sub-pathway of Arabidopsis mucilage synthesis. After identifying a putative transcription factor, we verified its involvement in mucilage synthesis by obtaining knock-out mutants for this gene. We show that a loss of function of this putative transcription factor leads to a significant decrease in mucilage pectin.

  3. AtGRIP protein locates to the secretory vesicles of trans Golgi-network in Arabidopsis root cap cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; ZHANG Wei; ZHAO Lei; LI Yan

    2008-01-01

    GRIP domain proteins, locating to the trans-Golgi network, are thought to play an essential role in Golgi apparatus trafficking in yeast and animal cells. In the present study, AtGRIP cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR from RNA isolated from Arabidopsis seedling. The GST fusion protein of AtGRIP was affinity-purified and its rabbit polyclonal antibody was obtained. Immuno-blotting with the purified anti-AtGRIP polyclonal antibody demonstrated that the molecular mass of AtGRIP protein is about 92 kD, and its expression is not tissue-specific in Arabidopsis. Immunoflourescent labeling and confocal microscopy revealed that the AtGRIP protein was co-localized with Golgi stacks in Arabidop-sis root cells. Immuno-gold labeling and electron microscopy observation showed that AtGRIP protein was mainly located to the membrane of the secretory vesicles of trans-Golgi network in Arabidopsis root cap cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the localization of GRIP domain proteins be-tween plants and animal cells are conserved. These results also suggest that the AtGRIP may be in-volved in regulating the formation or sorting of Golgi-associated vesicles in plant cells.

  4. Localization and secretory pathways of a 58K-like protein in multi-vesicular bodies in callus of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Multi-vesicular bodies in endocytosis and protoplasts are special cellular structures that are consid-ered to be originated from invagination of plasma membranes. However, the genesis and function of multi-vesicular bodies, the relationship with Golgi bodies and cell walls, and their secretory pathways remain controversial and ambiguous. Using a monoclonal antibody against an animal 58K protein, we have detected, by Western blotting and confocal microscopy, that a 58K-like protein is present in the calli of Arabidopsis thaliana and Hypericum perforatum. The results of immuno-electron microscopy showed that the 58K-like protein was located in the cisternae of Golgi bodies, secretory vesicles, multi-vesicular bodies, cell walls and vacuoles in callus of Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that the multi-vesicular bodies may be originated from Golgi bodies and function as a transporter carrying substances synthesized in Golgi bodies to cell walls and vacuoles. It seems that multi-vesicular bodies have a close relationship with the development of the cell wall and vacuole. The possible secretory pathways of multi-vesicular bodies might be in exocytosis, in which multi-vesicular bodies carry sub-stances to the cell wall for its construction, and in endocytosis, in which multi-vesicular bodies carry substances to the vacuole for its development, depending on what they carry and where the materials are transported. We hence propose that there is more than one pathway for the secretion of multi-vesicular bodies. In addition, our results provided a paradigm that a plant molecule, such as the 58k-like protein in callus of Arabidopsis thaliana, can be detected using a cross-reactive monoclonal antibody induced by an animal protein, and illustrate the existence of analog molecules in both animal and plant kingdoms.

  5. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 requires a ß-subunit to function in phospholipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    and in inducing membrane curvature, which is a requirement for vesicle formation. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that genetic lesions of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots....... The root growth defect is accompanied by the failure of the root to release border cells of the root cap. Electron micrograph data suggest that functioning and shedding of border cells are dependent on ALA3, as ala3 mutants are devoid of the characteristic proliferation of slime vesicles at the trans-Golgi...... and transport studies in yeast, at least one member of this family, ALIS1, is likely to serve as an essential ß-subunit of ALA3. We propose that the ALA3/ALIS1 protein complex forms an important part of the Golgi machinery required for secretory processes during plant development. We are currently aiming...

  6. Genes Involved in Biosynthesis, Secretion and Release of Seed Coat Mucilage of Myxospermy%粘液繁殖体种子的粘液质形成、分泌及释放相关基因

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    袁军文; 兰海燕

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat mucilage consists of pectin polysaccharides secreted by the Golgi apparatus in epidermal cells to the cell cavity and cell walls of the seed coat. The striking feature of the myxospermy is formation of a gelatin-like capsule (mucilage) around the seed upon contact with water,which is believed to help with seed hydration, ecologically advantageous for seed dispersal, germination, seedling survival and establishment. The molecular mechanism of mucilage synthesis and its novel system to dissect cell wall production are important to study the relationship between seed coat and complex environment. In the present review, we intend to introduce the latest results achieved in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with the mucilage secretory cells (MSCs) differentiation and its regulatory genes in the process of seed coat mucilage biosynthesis, secretion and release. Consequently, the expected direction in this research area is prospected and discussed, we hope to stimulate research in both theory and application of myxospermy plant species, and to provide convincing evidence for protection of biodiversity and utilization of biological resources in the desert region of northwest China.%种皮粘液质是在种皮外层细胞的高尔基体内产生并分泌到胞腔内或细胞壁层的一种果胶类多糖物质.当干燥种子遇水后,粘液质即刻被释放形成透明胶质并完全包被整个种子.粘液质对种子的扩散定居、种子萌发以及幼苗的存活和生长均具有重要作用.粘液质作为一种模型研究细胞壁的产生及其形成的分子机制已经成为植物种皮发育与环境变化相适应关系的研究热点.本文主要对以拟南芥为代表的粘液质细胞和调控粘液质形成及释放相关基因的研究进展进行了综述,并对今后的研究方向进行了展望,以期为促进具粘液繁殖体植物的理论与应用研究,以及西部荒漠区的植物物种多样性保护提供科学依据.

  7. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

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    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  8. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the golgi and requires a beta-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; López-Marqués, Rosa Laura; McDowell, Stephen C; Okkeri, Juha; Licht, Dirk; Schulz, Alexander; Pomorski, Thomas; Harper, Jeffrey F; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde

    2008-03-01

    Vesicle budding in eukaryotes depends on the activity of lipid translocases (P(4)-ATPases) that have been implicated in generating lipid asymmetry between the two leaflets of the membrane and in inducing membrane curvature. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P(4)-ATPase subfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that mutations of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots. The growth defect is accompanied by failure of the root cap to release border cells involved in the secretion of molecules required for efficient root interaction with the environment, and ala3 mutants are devoid of the characteristic trans-Golgi proliferation of slime vesicles containing polysaccharides and enzymes for secretion. In yeast complementation experiments, ALA3 function requires interaction with members of a novel family of plant membrane-bound proteins, ALIS1 to ALIS5 (for ALA-Interacting Subunit), and in this host ALA3 and ALIS1 show strong affinity for each other. In planta, ALIS1, like ALA3, localizes to Golgi-like structures and is expressed in root peripheral columella cells. We propose that the ALIS1 protein is a beta-subunit of ALA3 and that this protein complex forms an important part of the Golgi machinery required for secretory processes during plant development.

  9. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

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    Reeder, Stacey; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea; Kostka, Stanley

    2015-04-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses are that: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle > 90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the

  10. Glycosylation of a Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan-Protein (SOS5) Mediates Root Growth and Seed Mucilage Adherence via a Cell Wall Receptor-Like Kinase (FEI1/FEI2) Pathway in Arabidopsis.

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    Basu, Debarati; Tian, Lu; Debrosse, Tayler; Poirier, Emily; Emch, Kirk; Herock, Hayley; Travers, Andrew; Showalter, Allan M

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental processes that underpin plant growth and development depend crucially on the action and assembly of the cell wall, a dynamic structure that changes in response to both developmental and environmental cues. While much is known about cell wall structure and biosynthesis, much less is known about the functions of the individual wall components, particularly with respect to their potential roles in cellular signaling. Loss-of-function mutants of two arabinogalactan-protein (AGP)-specific galactosyltransferases namely, GALT2 and GALT5, confer pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes indicating the important contributions of carbohydrate moieties towards AGP function. Notably, galt2galt5 double mutants displayed impaired root growth and root tip swelling in response to salt, likely as a result of decreased cellulose synthesis. These mutants phenocopy a salt-overly sensitive mutant called sos5, which lacks a fasciclin-like AGP (SOS5/FLA4) as well as a fei1fei2 double mutant, which lacks two cell wall-associated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. Additionally, galt2gal5 as well as sos5 and fei2 showed reduced seed mucilage adherence. Quintuple galt2galt5sos5fei1fei2 mutants were produced and provided evidence that these genes act in a single, linear genetic pathway. Further genetic and biochemical analysis of the quintuple mutant demonstrated involvement of these genes with the interplay between cellulose biosynthesis and two plant growth regulators, ethylene and ABA, in modulating root cell wall integrity.

  11. Reference: 713 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available between the galactosyl side-chain structure of pectin and its physical properties...with correct hydration properties. 12 4007-21 18165329 2007 Dec The Plant cell Carpita Nicholas C|Dean Gilli.... The Arabidopsis MUM2 gene encodes a beta-galactosidase required for the production of seed coat mucilage

  12. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

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    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from

  13. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

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    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization.

  14. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  15. Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G; Sabina, K; Babuskin, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, the polysaccharide/mucilage from waste of Abelmoscus esculentus by modification in hot extraction using two different solvents (Acetone, Methanol) were extracted, characterized and further compared with seaweed polysaccharide for their potential applications. The percentage yield, emulsifying capacity and swelling index of this mucilage were determined. The macro algae and okra waste, gave high % yield (22.2% and 8.6% respectively) and good emulsifying capacity (EC%=52.38% and 54.76% respectively) with acetone, compared to methanol (11.3% and 0.28%; EC%=50%) (PH=7) while swelling index was greater with methanol than acetone extracts respectively. The infrared (I.R.) spectrum of the samples was recorded to investigate the chemical structure of mucilage. Thermal analysis of the mucilage was done with TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) which showed both okra and algal polysaccharide were thermostable hydrogels.

  16. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Xuejun Yang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Guangzheng Liu; Zhenying Huang

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand buria...

  17. Seed mucilage improves seedling emergence of a sand desert shrub.

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    Xuejun Yang

    Full Text Available The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively. Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment.

  18. Leaf anatomy of Cinnamomum schaeffer (Lauraceae) with special reference to oil and mucilage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.; Schaaf, van der P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and mucilage cells in the leaf of 150 species of Cinnamomum are described. Idioblasts are always present in the palisade and the spongy parenchyma. Usually both oil and mucilage cells occur; in some species either oil or mucilage cells are present. Bot

  19. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  20. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

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    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process.

  1. Improvement of Lidocaine Local Anesthetic Action Using Lallemantia royleana Seed Mucilage as an Excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Rabi; Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Lallemantia royleana (Balangu) is a well known Iranian medicinal plant that its seed mucilage has many applications in modern pharmacology. Plant mucilage traditionally was used as a gel supplement, and natural matrix for sustained release of drugs. But it seems that these compounds are not a simple additive and also have many undiscovered pharmacological properties. In this research, the anesthetic action of gel prepared from Balangu mucilage alone and its mixture with lidocaine hydrochloride are compared with the effect of commercial 2% lidocaine gel by rat tail flick test. Mucilage of Balangu seed alone showed analgesic effect. Duration and potency of anesthesia induced by gel containing mucilage alone (0.01 g/mL) were identical to commercial 2% lidocaine gel. But, local anesthetic potency and duration of gel made from 2% lidocaine-mucilage gel mixture was significantly higher than commercial 2% lidocaine gel. The gel prepared from mucilage causes a good analgesia with unknown mechanism. Besides, mixture of Balangu mucilage prepared gel with lidocaine improves lidocaine anesthesia. The increase in potency of lidocaine action results from mucilage dermal penetration enhancing effects; and longer anesthetic duration of this mixture are related to the capability of mucilage based gel for sustained drug release.

  2. Climate change and the potential spreading of marine mucilage and microbial pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea.

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    Roberto Danovaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  4. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw cladode mucilage: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegowda, Pavithra; Chauhan, Attar Singh; Nanjaraj Urs, Shashirekha Mysore

    2017-02-10

    The yield of mucilage extracted from cladodes of Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw in aqueous medium was 6.2%. The neutral sugar comprised of arabinose (38.80%), galactose (33.00%), rhamnose (15.70%), xylose (5.10%), and glucose (5.10%). The mucilage showed pseudo plastic behavior with good swelling index (20%), water holding capacity (g water/g dry sample; 4±0.10) and micrometric properties. In addition, mucilage presented intrinsic viscosity of 3.7 dL/g with average molecular weight of 1.9×10(3)kDa. The FTIR and NMR spectra of extracted mucilage showed characteristic polysaccharide nature. Further, the mucilage exhibited anti-obesity property through lipase inhibition. These findings could highlight that isolated mucilage could be exploited as an additive in food and pharmaceutical sector.

  5. Wound healing properties and mucilage content of Pereskia aculeata from different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Eber Goulart Carvalho; Cristina Pacheco Soares; Lorena Blau; Renato Farina Menegon; Walderez Moreira Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Physiologic growth parameters Wound healing Pereskia aculeata Mill., Cactaceae, is a cactus with high mucilage production, well-known for its nutritional properties. Folk use consists on skin injuries, and mucilage is probably involved in the wound healing activity. This work studied some aspects of its cultivation, specifically regarding soil (substrate), to correlate the effects of nutritional content to mucilage production and to the wound-healing property. Plants were grown under five dif...

  6. Improvement of Lidocaine Local Anesthetic Action Using Lallemantia royleana Seed Mucilage as an Excipient

    OpenAIRE

    Atabaki, Rabi; Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Lallemantia royleana (Balangu) is a well known Iranian medicinal plant that its seed mucilage has many applications in modern pharmacology. Plant mucilage traditionally was used as a gel supplement, and natural matrix for sustained release of drugs. But it seems that these compounds are not a simple additive and also have many undiscovered pharmacological properties. In this research, the anesthetic action of gel prepared from Balangu mucilage alone and its mixture with lidocaine hydrochlorid...

  7. Human health implications associated with mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, E; Ade, P

    1999-01-01

    Mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea is well known for its negative impact not only on the ecology of the affected area and on fishing activities but on tourism as well. The microhabitat mucilage creates in the sea can provide favourable conditions for the growth and/or survival of some environmental microorganisms that include human opportunistic pathogens. It also seems to favour the selective development of some marine toxic algae. Finally, mucilage can concentrate chemical contaminants from surrounding waters, hence increasing their bioaccumulation in seafoods. This paper examines the possible direct and indirect effects on human health of mucilage and other forms of marine aggregates.

  8. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  9. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells o

  10. Physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage was isolated from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylonRoxb., a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. Various physico-chemical methods like particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry analysis, molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography, rheometry, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1D(1H and 13C (NMR have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle analyses suggest that mucilage had particle size in nanometer. SEM analysis suggested that the mucilage had irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum observed was 78 °C and 74 °C by DSC and DTA respectively. The Thermogravimetry analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability with two stage decomposition. The molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 8760, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The XRD pattern of the mucilage indicated a complete amorphous nature. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed specific contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm-1 (-OH, 1632 cm-1 (-COO-, 1414 cm-1 (-COO- and 1219 cm-1 (-CH3CO. Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR indicated the presence of sugars.

  11. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1922-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells o

  12. Physiochemical characterization of mucilage obtained from the fresh fruits of Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amutha Gnana Arasi Michael Antony Samy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: The current study is focused to explore the physiochemical characterization of mucilage obtained from fresh fruits of Psidium guajava L. Study includes phytochemical screening, physiochemical characterization and micromeritic properties. Methods: Water based extraction procedure was adopted to extract mucilage from Psidium guajava fruit. Pharmacopoeial procedures were adopted to study the melting point, solubility, loss on drying and ash values. Swelling index of the mucilage is determined in 0.1N Hydrochloric acid, Phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 and water. Micomertitic properties of the isolated mucilage are also discussed in this study. Flame emission scanning electron microscope was used to study morphology and elemental analysis. Structure of the Psidium guajava mucilage was discussed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum. Results:Results of this study show that the used procedure is efficient to extract the mucilage from Psidium guajava fruit. The isolated mucilage is insoluble and pH sensitive, has got high swelling index and good flow properties. Conclusions:The fundamental characteristics of Psidium guajava mucilage have been established. The large particle size and high swellability, gel like appearance and pore in structure indicates that it has got wider applications in food and Pharmaceutical industry.

  13. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone were prepared. The prepared tablets were found to have better pharmacopoeial parameters with low standard deviation values. The swelling behavior and release rate characteristics were studied. The in-vitro dissolution study proved that the dried Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone in combination can be used as a matrix forming polymers for making controlled release matrix tablets.

  14. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods.

  15. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  16. Morphological, physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan a wild Indian plant. This mucilage can be commercially exploited, by evaluating physico-chemical properties of this mucilage. Materials and Methods: Various physico-chemical parameter using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, molecular weight, X-ray diffraction (XRD spectrometry, zeta potential (ZP, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and 1D ( 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR have been employed to characterize mucilage in the present study. Results: SEM analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. Thermogravimetry analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability with two stage decomposition. The weight-average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 4883, by gel permeation chromatography. The XRD pattern of the mucilage indicated a completely amorphous structure. The ZP was obtained 1.56 and −9.49 mV in water and 0.1 N NaCl respectively. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3459/cm (-OH, 1667/cm (Alkenyl C-H and C = C stretch, 1407/cm (-COO- and 1321/cm (-CH 3 CO. Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR indicated the presence of rhamnose, arabinose and fructose. Conclusion: The spectral and chromatography analysis of mucilage indicate that the mucilage is composed of basic sugar moiety such as (arabinose, rhamnose, fructose and mannose as complex carbohydrates.

  17. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  18. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  19. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  20. Rheological and physical properties of spray-dried mucilage obtained from Hylocereus undatus cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, E E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez Lagunas, L L; Medina-Torres, L

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the rheological behavior of reconstituted spray-dried mucilage isolated from the cladodes of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus), the effects of concentration and its relationship with physical properties were analyzed in reconstituted solutions. Drying process optimization was carried out through the surface response method, utilizing a factorial 2(3) design with three central points, in order to evaluate yield and rheological properties. The reconstituted mucilage exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, which adequately fit the Cross model (R(2)>0.95). This dynamic response suggests a random coil configuration. The steady-shear viscosity and dynamic response are suitably correlated through the Cox-Merz rule, confirming the mucilage's stability of flow. Analysis of the physical properties of the mucilage (Tg, DTP, and particle morphology) explains the shear-thinning behavior.

  1. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S S; Katare, Y S; Shyale, S S; Bhujbal, S S; Kadam, S D; Landge, D A; Shah, D V; Pawar, J B

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  2. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  3. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics.......5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Psupplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected...... with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity advance online...

  4. Mucilage extraction and substrates in the seedling development of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sfeir Aguiar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to evaluate different methods of mucilage extraction and substrates on passion fruit seedling emergence and development , in a mist chamber. Five methods of mucilage extraction were used: water, water + sand, water + virgin whitewash; blender with protected blades and fermentation in water, and three different types of substrates: rice hull, vermiculite and coconut fiber. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 5 x 3 scheme (5 extraction methods of seed mucilage and 3 substrates being each parcel composed of 25 seeds. The parameters evaluated were: seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf number, stem length, longest root length, weight of dry matter of roots and shoots. Water and fermentation in water are the best method for mucilage extraction and rice hull and coconut fiber are the best substrate for passionfruit seedling emergence and development.

  5. Slippery when sticky: Lubricating properties of thin films of Taxus baccata aril mucilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Sankaranarayanan, Rishikesan; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2016-01-01

    Mucilage is hydrogel produced from succulent plants and microorganisms displaying unique adhesiveness and slipperiness simultaneously. The objective of this study is to establish an understanding on the lubricating mechanisms of the mucilage from Taxus baccata aril as thin, viscous lubricant films.......e., increasing normal force with increasing shear rate, and thus it contributes to deplete the lubricant from tribological interfaces. Lubrication studies with a number of tribopairs with varying mechanical properties and surface wettability have shown that the lubricity of T. baccata mucilage is most...... effectively manifested at soft, hydrophilic, and rolling tribological contacts. Based on tenacious spreading on highly wettingsurfaces, slip plane can be formed within mucilage hydrogel network even when the lubricating films cannot completely separate the opposing surfaces. Moreover, highly stretchable...

  6. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  7. Concrete Durability Properties and Microstructural Analysis of Cement Pastes with Nopal Cactus Mucilage as a Natural Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Arellanes, S.; Cano-Barrita, P. F. de J.; Julián-Caballero, F.; Gómez-Yañez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the addition of a 3% nopal cactus mucilage solution to cement pastes, in its effects on setting times, flow, hydration, and microstructure, as well as on capillary water absorption and chloride diffusion in concrete. Hydration was characterized through XRD and microstructure was characterized with SEM. The mucilage solution/cement and water/cement ratios tested were 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60. The results in cement pastes indicate that the addition of mucilage increases ...

  8. Application of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum plant as biosorption medium in the removal of selected heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bassey O; John, Odiyo O; Luke, Chimuka; Ochieng, Aoyi; Bassey, Bridget J

    2016-07-15

    The ability of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum (DE) plant to act as biosorption medium in the removal of metals ions from aqueous solution was investigated. Functional groups present in the mucilage were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mucilage was modified with sodium and potassium chlorides. This was aimed at assessing the biosorption efficiency of modified mucilage: potassium mucilage (PCE) and sodium mucilage (SCE) and comparing it with non-modified deionised water mucilage (DCE) in the uptake of metal ions. FTIR results showed that the functional groups providing the active sites in PCE and SCE and DCE include: carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The chloride used in the modification of the mucilage did not introduce new functional groups but increased the intensity of the already existing functional groups in the mucilage. Results from biosorption experiment showed that DE mucilage displays good binding affinity with metals ions [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II), Cr(III) and Fe(II)] in the aqueous solution. Increase in the aqueous solution pH, metal ions initial concentration and mucilage concentration increased the biosorption efficiency of DE mucilage. The maximum contact time varied with each species of metal ions. Optimum pH for [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II) and Fe(II)] occurred at pH 4 and pH 6 for Cr(III). Kinetic models result fitted well to pseudo-second-order with a coefficient values of R(2) = 1 for Cd(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), Fe(II) and R(2) = 0.9974 for Zn(II). Biosorption isotherms conforms best with Freundlich model for all the metal ions with correlation factors of 0.9994, 0.9987, 0.9554, 0.9621 and 0.937 for Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Cr(III) and Cd(II), respectively. Biosorption capacity of DE mucilage was 0.010, 2.387, 4.902, 0688 and 0.125 for Zn(II), Cr(III), Fe(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) respectively. The modified mucilage was found to be highly efficient in the removal of metal ions than the unmodified mucilage.

  9. Wound healing properties and mucilage content of Pereskia aculeata from different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eber Goulart Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic growth parameters Wound healing Pereskia aculeata Mill., Cactaceae, is a cactus with high mucilage production, well-known for its nutritional properties. Folk use consists on skin injuries, and mucilage is probably involved in the wound healing activity. This work studied some aspects of its cultivation, specifically regarding soil (substrate, to correlate the effects of nutritional content to mucilage production and to the wound-healing property. Plants were grown under five different soil treatment (sand, crude soil, sand and soil, sand and cattle manure, soil and cattle manure, and after eight months extracts were prepared by turbo-extraction to obtain a crude hydroethanolic extract. We evaluated the effects of these extracts on swelling index, cytotoxicity, and in vitro wound healing property. The results show that the substrate used in cultivation may interfere with mucilage production, but not with cytotoxicity and wound healing, this shows the safety of its use, despite the soil treatment received along the various biomes where P. aculeata is cultivated. Furthermore, morphological studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of the mucilage-containing extract on the fibroblast cell culture, corroborating its folk use for wound healing.

  10. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  11. Immobilization of aluminum with mucilage secreted by root cap and root border cells is related to aluminum resistance in Glycine max L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Miaozhen; Wang, Ning; Xing, Chenghua; Wang, Fangmei; Wu, Kun; Du, Xing

    2013-12-01

    The root cap and root border cells (RBCs) of most plant species produced pectinaceous mucilage, which can bind metal cations. In order to evaluate the potential role of root mucilage on aluminum (Al) resistance, two soybean cultivars differing in Al resistance were aeroponic cultured, the effects of Al on root mucilage secretion, root growth, contents of mucilage-bound Al and root tip Al, and the capability of mucilage to bind Al were investigated. Increasing Al concentration and exposure time significantly enhanced mucilage excretion from both root caps and RBCs, decreased RBCs viability and relative root elongation except roots exposed to 400 μM Al for 48 h in Al-resistant cultivar. Removal of root mucilage from root tips resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation. Of the total Al accumulated in root, mucilage accounted 48-72 and 12-27 %, while root tip accounted 22-52 and 73-88 % in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive cultivars, respectively. A (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the Al-adsorbed mucilage showed Al tightly bound to mucilage. Higher capacity to exclude Al in Al-resistant soybean cultivar is related to the immobilization and detoxification of Al by the mucilage secreted from root cap and RBCs.

  12. Using of mucilage palm oil in the toilet soap production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage palm oil (M.P.O. was obtained from physical refining step for crude palm oil. The components of M.P.O. were high content of free fatty acids (82.2% with simple amount of neutral oil (11.9%, while the residual content (unsaponifiable matter and impurities was 2.1% and in addition to 3.8% water. The results indicated that the colours of M.P.O., tallow and palm kemel oil improved after bleaching. Eight soap samples (n.os 1-8 were prepared from bleached fatty blends of mucilage palm oil, tallow and palm kernel oil at different ratios. The results showed that the moisture contents of soap samples n.os 2,7 and 8 were high compared with the standard soap (sample n.os 1, subsequently their total fatty matters became lower than that found in the control soap (sample n.os 1. The findings marked that the unsaponifiable matter of soaps nos 2,7 and 8 were higher compared with the other soaps. No high differences were observed in the free alkali of all soaps (range from 0.06 to 0.09%. On the other hand, high differences were found in the free oil of all soap samples (n.os2-8 compared with the standard soap (sample nos 1, except soap samples n.os2,7 and 8, which record very high. The best soap samples in the colour were in the following increasing order: n.os1 > 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 > 7 > 8 > 2, respectively. The results showed that the better soap samples in the physical properties were in the following increasing order: soap nos 3> soap nos 4> soap n.os 5> soap n.os 6 compared with the standard soap (sample nos 1, where from firm structure with high foam, while the other soap samples (n.os 2,7 and 8 were poor quality (i.e., low lathering properties with deep colours. Therefore, it could be concluded that mucilage palm oil can be used as a new fatty material for toilet soap manufacturing at

  13. The mucilage secreting hairs on the young fronds of some Leptosporangiate Ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennipman, E.

    1968-01-01

    During a collecting trip to Thailand, as a member of the Thai-Dutch botanical expedition 1965/1966, I was struck by the excessive amount of mucilage sometimes present on the circinnate fronds of several leptosporangiate ferns. This was especially evident in representatives of the monotypic fern fami

  14. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  15. Influence of Mucilage Viscosity On The Globule Structure And Stability Of Certain Starch Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhumwangho MU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the influence of mucilage viscosity on the globule structure (i.e. size and number of certain starch emulsions. The starches investigated were cassava, potato and maize. The emulsions were prepared by mixing the starch mucilage of a predetermined concentration 4%w/v with arachis oil in the ratio 50:50, using a silverson mixer fitted with a dispersator head. The emulsions were stored at room temperature (28±20C for 7 days. Changes in globule size were monitored by photomicroscopy. Viscosities of the mucilage and those of resulting emulsions were determined using a capillary flow method. The viscosities of the emulsions expressed as time of flow (seconds, were 680 (cassava starch, 369 (potato starch and 270 (Maize starch, and for the mucilage 510 (cassava, 336 (potato and 248 (maize. The corresponding mean globule sizes of the fresh emulsions were (µm 28±6, 42±6 and 45±5 respectively. The increase in globule size during storage (measure of globule coalescence rate was 1.8±0.2µm day -1 (cassava, 3.5±0.2µm day -1 (potato and 4.6±0.3µm day -1 (maize. Thus, a higher viscosity of the dispersion medium is associated with the production of finer and more stable emulsions.

  16. Removing heavy metals in water: the interaction of cactus mucilage and arsenate (As (V)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dawn I; Pichler, Thomas; Yeh, Daniel H; Alcantar, Norma A

    2012-04-17

    High concentrations of arsenic in groundwater continue to present health threats to millions of consumers worldwide. Particularly, affected communities in the developing world need accessible technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water. We explore the application of cactus mucilage, pectic polysaccharide extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica for arsenic removal. Synthetic arsenate (As (V)) solutions were treated with two extracts, a gelling extract (GE) and a nongelling extract (NE) in batch trials. The arsenic concentration at the air-water interface was measured after equilibration. The GE and NE treated solutions showed on average 14% and 9% increases in arsenic concentration at the air-water interface respectively indicating that the mucilage bonded and transported the arsenic to the air-water interface. FTIR studies showed that the -CO groups (carboxyl and carbonyl groups) and -OH (hydroxyl) functional groups of the mucilage were involved in the interaction with the arsenate. Mucilage activity was greater in weakly basic (pH 9) and weakly acidic (pH 5.5) pH. This interaction can be optimized and harnessed for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. This work breaks the ground for the application of natural pectic materials to the removal of anionic metallic species from water.

  17. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  18. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus- indica mucilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Vázquez-Ramírez; Marisela Olguín-Martínez; Carlos Kubli-Garfias; Rolando Hernández-Mu(n)oz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats.METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined.Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included.RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect.The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes.CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids,mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  19. A gradient of endogenous calcium forms in mucilage of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Agar blocks that contacted the upper sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays contain significantly less calcium (Ca) than blocks that contacted the lower sides of such roots. This gravity-induced gradient of Ca forms prior to the onset of gravicurvature, and does not form across tips of vertically-oriented roots or roots of agravitropic mutants. These results indicate that (1) Ca can be collected from mucilage of graviresponding roots, (2) gravity induces a downward movement of endogenous Ca in mucilage overlying the root tip, (3) this gravity-induced gradient of Ca does not form across tips of agravitropic roots, and (4) formation of a Ca gradient is not a consequence of gravicurvature. These results are consistent with gravity-induced movement of Ca being a trigger for subsequent redistribution of growth effectors (e.g. auxin) that induce differential growth and gravicurvature.

  20. Dissecting the Genetic Basis for Seed Coat Mucilage Heteroxylan Biosynthesis in Plantago ovata Using Gamma Irradiation and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew R.; Ma, Chao; Phan, Jana; Neumann, Kylie; Shirley, Neil J.; Hahn, Michael G.; Cozzolino, Daniel; Burton, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    Seeds from the myxospermous species Plantago ovata release a polysaccharide-rich mucilage upon contact with water. This seed coat derived mucilage is composed predominantly of heteroxylan (HX) and is utilized as a gluten-free dietary fiber supplement to promote human colorectal health. In this study, a gamma-irradiated P. ovata population was generated and screened using histological stains and Fourier Transform Mid Infrared (FTMIR) spectroscopy to identify putative mutants showing defects in seed coat mucilage HX composition and/or structure. FTMIR analysis of dry seed revealed variation in regions of the IR spectra previously linked to xylan structure in Secale cereale (rye). Subsequent absorbance ratio and PCA multivariate analysis identified 22 putative mutant families with differences in the HX IR fingerprint region. Many of these showed distinct changes in the amount and subtle changes in structure of HX after mucilage extrusion, while 20% of the putative HX mutants identified by FTMIR showed no difference in staining patterns of extruded mucilage compared to wild-type. Transcriptional screening analysis of two putative reduced xylan in mucilage (rxm) mutants, rxm1 and rxm3, revealed that changes in HX levels in rxm1 correlate with reduced transcription of known and novel genes associated with xylan synthesis, possibly indicative of specific co-regulatory units within the xylan biosynthetic pathway. These results confirm that FTMIR is a suitable method for identifying putative mutants with altered mucilage HX composition in P. ovata, and therefore forms a resource to identify novel genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. PMID:28377777

  1. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  2. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise....... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  3. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride using processed Aloe vera mucilage as release modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural gums and mucilage which hydrates and swells on contact with aqueous media are used as additives in the formulation of hydrophilic drug delivery system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop a new monolithic matrix system for complete delivery of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (HCl, in a zero-order manner over an extended time period using processed Aloe vera gel mucilage (PAG as a release modifier. Materials and Methods: The matrices were prepared by dry blending of selected ratios of polymer and ingredients using direct compression technique. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of A. vera were studied. Various formulations of pioglitazone HCl and A. vera mucilage were prepared using different drug: Polymer ratios viz., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 for PAG by direct compression technique. Results: The formulated matrix tablets were found to have better uniformity of weight and drug content with low statistical deviation. The swelling behavior and in vitro release rate characteristics were also studied. Conclusion: The study proved that the dried A. vera mucilage can be used as a matrix forming material for controlled release of Pioglitazone HCl matrix tablets.

  5. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health.

  6. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  7. Simultaneous decay of contact-angle and surface-tension during the rehydration of air-dried root mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arye, Gilboa; Chen, Fengxian

    2016-04-01

    Plants can extract or exude water and solutes at their root surface. Among the root exudates, the mucilage exhibits a surfactant like properties - depressing the surface-tension (ST, mN/m) at the water-air interface. The amphipathic nature of some of the mucilage molecules (e.g. lipids) is thought to be the reason for its surfactant like behavior. As the rhizosphere dries out, re-orientation and/or re-configuration of amphipathic molecules at the solid-air interface, may impart hydrophobic nature to the rhizosphere. Our current knowledge on the ST of natural and/or model root mucilage is based on measurements of the equilibrium ST. However, adsorption of amphipathic molecules at the water-air interface is not reached instantaneously. The hydrophobic nature of the rhizosphere was deduced from the initial advancing CA, commonly calculated from the first few milliseconds up to few seconds (depending on the method employed). We hypothesized that during the rehydration of the root mucilage; both quantities are dynamic. Processes such as water absorbance and dissolution, may vary the interfacial tensions as a function of time. Consequently, simultaneous reduction of both CA and ST as a function of time can be expected. The main objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the extent, persistency and dynamic of the CA and ST during rehydration of air-dried root mucilage. The study was involved with measurements of dynamic and equilibrium ST using the pedant drop or Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. Glass slides were coated with naturally occurring or model root mucilage and the CA of a sessile drop was measured optically, as a function of time. The results were analyzed based on the Young-Dupré and Young-Laplace equations, from which the simultaneous decay of CA and ST was deduced. The implication for the wettability and water flow in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  8. Muscle as a secretory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.

  9. Effect of lipid/polysaccharide ratio on surface activity of model root mucilage in its solid and liquid states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengxian; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere can be defined as the volume of soil around living roots, which is influenced by root activity. The biological, chemical and physical conditions that prevail in the rhizosphere are significantly different from those of the bulk soil. Plant roots can release diverse organic materials in the rhizosphere which may have different effects on its bio-chemo-physical activity. Among these exudates is the root mucilage which can play a role on the maintenance of root-soil contact, lubrication of the root tip, protection of roots from desiccation and disease, stabilization of soil micro-aggregates and the selective absorption and storage of ions. The surface activity of the root mucilage at the liquid-air interface deduced from its surface tension depression relative to water, implying on its amphiphilic nature. Consequently as the rhizosphere dry out, hydrophobic functional groups may exhibit orientation at the solid-air interface and thus, the wettability of the rhizosphere may temporarily decrease. The major fraction of the root mucilage comprise of polysaccharides and to a much lesser extent, amino acids, organic acids, and phospholipids. The most frequent polysaccharide and phospholipids detected in root mucilage are polygalacturonic acid (PGA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. The latter, is thought to be main cause for the surface active nature of root mucilage. Nevertheless, the role and function of root mucilage in the rhizosphere is commonly studied based on model root mucilage that comprise of only one component, where the most frequent ones are PGA or PC (or lecithin). The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of concentration and PGA/PC ratios on the wettability of a model rhizosphere soil and the surface tension of the model root mucilage at the liquid-air interface. The PGA/PC mixtures were measured for their equilibrium and dynamic surface tension using the Wilhelmy-Plate method. Quartz sand or glass slides were

  10. Wound healing potential of Althaea ofifcinalis lfower mucilage in rabbit full thickness wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robab Valizadeh; Ali Asghar Hemmati; Gholamreza Houshmand; Sara Bayat; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and practically demonstrate the influence of Althaea ofifcinalis flower mucilage as a plant known in Iran’s and other Middle Eastern countries’ traditional medicine for its wound healing properties. Methods:Animals were divided into 6 groups of 5 cases including a non-treated group as the negative control group receiving no treatment, a group treated with eucerin as the positive control group, a phenytoin 1%group as a standard group treated topically with phenytoin 1%hand-made ointment, and treatment groups treated with hand-made Althaea ofifcinalis flower mucilage (AFM) ointment in a eucerin base with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%). Results:Among the treatment groups, the AFM 15%ointment showed the best result. Wound healing duration was reduced by the surface application of these groups. Wound closure was completed on Days 14 and 15 in the AFM 15% ointment and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in healing period between these groups. Conclusions:In conclusion, AFM 15%ointment was found to reduce wound healing time without any significant difference with the phenytoin 1% ointment. The authors suggest increased AFM effectiveness in when combined with phenytoin or other effectual plants.

  11. Wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis flower mucilage in rabbit full thickness wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robab; Valizadeh; Ali; Asghar; Hemmati; Gholamreza; Houshmand; Sara; Bayat; Mohammad; Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and practically demonstrate the in fluence of Althaea officinalis flower mucilage as a plant known in Iran’s and other Middle Eastern countries’ traditional medicine for its wound healing properties.Methods: Animals were divided into 6 groups of 5 cases including a non-treated group as the negative control group receiving no treatment, a group treated with eucerin as the positive control group, a phenytoin 1% group as a standard group treated topically with phenytoin 1% hand-made ointment, and treatment groups treated with hand-made Althaea officinalis flower mucilage(AFM) ointment in a eucerin base with different concentrations(5%, 10%, 15%).Results: Among the treatment groups, the AFM 15% ointment showed the best result.Wound healing duration was reduced by the surface application of these groups. Wound closure was completed on Days 14 and 15 in the AFM 15% ointment and phenytoin 1%groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in healing period between these groups.Conclusions: In conclusion, AFM 15% ointment was found to reduce wound healing time without any significant difference with the phenytoin 1% ointment. The authors suggest increased AFM effectiveness in when combined with phenytoin or other effectual plants.

  12. Variability of total flavonoid and mucilage content of wild growing chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosztola, Beáta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During our investigation 50 wild growing chamomile populations’ active substance content, among them total flavonoid content and swelling index referring to mucilage content were examined in 2009 in the main chamomile collection areas of Hungary. Swelling index was determined according to the general and specified descriptions of Althaeae folium monograph of European Pharmacopoeia, while total flavonoid content was measured by the method described in the monograph of Crataegi folium cum flore. The 50 Hungarian wild growing chamomile populations proved to be very heterogeneous in terms of the examined features. The swelling index of their flower drug samples changed between 15.8 and 80.8 and their total flavonoid content varied from 0.94 to 2.28 %. Significant correlation was also found between meteorological conditions and evaluated characteristics: there was medium strong positive correlation between spring total heat unit (sum of daily 10 °C higher average temperatures of the period lasted from 1st of March, 2009 until the day before flower collection as well as total heat unit of 10 days before harvest and swelling index (r = 0.50-0.56, furthermore medium strong negative connection could be seen between total heat units and total flavonoid content (r = -0.60-0.65. Based on these findings it can be ascertained that raising temperature affects the mucilage accumulation positively, however, it has a negative effect on the amount of flavonoids.

  13. Supercritical CO2 generation of nanometric structure from Ocimum basilicum mucilage prepared for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Iman; Ghoreishi, Seyyed M; Habibi, Neda

    2015-04-01

    Plant-derived polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their emollient, lack of toxicity, and irritating nature and low cost. In this work, basil seed mucilage was dried using supercritical carbon dioxide phase inversion technique to form a nanometric structure. The obtained polymeric structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and compared with the oven-derived sample group. It was demonstrated that the product morphology could be controlled by altering the composition of methanol which functioned as the co-solvent in the nonsolvent stream. The most homogeneous product (60-nm mean pore size diameter, 78 m(2)/g BET surface area with no agglomeration) was obtained with 2.5% methanol. The FTIR data showed that the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups suggested the bioadhesive property of basil seed mucilage was good and many active pharmaceutical compounds might be loaded to the resultant nanometric structure to enhance drug release. Furthermore, the FTIR analyses indicated that the nature of the final product did not change during the supercritical drying procedure.

  14. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly (P Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  15. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCILAGE FROM LEAVES OF Pereskia bleo (ROSE CACTUS [Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Getah Daun Kaktus Mawar (Pereskia bleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hayati Ibrahim*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (rose cactus is a type of tropical herbs which has long been used for its medicinal benefits among Malays and is also known to contain complex polysaccharide called mucilage. In this study, mucilage from leaves of rose cactus was extracted by using distilled water or 0.14 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution at three different temperatures (i.e. 50°C, 70°C or 90°C. There was a significant (p<0.05 interaction effect between type of medium used and temperature on yield of mucilage. Extraction using 0.14 M NaOH solution at 70°C provided the highest yield (2.55% of mucilage as compared to other extraction conditions. The mucilage extracted with 0.14 M NaOH solution at 70°C was further characterized in terms of physicochemical properties and compared with arabic gum. The crude protein, moisture and ash content of the mucilage were 4.81%, 13.59% and 28.67% respectively. It possessed appreciable amount of elements such as calcium (48.96 mg/g sample, and potassium (15.58 mg/g sample. The pH value of the mucilage was 10.89 (alkaline and it exhibited a clear thixotropic flow behavior with acceptable emulsion capacity (7.08% and stability (7.31% at 1% concentration. The colour of the mucilage and water holding capacity (WHC was L*= 68.81, and 461.87 % respectively. These findings suggest that rose cactus mucilage could be an interesting functional food ingredient as it originated from a well-known medicinal plant though further study should be done in order to fully understand its potential as one of alternative food hydrocolloids.

  16. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2015-05-05

    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C.

  17. Concrete Durability Properties and Microstructural Analysis of Cement Pastes with Nopal Cactus Mucilage as a Natural Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Arellanes, S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the addition of a 3% nopal cactus mucilage solution to cement pastes, in its effects on setting times, flow, hydration, and microstructure, as well as on capillary water absorption and chloride diffusion in concrete. Hydration was characterized through XRD and microstructure was characterized with SEM. The mucilage solution/cement and water/cement ratios tested were 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60. The results in cement pastes indicate that the addition of mucilage increases setting times, reduces flow, slows cement hydration, and inhibits the formation of calcium hydroxide crystals in comparison with the control. Capillary absorption was significantly reduced in concrete containing mucilage, and chloride diffusion coefficients dropped up to 20% in the mixture with a mucilage/cement ratio = 0.30. The mixture with a mucilage/cement ratio = 0.45 displayed marginal reduction, and the mixture with mucilage/cement ratio = 0.60 exhibited a diffusion coefficient that was greater than the control for the specimens without moist curing.En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de una solución de mucílago de nopal al 3% en los tiempos de fraguado, fluidez, hidratación y microestructura de pastas de cemento, y absorción capilar de agua y difusión de cloruros en concreto. La hidratación fue caracterizada por XRD y la microestructura por medio de SEM. Las relaciones solución de mucílago/cemento y agua/cemento fueron 0,30; 0,45 y 0,60. Los resultados en las pastas de cemento indican que el mucílago retarda los tiempos de fraguado, reduce la fluidez, retarda la hidratación del cemento, e inhibe la formación de cristales de hidróxido de calcio, comparados con los controles. La absorción capilar en concreto conteniendo mucílago se redujo significativamente y los coeficientes de difusión de cloruros disminuyeron hasta 20% en la mezcla mucílago/cemento = 0.30. En la relación mucílago/cemento = 0.45 la reducción fue marginal y

  18. Formulation Development and Characterization of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinesis Dry Leaves Mucilage as Smart Polymer for Pharmaceutical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Lakshmanan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The present investigation was to extract the Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis dry leaves mucilage and prove to be a smart polymer in pharmaceutical formulations. Firstly to formulate and optimize controlled-release floating tablets of Nizatidine (NF1-NF5 using HPMC K 100M and Hibiscus dry leaves mucilage (5-10% along with gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate by direct compression technique. Results revealed that increase the mucilage concentration decrease the release of drug from floating tablets. The NF1 formulation, NF2, NF3 and NF4, and NF5 showed fickian type (n - 0.36, anomalous/non-fickian type (n - 0.5-1.0 and super case II transport mechanism ("n" - 1.449 respectively and secondly to formulate Mesalamine core tablets using Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis dry leaves mucilage (5-20% and to be coated with Eudragit L 100 mixture by dip coating technique (MFI-MFIV to target the drug release in colon. Release study showed that the MFI and MFII showed first order release (“n” - 0.45, MFIII showed matrix model with the “n” value of 0.5 (fickian diffusion, and MFIV showed peppas model (n - <0.6 respectively. It was concluded that the mucilage plays well in both the acidic and alkaline environment of the GI tract, controlled drug release with floating and colon targeting to solve the issues of those particular targets.Industrial relevance. In certain drug like Nizatidine, the therapeutic efficacy is improved if the gastric residence time of the dosage form is increased at the absorption site and if the drug is highly soluble in aqueous environment, it is necessary to reduce/controls the drug release from the formulations. Hibiscus-Rosa Sinesis leaf mucilage exhibit excellent retarding effect on drug release from the floating tablets. Colon targeted tablets manufactured with conventional excipients, upon reaching the colon, the tablet bursts as it comes in contact with water causing dose dumping that can pose a significant risk to patients

  19. Ultrasonic Removal of Mucilage for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Omega-3 Rich Oil from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2017-03-29

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.

  20. Hydrated mucilage reduces post-dispersal seed removal of a sand desert shrub by ants in a semiarid ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Li, Leilei; He, Hongju; Huang, Zhenying

    2013-12-01

    Post-dispersal seed removal by animals can lead to extensive seed loss and thus is an important factor in structuring plant communities. However, we know much less about post-dispersal seed predation than about other forms of herbivory. Mucilage plays many ecological roles in adaptation of plants to diverse environments; nevertheless, until now the role of mucilage in ant-mediated seed movement remains largely hypothetical. We studied the role of mucilage in seed removal of Artemisia sphaerocephala by ants in Mu Us Sandland in Inner Mongolia, China. Messor aciculatus was the most active seed predator of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Time to first ant collecting (T 1st) of wet intact seeds was longest and significantly different from that for dry intact seeds, wet demucilaged seeds, and dry demucilaged seeds; number of seeds removed to ant nests was lowest for wet intact seeds. After they were collected by ants, 5 % of wet intact seeds were dropped during transport. Our results indicate that seed mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala may play a significant role in post-dispersal seed removal by (1) making seeds less attractive to ants, thus resulting in a delay of collection time; (2) forming a strong bond to soil particles, making it difficult for ants to remove seeds; and (3) making seeds more likely to be dropped during transport, thereby allowing them to escape from predation even after collection by ants. This study demonstrates the importance of mucilage in reducing seed removal by ants and thus in anchoring seeds of desert plants in the vicinity of mother plants.

  1. Autoradiographic studies on mucilage synthesis in Chara vulgaris antheridium with the use of {sup 3}H-fucose in total darkness and light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosek, A. [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Autoradiographic studies with {sup 3}H-fucose have shown that this precursor of polysaccharide compounds is incorporated into manubria and antheridial mucilage of Chara vulgaris both in the light and in the darkness. The dynamic of this process is lower in total darkness. The decrease in overall labelling of antheridium (manubria an mucilage) reflects secondary metabolic changes both in proliferative phase and in spermiogenesis. The pulse (2 and 5 min) incubations with the isotope confirm the intensive mucilage translocation which at later developmental stages is more dynamic than at earlier ones. It can explain previously observed decrease in manubria radioactivity at later stages after long (40 min) incubation, because PAS-positive polysaccharide synthesis is simultaneous with their fast translocation to the antheridial space. The present and previous autoradiographic and cytophotometric data taken altogether confirm the assumption about a nutritive role of mucilage filling Chara antheridium during the process of spermatogenesis. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs.

  2. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCILAGE FROM LEAVES OF Pereskia bleo (ROSE CACTUS) [Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Getah Daun Kaktus Mawar (Pereskia bleo)

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Hayati Ibrahim*; Ng Tze Hong

    2012-01-01

    Pereskia bleo (rose cactus) is a type of tropical herbs which has long been used for its medicinal benefits among Malays and is also known to contain complex polysaccharide called mucilage. In this study, mucilage from leaves of rose cactus was extracted by using distilled water or 0.14 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at three different temperatures (i.e. 50°C, 70°C or 90°C). There was a significant (p

  3. Collection of gravitropic effectors from mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondren, W. M.; Moore, R.

    1987-01-01

    We placed agar blocks adjacent to tips of electrotropically stimulated primary roots of Zea mays. Blocks placed adjacent to the anode-side of the roots for 3 h induced significant curvature when subsequently placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Curvature was always toward the side of the root unto which the agar block was placed. Agar blocks not contacting roots and blocks placed adjacent to the cathode-side of electrotropically stimulated roots did not induce significant curvature when placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated that blocks adjacent to the anode-side of electrotropically-stimulated roots contained significantly more calcium than (1) blocks not contacting roots, and (2) blocks contacting the cathode-side of roots. These results demonstrate the presence of a gradient of endogenous Ca in mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots (i.e. roots undergoing gravitropic-like curvature).

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS BASED ON POLYELECTROLYTE COMPLEX BETWEEN OKRA MUCILAGE AND CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rajendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years there has been greater utilization of natural polymers in the development of delivery systems. The present work is an effort towards development of matrix tablets using polyelectrolyte complex formed between the oppositely charged natural polymers like okra mucilage obtained from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus and chitosan. The effect of pH and polymer volume ratio on yield of polyelectrolyte complex was studied. It was observed that the yield was maximum (96.45% at pH 5 and at polymer volume ratio of 9:1 between okra mucilage and chitosan. The prepared polyelectrolyte complex was also characterised by conductimetry, FTIR, DSC. The results confirmed the formation of polyelectrolyte complex between the natural polymers. The matrix tablets were formulated for model drug diclofenac sodium using the best polyelectrolyte complex at different drug to polymer ratios and compared with formulations containing individual polymers as well as marketed formulation. The prepared formulations showed satisfactory physical parameters. Formulations F2 and F3 extended the drug release for more than 8 h with (83.87± 0.8321% and (77.125± 0.125% drug release respectively in 8 h. The formulations F2 and F3 followed zero order kinetics with anomalous diffusion mechanism. The mean dissolution times were 3.6042 and 3.5935 hrs and the % dissolution efficiency were 54.9467 and 55.7203 % for formulations F2 and F3 respectively. The similarity factor f2 for formulation F2 was 61.6751 and for formulation F3, it was found to be 60.5025.The formulations were found to be stable.

  5. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates.

  6. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA Mutants Implicate GAUT Genes in the Biosynthesis of Pectin and Xylan in Cell Walls and Seed Testa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kerry H. Caffall; Sivakumar Pattathil; Sarah E. Phillips; Michael G. Hahn; Debra Mohnen

    2009-01-01

    Galacturonosyltransferase 1 (GAUT1) is an α1,4-D-galacturonosyltransferase that transfers galacturonic acid from uridine 5'-diphosphogalacturonic acid onto the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan (Sterling et al., 2006). The 25-member Arabidopsis thaliana GAUT1-related gene family encodes 15 GAUT and 10 GAUT-like (GATL) proteins with, respectively, 56-84 and 42-53% amino acid sequence similarity to GAUT1. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AtGAUTs indicated three clades: A through C. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis, poplar and rice GAUT families has sub-classified the GAUTs into seven clades: clade A-1 (GAUTs 1 to 3); A-2 (GAUT4); A-3 (GAUTs 5 and 6); A-4 (GAUT7); B-1(GAUTs 8 and 9); B-2 (GAUTs 10 and 11); and clade C (GAUTs 12 to 15). The Arabidopsis GAUTs have a distribution com-parable to the poplar orthologs, with the exception of GAUT2, which is absent in poplar. Rice, however, has no orthologs of GAUTs 2 and 12 and has multiple apparent orthologs of GAUTs 1, 4, and 7 compared with eitherArabidopsis or poplar. The cell wall glycosyl residue compositions of 26 homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for 13 of 15 Arabidopsis GAUTgenes reveal significantly and reproducibly different cell walls in specific tissues of gaut mutants 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 from that of wild-type Arabidopsis walls. Pectin and xylan polysaccharides are affected by the loss of GAUT function, as dem-onstrated by the altered galacturonic acid, xylose, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose composition of distinct gaut mu-tant walls. The wall glycosyl residue compositional phenotypes observed among the gaut mutants suggest that at least six different biosynthetic linkages in pectins and/or xylans are affected by the lesions in these GAUTgenes. Evidence is also presented to support a role for GAUT11 in seed mucilage expansion and in seed wall and mucilage composition.

  8. SLAH3-type anion channel expressed in poplar secretory epithelia operates in calcium kinase CPK-autonomous manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaborsky, Mario; Maierhofer, Tobias; Olbrich, Andrea; Escalante-Pérez, María; Müller, Heike M; Simon, Judy; Krol, Elzbieta; Cuin, Tracey Ann; Fromm, Jörg; Ache, Peter; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    Extrafloral nectaries secrete a sweet sugar cocktail that lures predator insects for protection from foraging herbivores. Apart from sugars and amino acids, the nectar contains the anions chloride and nitrate. Recent studies with Populus have identified a type of nectary covered by apical bipolar epidermal cells, reminiscent of the secretory brush border epithelium in animals. Border epithelia operate transepithelial anion transport, which is required for membrane potential and/or osmotic adjustment of the secretory cells. In search of anion transporters expressed in extrafloral nectaries, we identified PttSLAH3 (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides SLAC1 Homologue3), an anion channel of the SLAC/SLAH family. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, PttSLAH3 displayed the features of a voltage-dependent anion channel, permeable to both nitrate and chloride. In contrast to the Arabidopsis SLAC/SLAH family members, the poplar isoform PttSLAH3 is independent of phosphorylation activation by protein kinases. To understand the basis for the autonomous activity of the poplar SLAH3, we generated and expressed chimera between kinase-independent PttSLAH3 and kinase-dependent Arabidopsis AtSLAH3. We identified the N-terminal tail and, to a lesser extent, the C-terminal tail as responsible for PttSLAH3 kinase-(in)dependent action. This feature of PttSLAH3 may provide the secretory cell with a channel probably controlling long-term nectar secretion.

  9. Edible film production from chia seed mucilage: Effect of glycerol concentration on its physicochemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Melina; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gomaa, Ahmed; Subirade, Muriel; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2015-10-05

    This study investigated the physicochemical and mechanical properties of a novel edible film based on chia mucilage (CM) hydrocolloid. CM (1% w/v) films were prepared by incorporation of three concentrations of glycerol (25%, 50%, and 75% w/w, based on CM weight). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB), and water solubility of CM films increased while their tensile strength (TS), and Young's modulus (YM) decreased significantly (pglycerol were slightly reddish and yellowish in color but still had a transparent appearance. CM films exhibited excellent absorption of ultraviolet light, and good thermal stability. The scanning electron micrographs showed that all CM films had a uniform appearance. This study demonstrated that the chia mucilage hydrocolloid has important properties and potential as an edible film, or coating.

  10. Dynamics of particulate organic matter in a coastal system characterized by the occurrence of marine mucilage - A stable isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénart, Camilla; Susperregui, Nicolas; Rouaud, Vanessa; Cavalheiro, Joana; David, Valérie; Del Amo, Yolanda; Duran, Robert; Lauga, Béatrice; Monperrus, Mathilde; Pigot, Thierry; Bichon, Sabrina; Charlier, Karine; Savoye, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    In coastal systems, particulate organic matter (POM) originates from various autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter sources. Also, some coastal systems are characterized by the occurrence of large amounts of mucilaginous material of biologic origin (i.e. phytoplankton, bacteria), which aggregates and potentially traps other organisms and particles present in the water column. This study focuses on POM origin and spatio-temporal dynamics in the South-East coast of the Bay of Biscay, an area subject to mucilage occurrence. In order to investigate POM quantitative and qualitative (C and N elemental and isotopic ratios) characteristics, sampling was performed over an annual cycle at two sites experiencing different mucilage occurrence and river influence. Contribution of phytoplankton, terrestrial POM and anthropogenic POM to coastal-POM composition was calculated using a three-sources mixing model. Overall, phytoplankton dominated the coastal-POM composition at all seasons, sites and most of the depths (71.6 ± 24.2%). Terrestrial-POM contribution was moderate (22.7 ± 21.8%) and anthropogenic-POM contribution was usually negligible (5.7 ± 7.4%). Both sites mainly exhibited similar vertical and temporal variations in terms of POM origin and dynamics: terrestrial-POM contribution increased with depth and was higher in winter at all depths and in autumn in bottom waters, compared to other seasons. The main differences between both sites were related to the vertical dynamics of the terrestrial contribution to the coastal POM. Horizontal, vertical and temporal variation of POM composition was linked to processes driving the sedimentary hydrodynamics: the river flow, the direction of the river plume and events of sediment resuspension/deposition. During the study period, the mucilage occurred only as flocs (small aggregates). The mucilage was of autochthonous origin and did not trap detectable amount of allochthonous material.

  11. Neuronal damage by secretory phospholipase A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils H; Bazan, Nicolas G;

    2003-01-01

    Activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is an early event in brain injury, which leads to the formation and accumulation of bioactive lipids: platelet-activating factor (PAF), free arachidonic acid, and eicosanoids. A cross-talk between secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) and cPLA(2) in neural...

  12. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  13. Protection of Human Colon Cells from Shiga Toxin by Plant-based Recombinant Secretory IgA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Katsuhiro; Morikane, Shota; Ichikawa, Shiori; Kurohane, Kohta; Niwa, Yasuo; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor of food-poisoning caused by Escherichia coli such as O157:H7. Secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A (SIgA) is supposed to prevent infection of the mucosal surface and is a candidate agent for oral immunotherapy. We previously established a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) consisting of variable regions from a mouse IgG mAb specific for the binding subunit of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and the Fc region of mouse IgA. Here we produced a secretory form of the recombinant IgA (S-hyIgA) with transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant. All the S-hyIgA cDNAs (heavy, light, J chain and secretory component) were expressed under the control of a bidirectional promoter of a chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of A. thaliana without using a viral promoter. The plant-based S-hyIgA exhibited antigen binding, and was modified with plant-specific N-linked sugar chains. The Ig heavy chain and secretory components were observed in an intracellular protein body-like structure of the transgenic leaves on immuno-electron microscopy. An extract of the transgenic leaves neutralized the cytotoxicity of Stx1 toward butyrate-treated Caco-2 cells, a human colon carcinoma cell line. These results will contribute to the development of edible therapeutic antibodies such as those for the treatment of mucosal infection. PMID:28368034

  14. Effect of pH on the viscosity of grewia mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stability and efficacy of liquid pharmaceutical preparations depend on the pH of the medium. Such liquid preparations may contain varied additives performing different functions. One of the qualities of oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations is appropriate viscosity for pumping and transfer during manufacture and dispensing to patients. Gums find use in such liquid preparations as thickening or suspending agents together with different additives that may influence the pH of the environment and hence the stability and quality of the preparation. Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pH on the viscosity of grewia gum obtained from Grewia mollis that is potential pharmaceutical excipient. Setting and Design: The study was based on experiments carried out in the laboratory setting and the conclusions were based on the observations made. Materials and Methods: Aqueous mucilage of grewia (2% w/v was prepared and the pH was determined at different shear rates on Brookfield cone and plate rheometer at 25°C. Adjustment of pH was facilitated by the addition of 0.25 N solution of either hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide before the readings were taken. Results: The viscosity of the mucilage was characteristically pseudoplastic and it depended on pH of the medium and storage time. The viscosity ratio generally decreased from 2.046 to 1.470 as the pH of the medium increased from acidic to basic (2.18 to 13.10. The dynamic yield value of the dispersion at pH 2.55 and 5.08 were, respectively, 10.5 and 45. The viscosity of grewia gum dispersion changed with change in pH of the medium anomalously. Conclusion: Changes in the viscosity of grewia gum dispersion were observed with change in the pH in an unrelated fashion. This suggests that the use of grewia gum together with other additives in oral liquid preparations should be done with discretion.

  15. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar.

  16. Physical, barrier and antioxidant properties of a novel plasticized edible film from quince seed mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as a new source for preparation of edible films and determined the physical, mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, microstructural and thermal properties. QSM films were prepared by incorporation of three levels of glycerol (25-50%, w/w). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (O2P), elongation at break (EB), water solubility and moisture content of QSM films increased while, tensile strength (TS), density and surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly. The measurement of color values showed that by the increasing of the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix, the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. Microscopic views indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without obvious cracks, breaks, or openings on the surfaces after the incorporation of glycerol as a plasticizer. The results of the present study suggest that QSM as a new antioxidant edible film with interesting specifications can potentially be used for packaging of a wide range of food products.

  17. Docking of Secretory Vesicles Is Syntaxin Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Heidi; Cornelisse, L. Niels; Toonen, Ruud F.G.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were observed in synapses, in line with previous observations. However, a drastic reduction in morphologically docked secretory vesicles was observed in chromaffin cells. Syntaxin-deficient chromaffin cells showed a small reduction in total and plasma membrane staining for the docking factor Munc18-1, which appears insufficient to explain the drastic reduction in docking. The sub-membrane cortical actin network was unaffected by syntaxin deletion. These observations expose a docking role for syntaxin in the neuroendocrine system. Additional layers of regulation may have evolved to make syntaxin redundant for docking in highly specialized systems like synaptic active zones. PMID:17205130

  18. Docking of secretory vesicles is syntaxin dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi de Wit

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were observed in synapses, in line with previous observations. However, a drastic reduction in morphologically docked secretory vesicles was observed in chromaffin cells. Syntaxin-deficient chromaffin cells showed a small reduction in total and plasma membrane staining for the docking factor Munc18-1, which appears insufficient to explain the drastic reduction in docking. The sub-membrane cortical actin network was unaffected by syntaxin deletion. These observations expose a docking role for syntaxin in the neuroendocrine system. Additional layers of regulation may have evolved to make syntaxin redundant for docking in highly specialized systems like synaptic active zones.

  19. Zymophagy: Selective Autophagy of Secretory Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Vaccaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing is everything. That's especially true when it comes to the activation of enzymes created by the pancreas to break down food. Pancreatic enzymes are packed in secretory granules as precursor molecules called zymogens. In physiological conditions, those zymogens are activated only when they reach the gut, where they get to work releasing and distributing nutrients that we need to survive. If this process fails and the enzymes are prematurely activated within the pancreatic cell, before they are released from the gland, they break down the pancreas itself causing acute pancreatitis. This is a painful disease that ranges from a mild and autolimited process to a severe and lethal condition. Recently, we demonstrated that the pancreatic acinar cell is able to switch on a refined mechanism that could explain the autolimited form of the disease. This is a novel selective form of autophagy named zymophagy, a cellular process to specifically detect and degrade secretory granules containing activated enzymes before they can digest the organ. In this work, we revise the molecules and mechanisms that mediate zymophagy, a selective autophagy of secretory granules.

  20. Structures, Components and Functions of Secretory Tissues in Houttuynia cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Lu Ni; Li Peng; Wen-Zhe Liu

    2007-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb., traditionally used as a therapeutic plant in folk medicine, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities.The species, as a core component of paleoherbs, is normally characterized based on the presence of different types of secretory tissue: oil cells, three types of secretory cells and glandular hairs.The aim of this work was to study the structural, componential, and the functional characteristics of the secretory tissues in both the floral and vegetative parts.The results indicate that oll cells and secretory cells are distributed in all organs of the plant, while glandular hairs are situated on the aerial stems and leaves.Both oil cells and glandular hairs initiate from the protoderm, but their developmental processes are different.Although three types of secretory cells initiate from different primary meristems, the developmental pattems of different secretory cells are the same.Also, although the origins of secretory cells are different from oil cells, their early developmental processes are the same.Histochemical results show that oil cells, secretory cells and glandular hairs produce flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, lipids, aldehyde and ketone-compounds.In addition, there are terpenoids and pectic-like substances in oil cells, alkaloids in secretory cells of aerial stems, and terpenoids and alkaloids in glandular hairs.These compounds play very important roles in protecting plants from being eaten by herbivores (herbivory) and infected by microbial pathogens.The oil cell and secretory cell, as unicellular secretory tissues, are intermediates between the primitive surface glandular and secretory cavity and canal during the evolution of secretory structures.

  1. Automatic Quantification of the Number of Intracellular Compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana Root Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayle, Vincent; Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Jaillais, Yvon

    2017-01-01

    In the era of quantitative biology, it is increasingly required to quantify confocal microscopy images. If possible, quantification should be performed in an automatic way, in order to avoid bias from the experimenter, to allow the quantification of a large number of samples, and to increase reproducibility between laboratories. In this protocol, we describe procedures for automatic counting of the number of intracellular compartments in Arabidopsis root cells, which can be used for example to study endocytosis or secretory trafficking pathways and to compare membrane organization between different genotypes or treatments. While developed for Arabidopsis roots, this method can be used on other tissues, cell types and plant species. PMID:28255574

  2. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, C G; Hugo, F N; Hilgert, J B; Nascimento, G G; Junges, R; Lim, H-J; Marucha, P T; Bosch, J A

    2016-02-01

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and their transporter molecule Secretory Component (SC). S-IgA/SC, IgA1/SC and IgA2/SC ratios were calculated to assess the differential effects of stress on immunoglobulin transport versus availability. This study involved 113 university students, in part selected on high scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale and/or the Beck Depression Inventory. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysed for total S-IgA and its subclasses, as well as SC and total salivary protein. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, health behaviours, and concentration effects (total protein) revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with lower levels of IgA1 but not IgA2. Perceived stress, loneliness and depressive symptoms were all associated with lower IgA1/SC ratios. Surprisingly, higher SC levels were associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, indicative of enhanced transport activity, which explained a lower IgA1/SC ratio (loneliness and depression) and IgA2/SC ratio (depression). This is the first study to investigate the effects of protracted psychological stress across S-IgA subclasses and its transporter SC. Psychological stress was negatively associated with secretory immunity, specifically IgA1. The lower immunoglobulin/transporter ratio that was associated with higher loneliness and depression suggested a relative immunoglobulin depletion, whereby availability was not keeping up with enhanced transport demand.

  3. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  4. Isolated root caps, border cells, and mucilage from host roots stimulate hyphal branching of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Gigaspora gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahashi, Gerald; Douds, David D

    2004-09-01

    Unlike previous reports that have shown that water soluble and volatile compounds from roots or root exudates play an important role in precolonization events during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus-host root interactions (Bécard & Piché 1989, Giovannetti et al. 1993), the results shown here deal with particulate and viscous fractions isolated from host roots. Root caps and a slow sedimenting particulate fraction (SSPF) were rapidly isolated and separated from Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots (D. carota) grown in liquid culture. In addition, border cells (BC) and mucilage were isolated from aseptically grown corn seedlings (Zea mays). Root caps, SSPF (composed mainly of small root cap fragments and some BCs), BCs, and mucilage all had an associated AM fungus hyphal branching stimulator. Root caps stored for 5 d at 4 degrees C appeared to either synthesize or slowly release the branching stimulator. Also, isolated root caps from roots grown in the absence of P contained more branch stimulating activity than those isolated from roots grown in the presence of P. Although the branching stimulation activity in particulate fractions was low compared to that of the exudate, the particulate fractions can stick to the root surface at considerable distances from the root tip. This may be significant during the infection and colonization of host roots at sites far removed from the primary location of exudation.

  5. Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mario Andrés; Rodríguez Susa, Manuel; Andres, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Coffee mucilage (CM), a novel substrate produced as waste from agricultural activity in Colombia, the largest fourth coffee producer in the world, was used for hydrogen production. The study evaluated three ratios (C1-3) for co-digestion of CM and swine manure (SM), and an increase in organic load to improve hydrogen production (C4). The hydrogen production was improved by a C/N ratio of 53.4 used in C2 and C4. The average hydrogen production rate in C4 was 7.6 NL H2/LCMd, which indicates a high hydrogen potential compare to substrates such as POME and wheat starch. In this condition, the biogas composition was 0.1%, 50.6% and 39.0% of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, respectively. The butyric and acetic fermentation pathways were the main routes identified during hydrogen production which kept a Bu/Ac ratio at around 1.0. A direct relationship between coffee mucilage, biogas and cumulative hydrogen volume was established.

  6. The achene mucilage hydrated in desert dew assists seed cells in maintaining DNA integrity: adaptive strategy of desert plant Artemisia sphaerocephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Yang

    Full Text Available Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats.

  7. Use of flax seed mucilage or its active component for increasing suppression of hunger, increasing reduction of prospective consumption, increasing reduction of appetite in a subject during or between meals or feedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and/or reducing non-fat energy uptake in the gastrointestinal tract...... intervention comprises mucilage such as flax seed mucilage and/or one or more active compounds of mucilage useful for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and...

  8. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....

  9. Quince seed mucilage magnetic nanocomposites as novel bioadsorbents for efficient removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sina

    2015-12-10

    This study investigated the potential use of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as alternative bioadsorbents for methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. This novel magnetic nanocomposite adsorbent (MNCA) based on QSM was synthesized by in situ formation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into QSM solution. The MNCAs were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD, and VSM. Removal of MB was investigated by batch adsorption technique. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that the dye adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Moreover, the adsorbents showed high selectivity for the adsorption of cationic dyes with regenerated properties. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models also provide the best correlation of the experimental data for MB adsorption. The results indicate that the MNCAs can be employed as efficient low cost adsorbents with excellent dye adsorption performance in wastewater treatment process.

  10. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites.

  11. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Guillermo; Nobel, Park S.

    1991-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20°C were shifted to 10/0°C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0°C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0°C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0°C compared with those at 30/20°C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation. PMID:16668536

  12. Electrospinning of Polymeric Solutions Using Opuntia ficus-indica Mucilage and Iron Oxide for Nanofiber Membranes for Treating Arsenic Contaminated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppili, Venkatesh

    Water is the essential part of every organism and it is also a vital constituent of healthy living and diet. Unfortunately water contamination over the past decade has increased dramatically leading to various diseases. As technology advances, we are detecting many pollutants at smaller levels of concentrations. Arsenic (As) is one of those major pollutants, and Arsenic poisoning is a condition caused due to excess levels of arsenic in the body. The main basis for Arsenic poisoning is from ground water which naturally contains high concentrations of arsenic. A case study from 2007 states that over 137 million people in 70 countries were affected by arsenic poisoning from drinking water [1]. This thesis work is motivated by this study and investigates the fabrication, characterization, and testing of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage nanofiber membranes formed using a mucilage, polystyrene (PS) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) solution by an electrospinning process. Cactus mucilage is a jelly-like substance, which is extracted from the cactus pad, and is an inexpensive, biodegradable and biocompatible material. It is also an abundant material available in nature. Polystyrene is a synthetic aromatic polymer prepared from monomer styrene. Polystyrene is further dissolved using D-Limonene as a solvent. D-Limonene is a non-toxic solvent and is a citrus extract of orange peelings. In an effort to enhance adsorption capacity for the mucilage nanofiber membranes, iron oxide nanopowder is incorporated into the polymeric solution. A mucilage and polystyrene-iron oxide solution is mixed in different ratios and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The fibers will be characterized by certain techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, viscosity and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fibers obtained from mucilage and PS-Fe2O 3 will be further tested under Atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for testing the removal of arsenic from water

  13. The secretory synapse: the secrets of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giovanna; Trambas, Christina; Booth, Sarah; Clark, Richard; Stinchcombe, Jane; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2002-11-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) destroy their targets by a process involving secretion of specialized granules. The interactions between CTLs and target can be very brief; nevertheless, adhesion and signaling proteins segregate into an immunological synapse. Secretion occurs in a specialized secretory domain. Use of live and fixed cell microscopy allows this secretory synapse to be visualized both temporally and spatially. The combined use of confocal and electron microscopy has produced some surprising findings, which suggest that the secretory synapse may be important both in delivering the lethal hit and in facilitating membrane transfer from target to CTL. Studies on the secretory synapse in wild-type and mutant CTLs have been used to identify proteins involved in secretion. Further clues as to the signals required for secretion are emerging from comparisons of inhibitory and activating synapses formed by natural killer cells.

  14. OKRA(HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS)AND FENUGREEK(TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRACEUM)MUCILAGE:CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION AS FLOCCULANTS FOR TEXTILE EFFLUENT TAEATMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Srinivasan; Anuradha Mishra

    2008-01-01

    The use of new food grade polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Hibiscus esculentus and Trigonella foenum graceum,commonly called Okra and Fenugreek,respectively,as flocculants was described.These polysaccharides were used for removal of solids (suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS)) and dyes from real textile effluents and aqueous solutions of different class of synthetic dyes.Influences of varying polysaccharide concentration,contact time and pH on removal of pollutant from the textile wastewater were investigated.Results showed that polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Okra and Fenugreek were capable of removing 90%-94% of SS,30%-44% of TDS and 30%-35% of dye using a very low concentration of polysaccharide.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of solid waste material obtained before and after the treatment with polysaccharides were used as a supportive evidence to explain the mechanism of flocculation.

  15. Progressive quality control of secretory proteins in the early secretory compartment by ERp44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Degano, Massimo; Fagioli, Claudio; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    ERp44 is a pH-regulated chaperone of the secretory pathway. In the acidic milieu of the Golgi, its C-terminal tail changes conformation, simultaneously exposing the substrate-binding site for cargo capture and the RDEL motif for ER retrieval through interactions with cognate receptors. Protonation of cysteine 29 in the active site allows tail movements in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that conserved histidine residues in the C-terminal tail also regulate ERp44 in vivo. Mutants lacking these histidine residues retain substrates more efficiently. Surprisingly, they are also O-glycosylated and partially secreted. Co-expression of client proteins prevents secretion of the histidine mutants, forcing tail opening and RDEL accessibility. Client-induced RDEL exposure allows retrieval of proteins from distinct stations along the secretory pathway, as indicated by the changes in O-glycosylation patterns upon overexpression of different partners. The ensuing gradients might help to optimize folding and assembly of different cargoes. Endogenous ERp44 is O-glycosylated and secreted by human primary endometrial cells, suggesting possible pathophysiological roles of these processes.

  16. Traffic jam on the cellular secretory pathway generated by a replication protein from a plant RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Kaido, Masanori; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Although positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses have a limited coding capacity, they can replicate efficiently in host cells because of their ability to use host-derived proteins, membranes, lipids, and metabolites, and to rewire cellular trafficking pathways. Previously, we showed that a plant RNA virus, the Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), hijacked Arf1 and Sar1, which are small GTPases that regulate the biogenesis of COPI and COPII vesicles, respectively, for viral RNA replication. These small GTPases are relocated from appropriate subcellular compartments to the viral RNA replication sites by p27 replication protein, which raises the possibility that RCNMV interferes with the cellular secretory pathway. Here, we examined this possibility by using green fluorescent protein-fused rice SCAMP1 and Arabidopsis LRR84A as secretory pathway marker proteins and showed that p27 inhibited the trafficking of these proteins. RCNMV-mediated inhibition of the host secretion pathway and its possible impact on plant-virus interaction are discussed.

  17. STEM Tomography Imaging of Hypertrophied Golgi Stacks in Mucilage-Secreting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Because of the weak penetrating power of electrons, the signal-to-noise ratio of a transmission electron micrograph (TEM) worsens as section thickness increases. This problem is alleviated by the use of the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Tomography analyses using STEM of thick sections from yeast and mammalian cells are of higher quality than are bright-field (BF) images. In this study, we compared regular BF tomograms and STEM tomograms from 500-nm thick sections from hypertrophied Golgi stacks of alfalfa root cap cells. Due to their thickness and intense heavy metal staining, BF tomograms of the thick sections suffer from poor contrast and high noise levels. We were able to mitigate these drawbacks by using STEM tomography. When we performed STEM tomography of densely stained chloroplasts of Arabidopsis cotyledon, we observed similar improvements relative to BF tomograms. A longer time is required to collect a STEM tilt series than similar BF TEM images, and dynamic autofocusing required for STEM imaging often fails at high tilt angles. Despite these limitations, STEM tomography is a powerful method for analyzing structures of large or dense organelles of plant cells.

  18. Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns during Seed Coat Development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gillian Dean; George Haughn; YoncgGuo Cao; DaoQuan Xiang; Nicholas J. Provart; Larissa Ramsay; Abdul Ahada; Rick White; Gopalan Selvaraj; Raju Datla

    2011-01-01

    The seed coat is important for embryo protection,seed hydration,and dispersal.Seed coat composition is also of interest to the agricultural sector,since it impacts the nutritional value for humans and livestock alike.Although some seed coat genes have been identified,the developmental pathways controlling seed coat development are not completely elucidated,and a global genetic program associated with seed coat development has not been reported.This study uses a combination of genetic and genomic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana to begin to address these knowledge gaps.Seed coat development is a complex process whereby the integuments of the ovule differentiate into specialized cell types.In Arabidopsis,the outermost layer of cells secretes mucilage into the apoplast and develops a secondary cell wall known as a columella.The layer beneath the epidermis,the palisade,synthesizes a secondary cell wall on its inner tangential side.The innermost layer (the pigmented layer or endothelium) produces proanthocyanidins that condense into tannins and oxidize,giving a brown color to mature seeds.Genetic separation of these cell layers was achieved using the ap2-7 and tt16-1 mutants,where the epidermis/palisade and the endothelium do not develop respectively.This genetic ablation was exploited to examine the developmental programs of these cell types by isolating and collecting seed coats at key transitions during development and performing global gene expression analysis.The data indicate that the developmental programs of the epidermis and the pigmented layer proceed relatively independently.Global expression datasets that can be used for identification of new gene candidates for seed coat development were generated.These dataset provide a comprehensive expression profile for developing seed coats in Arabidopsis,and should provide a useful resource and reference for other seed systems.

  19. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 uncovers a role for Gibberellins in seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, Eduardo; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Campos, Francisco; Brunaud, Veronique; Martínez, Liliam; Sayas, Enric; Ballester, Patricia; Yenush, Lynne; Serrano, Ramón

    2014-02-01

    Seed longevity is crucial for agriculture and plant genetic diversity, but it is limited by cellular damage during storage. Seeds are protected against aging by cellular defenses and by structures such as the seed coat. We have screened an activation-tagging mutant collection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and selected four dominant mutants with improved seed longevity (isl1-1D to isl4-1D) under both natural and accelerated aging conditions. In the isl1-1D mutant, characterized in this work, overexpression of the transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 (ATHB25; At5g65410) increases the expression of GIBBERELLIC ACID3-OXIDASE2, encoding a gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic enzyme, and the levels of GA1 and GA4 are higher (3.2- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in the mutant than in the wild type. The morphological and seed longevity phenotypes of the athb25-1D mutant were recapitulated in transgenic plants with moderate (4- to 6-fold) overexpression of ATHB25. Simultaneous knockdown of ATHB25, ATHB22, and ATHB31 expression decreases seed longevity, as does loss of ATHB25 and ATHB22 function in a double mutant line. Seeds from wild-type plants treated with GA and from a quintuple DELLA mutant (with constitutive GA signaling) are more tolerant to aging, providing additional evidence for a role of GA in seed longevity. A correlation was observed in several genotypes between seed longevity and mucilage formation at the seed surface, suggesting that GA may act by reinforcing the seed coat. This mechanism was supported by the observation of a maternal effect in reciprocal crosses between the wild type and the athb25-1D mutant.

  20. Diagnostic dilemma of FNA diagnosis of secretory carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana C Buch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory carcinoma (SC is one of the least common types of breast carcinoma. The tumor has distinctive histologic features with prominent secretory activity similar to lactational change and minimal nuclear atypia. As the cytomorphologic features of SC overlaps benign breast lesions with lactational change and apocrine change, the initial diagnosis of SC may be missed on cytology in some cases. A 29-year-old woman presented with a lump in the left breast since 9 months. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC suggested proliferative breast disease without atypia. Excision biopsy showed secretory carcinoma. The case is presented to highlight the cytologic features of SC, which may overlap with lactational change and apocrine change.

  1. Characterization of the okra mucilage by interaction with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Jiang, Y J; Hwang, P Y; Shen, F S

    1995-02-23

    A bio-active polysaccharide, which was the major component of the extract of the common okra, Hibiscus esculentus, was isolated from the extract by precipitation with ethanol between 28.5 to 45%. According to a previous report (Whistler, R.L. and Conrad, H.E. (1954) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1673-1674), this polysaccharide contains the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal sequence, which is the ligand for the uropathogenic Escherichia coli and toxic lectins. Analysis of the binding property of the okra polysaccharide by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins showed that this okra mucilage reacted best with Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I) and precipitated over 80% of the ML-I nitrogen (5.1 micrograms N) added. It also precipitated well with Abrus precatorius (APA), Momordica charantia (MCA) and Ricinus communis (RCA1) agglutinins, but poorly with other lectins. The results obtained suggest that this polysaccharide is a valuable reagent to differentiate Gal specific lectins from the GalNAc and/or GlcNAc specific series.

  2. The Effect of Oatmeal And The Mucilage From The Nopal Cactus In The Production of Lactic Acid In Sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores-Chávez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of sourdough process as a form of leavening is one of the oldest biotechnological processes in food production and has been used for thousands of years to improve flavor, texture and microbiological shelf life of bread. Its main function is to leaven the dough to produce a more gaseous dough piece and much more aerated bread. In Europe, cereal fermentations are mainly applied to the brewing industry, providing sourmashes, and to baking, in which sourdough plays an important role in the preparation of bread dough to improved dough machinability and bread crumb structure, keeping properties and flavor. The mixture modification has influence upon the production of lactic acid, in which the sourdough added with oat fiber to 24 h was of 634.59 mg•100 g- 1 of dough (316.80 % in relation to control sample. On the other hand, nopal mucilage to 48 h, the lactate production went from 481.35 mg•100 g-1 of dough (414.20 % in relation to control sample, which depends on the kind of sold off mixture.

  3. Reference: 517 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d isolated aleurone layers of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used in experiments designed to iden...tify components of the Arabidopsis seed that contribute to seed dormancy and to lea

  4. Non secretory multiple myeloma – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika W. Taroeno-Hariadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare variant of multiple mieloma, non-secretory multiple myeloma (NSM, is reported. Diagnosis of NSM is made by presentations of lytic bone lesions with bone pain, anemia, slight hypercalcemia, good renal function, negative results of protein and immunoelectrophoresis detecting monoclonal gammopathy, and positive clonal proliferation of plasma cells and atypical plasma cells in bone marrow biopsy. Immunophenotypic study resulted negative pan-B cell antigens and positive CD 79a. Patient condition was improved after institution of combination chemotherapy and 1 year afterward. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:257-60Keywords: multiple myeloma, non-secretory multiple myeloma, diagnosis, management

  5. Calcium dynamics in catecholamine-containing secretory vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Alfredo; Domínguez Lobatón, María Carmen; Santo Domingo, Jaime; Vay, Laura; Hernández-SanMiguel, Esther; Rizzuto, Rosario; Montero, Mayte; Álvarez, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Producción Científica We have used an aequorin chimera targeted to the membrane of the secretory granules to monitor the free [Ca2+] inside them in neurosecretory PC12 cells. More than 95% of the probe was located in a compartment with an homogeneous [Ca2+] around 40 M. Cell stimulation with either ATP, caffeine or high-K+ depolarization increased cytosolic [Ca2+] and decreased secretory granule [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]SG). Inositol-(1,4,5)- trisphosphate, cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic a...

  6. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking. Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands associated with the processing of each specific protein as well as a quantitative estimation of the activity of each component of the secretory machinery.

  7. Proteolytic processing in the secretory pathway of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalving, R.

    2005-01-01

    A number of filamentous fungi are saprophytes and they secrete a wide spectrum of enzymes to degrade their complex substrates. Many secreted proteins enter the secretory pathway as proproteins and need some form of proteolytic processing before they obtain their mature active state. As described in

  8. Secretory Phospholipase A(2)-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Pare, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA(2)-IIA mass or sPLA(2) enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clea

  9. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W;

    2011-01-01

    a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...... feature of vesicles carrying PM cargo and suggests a common lipid-based mechanism for their formation....

  10. Plant expression of chicken secretory antibodies derived from combinatorial libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, W.H.; Lammers, A.; Schots, A.; Orzaéz, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of secretory IgA antibodies (sIgA) to mucosal surfaces is a promising strategy to passively prevent infectious diseases. Plants have been proposed as biofactories for such complex immunoglobulin molecules. Recently, the molecular characterization of all four monomers of chicken sIgA (IgA im

  11. Secretory ribonucleases in the primitive ruminant chevrotain (Tragulus javanicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelman, HJ; Jekel, PA; Dubois, JYF; Mulder, PPMFA; Warmels, HW; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of secretory ribonucleases or RNases 1 have shown that gene duplication events, giving rise to three paralogous genes (pancreatic, seminal and brain RNase), occurred during the evolution of ancestral ruminants. A higher number of paralogous sequences are present in chevrotain (

  12. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina;

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lackin...

  13. Fine structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans secretory-excretory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F K; Albert, P S; Riddle, D L

    1983-02-01

    The secretory-excretory system of C. elegans, reconstructed from serial-section electron micrographs of larvae, is composed of four cells, the nuclei of which are located on the ventral side of the pharynx and adjacent intestine. (1) The pore cell encloses the terminal one-third of the excretory duct which leads to an excretory pore at the ventral midline. (2) The duct cell surrounds the excretory duct with a lamellar membrane from the origin of the duct at the excretory sinus to the pore cell boundary. (3) A large H-shaped excretory cell extends bilateral canals anteriorly and posteriorly nearly the entire length of the worm. The excretory sinus within the cell body joins the lumena of the canals with the origin of the duct. (4) A binucleate, A-shaped gland cell extends bilateral processes anteriorly from cell bodies located just behind the pharynx. These processes are fused at the anterior tip of the cell, where the cell enters the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. The processes are also joined at the anterior edge of the excretory cell body, where the excretory cell and gland are joined to the duct cell at the origin of the duct. Secretory granules may be concentrated in the gland near this secretory-excretory junction. Although the gland cells of all growing developmental stages stain positively with paraldehyde-fuchsin, the gland of the dauer larva stage (a developmentally arrested third-stage larva) does not stain, nor do glands of starved worms of other stages. Dauer larvae uniquely lack secretory granules, and the gland cytoplasm is displaced by a labyrinth of large, transparent spaces. Exit from the dauer stage results in the return of active secretory morphology in fourth-stage larvae.

  14. Role of adaptor proteins in secretory granule biogenesis and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde L Bonnemaison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the regulated secretory pathway, secretory granules (SGs store peptide hormones that are released on demand. SGs are formed at the trans-Golgi network (TGN and must undergo a maturation process to become responsive to secretagogues. The production of mature SGs requires concentrating newly synthesized soluble content proteins in granules whose membranes contain the appropriate integral membrane proteins. The mechanisms underlying the sorting of soluble and integral membrane proteins destined for SGs from other proteins are not yet well understood. For soluble proteins, luminal pH and divalent metals can affect aggregation and interaction with surrounding membranes. The trafficking of granule membrane proteins can be controlled by both luminal and cytosolic factors. Cytosolic adaptor proteins, which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to play essential roles in the assembly of functional SGs. Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, contributing to the formation of a clathrin coat. AP-1A is present in patches on immature SG membranes, where it removes cargo and facilitates SG maturation. AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by PACS-1 (Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1, a cytosolic protein which interacts with both AP-1A and cargo that has been phosphorylated by casein kinase II. A cargo/PACS-1/AP-1A complex is necessary to drive the appropriate transport of several cargo proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. The GGA (Golgi-localized, -ear containing, ADP-ribosylation factor binding family of adaptor proteins serve a similar role. We review the functions of AP-1A, PACS-1 and GGAs in facilitating the retrieval of proteins from immature SGs and review examples of cargo proteins whose trafficking within the regulated secretory pathway is governed by adaptor proteins.

  15. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Fabiano M.; Lima,Jamile F.; Ana Angélica S. Mascarenhas; Thayane P. Macedo

    2012-01-01

    Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cu...

  16. Unremitting Cell Proliferation in the Secretory Phase of Eutopic Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Murillo, Yanira; Miranda-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Rendón-Huerta, Erika; Montaño, Luis F.; Cornejo, Gerardo Velázquez; Gómez, Lucila Poblano; Valdez-Morales, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis is linked to altered cell proliferation and stem cell markers c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) in ectopic endometrium. Our aim was to investigate whether c-kit/SCF also plays a role in eutopic endometrium. Design: Eutopic endometrium obtained from 35 women with endometriosis and 25 fertile eumenorrheic women was analyzed for in situ expression of SCF/c-kit, Ki67, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated RAC-alpha serine/threonin-protein kinase (pAkt), Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (pGSK3β), throughout the menstrual cycle. Results: Expression of Ki67 and SCF was higher in endometriosis than in control tissue (P < .05) and greater in secretory rather than proliferative (P < .01) endometrium in endometriosis. Expression of c-kit was also higher in endometriosis although similar in both phases. Expression of Akt and GSK3β was identical in all samples and cycle phases, whereas pAkt and pGSK3β, opposed to control tissue, remained overexpressed in the secretory phase in endometriosis. Conclusion: Unceasing cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis is linked to deregulation of c-kit/SCF-associated signaling pathways. PMID:25194152

  17. Souffle/Spastizin controls secretory vesicle maturation during zebrafish oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsamy Kanagaraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15. We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research.

  18. Secretory carcinoma of breast mimicking an abscess: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bharathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory carcinoma is a rare type of breast carcinoma usually seen in the young females, and it is also called as "Juvenile carcinoma." We report here a case of secretory carcinoma in an elderly female with an unusual clinical presentation. She had a painful swelling in left breast of 6 cm × 5 cm size for the past 6 months. Skin over the swelling was inflamed and ulcerated. Mammogram findings favored a chronic infected hematoma/abscess. Fine needle aspirate (FNA is a murky fluid admixed with blood and was reported as acute inflammatory lesion. 2 weeks later she developed nipple retraction and an increase in size of the swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC was repeated again from firm areas and in multiple points of swelling. To our surprise, FNA smears revealed dysplastic ductal epithelial cells with minimal atypia. Modified radical mastectomy was planned. Histopathological examination confirmed the mass as secretory carcinoma, a rare variant of ductal carcinoma of the breast. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy was started. We report this case to emphasize that FNAC can be repeated in suspicious cases and should be correlated clinico-radiologically to give a preoperative diagnosis.

  19. RNAi knockdown of parafusin inhibits the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Satir, Birgit H

    2011-10-01

    Several glycolytic enzymes and their isoforms have been found to be important in cell signaling unrelated to glycolysis. The involvement of parafusin (PFUS), a member of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM) superfamily with no phosphoglucomutase activity, in Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis has been controversial. This protein was first described in Paramecium tetraurelia, but is widely found. Earlier work showed that parafusin is a secretory vesicle scaffold component with unusual post-translational modifications (cyclic phosphorylation and phosphoglucosylation) coupled to stages in the exocytic process. Using RNAi, we demonstrate that parafusin synthesis can be reversibly blocked, with minor or no effect on other PGM isoforms. PFUS knockdown produces an inhibition of dense core secretory vesicle (DCSV) synthesis leading to an exo(-) phenotype. Although cell growth is unaffected, vesicle content is not packaged properly and no new DCSVs are formed. We conclude that PFUS and its orthologs are necessary for proper scaffold maturation. Because of this association, parafusin is an important signaling component for regulatory control of the secretory pathway.

  20. Drug-induced secretory diarrhea: A role for CFTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Reddy, Vadde Sudhakar; Arora, Kavisha; Helmrath, Michael A; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-12-01

    Many medications induce diarrhea as a side effect, which can be a major obstacle to therapeutic efficacy and also a life-threatening condition. Secretory diarrhea can be caused by excessive fluid secretion in the intestine under pathological conditions. The cAMP/cGMP-regulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the primary chloride channel at the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and plays a major role in intestinal fluid secretion and homeostasis. CFTR forms macromolecular complexes at discreet microdomains at the plasma membrane, and its chloride channel function is regulated spatiotemporally through protein-protein interactions and cAMP/cGMP-mediated signaling. Drugs that perturb CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes in the intestinal epithelium and upregulate intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP levels can hyperactivate the CFTR channel, causing excessive fluid secretion and secretory diarrhea. Inhibition of CFTR chloride-channel activity may represent a novel approach to the management of drug-induced secretory diarrhea.

  1. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  2. Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations. Cylindrical specimens (100 mm x 200 mm were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO2 for 120 days. The compressive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control.Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración. Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm x 200 mm fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO2 por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control.

  3. Amelogenins as potential buffers during secretory-stage amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Lyaruu, D M; Takano, Y; Gibson, C W; DenBesten, P K; Bronckers, A L J J

    2015-03-01

    Amelogenins are the most abundant protein species in forming dental enamel, taken to regulate crystal shape and crystal growth. Unprotonated amelogenins can bind protons, suggesting that amelogenins could regulate the pH in enamel in situ. We hypothesized that without amelogenins the enamel would acidify unless ameloblasts were buffered by alternative ways. To investigate this, we measured the mineral and chloride content in incisor enamel of amelogenin-knockout (AmelX(-/-)) mice and determined the pH of enamel by staining with methyl-red. Ameloblasts were immunostained for anion exchanger-2 (Ae2), a transmembrane pH regulator sensitive for acid that secretes bicarbonate in exchange for chloride. The enamel of AmelX(-/-) mice was 10-fold thinner, mineralized in the secretory stage 1.8-fold more than wild-type enamel and containing less chloride (suggesting more bicarbonate secretion). Enamel of AmelX(-/-) mice stained with methyl-red contained no acidic bands in the maturation stage as seen in wild-type enamel. Secretory ameloblasts of AmelX(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice, were immunopositive for Ae2, and stained more intensely in the maturation stage compared with wild-type mice. Exposure of AmelX(-/-) mice to fluoride enhanced the mineral content in the secretory stage, lowered chloride, and intensified Ae2 immunostaining in the enamel organ in comparison with non-fluorotic mutant teeth. The results suggest that unprotonated amelogenins may regulate the pH of forming enamel in situ. Without amelogenins, Ae2 could compensate for the pH drop associated with crystal formation.

  4. Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Brandtzaeg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR, also named membrane secretory component (SC. Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials.

  5. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry.

  6. Reference: 774 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available an essential gene, the disruption of which causes embryonic lethality. Plants carrying a hypomorphic smg7 mu...e progression from anaphase to telophase in the second meiotic division in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis SMG7 is

  7. Reference: 398 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plays attenuated chloroplast movements under intermediate and high light intensitie...hese movements. In this work, we describe plastid movement impaired 2 (pmi2), a mutant in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that dis

  8. Reference: 173 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mical approaches to elucidate the action mechanisms of sirtinol in Arabidopsis. A...tic and chemical analyses of the action mechanisms of sirtinol in Arabidopsis. 8 3129-34 15710899 2005 Feb P

  9. Reference: 718 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available displayed a moderate but significant decrease in germination in the presence of D...NA damage. This report links Ubc13-Uev with functions in DNA damage response in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis UEV

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eme oxygenase (HY1) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4877362, heme oxygenase 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4530591 GB:AF132475; annotation upd...ated per Seth J. Davis at University of Wisconsin-Madison 3e-90 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104955 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B:AF132475; annotation updated per Seth J. Davis at University of Wisconsin-Madison 3e-90 ... ...heme oxygenase (HY1) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4877362, heme oxygenase 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4530591 G

  12. Reference: 110 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on process. Our study shows that an Arabidopsis SNM protein, although structurally closer to the SNM1/PSO2 members, shares some prope...rties with ARTEMIS but also has novel characteristics. Arabidopsis plants defective

  13. Calcium dynamics in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Cellular Ca(2+)signaling results from a complex interplay among a variety of Ca(2+) fluxes going across the plasma membrane and across the membranes of several organelles, together with the buffering effect of large numbers of Ca(2+)-binding sites distributed along the cell architecture. Endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and even nucleus have all been involved in cellular Ca(2+) signaling, and the mechanisms for Ca(2+) uptake and release from these organelles are well known. In neuroendocrine cells, the secretory granules also constitute a very important Ca(2+)-storing organelle, and the possible role of the stored Ca(2+) as a trigger for secretion has attracted considerable attention. However, this possibility is frequently overlooked, and the main reason for that is that there is still considerable uncertainty on the main questions related with granular Ca(2+) dynamics, e.g., the free granular [Ca(2+)], the physical state of the stored Ca(2+) or the mechanisms for Ca(2+) accumulation and release from the granules. This review will give a critical overview of the present state of knowledge and the main conflicting points on secretory granule Ca(2+) homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells.

  14. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  15. Auxilin facilitates membrane traffic in the early secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jingzhen; Segarra, Verónica A; Chen, Shuliang; Cai, Huaqing; Lemmon, Sandra K; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Coat protein complexes contain an inner shell that sorts cargo and an outer shell that helps deform the membrane to give the vesicle its shape. There are three major types of coated vesicles in the cell: COPII, COPI, and clathrin. The COPII coat complex facilitates vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while the COPI coat complex performs an analogous function in the Golgi. Clathrin-coated vesicles mediate traffic from the cell surface and between the trans-Golgi and endosome. While the assembly and structure of these coat complexes has been extensively studied, the disassembly of COPII and COPI coats from membranes is less well understood. We describe a proteomic and genetic approach that connects the J-domain chaperone auxilin, which uncoats clathrin-coated vesicles, to COPII and COPI coat complexes. Consistent with a functional role for auxilin in the early secretory pathway, auxilin binds to COPII and COPI coat subunits. Furthermore, ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi traffic is delayed at 15°C in swa2Δ mutant cells, which lack auxilin. In the case of COPII vesicles, we link this delay to a defect in vesicle fusion. We propose that auxilin acts as a chaperone and/or uncoating factor for transport vesicles that act in the early secretory pathway.

  16. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  17. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  18. Characterization of a Secretory Annexin in Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingju; Hu, Dandan; Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tao; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a widespread parasitic zoonosis causing economic loss and public health problems. Annexins are important proteins usually present in the plasma membrane, but previous studies have shown that an annexin B33 protein of E. granulosus (Eg-ANX) could be detected in the excretory/secretory products and cyst fluid. In this study, we cloned and characterized Eg-ANX. In silico analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of Eg-ANX was conserved and lacked any signal peptides. The phospholipid-binding activity of recombinant Eg-ANX (rEg-ANX) was tested; liposomes could bind to rEg-ANX only in the presence of Ca(2+). In addition, we performed western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses to further validate the secretory properties of Eg-ANX. The protein could be detected in the cyst fluid of E. granulosus and was also present in the intermediate host tissues, which suggested that Eg-ANX might play an important role in parasite-host interaction.

  19. Estruturas secretoras em órgãos vegetativos e florais de Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae Secretory structures in vegetative and floral organs of Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Martins

    2013-01-01

    characterize the secretory structures in vegetative and reproductive organs of Secondatia densiflora and to identify the major classes of chemical compounds in idioblasts and in the secretion of vegetative colleters. Idioblasts are distributed all over the aerial organs of the plant and their content is usually dense and strongly stained with safranin. Some idioblasts have secretion of granulated aspect. Histochemical tests evidenced phenolic compounds only. Laticiferous glands are of the anastomosed type and can be seen in all the studied organs and identified by their distinct content and, in some cases, by the presence of cell walls that are thicker than those of parenchyma cells. Latex is white, milky and leaks as the plant is injured. Vegetative colleters are of the standard type and formed of an elongated portion that becomes thinner towards the end. The secretory palisade epidermis delimits a parenchymatic region, while the short peduncle is covered by rectangular non-secretory epidermis. A thin cuticle covers the entire colleter. Mucilage is detected both inside the secretory cells and in the extracellular medium by ruthenium red staining and PAS reaction. Floral nectaries have receptacular origin and epidermis covering their entire structure, nectariferous parenchyma, and vascular bundles; they are fused at their bases but have free apical region, forming five distinct units.

  20. Discovery and characterization of secretory IgD in rainbow trout: secretory IgD is produced through a novel splicing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Gomez, F.; Greene, W.; Rego, K.; Hansen, J.D.; Costa, G.; Kataria, P.; Bromage, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The gene encoding IgH δ has been found in all species of teleosts studied to date. However, catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the only species of fish in which a secretory form of IgD has been characterized, and it occurs through the use of a dedicated δ-secretory exon, which is absent from all other species examined. Our studies have revealed that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) use a novel strategy for the generation of secreted IgD. The trout secretory δ transcript is produced via a run-on event in which the splice donor site at the end of the last constant domain exon (D7) is ignored and transcription continues until a stop codon is reached 33 nt downstream of the splice site, resulting in the production of an in-frame, 11-aa secretory tail at the end of the D7 domain. In silico analysis of several published IgD genes suggested that this unique splicing mechanism may also be used in other species of fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Alternative splicing of the secretory δ transcript resulted in two δ-H chains, which incorporated Cμ1 and variable domains. Secreted IgD was found in two heavily glycosylated isoforms, which are assembled as monomeric polypeptides associated with L chains. Secretory δ mRNA and IgD+ plasma cells were detected in all immune tissues at a lower frequency than secretory IgM. Our data demonstrate that secretory IgD is more prevalent and widespread across taxa than previously thought, and thus illustrate the potential that IgD may have a conserved role in immunity.

  1. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. 866.5380 Section 866.5380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5380 Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A...

  2. Increased biogenesis of glucagon-containing secretory granules and glucagon secretion in BIG3-knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Together with our previous studies, the current data reveal a conserved role for BIG3 in regulating alpha- and beta-cell functions. We propose that BIG3 negatively regulates hormone production at the secretory granule biogenesis stage and that such regulatory mechanism may be used in secretory pathways of other endocrine cells.

  3. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Steffen; Novakovic, Valerie A.; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    2013-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2’s do not bind to plasma membranes...

  4. A WD40-repeat gene from Malus x domestica is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Julian; Weisshaar, Bernd; Sagasser, Martin

    2010-03-01

    The WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) is involved in a multitude of developmental and biochemical reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana such as the production of seed coat colour and mucilage, pigmentation by anthocyanins as well as the formation of trichomes and root hairs. In this study, a putative TTG1 homologue was isolated from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) showing 80.2% identity to A. thaliana TTG1 on nucleotide and 90.7% similarity on amino acid level. The MdTTG1 candidate was able to activate the AtBAN promoter in cooperation with the A. thaliana transcription factors TT2 and TT8 in A. thaliana protoplasts. This indicates that the encoded protein can be integrated into the complex that activates BAN in A. thaliana, and that a similar complex might also be present in apple. When transformed into ttg1 mutants of A. thaliana, the apple sequence was able to restore trichome growth, anthocyanin production in young seedlings as well as proanthocyanidin production in seeds. Additionally, roots of complemented mutant plants showed root hair formation resembling wild type. These results show that the studied apple WD40 gene is a functional homologue of AtTTG1 and we refer to this gene as MdTTG1.

  5. File list: ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  8. Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

  9. Internal secretory structures in stems of Silphium perfoliatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Silphium perfoliatum L. (Asteraceae is a North American perennial used as a medicinal, fodder, honey-bearing, and ornamental plant as well as for remediation of degraded soils. The location and structure of secretory reservoirs in the stem were examined with the use of light microscopy in cup plant stems. The stems were analysed at various heights (0-2 cm above the root collar, ½ of the stem length, and 0-2 cm below the stem apex/inflorescence and in three vegetation phases (vegetative phase, full bloom, withering. The plants belonged to the collection of the Department of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. It was found that the secretory canals formed two rings: an external ring situated at the height of sclerenchymatous sheaths and bundle phloem, and the internal ring located in an immediate proximity of the xylem. Two external secretory reservoirs, one on each side of the bundle, were present at larger bundles. No internal reservoirs were formed in the proximity of these bundles. At smaller bundles, there were reservoirs of the internal verticil, but there were no external reservoirs. The canals of the external verticil (23-29 were more numerous that in the internal verticil (17-19. In both cases, the largest number of reservoirs was observed at half the length of the stem, and the lowest number was in the apical part. The less numerous internal canals were larger in comparison with the external reservoirs. Depending on the plant developmental stage and location in the stem, the diameter of the external ring canals was 49-91 μm in cross section, and that of the canals of the internal verticil was 52-101 μm. The analysis of the different vegetation phases in the cup plant demonstrated that the canals had the largest diameters and were the most abundant in the withering phase. The canals evolved through gradual separation of cells (of schizogenous origin. In the cross section they exhibited a

  10. The organization pattern of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis is dependent on cell wall homogalacturonan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Follet-Gueye, Marie Laure; Duponchel, Ludovic; Moreau, Myriam; Lerouge, Patrice; Driouich, Azeddine

    2009-07-01

    Border-like cells are released by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root tips as organized layers of several cells that remain attached to each other rather than completely detached from each other, as is usually observed in border cells of many species. Unlike border cells, cell attachment between border-like cells is maintained after their release into the external environment. To investigate the role of cell wall polysaccharides in the attachment and organization of border-like cells, we have examined their release in several well-characterized mutants defective in the biosynthesis of xyloglucan, cellulose, or pectin. Our data show that among all mutants examined, only quasimodo mutants (qua1-1 and qua2-1), which have been characterized as producing less homogalacturonan, had an altered border-like cell phenotype as compared with the wild type. Border-like cells in both lines were released as isolated cells separated from each other, with the phenotype being much more pronounced in qua1-1 than in qua2-1. Further analysis of border-like cells in the qua1-1 mutant using immunocytochemistry and a set of anti-cell wall polysaccharide antibodies showed that the loss of the wild-type phenotype was accompanied by (1) a reduction in homogalacturonan-JIM5 epitope in the cell wall of border-like cells, confirmed by Fourier transform infrared microspectrometry, and (2) the secretion of an abundant mucilage that is enriched in xylogalacturonan and arabinogalactan-protein epitopes, in which the cells are trapped in the vicinity of the root tip.

  11. The Arabidopsis DCR encoding a soluble BAHD acyltransferase is required for cutin polyester formation and seed hydration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikashvili, David; Shi, Jian Xin; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2009-12-01

    The cuticle covering every plant aerial organ is largely made of cutin that consists of fatty acids, glycerol, and aromatic monomers. Despite the huge importance of the cuticle to plant development and fitness, our knowledge regarding the assembly of the cutin polymer and its integration in the complete cuticle structure is limited. Cutin composition implies the action of acyltransferase-type enzymes that mediate polymer construction through ester bond formation. Here, we show that a member of the BAHD family of acyltransferases (DEFECTIVE IN CUTICULAR RIDGES [DCR]) is required for incorporation of the most abundant monomer into the polymeric structure of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) flower cutin. DCR-deficient plants display phenotypes that are typically associated with a defective cuticle, including altered epidermal cell differentiation and postgenital organ fusion. Moreover, levels of the major cutin monomer in flowers, 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, decreased to an almost undetectable amount in the mutants. Interestingly, dcr mutants exhibit changes in the decoration of petal conical cells and mucilage extrusion in the seed coat, both phenotypes formerly not associated with cutin polymer assembly. Excessive root branching displayed by dcr mutants and the DCR expression pattern in roots pointed to the function of DCR belowground, in shaping root architecture by influencing lateral root emergence and growth. In addition, the dcr mutants were more susceptible to salinity, osmotic, and water deprivation stress conditions. Finally, the analysis of DCR protein localization suggested that cutin polymerization, possibly the oligomerization step, is partially carried out in the cytoplasmic space. Therefore, this study extends our knowledge regarding the functionality of the cuticular layer and the formation of its major constituent the polymer cutin.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ostergaard, L

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the neutral peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATP N) has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 A and a free R value of 20.5%. ATP N has the expected characteristic fold of the class III peroxidases, with a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. of 0.82 A when compared with horseradish peroxidase C...... (HRP C). HRP C is 54% identical to ATP N in sequence. When the structures of four class III plant peroxidases are superimposed, the regions with structural differences are non-randomly distributed; all are located in one half of the molecule. The architecture of the haem pocket of ATP N is very similar...... to that of HRP C, in agreement with the low small-molecule substrate specificity of all class III peroxidases. The structure of ATP N suggests that the pH dependence of the substrate turnover will differ from that of HRP C owing to differences in polarity of the residues in the substrate-access channel. Since...

  13. Chromosomal proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehs, C P; McElwain, E F; Spiker, S

    1988-07-01

    In plants with large genomes, each of the classes of the histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) are not unique polypeptides, but rather families of closely related proteins that are called histone variants. The small genome and preponderance of single-copy DNA in Arabidopsis thaliana has led us to ask if this plant has such families of histone variants. We have thus isolated histones from Arabidopsis and analyzed them on four polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic systems: an SDS system; an acetic acid-urea system; a Triton transverse gradient system; and a two-dimensional system combining SDS and Triton-acetic acid-urea systems. This approach has allowed us to identify all four of the nucleosomal core histones in Arabidopsis and to establish the existence of a set of H2A and H2B variants. Arabidopsis has at least four H2A variants and three H2B variants of distinct molecular weights as assessed by electrophoretic mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Thus, Arabidopsis displays a diversity in these histones similar to the diversity displayed by plants with larger genomes such as wheat.The high mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromatin proteins have attracted considerable attention because of the evidence implicating them as structural proteins of transcriptionally active chromatin. We have isolated a group of non-histone chromatin proteins from Arabidopsis that meet the operational criteria to be classed as HMG proteins and that cross-react with antisera to HMG proteins of wheat.

  14. Characterization of mast cell secretory granules and their cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouz, Nurit Pereg; Hammel, Ilan; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit

    2014-10-01

    Exocytosis and secretion of secretory granule (SG) contained inflammatory mediators is the primary mechanism by which mast cells exert their protective immune responses in host defense, as well as their pathological functions in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Despite their central role in mast cell function, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and secretion of mast cell SGs remain largely unresolved. Early studies have established the lysosomal nature of the mast cell SGs and implicated SG homotypic fusion as an important step occurring during both their biogenesis and compound secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms that account for key features of this process largely remain to be defined. A novel high-resolution imaging based methodology allowed us to screen Rab GTPases for their phenotypic and functional impact and identify Rab networks that regulate mast cell secretion. This screen has identified Rab5 as a novel regulator of homotypic fusion of the mast cell SGs that thereby regulates their size and cargo composition.

  15. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...... approximately 10 to 50% of the granules in each cell. These granules were not seen in hormonally active tumors and considered therefore diagnostic of silent pituitary adenomas....

  16. The secretory granule matrix: a fast-acting smart polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanavati, C; Fernandez, J M

    1993-02-12

    The secretory granule matrix is a miniature biopolymer that consists of a charged polymer network that traps peptides and transmitters when it condenses and releases them on exocytotic decondensation. Models of exocytotic fusion have treated this matrix as a short circuit and have neglected its electrical contributions. This matrix responded to negative voltages by swelling, which was accompanied by a large increase in conductance, and to positive voltages by condensing. Thus, the matrix resembled a diode. The swollen matrix exerted large pressures on the order of 12 bar. The responses took place within milliseconds of the application of the electric field. These findings suggest that matrix decondensation, and therefore product release, is controlled by potential gradients.

  17. File list: Unc.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fall...opian tube secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  16. Developmental genetics of secretory vesicle acidification during Caenorhabditis elegans spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Elizabeth J; Hartley, Paul D; Henderson, Melissa; Hill-Harfe, Katherine L; Price, Paul W; Weimer, Robby M; Kroft, Tim L; Zhu, Guang-Dan; Cordovado, Suzanne; L'Hernault, Steven W

    2012-06-01

    Secretory vesicles are used during spermatogenesis to deliver proteins to the cell surface. In Caenorhabditis elegans, secretory membranous organelles (MO) fuse with the plasma membrane to transform spermatids into fertilization-competent spermatozoa. We show that, like the acrosomal vesicle of mammalian sperm, MOs undergo acidification during development. Treatment of spermatids with the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin blocks both MO acidification and formation of functional spermatozoa. There are several spermatogenesis-defective mutants that cause defects in MO morphogenesis, including spe-5. We determined that spe-5, which is on chromosome I, encodes one of two V-ATPase B paralogous subunits. The spe-5 null mutant is viable but sterile because it forms arrested, multi-nucleate spermatocytes. Immunofluorescence with a SPE-5-specific monoclonal antibody shows that SPE-5 expression begins in spermatocytes and is found in all subsequent stages of spermatogenesis. Most SPE-5 is discarded into the residual body during spermatid budding, but a small amount remains in budded spermatids where it localizes to MOs as a discrete dot. The other V-ATPase B subunit is encoded by vha-12, which is located on the X chromosome. Usually, spe-5 mutants are self-sterile in a wild-type vha-12 background. However, an extrachromosomal transgene containing wild-type vha-12 driven by its own promoter allows spe-5 mutant hermaphrodites to produce progeny, indicating that VHA-12 can at least partially substitute for SPE-5. Others have shown that the X chromosome is transcriptionally silent in the male germline, so expression of the autosomally located spe-5 gene ensures that a V-ATPase B subunit is present during spermatogenesis.

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Protein Quality Control in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A correct three-dimensional structure is crucial for the physiological functions of a protein, yet the folding of proteins to acquire native conformation is a fundamentally error-prone process. Eukaryotic organisms have evolved a highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-mediated protein quality control (ERQC mechanism to monitor folding processes of secretory and membrane proteins, allowing export of only correctly folded proteins to their physiological destinations, retaining incompletely/mis-folded ones in the ER for additional folding attempts, marking and removing terminally-misfolded ones via a unique multiple-step degradation process known as ER-associate degradation (ERAD. Most of our current knowledge on ERQC and ERAD came from genetic and biochemical investigations in yeast and mammalian cells. Recent studies in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovered homologous components and similar mechanisms in plants for monitoring protein folding and for retaining, repairing, and removing misfolded proteins. These studies also revealed critical roles of the plant ERQC/ERAD systems in regulating important biochemical/physiological processes, such as abiotic stress tolerance and plant defense. In this review, we discuss our current understanding about the molecular components and biochemical mechanisms of the plant ERQC/ERAD system in comparison to yeast and mammalian systems.

  18. Lipids implicated in the journey of a secretory granule: from biogenesis to fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Emeline; Carmon, Ophélie; Wang, Qili; Jeandel, Lydie; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette; Montero-Hadjadje, Maité; Vitale, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The regulated secretory pathway begins with the formation of secretory granules by budding from the Golgi apparatus and ends by their fusion with the plasma membrane leading to the release of their content into the extracellular space, generally following a rise in cytosolic calcium. Generation of these membrane-bound transport carriers can be classified into three steps: (i) cargo sorting that segregates the cargo from resident proteins of the Golgi apparatus, (ii) membrane budding that encloses the cargo and depends on the creation of appropriate membrane curvature, and (iii) membrane fission events allowing the nascent carrier to separate from the donor membrane. These secretory vesicles then mature as they are actively transported along microtubules toward the cortical actin network at the cell periphery. The final stage known as regulated exocytosis involves the docking and the priming of the mature granules, necessary for merging of vesicular and plasma membranes, and the subsequent partial or total release of the secretory vesicle content. Here, we review the latest evidence detailing the functional roles played by lipids during secretory granule biogenesis, recruitment, and exocytosis steps. In this review, we highlight evidence supporting the notion that lipids play important functions in secretory vesicle biogenesis, maturation, recruitment, and membrane fusion steps. These effects include regulating various protein distribution and activity, but also directly modulating membrane topology. The challenges ahead to understand the pleiotropic functions of lipids in a secretory granule's journey are also discussed. This article is part of a mini review series on Chromaffin cells (ISCCB Meeting, 2015).

  19. Partitioning and Exocytosis of Secretory Granules during Division of PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Vassilev Bukoreshtliev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biogenesis, maturation, and exocytosis of secretory granules in interphase cells have been well documented, whereas the distribution and exocytosis of these hormone-storing organelles during cell division have received little attention. By combining ultrastructural analyses and time-lapse microscopy, we here show that, in dividing PC12 cells, the prominent peripheral localization of secretory granules is retained during prophase but clearly reduced during prometaphase, ending up with only few peripherally localized secretory granules in metaphase cells. During anaphase and telophase, secretory granules exhibited a pronounced movement towards the cell midzone and, evidently, their tracks colocalized with spindle microtubules. During cytokinesis, secretory granules were excluded from the midbody and accumulated at the bases of the intercellular bridge. Furthermore, by measuring exocytosis at the single granule level, we showed, that during all stages of cell division, secretory granules were competent for regulated exocytosis. In conclusion, our data shed new light on the complex molecular machinery of secretory granule redistribution during cell division, which facilitates their release from the F-actin-rich cortex and active transport along spindle microtubules.

  20. Influence of continuous light and darkness on the secretory pinealocytes of Heteropneustes fossilis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Srivastava

    2003-09-01

    In an earlier study on Heteropneustes fossilis, evidence of secretory activity in the pinealocytes had been demonstrated at the electron microscopic (EM) level and it was found to exist in two phases: a secretory phase (light cells) and a storage phase (dark cells). In the present investigation, H. fossilis was subjected to artificial photoperiods of continuous illumination and continuous darkness for a period of ten days and the effect on the secretory pinealocytes was studied at the EM level. Marked results were observed within the short period of ten days emphasizing the role of environmental photoperiod on the secretory activity of the pinealocytes. During continuous illuminated phase, both light and dark cells were observed: the light cells showed intense secretory activity and dark cells a storage one. During the dark phase both types of cells were present but in different metabolic states and neither of the cells demonstrated synthetic nor storage activity. Light cells were metabolically active but not secretory active and dark cells showed a necrotic condition. Phagocytotic activity of the dark cells was also seen. Intense neural activity was also observed during exposure to both the artificial photoperiods. The results highlight the role of light on the secretory activities of the pinealocytes of the catfish pineal organ.

  1. Exploiting Natural Variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana . This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  2. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar; J.J.B. Keurentjes

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of g

  3. The salty tale of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D

    2000-06-29

    High concentrations of sodium chloride are toxic to most plant species. New insights into the mechanisms by which plants tolerate salt have emerged from the identification of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana that play a critical part in physiological resistance to salt.

  4. Periodic activity of secretory glands of stomach in ulcer erosion of gastro-duodenal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rudenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It was fixed, that development of atophanum-carbacholimun ulcer of the gastroduodenal zone invoked various changes of secretory activity of the stomach. The changes directly depend on a progress of pathological process. As this takes place the reaction of stomach secretory glands varies under the stimulation with histamine: the decrease of stomach secretory glands’ work capacity till 10th day and its increase after 10–15th day were observed. Disorders of the glands’ ultradian rhythms at initial stages of modeling of gastrointestinal nervous regulation disturbances testify to dependence of periodic activity of gastrointestinal tract on resistance of regulatory mechanisms correlation.

  5. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents.

  6. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  7. Extraction optimization by response surface methodology of mucilage polysaccharide from the peel of Opuntia dillenii haw. fruits and their physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Lu; Gao, Jie; Yin, Yan-Yan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2016-10-20

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technology of mucilage polysaccharide from the peel of Opuntia dillenii haw. fruits (OFPP), and the physicochemical characteristics of OFPP were also investigated. The three parameters were the ratio of water to raw material (30-40ml/g), microwave power (300-400W) and extraction time (120-180s). The results indicated that the yield of OFPP was 15.62±0.37% under the optimum extraction conditions. Compared with MAE, the OFPP yield by hot water extraction (HWE) was 13.36±0.71%. In addition, the rheological properties of OFPP were also explored. The OFPP obtained by HWE exhibited a lower viscosity compared with that by MAE. The FT-IR spectra analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that there were strong interactions between Ca(2+) and OFPP, which resulted in the high viscosity, different microstructure and thermal stability of OFPP.

  8. Plantago ovata F. Mucilage-Alginate Mucoadhesive Beads for Controlled Release of Glibenclamide: Development, Optimization, and In Vitro-In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the development and optimization of ispaghula (Plantago ovata F. husk mucilage- (IHM- alginate mucoadhesive beads containing glibenclamide by ionotropic gelation technique. The effects of sodium alginate (SA to IHM and cross-linker (CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %, as well as cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10 h, %, were optimized using 32 factorial design based on response surface methodology. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads exhibited 94.43±4.80% w/w of DEE and good mucoadhesivity with the biological membrane in wash-off test and sustained drug release profile over 10 hours. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed by controlled release (zero-order pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The optimized glibenclamide-loaded IHM-alginate mucoadhesive beads showed significant antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  9. Glycosyl hydrolases of cell wall are induced by sugar starvation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2007-03-01

    Three Arabidopsis genes encoding a putative beta-galactosidase (At5g56870), beta-xylosidase (At5g49360) and beta-glucosidase (At3g60140) are induced by sugar starvation. The deduced proteins belong to the glycosyl hydrolase families 35, 3 and 1, respectively. They are predicted to be secretory proteins that play roles in modification of cell wall polysaccharides based on amino acid similarity. The beta-galactosidase encoded by At5g56870 was identified as a secretory protein in culture medium of suspension cells by mass spectrometry analysis. This protein was specifically detected under sugar-starved conditions with a specific antibody. Induction of these genes was repressed in suspension cells grown with galactose, xylose and glucose, as well as with sucrose. In planta, expression of the genes and protein accumulation were detected when photosynthesis was inhibited. Glycosyl hydrolase activity against galactan also increased during sugar starvation. The amount of monosaccharide in pectin and hemicellulose in detached leaves decreased in response to sugar starvation. These findings suggest that the cell wall may function as a storage reserve of carbon in addition to providing physical support for the plant body.

  10. Chronic regulation of colonic epithelial secretory function by activation of G protein-coupled receptors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toumi, F

    2011-02-01

    Enteric neurotransmitters that act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to acutely promote epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion. Here we examined if acute GPCR activation might have more long-term consequences for epithelial secretory function.

  11. Reference: 710 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n factor family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) induced AtMYB44 tr...anscript accumulation within 30 min. The gene was also activated under various abiotic stre...sses, such as dehydration, low temperature, and salinity. In transgenic Arabidopsis carrying an At...MYB44 promoter-driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) construct, strong GUS activity was observed in the vasculature... and leaf epidermal guard cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AtMYB44 is more

  12. Teucrium polium complex with molybdate enhance cultured islets secretory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni Salehi Monfared, Seyed Sajad; Pournourmohammadi, Shirin

    2010-02-01

    Islet transplantation has become a promising treatment in the therapy of type 1 diabetes. Its function improvement, after isolation and before transplantation, is crucial because of their loss both in number and function of islets after isolation procedures. Trace elements sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and sodium molybdate (SM), as well as medicinal plant Teucrium polium L. (TP), showed and possessed high beneficial antioxidative potential and even hypoglycemic properties via their effect on islets. We evaluated the effect of these components in combination on cultured islet function in order to improve pancreatic islet transplantation. Rat pancreatic islets were cultured for 24 h then incubated with different concentrations of TP (0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL) alone and in combination with SOV (1 mM) or SM (1 mM). Insulin concentration in buffer media was measured as islet secretory function. Administration of TP (0.01 mg/mL), SM, and SOV alone or in combination with each other significantly increased insulin secretion at high glucose concentration (16.7 mM); insulin secretion was significantly greater in the group containing both TP and SM than other treated groups (p molybdate with TP could improve islet cells function before transplantation.

  13. Correlation between CT and tympanogram in secretory otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Sakurai, Tokio; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kuniaki (Iwaki-Kyoritsu General Hospital, Iwaki, Fukushima (Japan)); Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kawamoto, Kazutomo

    1984-11-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of the tympanometry in detecting the middle ear effusion (MEE) in secretory otitis media (SOM) in childhood, the findings of the computed tomography (CT) were evaluated whether they were compatible with that of tympanometry in 27 cases (51 ears) of SOM. Tympanometry (tympanogram, static compliance measurement and stapedial reflex test), pure tone audiometry and high resolution CT were performed sequentially, and the CT findings were compared with the results of the other tests. The conclusions obtained were summarized as follows. 1. Among the tests performed, tympanogram appeared to be the most reliable measure in detection of MEE. 2. Fifteen ears out of 16 with type B tympanograms and 6 ears out of 15 with type C/sub 2/ tympanograms, were diagnosed by CT as having MEE. MEE occupied the entire middile ear space in most ears with type B tympanograms. By contrast, in the ears with type C/sub 2/ tympanograms, air containing space of varying size were always observed even in the ears with MEE.

  14. Evaluation of beta-cell secretory capacity using glucagon-like peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Nielsen, Mette Toft; Krarup, T

    2000-01-01

    Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients.......Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients....

  15. Ultrastructural immunohistochemical localization of Clara cell secretory protein in pulmonary epithelium of rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, S E; Gupta, R. P.; Nishio, S.; Eddy, E M; Jetten, A. M.; Plopper, C. G.; Nettesheim, P; Hook, G E

    1991-01-01

    Highly purified Clara cells (93 +/- 3%) isolated from the lungs of rabbits were used to produce an antiserum against Clara cell secretory proteins. This antiserum was used to identify and study the biosynthesis and secretion of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins from isolated Clara cells. The antiserum recognized one major secretory protein with apparent molecular weight of 6 kDa and reacted weakly with a higher molecular weight protein of about 180 kDa. Biosynthesis and secretion of these prot...

  16. Reference: 298 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etophytes (pollen grains) takes place in a specialized structure called the anther. Successful pollen development, and thus reproduct...ion, requires high secretory activity in both anther tis

  17. Excretory/secretory products from in vitro-cultured Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginio, Veridiana G; Monteiro, Karina M; Drumond, Fernanda; de Carvalho, Marcos O; Vargas, Daiani M; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2012-05-01

    Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes and affects humans and livestock. Proteins secreted or excreted by protoscoleces, pre-adult worms found in the metacestode, are thought to play fundamental roles in the host-parasite relationship. In this work, we performed an LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products obtained from the first 48 h of an in vitro culture of the protoscoleces. We identified 32 proteins, including 18 that were never detected previously in metacestode proteomic studies. Among the novel identified excretory-secretory products are antigenic proteins, such as EG19 and P-29 and a calpain protease. We also identified other important protoscolex excretory-secretory products, such as thioredoxin peroxidase and 14-3-3 proteins, which are potentially involved in evasion mechanisms adopted by parasites to establish infection. Several intracellular proteins were found in the excretory-secretory products, revealing a set of identified proteins not previously thought to be exposed at the host-parasite interface. Additionally, immunological analyses established the antigenic profiles of the newly identified excretory-secretory products and revealed, for the first time, the in vitro secretion of the B antigen by protoscoleces. Considering that the excretory-secretory products obtained in vitro might reflect the products released and exposed to the host in vivo, our results provide valuable information on parasite survival strategies in adverse host environments and on the molecular mechanisms underpinning CHD immunopathology.

  18. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  19. The use of lectins as markers for differentiated secretory cells in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Ricardo M; Cebrià, Francesc; Guo, Tingxia; Feng, Junjie; Newmark, Phillip A

    2010-11-01

    Freshwater planarians have reemerged as excellent models to investigate mechanisms underlying regeneration. The introduction of molecular tools has facilitated the study of planarians, but cell- and tissue-specific markers are still needed to examine differentiation of most cell types. Here we report the utility of fluorescent lectin-conjugates to label tissues in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We show that 16 lectin-conjugates stain planarian cells or tissues; 13 primarily label the secretory cells, their cytoplasmic projections, and terminal pores. Thus, we examined regeneration of the secretory system using lectin markers and functionally characterized two genes expressed in the secretory cells: marginal adhesive gland-1 (mag-1) and Smed-reticulocalbin1 (Smed-rcn1). RNAi knockdown of these genes caused a dramatic reduction of secretory cell lectin staining, suggesting a role for mag-1 and Smed-rcn1 in secretory cell differentiation. Our results provide new insights into planarian secretory system regeneration and add new markers for labeling several planarian tissues.

  20. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs.

  1. Cellulose binding protein from the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii interacts with Arabidopsis pectin methylesterase: cooperative cell wall modification during parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewezi, Tarek; Howe, Peter; Maier, Tom R; Hussey, Richard S; Mitchum, Melissa Goellner; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J

    2008-11-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete a complex of cell wall-digesting enzymes, which aid in root penetration and migration. The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines also produces a cellulose binding protein (Hg CBP) secretory protein. To determine the function of CBP, an orthologous cDNA clone (Hs CBP) was isolated from the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii, which is able to infect Arabidopsis thaliana. CBP is expressed only in the early phases of feeding cell formation and not during the migratory phase. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hs CBP developed longer roots and exhibited enhanced susceptibility to H. schachtii. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified Arabidopsis pectin methylesterase protein 3 (PME3) as strongly and specifically interacting with Hs CBP. Transgenic plants overexpressing PME3 also produced longer roots and exhibited increased susceptibility to H. schachtii, while a pme3 knockout mutant showed opposite phenotypes. Moreover, CBP overexpression increases PME3 activity in planta. Localization studies support the mode of action of PME3 as a cell wall-modifying enzyme. Expression of CBP in the pme3 knockout mutant revealed that PME3 is required but not the sole mechanism for CBP overexpression phenotype. These data indicate that CBP directly interacts with PME3 thereby activating and potentially targeting this enzyme to aid cyst nematode parasitism.

  2. Characterization of the Seed Coat Mucilage Properties of Ephemeral Plant Lepidium perfoliatum L.in Xinjiang%新疆短命植物抱茎独行菜种子粘液质特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷丽丽; 刘立鸿; 油天钰; 兰海燕; 张富春

    2008-01-01

    以新疆荒漠植物抱茎独行菜为材料,运用光镜与扫描电镜观察以及紫外吸收光谱法、化学反应及种子萌发实验等方法,对粘液质的形态和结构,物理化学特性,粘液质对种子萌发及萌发后的影响进行了研究.结果显示:(1)完整干种子表面覆盖着一层膜状物质(完全脱水的粘液质),并呈同一走向的山脊状突出的网状结构,遇水后粘液物质呈射线状向外发射出来,化学反应实验结果表明,粘液质的组成可能是某种多糖,如β-葡聚糖.(2)粘液质约占干种子重量?/4,有很强的吸水能力,完全浸润?0 min后,种子重量增加约30~40倍,种子长度、宽度、厚度的增加分别多于1倍、2倍、4倍;完全润湿的种子能够粘附相当于其干种子重量68倍的沙粒.(3)种皮粘液质对于不同土壤基质中的种子萌发有重要作用,但是对萌发后幼苗的生长没有作用.%In present study,an ephemeral plant species which distributes in Xinjiang desert Lepidium perfoliatum L.was studied on the seed coat mucilage as follows:morphology and structure,chemical and physical properties,effect of the mucilage on seed germination and post-germination by methods of light microscope and scanning electron microscopy observation,UV absorption spectrum,chemical reaction,and seed germination.The result revealed:(1)the surface of intact dry seeds covered pellicle (dehydrated mucilage) layer and displayed structure of network which was ridge-like protuberance along the same direction;when contact with water,the hydrated seed emitted mucilaginous substance as many radial cords.Results of various chemical reactions of mucilage suggested that the component might be some polysaccharide as β-glucan.(2)The physical properties revealed that mucilage accounted for approximately 1/4 of dry seed weight,it had high capacity in water catchment,after fully wetting within 10 min,seed weight increased for about 30~40 times;the seed size increased more

  3. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  4. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  5. Myosin Vc Is Specialized for Transport on a Secretory Superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladewski, Thomas E; Krementsova, Elena B; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2016-08-22

    A hallmark of the well-studied vertebrate class Va myosin is its ability to take multiple steps on actin as a single molecule without dissociating, a feature called "processivity." Therefore, it was surprising when kinetic and single-molecule assays showed that human myosin Vc (MyoVc) was not processive on single-actin filaments [1-3]. We explored the possibility that MyoVc is processive only under conditions that resemble its biological context. Recently, it was shown that zymogen vesicles are transported on actin "superhighways" composed of parallel actin cables nucleated by formins from the plasma membrane [4]. Loss of these cables compromises orderly apical targeting of vesicles. MyoVc has been implicated in transporting secretory vesicles to the apical membrane [5]. We hypothesized that actin cables regulate the processive properties of MyoVc. We show that MyoVc is unique in taking variable size steps, which are frequently in the backward direction. Results obtained with chimeric constructs implicate the lever arm/rod of MyoVc as being responsible for these properties. Actin bundles allow single MyoVc motors to move processively. Remarkably, even teams of MyoVc motors require actin bundles to move continuously at physiological ionic strength. The irregular stepping pattern of MyoVc, which may result from flexibility in the lever arm/rod of MyoVc, appears to be a unique structural adaptation that allows the actin track to spatially restrict the activity of MyoVc to specialized actin cables in order to co-ordinate and target the final stages of vesicle secretion.

  6. Secretory patterns of prolactin in dogs: circannual and ultradian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada, Y; Castex, G; Sosa, Y; Gobello, C

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize in dogs circannual and ultradian prolactin (PRL) secretory patterns and also to compare gender differences in the ultradian period of study in the Southern hemisphere. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 2.5 h from seven male and seven female dogs and a single monthly sampling, over a 1-year time span, from six male dogs for the ultradian and circannual studies, respectively. Plasma PRL was measured by a homologous enzyme immunometric assay. The ultradian study evidenced PRL elevations suggesting pulsatile secretion in both genders. Significantly higher mean smoothed baseline (ng / ml [7.02 +/- 1.2 vs 1.23 +/- 1.0, p < 0.01]) and AUC (ng/ml * 2.5 h [25.2 +/- 3.8 vs 4.4 +/- 3.8, p < 0.01]) were found in females when compared with males. In the circannual study, plasma PRL concentrations did not statistically differ among the months of the year. When grouped together the 3 months with a longer daylight had significantly higher PRL concentrations than the 3 months with the shortest (2.31 +/- 0.37 vs 0.96 +/- 0.37, p < 0.01). The correlation between length of daylight and PRL concentrations was 0.24, p < 0.05. It is concluded that PRL does have a circannual rhythmicity and that there are ultradian gender-related differences in the period under study in these groups of dogs. This study also demonstrates plasma PRL elevations suggesting pulsatile secretion in male dogs.

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.2 68418.m07919 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.1 68418.m07918 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.1 68418.m07918 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.4 68418.m07921 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.3 68418.m07920 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.2 68418.m07919 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.4 68418.m07921 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.3 68418.m07920 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105527 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105527 001-127-G05 At5g63090.4 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries prot...ein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-52 ...

  16. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR…

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-11 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288052 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288052 J075151I09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 6e-14 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240911 J065037E05 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-22 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241119 J065094C22 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-13 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243149 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243149 J100032I21 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 7e-12 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-15 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287479 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287479 J043023O14 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 1e-17 ...

  4. Reference: 631 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ggest that atRZ-1a has a negative impact on seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis under salt o...binding protein, atRZ-1a, has a negative impact on seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thali

  5. 五种楠属植物叶片油细胞和黏液细胞的比较%Comparative Studies on Oil Cell and Mucilage Cell in the Leaves of 5 Phoebe Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存宇; 万小丽; 张建; 费永俊

    2015-01-01

    Using the method of organization transparent and paraffin section, the indices including shape, diameter and distri-bution of density and specific distribution in mesophyll of medium oil cell and mucilage cell of the leave of five species of Phoebe Nees [P.faberi (Hemsl.) Chun, P.chekiangensis C B Shang, P.bournei (Hemsl.) Yang , P.zhennan S.Lee et F N Wei, P.sheareri (Hemsl.) Gamble] were comparatively studied The results are as follows, oil cells are round in shape with their diameter ranks from 20 to 35 μm; most mucilage cells are elliptical in shape with their diameter ranks from 30 to 75μm.The difference in density of oil cells and mucilage cells between some species is significant.Observed from the cross sec-tion of leaves, oil cells and mucilage cells of the 5 species are all distributed in palisade tissue and near the upper epidermis%利用组织透明法和石蜡切片法比较研究了楠属(Phoebe Nees)5种植物竹叶楠[Phoebe faberi (Hemsl.) Chun]﹑浙江楠(P.chekiangensis C B Shang)﹑闽楠[P.bournei (Hemsl.) Yang]﹑楠木(P.zhennan S.Lee et F N Wei)和紫楠[P.sheareri (Hemsl.) Gamble]叶片中油细胞与黏液细胞的形状﹑直径﹑分布密度以及在叶肉中的具体分布.结果表明,5种楠属植物叶片中油细胞均为圆形,直径20~35μm;黏液细胞多为椭圆形,长轴直径30~75μm. 2种细胞的分布密度在某些种类之间差异显著. 从叶片横切面观察,5种植物的油细胞和黏液细胞均分布于栅栏组织,且靠近上表皮.

  6. Histological and histochemical characterization of the secretory cells of Choeradoplana iheringi Graff, 1899 (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Terricola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. de Souza

    Full Text Available The present study aims at providing a detailed description of the histology, as well as the first histochemical characterization, of the secretory cells of the epidermis, pharynx, and copulatory organs of Choeradoplana iheringi, in order to give further support to studies on the physiology of these organs. The secretory cells are distinguished on the basis of secretion morphology and its staining properties, using trichrome methods and histochemical reactions. Four cell types open through the epidermis of Ch. iheringi, three of them secreting basic protein and a fourth containing glycosaminoglycan mucins. The epidermal lining cells store glycogen. In the pharynx, four secretory cell types were distinguished. Two types produce glycoprotein, a third type secretes basic protein, and another one produces glycosaminoglycan mucins. In the male copulatory organs, the prostatic vesicle receives four secretory cell types containing basic protein, except for one type which produces glycoprotein. The two secretory cell types opening into the male atrium secrete, respectively, glycoprotein, and glycosaminoglycan mucins. In the female copulatory organs, the female atrium and its proximal diverticulum, the vagina, receive two types of secretory cells producing, respectively, basic protein and glycosaminoglycan mucins. Another secretory cell type constitutes the so-called shell glands which open into the common glandular duct, secreting basic protein. The lining cells of the male and female atria produce a mucous secretion containing glycosaminoglycans. In addition, the lining epithelium of the female atrium presents an apical secretion of a proteic nature. The occurrence of a kind of spermatophore is reported for the first time for a species of Choeradoplana. This structure is located in the male or female atria in different specimens, and characterized by erythrophil, xanthophil, and/or mixed secretions associated with sperm.

  7. Arabidopsis spermidine synthase is targeted by an effector protein of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewezi, Tarek; Howe, Peter J; Maier, Tom R; Hussey, Richard S; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J

    2010-02-01

    Cyst nematodes are sedentary plant parasites that cause dramatic cellular changes in the plant root to form feeding cells, so-called syncytia. 10A06 is a cyst nematode secretory protein that is most likely secreted as an effector into the developing syncytia during early plant parasitism. A homolog of the uncharacterized soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), 10A06 gene was cloned from the sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), which is able to infect Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Constitutive expression of 10A06 in Arabidopsis affected plant morphology and increased susceptibility to H. schachtii as well as to other plant pathogens. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, we identified Spermidine Synthase2 (SPDS2), a key enzyme involved in polyamine biosynthesis, as a specific 10A06 interactor. In support of this protein-protein interaction, transgenic plants expressing 10A06 exhibited elevated SPDS2 mRNA abundance, significantly higher spermidine content, and increased polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity. Furthermore, the SPDS2 promoter was strongly activated in the nematode-induced syncytia, and transgenic plants overexpressing SPDS2 showed enhanced plant susceptibility to H. schachtii. In addition, in planta expression of 10A06 or SPDS2 increased mRNA abundance of a set of antioxidant genes upon nematode infection. These data lend strong support to a model in which the cyst nematode effector 10A06 exerts its function through the interaction with SPDS2, thereby increasing spermidine content and subsequently PAO activity. Increasing PAO activity results in stimulating the induction of the cellular antioxidant machinery in syncytia. Furthermore, we observed an apparent disruption of salicylic acid defense signaling as a function of 10A06. Most likely, increased antioxidant protection and interruption of salicylic acid signaling are key aspects of 10A06 function in addition to other physiological and morphological changes caused by altered polyamines

  8. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  9. The Organization Pattern of Root Border-Like Cells of Arabidopsis Is Dependent on Cell Wall Homogalacturonan12[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Follet-Gueye, Marie Laure; Duponchel, Ludovic; Moreau, Myriam; Lerouge, Patrice; Driouich, Azeddine

    2009-01-01

    Border-like cells are released by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root tips as organized layers of several cells that remain attached to each other rather than completely detached from each other, as is usually observed in border cells of many species. Unlike border cells, cell attachment between border-like cells is maintained after their release into the external environment. To investigate the role of cell wall polysaccharides in the attachment and organization of border-like cells, we have examined their release in several well-characterized mutants defective in the biosynthesis of xyloglucan, cellulose, or pectin. Our data show that among all mutants examined, only quasimodo mutants (qua1-1 and qua2-1), which have been characterized as producing less homogalacturonan, had an altered border-like cell phenotype as compared with the wild type. Border-like cells in both lines were released as isolated cells separated from each other, with the phenotype being much more pronounced in qua1-1 than in qua2-1. Further analysis of border-like cells in the qua1-1 mutant using immunocytochemistry and a set of anti-cell wall polysaccharide antibodies showed that the loss of the wild-type phenotype was accompanied by (1) a reduction in homogalacturonan-JIM5 epitope in the cell wall of border-like cells, confirmed by Fourier transform infrared microspectrometry, and (2) the secretion of an abundant mucilage that is enriched in xylogalacturonan and arabinogalactan-protein epitopes, in which the cells are trapped in the vicinity of the root tip. PMID:19448034

  10. A pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1 and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Simhon, Zohar; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Trainin, Taly; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Holland, Doron

    2011-11-01

    Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), encoding a WD40-repeat protein. The TTG1 protein is a regulator of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and acts by the formation of a transcriptional regulatory complex with two other regulatory proteins: bHLH and MYB. Our results reveal that the pomegranate gene, designated PgWD40, recovered the anthocyanin, PAs, trichome and seed coat mucilage phenotype in Arabidopsis ttg1 mutant. PgWD40 expression and anthocyanin composition in the skin were analyzed during pomegranate fruit development, in two accessions that differ in skin color intensity and timing of appearance. The results indicate high positive correlation between the total cyanidin derivatives quantity (red pigments) and the expression level of PgWD40. Furthermore, strong correlation was found between the steady state levels of PgWD40 transcripts and the transcripts of pomegranate homologues of the structural genes PgDFR and PgLDOX. PgWD40, PgDFR and PgLDOX expression also correlated with the expression of pomegranate homologues of the regulatory genes PgAn1 (bHLH) and PgAn2 (MYB). On the basis of our results we propose that PgWD40 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development and that expression of PgWD40, PgAn1 and PgAn2 in the pomegranate fruit skin is required to regulate the expression of downstream structural genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  11. Localization of Cyclo-Oxygenase and Prostaglandin E2 in the Secretory Granule of the Mast Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    cascade during exocytosis. Keywords: Cyclo-oxygenase; Prostaglandin E2; Secretory granules; Mast cell ; Exocytosis; Lipid mediators; Inflammation; Arachidonic acid; Eicosanoids; Immunocytochemistry; Reprints. (KT)

  12. Consensus statement: octreotide dose titration in secretory diarrhea. Diarrhea Management Consensus Development Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A G; O'Dorisio, T M; Woltering, E A; Anthony, L B; Burton, F R; Geller, R B; Grendell, J H; Levin, B; Redfern, J S

    1995-07-01

    Octreotide is an effective therapeutic option in controlling secretory diarrhea of varied etiology. However, marked patient-to-patient differences in the antidiarrheal effects necessitate titration of octreotide dose in individual patients to achieve optimal symptom control. A consensus development panel established guidelines for octreotide dose titration in patients with secretory diarrhea. Overall, the panel recommended an aggressive approach in selecting the initial octreotide dose and in making subsequent dose escalations in patients with secretory diarrhea due to gastrointestinal tumors (eg, carcinoids, VIPomas), AIDS, dumping syndrome, short bowel syndrome, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. To avoid hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus-associated secretory diarrhea, the panel recommended a low initial octreotide dose and a conservative titration regimen with close monitoring a blood glucose levels. The end point of therapy should focus on a reduction in diarrhea (frequency of bowel movements or stool volume) rather than normalization of hormonal profile. Overall, octreotide is well tolerated; principal side effects are transient injection site pain and gastrointestinal discomfort. For many patients with secretory diarrhea, octreotide therapy is expected to improve the overall health and quality of life and in the long run will lessen health care costs.

  13. Modulation of dendritic cell function by Trichomonas vaginalis-derived secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Ji; Lee, Jong-Joo; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Mikyoung; Choi, Ye-Eun; Shin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo

    2015-02-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells that initiate immune responses by directing the activation and differentiation of naïve T cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Trichomonas vaginalis-derived Secretory Products on the differentiation and function of dendritic cells. Differentiation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the presence of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products resulted in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation of dendritic cells, down-regulation of IL-12, and up-regulation of IL-10. The protein components of T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Products were shown to be responsible for altered function of bone marrow- derived dendritic cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that IL-12 expression was regulated at the chromatin level in T. vaginalis-derived Secretory Productstreated dendritic cells. Our results demonstrated that T. vaginalis- derived Secretory Products modulate the maturation and cytokine production of dendritic cells leading to immune tolerance.

  14. Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of rat testosterone production by excretory-secretory product of the cultured metacestode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Fukaya, T

    1985-06-01

    In 3- to 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats infected with the hepatic metacestode, Taenia taeniaeformis, the serum testosterone level was significantly lower than in comparable uninfected controls. By transmission electron microscopy, testicular Leydig cells of infected rats had less smooth endoplasmic reticulum than control Leydig cells. Cultured metacestodes isolated from the hepatic cysts secreted or excreted substances into the incubation medium. The effect of the excretory-secretory product on testosterone concentration in the sera and testes of 15-day-old rats was examined. Subcutaneous injection of 50-200 micrograms of excretory-secretory product/0.1 ml saline/rat for 2 days significantly reduced human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated serum and testicular testosterone concentrations. Furthermore, the effect of the excretory-secretory product on isolated rat Leydig cell testosterone production was examined. Rat Leydig cells produced testosterone in vitro and, in the presence of 50 IU human chorionic gonadotropin/ml incubation medium, they responded with approximately 100% increase in testosterone production. Addition of 2-10 micrograms excretory-secretory product protein/ml of culture medium significantly reduced the testosterone production by rat Leydig cells in vitro. These results indicate that excretory-secretory product of cultured T. taeniaeformis metacestodes has a direct inhibitory effect on Leydig cell testosterone production under stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin.

  15. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  16. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  17. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    , we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation...... was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported...... by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...

  18. Rab3D is critical for secretory granule maturation in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kögel

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide- and hormone-containing secretory granules (SGs are synthesized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN as immature secretory granules (ISGs and complete their maturation in the F-actin-rich cell cortex. This maturation process is characterized by acidification-dependent processing of cargo proteins, condensation of the SG matrix and removal of membrane and proteins not destined to mature secretory granules (MSGs. Here we addressed a potential role of Rab3 isoforms in these maturation steps by expressing their nucleotide-binding deficient mutants in PC12 cells. Our data show that the presence of Rab3D(N135I decreases the restriction of maturing SGs to the F-actin-rich cell cortex, blocks the removal of the endoprotease furin from SGs and impedes the processing of the luminal SG protein secretogranin II. This strongly suggests that Rab3D is implicated in the subcellular localization and maturation of ISGs.

  19. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M;

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here...... was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported...... dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus...

  20. Reference: 572 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available et al. 2007 May. Plant J. 50(3):439-51. Although glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 2 (GRP2) has been implicated in plant re...sponses to environmental stresses, the function and importance of GRP2 in stress responses are largely unknown. Here...haliana under high-salinity, cold or osmotic stress. GRP2 affects seed germination of Arabidopsis plants under salt stre...ss, but does not influence seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis plants under osmotic stre...ss. GRP2 accelerates seed germination and seedling growth in Arabidopsis plants under cold stre

  1. Reference: 446 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rk E et al. 2006 Nov. Plant Physiol. 142(3):1004-13. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) QUARTET (QRT) genes are require...d for pollen separation during normal floral development. In qrt mutants, the four products of microsporogenesis re...main fused and pollen grains are released as tetrads. In Arabid...opsis, tetrad analysis in qrt mutants has been used to map all five centromeres, easily distinguish sporophy...tic from gametophytic mutations, and accurately assess crossover interference. Using a combination of forward and re

  2. A highly sensitive assay for monitoring the secretory pathway and ER stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E Badr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secretory pathway is a critical index of the capacity of cells to incorporate proteins into cellular membranes and secrete proteins into the extracellular space. Importantly it is disrupted in response to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum that can be induced by a variety of factors, including expression of mutant proteins and physiologic stress. Activation of the ER stress response is critical in the etiology of a number of diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration, as well as cancer. We have developed a highly sensitive assay to monitor processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in real-time based on the naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An expression cassette for Gluc was delivered to cells, and its secretion was monitored by measuring luciferase activity in the conditioned medium. Gluc secretion was decreased down to 90% when these cells were treated with drugs that interfere with the secretory pathway at different steps. Fusing Gluc to a fluorescent protein allowed quantitation and visualization of the secretory pathway in real-time. Expression of this reporter protein did not itself elicit an ER stress response in cells; however, Gluc proved very sensitive at sensing this type of stress, which is associated with a temporary decrease in processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. The Gluc secretion assay was over 20,000-fold more sensitive as compared to the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP, a well established assay for monitoring of protein processing and ER stress in mammalian cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Gluc assay provides a fast, quantitative and sensitive technique to monitor the secretory pathway and ER stress and its compatibility with high throughput screening will allow discovery of drugs for treatment of conditions in which the ER stress is generally induced.

  3. Distribution and structure of internal secretory reservoirs on the vegetative organs of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and topography of endogenous secretory tissues of Inula helenium L. By using light and electron microscopy, morphological and anatomical observations of stems, leaves and rhizomes were made. It was shown that in the stems secretory cavities were situated in the vicinity of phloem and xylem bundles. The number of the reservoirs reached its maximum value (34 at shoot flowerig termination, whereas the cavities with the largest diameter were observed at full flowering stage (44.6 µm. In the leaf petioles and midribs, the reservoirs also accompanied the vascular bundles, and their number and size increased along with the growth of the assimilation organs. Observations of the cross sections of the rhizomes revealed the presence of several rings of secretory reservoirs. The measurements of the cavities showed that as a rule the reservoirs with a larger dimension were located in the phelloderm, whereas the smallest ones in the xylem area. The secretory cavities located in the stems and leaves developed by schizogenesis, whereas the rhizome reservoirs were probably formed schizolisygenously. The cells lining the reservoirs formed a one - four-layered epithelium. Observed in TEM, the secretory cells of the mature cavities located in the rhizomes were characterised by the presence of a large central vacuole, whereas the protoplast was largely degraded. Fibrous elements of osmophilic secretion and numerous different coloured vesicles could be distinguished in it. The cell walls formed, from the side of the reservoir lumen, ingrowths into the interior of the epithelial cells. Between the cell wall and the plasmalemma of the glandular cells, a brighter periplasmatic zone with secretory vesicles was observed.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is sorted to the secretory granules in pancreatic islet A-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mona Dam; Hansen, Gert Helge; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1993-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV:EC 3.4.14.5) was localized in endocrine cells of pig pancreas by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. Immunolight microscopy with both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies demonstrated DP IV immunoreactivity in cells located in the peripheral part...... labeling using a monoclonal glucagon antibody as the second primary antibody. These results show that DP IV is sorted to secretory granules in the pig pancreatic islet A-cells. Furthermore, this secretory granule enzyme, as opposed to intestinal brush border DP IV, is suggested to be a soluble protein...

  5. The secretory membrane system studied in real-time. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippincott-Schwartz, J

    2001-08-01

    The discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, has revolutionized studies on protein localization and dynamics by allowing direct observation of a protein's life history and pathway in living cells, previously only deduced from genetic, biochemical, or immunolabeling studies. Applied to the secretory membrane system, which regulates delivery of newly synthesized proteins and lipids to the cell surface, GFP-based studies are providing important new insights into the maintenance and biogenesis of organelles, as well as the origin, pathway, and fate of secretory transport intermediates.

  6. File list: His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2688,SRX1002689 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube...2680,SRX1002681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fall...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fall...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallo...2681,SRX1002688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallo...2689,SRX1002688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fall...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  19. Reference: 488 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Inactivation of ATAB2 strongly affects Arabidopsis development and thylakoid mem...n center subunits is decreased and the association of their mRNAs with polysomes is affected. ATAB2 is a chl

  20. Reference: 212 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available identified in pea (Pisum sativum) using biochemical approaches. The Arabidopsis (...C75-IV, which we studied using a range of molecular, genetic, and biochemical techniques. Expression of atTO

  1. Reference: 480 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available activity was analyzed. Compared to all other Suc transporters, AtSUC9 had an ult...abidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) L. Heynh., was expressed in Xenopus (Xenopus laevis) oocytes, and transport

  2. Reference: 507 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available een them. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the two pathways and the metabolic cro...ss-talk. To identify such regulatory mechanisms, we isolated and characterized the Arabidopsis T-DNA inserti

  3. Reference: 278 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available functional ERA1 gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of protein farnesyltransferase (PFT), exhibit pleiotropic effects...gnaling and meristem development. Here, we report the effects of T-DNA insertion mutations in the Arabidopsi

  4. Reference: 185 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available organisms, we suggest that AtARP4 is likely to exert its effects on plant develop...nuclear actin-related protein AtARP4 in Arabidopsis has multiple effects on plant development, including ear

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069960 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-60 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-112 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104764 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK098998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-57 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-100 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103387 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntical to SC35-like splicing factor SCL28, 28 kD [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9843655; contains Pfam profile PF00076: RNA recognition motif. (a.k.a. RRM, RBD, or RNP domain) 2e-34 ...

  12. Reference: 564 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 39-44 17360695 2007 Feb Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un...tion in plants. Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein crucial for Ca2+ influx and touch sensing in roots. 9 36

  13. Reference: 796 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America DeBolt...required for normal microtubule dynamics and organization in Arabidopsis. 46 18064-9 19004800 2008 Nov Pro

  14. Reference: 67 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A complete knockout of AGD2 renders embryos inviable. We suggest that AGD2 synthesizes an important amino a...no acid-derived molecule important for activating defense signaling. Divergent roles in Arabidopsis thaliana

  15. Reference: 420 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available are found in various compartments in plant cells. The cytosolic and chloroplast APXs appear to play important...d development, suggesting that APX3 may not be an important antioxidant enzyme in Arabidopsis, at least unde

  16. Reference: 771 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT), an Arabidopsis thaliana gene important for light regula...l elongation in xct is hyposensitive to red light but hypersensitive to blue light. Finally, XCT is important

  17. Reference: 797 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available that the level of GMPase activity regulates Arabidopsis sensitivity to NH(4)(+). Further analysis showed that defective N-glycosylati...on of proteins, unfolded protein response, and cell death in the roots are likely i

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241712 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241712 J065197H24 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 6e-27 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242957 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242957 J090089I15 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-28 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287726 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287726 J065138E17 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-88 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242387 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242387 J080051E14 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-45 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106306 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106306 002-101-C10 At4g37750.1 ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) ident...ical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-89 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241272 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241272 J065132I19 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-88 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240892 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240892 J065030K10 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-88 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109848 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109848 002-148-F05 At4g37750.1 ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) ident...ical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-73 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287673 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287673 J065121E18 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 6e-17 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287621 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287621 J065066I09 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-85 ...

  8. Reference: 142 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te S-glucosyltransferase, UGT74B1, to determine its role in the Arabidopsis glucosinolate pathway. Biochem...ical analyses demonstrate that recombinant UGT74B1 specifically glucosylates the th

  9. Reference: 522 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tol phosphate (InsP) and phosphoinositide phosphate (PtdInsP) substrates. Arabidopsis thaliana has 15 genes encoding 5PTases. Biochem...ical analyses of a subgroup of 5PTase enzymes suggest th

  10. Reference: 459 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plants. These results suggest an additive contribution of AMT1;1 and AMT1;3 to the overall ammonium uptake ...capacity in Arabidopsis roots under nitrogen-deficiency conditions. Additive contribution

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  12. Reference: 645 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rter AtDUR3 in nitrogen nutrition in Arabidopsis. In transgenic lines expressing ... impaired growth on urea as a sole nitrogen source were used to investigate a role of the H+/urea co-transpo

  13. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  14. Reference: 711 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of the RLK signaling pathway, which also mediates adaptation to Na(+) stress. RLK pathway components, known... The Arabidopsis kinase-associated protein phosphatase regulates adaptation to Na+ stress. 2 612-22 18162596

  15. Reference: 734 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available umi et al. 2008 Apr. Development 135(7):1335-45. CAPRICE (CPC) encodes a small protein with an R3 MYB motif ...doreduplication. Arabidopsis CAPRICE-LIKE MYB 3 (CPL3) controls endoreduplication and flowering development

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101526 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ucosaminyltransferase, putative similar to N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5139335]; contains AT-AC non-consensus splice sites at intron 13 1e-179 ...

  17. Reference: 733 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available role in this transition. Specifically, two autonomous factors in the Arabidopsis...tes FCA alternative polyadenylation and promotes flowering as a novel factor in the autonomous pathway. Firs

  18. Reference: 343 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the characterization of a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Arabidopsis CAP-C gene. Analysis of the progeny of selfe...matin was observed between segregating mitotic chromosomes in pollen produced by selfed heterozygotes. Addit

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241281 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 3e-19 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241243 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 6e-11 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243188 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 8e-23 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242986 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 1e-17 ...

  3. Reference: 30 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponse to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However the physiological role of t...his pathway remains obscure. To elucidate its role in plants, we analyzed Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout mutants

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062082 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062082 001-044-F11 At3g59970.3 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1 (MTHFR1) ide...ntical to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:5911425 4e-81 ...

  5. Reference: 783 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sis ACBP6 was confirmed by analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged ACBP6 and w... mRNA encoding phospholipase Ddelta. Lipid profiling analyses of rosettes from co

  6. Reference: 789 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylakoid membranes. Microarray analysis of the chl27-t mutant showed repression of numerous nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis...d CHL27 proteins. Role of Arabidopsis CHL27 protein for photosynthesis, chloroplast development and gene exp

  7. Reference: 352 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available em II and has a specific function distinct from 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in protecting photosynthesis. Its absenc...f Arabidopsis thaliana is attached to the thylakoids and functions in context of photosynthesis

  8. Reference: 21 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ication of a number of mutant lines with altered Chl fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of photosynthesis...cation of mutants of Arabidopsis defective in acclimation of photosynthesis to th

  9. Reference: 413 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ollination and fertilization, and, in the absence of fertilization, flowers senesce. In the Arabidopsis thal...ARF8 acts as an inhibitor to stop further carpel development in the absence of fertilization and the generat

  10. Reference: 405 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as previously thought. These mutants will prove to be valuable resources for understanding laccase functions in vivo. Mutant identifi...cation and characterization of the laccase gene family in Arabidopsis. 11 2563-9 16

  11. Reference: 263 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available idopsis leaves GLB1 expression and PII protein levels were not significantly affected by either the day/nigh...bolism. Physiological characterisation of Arabidopsis mutants affected in the expression of the putative reg

  12. Reference: 160 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available excessive accumulation of these toxic compounds impairs cell death containment and counteracts the effect...iveness of the plant defenses to restrict pathogen infection. Arabidopsis SHMT1, a

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  14. Reference: 301 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n phosphatidylinositol metabolism and is encoded by an At5PTase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. A previous study...ntracellular calcium levels. In this study, we provide evidence that At5PTase13 m

  15. Reference: 724 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is required in the roots during early signaling steps of rhizobacteria-mediated ...ISR. MYB72 is required in early signaling steps of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis.

  16. Reference: 289 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f flavonoids in Arabidopsis seed coat. 11 2966-80 16243908 2005 Nov The Plant cell Caboche Michel|Debeaujon Isabelle|Kerhoas Lucien|Lepiniec Loïc|Pourcel Lucille|Routaboul Jean-Marc

  17. Reference: 684 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cellular proliferation and expansion at nanomolar concentrations. PSY1 is widely expressed in various Arabi...ulfated glycopeptide involved in cellular proliferation and expansion in Arabidopsis. 46 18333-8 17989228 20

  18. Reference: 147 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the region-specific control of trichome development of Arabidopsis. 3 389-98 15604688 2004 May Plant molecular biology Hulskamp Mart...in|Kirik Victor|Schiefelbein John|Simon Marissa|Wester Katja

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  1. Reference: 798 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iption factors, control the delicately tuned reorientation and timing of cell div...EZ and SOMBRERO control the orientation of cell division plane in Arabidopsis root stem cells. 6 913-22 1908

  2. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPase ALA3 Reduces Adaptability to Temperature Stresses and Impairs Vegetative, Pollen, and Ovule Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowell, Stephen C.; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager;

    2013-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to help create asymmetry in lipid bilayers by flipping specific lipids between the leaflets of a membrane. This asymmetry is believed to be central to the formation of vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana......) to less than 0.2% (stressed). Together, these results support a model in which ALA3 functions to modify endomembranes in multiple cell types, enabling structural changes, or signaling functions that are critical in plants for normal development and adaptation to varied growth environments....

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071710 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071710 J023110L07 At4g14030.1 selenium-binding protein, putative contains Pfam profile PF05694: 56kDa sele...nium binding protein (SBP56); identical to Putative selenium-binding protein (Swiss...-Prot:O23264) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to selenium binding protein (GI:15485232) [Arabidopsis thalian...a]; identical to cDNA from partial mRNA for selenium binding protein (sbp gene) GI:15485231 1e-162 ...

  4. Reference: 221 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ell cycle. In addition, RAD51 is required for meiosis and its Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog is important... cell cultures, the RAD51 paralog RAD51C is also important for mitotic homologous...ortant for recombination and DNA repair in the mitotic c...chromosome (homolog) pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) RAD51 gene is known to be imp

  5. Reference: 598 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omoter is markedly reduced in the cdkc;2 and cyct1;5 mutants, indicating that the kinase complexes are important... flowering. These results establish Arabidopsis CDKC kinase complexes as important...T1;4 and CYCT1;5, play important roles in infection with Cauliflower mosaic virus...hat Arabidopsis thaliana CDK9-like proteins, CDKC;1 and CDKC;2, and their interacting cyclin T partners, CYC

  6. Resin secretory structures of Boswellia papyrifera and implications for frankincense yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolera, M.; Menger, D.; Sass, U.G.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Copini, P.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Frankincense, a gum-resin, has been tapped from Boswellia papyrifera trees for centuries. Despite the intensive tapping and economic interest of B. papyrifera, information on the resin secretory structures, which are responsible for synthesis, storage and transport of frankincense, is virtually abse

  7. Polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and are important for granule homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni García-Faroldi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased β-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles.

  8. Zinc transport complexes contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of secretory pathway function in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kaori; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Yoko; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Nagao, Masaya; Yamaguchi-Iwai, Yuko; Kambe, Taiho

    2006-06-30

    Zinc transporters play important roles in a wide range of biochemical processes. Here we report an important function of ZnT5/ZnT6 hetero-oligomeric complexes in the secretory pathway. The activity of human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expressed in ZnT5(-)ZnT7(-/-) cells was significantly reduced compared with that expressed in wild-type cells as in the case of endogenous chicken tissue-nonspecific ALP activity. The inactive human tissue-nonspecific ALP in ZnT5(-)ZnT7(-/-) cells was degraded by proteasome-mediated degradation without being trafficked to the plasma membrane. ZnT5(-)ZnT7(-/-) cells showed exacerbation of the unfolded protein response as did the wild-type cells cultured under a zinc-deficient condition, revealing that both complexes play a role in homeostatic maintenance of secretory pathway function. Furthermore, we showed that expression of ZnT5 mRNA was up-regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum stress in various cell lines. The up-regulation of the hZnT5 transcript was mediated by transcription factor XBP1 through the TGACGTGG sequence in the hZnT5 promoter, and this sequence was highly conserved in the ZnT5 genes of mouse and chicken. These results suggest that zinc transport into the secretory pathway is strictly regulated for the homeostatic maintenance of secretory pathway function in vertebrate cells.

  9. THE ROLE OF SECRETORY GRANULES IN RADIATION-INDUCED DYSFUNCTION OF RAT SALIVARY-GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; SGRAVENMADE, EJ; KONINGS, AWT

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini, At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy o

  10. Phosphorylation of αSNAP is Required for Secretory Organelle Biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Rebecca J; Ferguson, David J P; Whitehead, Lachlan; Bradin, Clare H; Wu, Hong J; Tonkin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Upon infection, apicomplexan parasites quickly invade host cells and begin a replicative cycle rapidly increasing in number over a short period of time, leading to tissue lysis and disease. The secretory pathway of these highly polarized protozoan parasites tightly controls, in time and space, the biogenesis of specialized structures and organelles required for invasion and intracellular survival. In other systems, regulation of protein trafficking can occur by phosphorylation of vesicle fusion machinery. Previously, we have shown that Toxoplasma gondii αSNAP - a protein that controls the disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes--is phosphorylated. Here, we show that this post-translational modification is required for the correct function of αSNAP in controlling secretory traffic. We demonstrate that during intracellular development conditional expression of a non-phosphorylatable form of αSNAP results in Golgi fragmentation and vesiculation of all downstream secretory organelles. In addition, we show that the vestigial plastid (termed apicoplast), although reported not to be reliant on Golgi trafficking for biogenesis, is also affected upon overexpression of αSNAP and is much more sensitive to the levels of this protein than targeting to other organelles. This work highlights the importance of αSNAP and its phosphorylation in Toxoplasma organelle biogenesis and exposes a hereto fore-unexplored mechanism of regulation of vesicle fusion during secretory pathway trafficking in apicomplexan parasites.

  11. Human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in squamous metaplastic epithelium of bronchial airways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarbiou, J.; Schadewijk, A. van; Stolk, J.; Sont, J.K.; Boer, W.I.; Rabe, K.F.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Mauad, T.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze a possible contribution of human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) to the induction of airway epithelial changes such as squamous cell metaplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presence of these molecules and the num

  12. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor-competent DNA deposits are potent stimulators of plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Joanna; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Zabieglo, Katarzyna;

    2012-01-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is a well-established inhibitor of serine proteases such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and a NF-κB regulatory agent in immune cells. In this paper, we report that SLPI plays a previously uncharacterized role in regulating activation...

  13. The secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14, in women with ectopic gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Sørensen, Steen; Vejtorp, M;

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum level of the secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14 (PP14) and progesterone (P) in women with ectopic gestation. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected prospectively and preoperatively. Reference range was determined from a prospective population of 98...

  14. Intestinal Mucus Gel and Secretory Antibody are Barriers to Campylobacter jejuni Adherence to INT 407 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    An in vitro mucus assay was developed to study the role of mucus gel and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in preventing attachment of Campylobacter ... jejuni to INT 407 cells. An overlay of rabbit small intestinal mucus was found to impede the attachment of C. jejuni to a monolayer of INT 407 cells

  15. The cell outgrowth secretory endosome (COSE): a specialized compartment involved in neuronal morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Philipp; Galli, Thierry

    2003-10-01

    The role of intracellular membrane trafficking in cellular morphogenesis is still unclear. We propose here a prominent function of a recently identified compartment that we propose to call the cell outgrowth secretory endosome (COSE), the exocytosis of which is controlled by the v-SNARE TIVAMP and by cell-cell adhesion.

  16. [Immunochemical properties of the excretory-secretory antigen of Trichinella spiralis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akibekov, O S; Lider, L A; Odoevskiĭ, I M; Tokpan, S S; Ospanova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultivation of Trichinella spiralis provided data on the structure of somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of T. spiralis larvae, their immunochemical properties were studied. The findings suggest that work should be continued to produce monoclonal antibodies and to develop highly sensitive and specific ELISA test systems for the diagnosis of human and animal trichinosis.

  17. Morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of secretory production of the ciliary glands in the porcine eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Yasui

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to performing general histology and cytology of the ciliary glands of the miniature pig, we studied the localization of glycoconjugates and b-defensins in these glands with the use of carbohydrate histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells of the glands were equipped with non-homogeneous secretory granules, a welldeveloped Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory epithelium and luminal secretion of the glands contained large amounts of neutral and acidic glycoconjugates with various saccharide residues (a-L-Fuc, b-DGal, a-D-GalNAc and sialic acid. The sebaceous glands and tarsal glands also exhibited positive reactions to most of the histochemical methods. Additionally, the antimicrobial peptide group of b-defensins was demonstrated to be products of the ciliary glands, as well as the sebaceous glands and tarsal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the specific function of the ciliary glandular secretions. These secretory products may be related to the moistening and general protection of the skin surface of the eyelid and ocular surface.

  18. Assessment of a microplate method for detection of staphylococcal secretory inhibitor of platelet microbicidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iuri B; Gritsenko, Viktor A

    2009-01-01

    We developed a novel microplate spectrophotometric assay for the detection of staphylococcal secretory inhibitor of platelet microbicidal protein (SIPMP) in

  19. Analysis of protein localization and secretory pathway function using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallen, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants has been crucial in understanding a number of processes in the field of cell biology. In this exercise, students examine the effects of mutations in the secretory pathway on protein localization. Yeast strains deficient for synthesis of histidinol dehydrogenase are transformed with a plasmid encoding a chimeric protein. The chimera contains a signal sequence fused to histidinol dehydrogenase. A strain with a defect in the translocation of secretory proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accumulates sufficient histidinol dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm to grow on media lacking histidine. In contrast, yeast proficient for secretion, or yeast with secretion defects later in the pathway, are unable to grow on media lacking histidine. Student analysis of the experimental yeast transformants and appropriate controls allows investigation into the effects of conditional defects in the secretory pathway on both cell viability and protein localization. The exercise is usually performed in a manner that allows students to execute a number of techniques common in molecular biology laboratories, including plasmid minipreps, restriction digestions, and Southern blots. Student understanding and enjoyment of the exercise was assessed by laboratory reports, oral and written examinations, and questionnaires. After completion of these experiments, students can describe the utility of protein fusions, the roles of mutant analysis in cell biology, and the steps taken by proteins transiting the secretory pathway.

  20. Glutamate signalling and secretory phospholipase A2 modulate the release of arachidonic acid from neuronal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez De Turco, Elena B; Jackson, Fannie R; DeCoster, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    and secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) from bee venom (bv sPLA(2)) and Taipan snake venom (OS2) elicit synergy in inducing neuronal cell death. Low concentrations of sPLA(2) are selective ligands of cell-surface sPLA(2) receptors. We investigated which neuronal arachidonoyl phospholipids are targeted by glutamate...

  1. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells.

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    Steffen Nyegaard

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2's do not bind to plasma membranes of quiescent cells but bind and digest phospholipids on the membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells. The capacity of these phospholipases to digest membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells correlates to the exposure of phosphatidylserine. In the present study, the ability of the phosphatidyl-L-serine-binding protein, lactadherin to inhibit phospholipase enzyme activity has been assessed. Inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on phospholipid vesicles exceeded 90%, whereas inhibition of Naja mossambica sPLA2 plateaued at 50-60%. Lactadherin inhibited 45% of activity of Naja mossambica sPLA2 and >70% of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on the membranes of human NB4 leukemia cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187. The data indicate that lactadherin may decrease inflammation by inhibiting sPLA2.

  2. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

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    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  3. A Highway for War and Peace: The Secretory Pathway in Plant-Microbe Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Xinnian Dong

    2011-01-01

    Secretion of proteins and other molecules is the primary means by which a cell interacts with its surroundings.The overall organization of the secretory system is remarkably conserved among eukaryotes, and many of the components have been investigated in detail in animal models. Plant cells, because of their sessile lifestyle, are uniquely reliant on the secretory pathway to respond to changes in their environments, either abiotic, such as the absence of nutrients, or biotic,such as the presence of predators or pathogens. In particular, most plant pathogens are extracellular, which demands a robust and efficient host secretory system directed at the site of attack. Here, we present a summary of recent advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the secretory pathway during plant-microbe interactions. Secretion is required not only for the delivery of antimicrobial molecules, but also for the biogenesis of cell surface sensors to detemicrobes. The deposition of extracellular material is important in the defense against classical bacterial pathogens as well as in the so-called 'non-host" resistance. Finally, boosting the protein secretion capacity is vital for avoiding infection as well as for achieving symbiosis, even though in the latter case, the microbes are engulfed in intracellular compartments.The emerging evidence indicates that secretion provides an essential interface between plant hosts and their associated microbial partners.

  4. The Role of Adenoid Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Secretory Otitis Media

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    M. Faruk Oktay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the possible role of adenoid mast cells in the etiology of secretory otitis media. Between 2001-2002, 25 patients with chronic adenoitis and chronic secretory otitis media and 25 patients with isolated adenoid hypertrophy were included to the study. Adenoidectomy performed to the all patients under general anesthesia. Adenoidectomy specimens were evaluated under the light microscopy and the number of mast cells were calculated for each patient. The number of mast cells were compared between two groups. The number of mast cells were between 4-84 in the otitis media with effusion and adenoid hypertrophy group (median:52, however it was between 2-63 (median: 23 in the isolated adenoid hypertrophy group. When comparing the two groups using Mann-Withney U test, the number of mast cells found to be significantly higher in the chronic secretory otitis media group (p<0.001.Based on our findings there is a relationship between increased adenoid mast cells and otitis media with effusion and these cells may have a possible role in the etiology of chronic secretory otitis media.

  5. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

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    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  6. Observation on the Effect of Sertraline Combined withTetracaine Hydrochboride Mucilage on Premature Ejaculation%舍曲林联合盐酸丁卡因胶浆治疗早泄的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明卫; 栾兴玉; 郑详奇

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察舍曲林联合盐酸丁卡因胶浆治疗早泄的疗效.方法 选取泌尿外科早泄患者94例,随机分为对照组和治疗组,对照组采用行为疗法治疗,治疗组采用舍曲林与盐酸丁卡因胶浆联合治疗.观察治疗前后阴道内射精潜伏时间、性满意度、国际勃起功能指数评分和配偶性生活满意度评分变化来评价早泄的治疗效果.结果 与对照组及治疗前相比,治疗组患者IELT显著延长,患者性满意度明显提升,IIEF表中勃起功能指数评分及配偶性生活满意评分均有显著提高,且均具有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗过程不良反应轻微.结论 舍曲林联合盐酸丁卡因胶浆用于早泄治疗,疗效肯定,不良反应少,值得推广.%Objective: To observe the effect of sertraline and tetracaine hydrochloride mucilage in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Method: Selected 94 cases of premature ejaculation in urology, randomly divided into control group and treatment group. Control group was treated with behavior therapy, treatment group was treated with sertraline and tetracaine hydrochloride mucilage. Then observed vaginal ejaculation latency time, sexual satisfaction, international index of erectile function score and a spouse's sexual life satisfaction scores before and after the treatments. Result: Compared with control group, ejaculation latency time, sexual satisfaction, international index of erectile function score and a spouse's sexual life satisfaction scores were significantly enhanced( P<0. 05 ), only minor side effects could be observed. Conclusion: Effect of sertraline and tetracaine hydrochloride mucilage in the treatment of premature ejaculation has confirmed effects with minor side effects, which is worthy of promoting.

  7. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.

  8. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid: Is preoperative cytological diagnosis possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikita; Sanghvi, Kintan; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Menon, Santosh; Ramadwar, Mukta; Kane, Shubhada

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently recognized tumor of salivary gland with characteristic t(12;15)(q13;q25) that results in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Distinguishing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma from other salivary gland tumors is important. Present study highlights cytologic findings in three cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid which facilitate preoperative diagnosis with the aid of ancillary diagnostic techniques. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parotid was performed on three cases after clinical examination. Immunocytochemistry for mammoglobin and S100 were performed. Parotidectomy was done in all cases. The corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and blocks of all cases were studied. Molecular analysis was done in one of the cases. Cases 1 and 3 revealed uniform atypical epithelial cells arranged in branching papillary pattern with few cells in microcystic pattern. Case 2 showed atypical cells arranged mainly in loose clusters and few singly dissociated. Individual cells revealed round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant finely vacuolated cytoplasm with metachromasia prominent in May-Grunwald-Giemsa smear (case 3). Characteristic hob-nail cells covering papillae were observed in cases 1 and 3. Immunocytochemistry showed strong positivity for mammoglobin and S100 thereby confirming the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma preoperatively. The diagnosis was in concordance with surgical specimen. Also, characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation was confirmed in case 1. Increased awareness and high index of suspicion is necessary for the upfront diagnosis, more so for the papillary variant of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry aids in confirming this preoperative diagnosis, based on which treatment can be planned. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:519-525. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Calcium-containing phosphopeptides pave the secretory pathway for efficient protein traffic and secretion in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) containing chelated calcium drastically increase the secretion of extracellular homologous and heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. Casein phosphopeptides released by digestion of alpha - and beta-casein are rich in phosphoserine residues (SerP). They stimulate enzyme secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and enhance the immune response in mammals, and are used as food supplements. It is well known that casein phosphopeptides transport Ca2+ across the membranes and play an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis in the cells. Addition of CPPs drastically increases the production of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus as host for industrial enzyme production. Recent proteomics studies showed that CPPs alter drastically the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway in filamentous fungi, apparently because they change the calcium concentration in organelles that act as calcium reservoirs. In the organelles calcium homeostasis a major role is played by the pmr1 gene, that encodes a Ca2+/Mn2+ transport ATPase, localized in the Golgi complex; this transporter controls the balance between intra-Golgi and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. A Golgi-located casein kinase (CkiA) governs the ER to Golgi directionality of the movement of secretory proteins by interacting with the COPII coat of secretory vesicles when they reach the Golgi. Mutants defective in the casein-2 kinase CkiA show abnormal targeting of some secretory proteins, including cytoplasmic membrane amino acid transporters that in ckiA mutants are miss-targeted to vacuolar membranes. Interestingly, addition of CPPs increases a glyceraldehyde-3-phpshate dehydrogenase protein that is known to associate with microtubules and act as a vesicle/membrane fusogenic agent. In summary, CPPs alter the protein secretory pathway in fungi adapting it to a deregulated protein traffic through the organelles and vesicles what results in a drastic increase in secretion of heterologous and also of

  10. Effect of nicotine on exocytotic pancreatic secretory response: role of calcium signaling

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    Chowdhury Parimal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine is a risk factor for pancreatitis resulting in loss of pancreatic enzyme secretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of nicotine-induced secretory response measured in primary pancreatic acinar cells isolated from Male Sprague Dawley rats. The study examines the role of calcium signaling in the mechanism of the enhanced secretory response observed with nicotine exposure. Methods Isolated and purified pancreatic acinar cells were subjected to a nicotine exposure at a dose of 100 μM for 6 minutes and then stimulated with cholecystokinin (CCK for 30 min. The cell’s secretory response was measured by the percent of amylase released from the cells in the incubation medium Calcium receptor antagonists, inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers, mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors and specific nicotinic receptor antagonists were used to confirm the involvement of calcium in this process. Results Nicotine exposure induced enhanced secretory response in primary cells. These responses remained unaffected by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK’s inhibitors. The effects, however, have been completely abolished by nicotinic receptor antagonist, calcium channel receptor antagonists and inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers. Conclusions The data suggest that calcium activated events regulating the exocytotic secretion are affected by nicotine as shown by enhanced functional response which is inhibited by specific antagonists… The results implicate the role of nicotine in the mobilization of both intra- and extracellular calcium in the regulation of stimulus-secretory response of enzyme secretion in this cell system. We conclude that nicotine plays an important role in promoting enhanced calcium levels inside the acinar cell.

  11. Unique biological function of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for biosynthesis of neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkelstein, Lydiane; Beinfeld, Margery; Minokadeh, Ardalan; Zadina, James; Hook, Vivian

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptides are essential for cell-cell communication in the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. Production of active neuropeptides requires proteolytic processing of proneuropeptide precursors in secretory vesicles that produce, store, and release neuropeptides that regulate physiological functions. This review describes recent findings indicating the prominent role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for production of neuropeptides from their protein precursors. The role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production was discovered using the strategy of activity-based probes for proenkephalin-cleaving activity for identification of the enzyme protein by mass spectrometry. The novel role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for neuropeptide production has been demonstrated in vivo by cathepsin L gene knockout studies, cathepsin L gene expression in neuroendocrine cells, and notably, cathepsin L localization in neuropeptide-containing secretory vesicles. Cathepsin L is involved in producing opioid neuropeptides consisting of enkephalin, β-endorphin, and dynorphin, as well as in generating the POMC-derived peptide hormones ACTH and α-MSH. In addition, NPY, CCK, and catestatin neuropeptides utilize cathepsin L for their biosynthesis. The neuropeptide-synthesizing functions of cathepsin L represent its unique activity in secretory vesicles, which contrasts with its role in lysosomes. Interesting evaluations of protease gene knockout studies in mice that lack cathepsin L compared to those lacking PC1/3 and PC2 (PC, prohormone convertase) indicate the key role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production. Therefore, dual cathepsin L and prohormone convertase protease pathways participate in neuropeptide production. Significantly, the recent new findings indicate cathepsin L as a novel 'proprotein convertase' for production of neuropeptides that mediate cell-cell communication in health and disease.

  12. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  13. Secretory component delays the conversion of secretory IgA into antigen-binding competent F(ab')2: a possible implication for mucosal defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottet, P; Corthésy, B

    1998-11-15

    Secretory component (SC) represents the soluble ectodomain of the polymeric Ig receptor, a membrane protein that transports mucosal Abs across epithelial cells. In the protease-rich environment of the intestine, SC is thought to stabilize the associated IgA by unestablished molecular mechanisms. To address this question, we reconstituted SC-IgA complexes in vitro by incubating dimeric IgA (IgAd) with either recombinant human SC (rSC) or SC isolated from human colostral milk (SCm). Both complexes exhibited an identical degree of covalency when exposed to redox agents, peptidyl disulfide isomerase, and temperature changes. In cross-competition experiments, 50% inhibition of binding to IgAd was achieved at approximately 10 nM SC competitor. Western blot analysis of IgAd digested with intestinal washes indicated that the alpha-chain in IgAd was primarily split into a 40-kDa species, a phenomenon delayed in rSC- or SCm-IgAd complexes. In the same assay, either of the SCs was resistant to degradation only if complexed with IgAd. In contrast, the kappa light chain was not digested at all, suggesting that the F(ab')2 region was left intact. Accordingly, IgAd and SC-IgAd digestion products retained functionality as indicated by Ag reactivity in ELISA. Size exclusion chromatography under native conditions of digested IgAd and rSC-IgAd demonstrates that SC exerts its protective role in secretory IgA by delaying cleavage in the hinge/Fc region of the alpha-chain, not by holding together degraded fragments. The function of integral secretory IgA and F(ab')2 is discussed in terms of mucosal immune defenses.

  14. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  15. Fade and tachyphylaxis of gastric acid secretory response to pentagastrin in rat isolated gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, B H; Holland, J; Parsons, M E; Price, C A

    1988-12-01

    1. Gastric acid secretory responses to pentagastrin were characterized in the rat isolated gastric mucosa. In particular, the mechanisms underlying fade, declining response upon continued stimulation, and tachyphylaxis, progressively reduced responses upon repeated stimulation, were investigated. 2. Pentagastrin, 10(-9)-10(-7) M, resulted in concentration-related increases in acid secretion, with a mean maximum of 2.65 mumol cm-2 h-1 in response to pentagastrin, 10(-7) M. Higher concentrations of pentagastrin produced sub-maximal secretory rates; we define this as auto-inhibition. The responses to all concentrations of pentagastrin demonstrated fade. The rate of fade was correlated with the maximum acid secretory rate, declining at about 36% of the peak over the first 16 min. 3. The PO2, PCO2, [HCO3-], pH, [glucose], [lactate], [Na+] and [K+] did not decline during the fade of the acid secretory response to pentagastrin, 10(-7) M. Addition of a second aliquot of pentagastrin was not able to reverse fade, but these tissues were responsive to histamine. Replacement of the serosal solution, before addition of a second aliquot of pentagastrin, increased the acid response from 3% to 24% of the first response. 4. Serosal solution from donor tissues, allowed to respond to pentagastrin and then the acid secretion to fade, was able to stimulate secretion in fresh recipient tissues, although at lower rates. 5. Acid secretory responses to a second dose of pentagastrin were not significantly different, whether the tissues were previously unstimulated, or stimulated with pentagastrin washed out after attaining its peak secretory response (after 10-20 min). The second response was significantly reduced if the first response was allowed to fade with the pentagastrin in contact for 100 min; i.e. fade significantly influenced the extent of tachyphylaxis. 6. Proglumide, 10(-2) M, a gastrin receptor antagonist, and omeprazole, 10(-5) M, an inhibitor of the gastric (H+ + K

  16. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  17. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Katrin; Bhide, Amey S; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  18. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  19. N-Glycans on secretory component: mediators of the interaction between secretory IgA and gram-positive commensals sustaining intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Amandine; Corthésy, Blaise

    2011-09-01

    Human beings live in symbiosis with billions of microorganisms colonizing mucosal surfaces. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying this fine-tuned intestinal balance has made significant processes during the last decades. We have recently demonstrated that the interaction of SIgA with Gram-positive bacteria is essentially based on Fab-independent, glycan-mediated recognition. Results obtained using mouse hybridoma- and colostrum-derived secretory IgA (SIgA) consistently show that N-glycans present on secretory component (SC) play a crucial role in the process. Natural coating may involve specific Gram-positive cell wall components, which may explain selective recognition at the molecular level. More widely, the existence of these complexes is involved in the modulation of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) responses in vitro and the formation of intestinal biofilms. Thus, SIgA may act as one of the pillars in homeostatic maintenance of the microbiota in the gut, adding yet another facet to its multiple roles in the mucosal environment.

  20. Circadian pancreatic enzyme pattern and relationship between secretory and motor activity in fasting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2002-08-01

    It is unknown whether nonparallel pancreatic enzyme output occurs under basal conditions in humans. We aimed to determine whether the circadian or wake-sleep cycle influences the relationship among pancreatic enzymes or between pancreatic secretory and jejunal motor activity. Using orojejunal multilumen intubation, we measured enzyme outputs and proximal jejunal motility index during consecutive daytime and nighttime periods in each of seven fasting, healthy volunteers. Enzyme outputs were correlated tightly during daytime phases of wakefulness and nighttime phases of sleep (r > 0.72, P activity was directly correlated with jejunal motility index (r > 0.50, P enzymes dominates throughout the circadian cycle. Nonparallel secretion during nocturnal phases of wakefulness may be due to merely circadian effects or to the coupling of the wake-sleep and the circadian cycle. The association between fluctuations of secretory and motor activity appears to be particularly tight during the night.

  1. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane...... trafficking, we devised an immunoisolation procedure for specific recovery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles transporting a transmembrane raft protein from the TGN to the cell surface in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel quantitative shotgun lipidomics approach, we could demonstrate that TGN...... than the late Golgi membrane, as measured by C-Laurdan spectrophotometry, strongly suggests that lipid rafts play a role in the TGN-sorting machinery....

  2. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  3. Chromatographic separation and purification of secretory IgA from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayam-Bashi, H; Blanken, R M; Schwartz, C L

    1977-01-01

    Defatted and decaseinated human milk was concentrated and was fractionated on a preparative DEAE cellulose column. Elution with various concentrations of sodium chloride in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.01 M) resulted in fractions that were rich in either secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) (0.1 M NaCl) or free secretory component (SC) (0.05 M NaCl). The fractions, which were eluted with 0.10 M NaCl from the preparative column, were further fractionated on a G-200 Sephadex column. Repeated fractionation on this column resulted in a single purified fraction, which contained very high SIgA activity and showed immunological cross-reaction with both SC and serum IgA. Additional studies indicated that this fraction was homogeneous as shown by immunoprecipitin and disc gel electrophoresis. Injection of this purified SIgA into rabbits resulted in the production of monospecific antisera.

  4. Secretory vesicle transport velocity in living cells depends on the myosin-V lever arm length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Daniel H; Collins, Ruth N; Bretscher, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that exert force against actin filaments. One widely conserved myosin class, the myosin-Vs, recruits organelles to polarized sites in animal and fungal cells. However, it has been unclear whether myosin-Vs actively transport organelles, and whether the recently challenged lever arm model developed for muscle myosin applies to myosin-Vs. Here we demonstrate in living, intact yeast that secretory vesicles move rapidly toward their site of exocytosis. The maximal speed varies linearly over a wide range of lever arm lengths genetically engineered into the myosin-V heavy chain encoded by the MYO2 gene. Thus, secretory vesicle polarization is achieved through active transport by a myosin-V, and the motor mechanism is consistent with the lever arm model.

  5. A signal sequence is sufficient for green fluorescent protein to be routed to regulated secretory granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Meskini, R; Jin, L; Marx, R; Bruzzaniti, A; Lee, J; Emeson, R; Mains, R

    2001-02-01

    To investigate trafficking in neuroendocrine cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were fused to various portions of the preproneuropeptide Y (NPY) precursor. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells, along with primary anterior pituitary cells, were examined. Expression of chimeric constructs did not disrupt trafficking or regulated secretion of endogenous ACTH and prohormone convertase 1 in AtT-20 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the chimeric constructs remained intact, as long as the Lys-Arg cleavage site within preproNPY was deleted. GFP was stored in, and released from, regulated granules in cells expressing half of the NPY precursor fused to GFP, and also in cells in which only the signal sequence of preproNPY was fused to GFP. Thus, in neuroendocrine cells, entering the lumen of the secretory pathway is sufficient to target GFP to regulated secretory granules.

  6. [Advantages of the use of Andro-Gin device for treatment of secretory infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V P; Koren'kov, D G; Nikolaeva, E V

    2006-01-01

    The trial included 144 patients aged from 24 to 46 years with secretory infertility in the presence of chronic prostatitis of 2 to 13 year duration. The study group consisted of 96 patients who received conventional treatment in combination with physical factors provided by the unit APK-ELM-01 Andro-Gin. The control group consisted of 48 patients on conventional treatment alone. The results were processed mathematically and statistically. The patients were examined before, 2 weeks, 1 and 6 months after the treatment. Positive response was greater in the study group: better parameters of prostatic secretion, spermogram. Normalization of all the parameters occurred in 95 and 80% patients of the study and control groups, respectively. Thus, Andro-Gin is effective for treatment of chronic prostatitis with secretory infertility.

  7. Roles of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor amniotic membrane in oral wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Munadziroh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI is serine protease inhibitor. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor is a protein found in secretions such as whole saliva, seminal fluid, cervical mucus, synovial fluid, breast milk, tears, and cerebral spinal fluid, as in secretions from the nose and bronchi, amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane etc. These findings demonstrate that SLPI function as a potent anti protease, anti inflammatory, bactericidal, antifungal, tissue repair, extra cellular synthesis. Impaired healing states are characterized by excessive proteolysis and often bacterial infection, leading to the hypothesis that SLPI may have a role in the process. The objectives of this article are to investigate the role of SLPI in oral inflammation and how it contributes to tissue repair in oral mucosa. The oral wound healing responses are impaired in the SLPI sufficient mice and matrix synthesis and collagen deposition are delayed. This study indicated that SLPI is a povital factor necessary for optimal wound healing.

  8. Reference: 510 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ch stabilizes the water-oxidizing complex, is represented in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) by two isofo...rms. Two T-DNA insertion mutant lines deficient in either the PsbO1 or the PsbO2 protein were re...ally. Both PsbO proteins were able to support the oxygen evolution activity of PSII, although PsbO2 was less... efficient than PsbO1 under photoinhibitory conditions. Prolonged high light stress led to re...duced growth and fitness of the mutant lacking PsbO2 as compared with the wild type and the muta

  9. Reference: 600 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n M et al. 2007 Jun. Plant J. 50(5):810-24. A novel abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant, aba4, was identified in a scre...en for paclobutrazol-resistant germination. Compared with wild-type, the mutant showed reduced e...by map-based cloning, and found to be a unique gene in the Arabidopsis genome. The predicted protein has fou...r putative helical transmembrane domains and shows significant similarity to pred...icted proteins from tomato, rice and cyanobacteria. Constitutive expression of the ABA4 gene in Arabidopsis

  10. Reference: 59 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 59 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u14563930i Kaczorowski Kare...naling network in Arabidopsis, we used a sensitized genetic screen for deetiolation-defective seedlings. Two allelic mutants were... isolated that exhibited reduced sensitivity to both continuous red and far-re...d light, suggesting involvement in both phyA and phyB signaling. The molecular lesions res...ponsible for the phenotype were shown to be mutations in the Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR7 (PRR7) g

  11. Reference: 640 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available er Alois et al. 2007 Jul. Plant Cell 19(7):2213-24. Wound signaling pathways in plants are mediated by mitog...en-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and stress hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonates. In Arabidopsis th...ed investigations; however, the involvement of specific phosphatases in wound signaling is not known. Here, ...we show that AP2C1, an Arabidopsis Ser/Thr phosphatase of type 2C, is a novel stress signal regulator that inactivates the stress-re... significantly higher amounts of jasmonate upon wounding and are more resistant to phytophagous mites (Tetra

  12. Reference: 756 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available elle et al. 2008 Jun. Plant Physiol. 147(2):595-610. Treatment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) alterna...tive oxidase1a (aox1a) mutant plants with moderate light under drought conditions resulted in a phenotypic difference compare...d with ecotype Columbia (Col-0), as evidenced by a 10-fold incre...ase in the accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves, alterations in photosynthetic efficiency, and increased superoxide radical and re...duced root growth at the early stages of seedling growth. Analysis of metabolite profiles re

  13. Reference: 457 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n et al. 2006 Oct. Plant J. 48(2):238-48. The Arabidopsis BAP1 gene encodes a small protein with a C2-like domain. Here...er and is associated with membranes in vivo. We identify multiple roles of BAP1 in negatively re...gulating defense responses and cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana. The loss of BAP1 function ...confers an enhanced disease resistance to virulent bacterial and oomycete pathogens. The enhanced resistance... is mediated by salicylic acid, PAD4 and a disease resistance gene SNC1. BAP1 is

  14. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning.

  15. Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and secretory vesicles from human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Kevin P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN constitute an essential cellular component of innate host defense against microbial invasion and exhibit a wide array of responses both to particulate and soluble stimuli. As the cells recruited earliest during acute inflammation, PMN respond rapidly and release a variety of potent cytotoxic agents within minutes of exposure to microbes or their products. PMN rely on the redistribution of functionally important proteins, from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and phagosome, as the means by which to respond quickly. To determine the range of membrane proteins available for rapid recruitment during PMN activation, we analyzed the proteins in subcellular fractions enriched for plasma membrane and secretory vesicles recovered from the light membrane fraction of resting PMN after Percoll gradient centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis purification using mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods. Results To identify the proteins light membrane fractions enriched for plasma membrane vesicles and secretory vesicles, we employed a proteomic approach, first using MALDI-TOF (peptide mass fingerprinting and then by HPLC-MS/MS using a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the two vesicle populations from resting PMN. We identified several proteins that are functionally important but had not previously been recovered in PMN secretory vesicles. Two such proteins, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP and dysferlin were further validated by immunoblot analysis. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the broad array of proteins present in secretory vesicles that provides the PMN with the capacity for remarkable and rapid reorganization of its plasma membrane after exposure to proinflammatory agents or stimuli.

  16. Enhanced production of recombinant secretory proteins in Pichia pastoris by optimizing Kex2 P1' site

    OpenAIRE

    Song Yang; Ye Kuang; Hongbo Li; Yuehong Liu; Xiaoyan Hui; Peng Li; Zhiwu Jiang; Yulai Zhou; Yu Wang; Aimin Xu; Shiwu Li; Pentao Liu; Donghai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is one of the most widely used expression systems for the production of recombinant secretory proteins. Its universal application is, however, somewhat hampered by its unpredictable yields for different heterologous proteins, which is now believed to be caused in part by their varied efficiencies to traffic through the host secretion machinery. The yeast endoprotease Kex2 removes the signal peptides from pre-proteins and releases the mature form of secreted proteins, thus, pla...

  17. Discovery of lansoprazole and its unique pharmacological properties independent from anti-secretory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) lansoprazole (LPZ) and omeprazole (OPZ) have been widely used for more than 20 years in the treatment of acid-related diseases such as gastro-duodenal ulcers and reflux esophagitis. Both LPZ and OPZ are derivatives of 2-[(2- pyridylmethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole, but LPZ has a trifluoroethoxy group in the molecule which seems to provide unique pharmacological properties in addition to its anti-secretory effect. For example, the anti-secretory effect of LPZ in rats was roughly 2 times greater than that of OPZ but the anti-ulcer effects were more than 10 times stronger than those of OPZ in rat models of reflux esophagitis, indomethacin-induced gastric antral ulcers and mepirizole-induced duodenal ulcers. It has also been reported that LPZ has acid-independent protective effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-bacterial effects on Helicobacter pylori. In contrast, recent advances in endoscopy have revealed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause ulcers not only in the stomach and duodenum, but also in the small intestine in humans. Anti-secretory drugs such as PPIs and histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists (H(2)-RAs) are commonly used for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal mucosal lesions induced by NSAIDs. However, the effects of these drugs on NSAID-induced small intestinal lesions are still not fully understood. In this article, both a brief history of the discovery of LPZ and the unique pharmacological properties of LPZ independent from its anti-secretory action are reviewed, and the effects of PPIs and H(2)-RAs on NSAID-induced small intestinal lesions are discussed.

  18. Secretory Carcinoma in a 79- Year-Old Woman: An Exceptionally Rare Type of Breast Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Veronica; Redrobán, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is an exceptionally rare mammary gland neoplasia described mainly in adult females and children of both sexes, and very rarely in the elderly. It has particular histopathological and immunohistochemical features and a favorable prognosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old Hispanic woman with a palpable breast mass. Currently, the patient is disease free after a followup period of 6 years without local recurrence or axillary lymph-nodes nor distant metastases. PMID:28058101

  19. Zinc in Specialized Secretory Tissues: Roles in the Pancreas, Prostate, and Mammary Gland12

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, Shannon L.; McCormick, Nicholas H.; Velasquez, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient required for over 300 different cellular processes, including DNA and protein synthesis, enzyme activity, and intracellular signaling. Cellular Zn homeostasis necessitates the compartmentalization of Zn into intracellular organelles, which is tightly regulated through the integration of Zn transporting mechanisms. The pancreas, prostate, and mammary gland are secretory tissues that have unusual Zn requirements and thus must tightly regulate Zn metabolis...

  20. Synthesis of Prostaglandins and Eicosanoids by the Mast Cell Secretory Granule

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    constituents of the so-called "slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis" (SRS-A) (1,3). Like many other cell types, the mast cell can incorporate exogenous...arachidonic acid into its cellular phospholipid. The stimulation of mast cells which have been pre-loaded with radioactive arachidonic acid can result in...synthesis of eicosanoids has not been identified. Recently, we found that the secretory granule of the quiescent mast cell contains a large amount of matrix

  1. Do Neural Cells Communicate with Endothelial Cells via Secretory Exosomes and Microvesicles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R. Smalheiser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons, glial, cells, and brain tumor cells tissues release small vesicles (secretory exosomes and microvesicles, which may represent a novel mechanism by which neuronal activity could influence angiogenesis within the embryonic and mature brain. If CNS-derived vesicles can enter the bloodstream as well, they may communicate with endothelial cells in the peripheral circulation and with cells concerned with immune surveillance.

  2. From Acute to Chronic Pancreatitis: The Role of Mutations in the Pancreatic Secretory Trypsin Inhibitor Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota M; Kuwata K; Ohmuraya M; Ogawa M

    2003-01-01

    Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) is a potent natural inhibitor of trypsin. We proposed the hypothesis that, if the function of the PSTI is impaired by its genetic mutation, trypsin may easily promote autodigestion causing pancreatitis and we performed a mutational analysis of the PSTI gene in patients with pancreatitis. Two exonic mutations (N34S and R67C) were thought to be associated with a predisposition to pancreatitis. The N34S mutation was co-segregated with two intronic mu...

  3. Labeling and exocytosis of secretory compartments in RBL mastocytes by polystyrene and mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkapongpisit M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Maneerat Ekkapongpisit1,*, Antonino Giovia1,*, Giuseppina Nicotra1, Matteo Ozzano1, Giuseppe Caputo2,3, Ciro Isidoro1 1Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Nanobioimaging, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro", Novara, Italy; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Turin, Turin, 3Cyanine Technology SpA, Torino, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: For a safe ‘in vivo’ biomedical utilization of nanoparticles, it is essential to assess not only biocompatibility, but also the potential to trigger unwanted side effects at both cellular and tissue levels. Mastocytes (cells having secretory granules containing cytokines, vasoactive amine, and proteases play a pivotal role in the immune and inflammatory responses against exogenous toxins. Mastocytes are also recruited in the tumor stroma and are involved in tumor vascularization and growth.Aim and methods: In this work, mastocyte-like rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cells were used to investigate whether carboxyl-modified 30 nm polystyrene (PS nanoparticles (NPs and naked mesoporous silica (MPS 10 nm NPs are able to label the secretory inflammatory granules, and possibly induce exocytosis of these granules. Uptake, cellular retention and localization of fluorescent NPs were analyzed by cytofluorometry and microscope imaging.Results: Our findings were that: (1 secretory granules of mastocytes are accessible by NPs via endocytosis; (2 PS and MPS silica NPs label two distinct subpopulations of inflammatory granules in RBL mastocytes; and (3 PS NPs induce calcium-dependent exocytosis of inflammatory granules.Conclusion: These findings highlight the value of NPs for live imaging of inflammatory processes, and also have important implications for the clinical use of PS-based NPs, due to their potential to trigger the unwanted activation of mastocytes.Keywords: secretory lysosomes, inflammation, nanoparticles, vesicular traffic

  4. Smodirignium dermatitis: the intercellular secretory canals of the aerial axis and their relationship to this toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Smodingium argutum E. Mey. ex Sond., closely related to the American poison-ivy,  Toxicodendron radicans (L. Kuntze, is the only known indigenous member of the Anacardiaceae in South Africa causing dermatitis. The sap of the intercellular secretory canals of the stem, petiole and leaf of both plants, is responsible for this toxicity. These secretary canals are described, illustrated and compared for both species, and their formation and the function of the canals and sap, are briefly discussed.

  5. Elevated serum secretory type Ⅱ phospholipase A2 in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于路

    2006-01-01

    Objective To measure the serum level of secretory type H phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in patients with coronary heart disease and investigate the possible relationship with IL-8 and LPA. Methods A total of 110 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) , 63 patients with stable coronary heart disease (SCHD) group and 89 non-CHD control patients were studied. Serum levels of sPLA2, IL-8, LPA and hs-CRP were measured and the

  6. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer characterized by intracellular or extracellular secretion and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. The disease which was considered to be predominant in younger age group has been recognized in adult population too and tends to show slow growth and indolent behavior. The disease occurs preferentially in females and only 27 cases have been reported amongst males. An optimal treatment for the dis...

  7. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  8. Insulin replacement restores the vesicular secretory apparatus in the diabetic rat lacrimal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: In the lacrimal gland (LG acinar cells, signaling regulates the release of secretory vesicles through specific Rab and SNARE exocytotic proteins. In diabetes mellitus (DM, the LGs are dysfunctional. The aim of this work was to determine if secretory apparatus changes were associated with any effects on the secretory vesicles (SV in diabetic rats as well as the expression levels of constituent Rab and members of the SNARE family, and if insulin supplementation reversed those changes. Methods: DM was induced in male Wistar rats with an intravenous dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. One of the two diabetic groups was then treated every other day with insulin (1 IU. A third control group was injected with vehicle. After 10 weeks, Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to compared the Rab and SNARE secretory factor levels in the LGs. Transmission electron microscopy evaluated acinar cell SV density and integrity. Results: In the diabetes mellitus group, there were fewer and enlarged SV. The Rab 27b, Rab 3d, and syntaxin-1 protein expression declined in the rats with diabetes mellitus. Insulin treatment restored the SV density and the Rab 27b and syntaxin expression to their control protein levels, whereas the Vamp 2 mRNA expression increased above the control levels. Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus LG changes were associated with the declines in protein expression levels that were involved in supporting exocytosis and vesicular formation. They were partially reversed by insulin replacement therapy. These findings may help to improve therapeutic management of dry eye in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Kinetic evaluation of cell membrane hydrolysis during apoptosis by human isoforms of secretory phospholipase A2.

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Erin D.; Nelson, Jennifer; Griffith, Katalyn; Nguyen, Thaothanh; Streeter, Michael; Wilson-Ashworth, Heather A.; Michael H Gelb; Judd, Allan M.; Bell, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Some isoforms of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) distinguish between healthy and damaged or apoptotic cells. This distinction reflects differences in membrane physical properties. Because various sPLA2 isoforms respond differently to properties of artificial membranes such as surface charge, they should also behave differently as these properties evolve during a dynamic physiological process such as apoptosis. To test this idea, S49 lymphoma cell death was induced by glucocorticoid (6–48 h...

  10. The urethral glands of male mice in relation to depletion of secretory granules upon mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M B; de França, L R; Kepple, L; Ying, L; Parr, E L; Russell, L D

    1994-08-01

    The present study describes the effects of mating on urethral gland acinar cells in male mice. Histological and morphometric analysis demonstrated that there was a depletion of secretory granules in the urethral glands during mating. However, no change occurred in the rough endoplasmic reticulum containing tubular elements. The results indicate that the urethral glands are functional during mating. The timing of their granule depletion suggests that urethral gland secretions may contribute to the formation of semen or the copulation plug.

  11. Secretory vesicle priming by CAPS is independent of the SNARE-bind MUN domain

    OpenAIRE

    Cuc Quynh Nguyen Truong; Dennis Nestvogel; Olga Ratai; Claudia Schirra; David R. Stevens; Nils Brose; JeongSeop Rhee; Jens Rettig

    2014-01-01

    Priming of secretory vesicles is a prerequisite for their Ca2+-dependent fusion with the plasma membrane. The key vesicle priming proteins, Munc13s and CAPSs, are thought to mediate vesicle priming by regulating the conformation of the t-SNARE syntaxin, thereby facilitating SNARE complex assembly. Munc13s execute their priming function through their MUN domain. Given that the MUN domain of Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS) also binds syntaxin, it was assumed that CAPSs pri...

  12. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORLY

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid.

  13. Zinc in specialized secretory tissues: roles in the pancreas, prostate, and mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Shannon L; McCormick, Nicholas H; Velasquez, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica

    2011-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient required for over 300 different cellular processes, including DNA and protein synthesis, enzyme activity, and intracellular signaling. Cellular Zn homeostasis necessitates the compartmentalization of Zn into intracellular organelles, which is tightly regulated through the integration of Zn transporting mechanisms. The pancreas, prostate, and mammary gland are secretory tissues that have unusual Zn requirements and thus must tightly regulate Zn metabolism through integrating Zn import, sequestration, and export mechanisms. Recent findings indicate that these tissues utilize Zn for basic cellular processes but also require Zn for unique cellular needs. In addition, abundant Zn is transported into the secretory pathway and a large amount is subsequently secreted in a tightly regulated manner for unique biological processes. Expression of numerous members of the SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (Zip) gene families has been documented in these tissues, yet there is limited understanding of their precise functional role in Zn metabolism or their regulation. Impairments in Zn secretion from the pancreas, prostate, and mammary gland are associated with disorders such as diabetes, infertility, and cancer, respectively. In this review, we will provide a brief summary of the specific role of Zn in each tissue and describe our current knowledge regarding how Zn metabolism is regulated. Finally, in each instance, we will reflect upon how this information shapes our current understanding of the role of Zn in these secretory tissues with respect to human health and disease.

  14. A pediatric case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma within the parotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, S Craig; Roby, Brianne; Dishop, Megan K; Said, M Sherif; Chan, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described entity in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. It is notable for a characteristic t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation that results in a unique fusion protein, ETV6-NTRK3. While several studies have retrospectively identified this translocation in cases previously diagnosed as a different salivary malignancy, there have been relatively few cases where this translocation was identified on initial pathology results, and fewer still in a pediatric population. We present a case of a 15 year old female with a slowly enlarging, painless, left facial mass. MRI demonstrated a cystic mass extending into the deep lobe of the parotid, and she underwent parotidectomy. The tumor cells stained positive for S100 and CK19. ETV6 translocation was present, confirming the diagnosis. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands, which often masquerades as more common primary salivary gland tumors and cysts. More research is needed to characterize the typical behavior of this neoplasm and the optimal treatment regimen. With identification of its characteristic translocation, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma can be easily differentiated from its more prevalent counterparts, and should therefore remain within the differential of the pathologist and head and neck surgeon.

  15. Saturated fatty acids alter the late secretory pathway by modulating membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Laurie-Anne; Pineau, Ludovic; Snyder, Ellen C R; Colas, Jenny; Moussa, Ahmed; Vannier, Brigitte; Bigay, Joelle; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Becq, Frédéric; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Ferreira, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Saturated fatty acids (SFA) have been reported to alter organelle integrity and function in many cell types, including muscle and pancreatic β-cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. SFA accumulation results in increased amounts of ceramides/sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids (PL). In this study, using a yeast-based model that recapitulates most of the trademarks of SFA-induced lipotoxicity in mammalian cells, we demonstrate that these lipid species act at different levels of the secretory pathway. Ceramides mostly appear to modulate the induction of the unfolded protein response and the transcription of nutrient transporters destined to the cell surface. On the other hand, saturated PL, by altering membrane properties, directly impact vesicular budding at later steps in the secretory pathway, i.e. at the trans-Golgi Network level. They appear to do so by increasing lipid order within intracellular membranes which, in turn, alters the recruitment of loose lipid packing-sensing proteins, required for optimal budding, to nascent vesicles. We propose that this latter general mechanism could account for the well-documented deleterious impacts of fatty acids on the last steps of the secretory pathway in several cell types.

  16. Augmentation of arginase Ⅱ expression in the human endometrial epithelium in the secretory phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Makiko; Harada, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Tomonori; Iwahara, Yuki; Kubota, Toshiro

    2012-12-03

    L-arginine is the common substrate for arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Arginase converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine. L-Ornithine is the principal precursor for the production of polyamines and L-proline, which are required for cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Endothelial NOS is expressed in the human endometrial glandular epithelium, but the expression and physiological roles of arginase in the human endometrium are not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and distribution patterns of arginases Ⅰ (A-Ⅰ) and Ⅱ (A-Ⅱ) in the human endometrium by using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), and western blotting. A-Ⅰ and A-Ⅱ were detected by immunohistochemistry in human endometrial epithelial cells during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. RT-PCR showed that A-Ⅰ and A-Ⅱ mRNA were expressed in human endometrial tissue. Western blotting analysis results showed the expression of A-Ⅱ protein. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting results showed that expression levels of A-Ⅱ were significantly higher in the secretory phase than in the proliferative phase. Increased A-Ⅱ levels in the secretory phase may be responsible for endometrial growth by increasing polyamines and proline products.

  17. Nuclear DNA content and ultrastructure of secretory cells of Vicia faba L. stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Wróbel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study was the level of nuclear DNA and the ultrastructural transformations in the secretory cells of the stigma in Vicia faba L. It has been found that the stigmal cells which are active in biogenesis and exudate secretion are diploid cells whose differentiation starts from 2C DNA level. The presence of a population of nuclei with an amount DNA of about 2.5 C suggests that the metabolic activity of those cells may be regulated through supplementary incomplete replication. The ultrastructural transformations of secretory cells point to three stages of biogenesis and secretion of exudate. Stage I, before the start of the cell's secretory functions, is characterized by the development of the protein synthesizing apparatus and the activity of dictyosomes. In development stage II vesicular electron-transparent exudate is secreted. Stage III of exudate biogenesis is production of lipids. They form mainly in the plastids and are secreted with the involvement of the cell's vacuolar system.

  18. The key target of neuroprotection after the onset of ischemic stroke:secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hua Li; Xiang-rong Tian; Zhi-ping Hu

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of cytoplasmic Ca2+ after myocardial infarction-induced Ca2+ over-load involve secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1 and the Golgi apparatus and are well understood. However, the effect of Golgi apparatus on Ca2+ overload after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion remains unclear. Four-vessel occlusion rats were used as animal models of cerebral ischemia. The expression of secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1 in the cortex and hippocampus was detected by immunoblotting, and Ca2+ concentrations in the cytoplasm and Golgi vesicles were determined. Results showed an overload of cytoplasmic Ca2+ during ischemia and reperfusion that reached a peak after reperfusion. Levels of Golgi Ca2+ showed an opposite effect. The expression of Gol-gi-specific secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1 in the cortex and hippocampus decreased before ischemia and reperfusion, and increased after reperfusion for 6 hours. This variation was simi-lar to the alteration of calcium in separated Golgi vesicles. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus participates in the formation and alleviation of calcium overload, and that secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1 tightly responds to ischemia and reperfusion in nerve cells. Thus, we concluded that secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1 plays an essential role in cytosolic calcium regu-lation and its expression can be used as a marker of Golgi stress, responding to cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1 can be an important neuroprotective target of ischemic stroke.

  19. Arabidopsis R-SNARE proteins VAMP721 and VAMP722 are required for cell plate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis is facilitated by SNARE complex-mediated vesicle fusion at the cell-division plane. However, our knowledge regarding R-SNARE components of membrane fusion machinery for cell plate formation remains quite limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the in vivo function of Arabidopsis VAMP721 and VAMP722, two closely sequence-related R-SNAREs, in cell plate formation. Double homozygous vamp721vamp722 mutant seedlings showed lethal dwarf phenotypes and were characterized by rudimentary roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. Furthermore, cell wall stubs and incomplete cytokinesis were frequently observed in vamp721vamp722 seedlings. Confocal images revealed that green fluorescent protein-tagged VAMP721 and VAMP722 were preferentially localized to the expanding cell plates in dividing cells. Drug treatments and co-localization analyses demonstrated that punctuate organelles labeled with VAMP721 and VAMP722 represented early endosomes overlapped with VHA-a1-labeled TGN, which were distinct from Golgi stacks and prevacuolar compartments. In addition, protein traffic to the plasma membrane, but not to the vacuole, was severely disrupted in vamp721vamp722 seedlings by subcellular localization of marker proteins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that VAMP721 and VAMP722 are involved in secretory trafficking to the plasma membrane via TGN/early endosomal compartment, which contributes substantially to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

  20. Endocytosis restricts Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin to the cell division plane during late cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutté, Yohann; Frescatada-Rosa, Márcia; Men, Shuzhen; Chow, Cheung-Ming; Ebine, Kazuo; Gustavsson, Anna; Johansson, Lenore; Ueda, Takashi; Moore, Ian; Jürgens, Gerd; Grebe, Markus

    2010-02-03

    Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check remains elusive. Here, we report that localization of the Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin in the plane of cell division is maintained by sterol-dependent endocytosis involving a clathrin- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A-dependent mechanism. On genetic or pharmacological interference with endocytosis, KNOLLE mis-localizes to lateral plasma membranes after cell-plate fusion. Fluorescence-loss-in-photo-bleaching and fluorescence-recovery-after-photo-bleaching experiments reveal lateral diffusion of GFP-KNOLLE from the plane of division to lateral membranes. In an endocytosis-defective sterol biosynthesis mutant displaying lateral KNOLLE diffusion, KNOLLE secretory trafficking remains unaffected. Thus, restriction of lateral diffusion by endocytosis may serve to maintain specificity of syntaxin localization during late cytokinesis.

  1. Activation of Defense Response Pathways by OGs and Fig22 Elicitors in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carine Denoux; Roberta Galletti; Nicole Mammarella; Suresh Gopalan; Danièle Werck; Giulia De Lorenzo; Simone Ferrari; Frederick M. Ausubel; Julia Dewdney

    2008-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10-d-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Fig22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Fig22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose-dependent, but, even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of amino-cyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response.

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-47 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-28 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-26 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-45 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-24 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 2e-65 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110534 002-168-A07 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-114 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-50 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-25 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-98 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061162 006-209-A01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-35 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 3e-66 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069071 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069071 J023010H01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121003 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121003 J023045B21 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-45 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-98 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060286 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060286 001-006-C08 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 6e-78 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 1e-125 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-25 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-31 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-130 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105393 001-123-B04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-48 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-29 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109812 002-147-H02 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 5e-90 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 8e-63 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-126 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-124 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 4e-27 ...

  14. Reference: 415 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available study focuses on the seven other Arabidopsis CAD for which functions are not yet elucidated. Their expression patterns were determine...ession of CAD 1, B1, and G genes was determined using their promoters fused to the GUS reporter gene. CAD 1

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243408 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 1e-151 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242797 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 2e-23 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243408 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 2e-12 ...

  18. Reference: 767 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Mutation analysis of 25 of the 27 member genes representing 13 of the 14 sub-families... of the UBP gene family revealed that single-gene mutants of three genes in two sub-families exhibit v

  19. Reference: 158 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onika et al. 2005 Feb. Plant J. 41(3):386-99. Cullin proteins, which belong to multigenic families in all eu...ic search revealed the existence of at least 76 BTB-domain proteins in Arabidopsis belonging to 11 major families.... Yeast two-hybrid experiments indicate that representative members of certain families are able to phy

  20. Reference: 456 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available h other Spo11/topo VIA proteins, but their functional relationship during meiosis or other processes is not ...s. Thus, the three Arabidopsis Spo11 homologues appear to function in two discrete processes, i.e. AtSPO11-1

  1. Reference: 412 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the tobacco arcA gene, mediates hormone responses and plays a regulatory role in multiple developmental processes...in RACK1A confer defects in multiple developmental processes including seed germination, leaf production, an...ltiple hormone responsiveness and developmental processes in Arabidopsis. 11 2697-708 16829549 2006 Journal

  2. Reference: 51 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urce of acetyl-CoA formation in the plastids of plants and is composed of multiple copies of four different ...astidic E2 (dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase) subunit, plE2, of the complex in Arabidopsis destroys the expre

  3. Reference: 567 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ith findings that noxy2 and mutants with defective 9-LOX activity showed increased numbers of lateral roots,...or of lateral root formation. Histochemical and molecular analyses revealed that 9-HOT activated events comm...in Arabidopsis regulate lateral root development and defense responses through a specific signaling cascade.

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287911 J065213B08 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 3e-85 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318551 J075138M12 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 4e-27 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241823 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241823 J065212G21 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 1e-150 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243378 J100063A13 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 5e-18 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288351 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288351 J090024C17 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 2e-24 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242252 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242252 J075182G16 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 6e-88 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073411 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073411 J033041P20 At4g02060.1 prolifera protein (PRL) / DNA replication licensing... factor Mcm7 (MCM7) identical to DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7 SP|P43299 PROLIFERA protein {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam profile PF00493: MCM2/3/5 family 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100867 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100867 J023124E13 At2g29640.1 josephin family protein contains Pfam domain PF02099: Jose...phin; similar to Josephin-like protein (Swiss-Prot:O82391) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-59 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  13. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and down-

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241096 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241096 J065076O13 At3g10520.1 68416.m01262 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (HB2) (GLB2...) identical to SP|O24521 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (Hb2) (ARAth GLB2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-40 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240885 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240885 J065029A17 At3g10520.1 68416.m01262 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (HB2) (GLB2...) identical to SP|O24521 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (Hb2) (ARAth GLB2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 6e-34 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241096 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241096 J065076O13 At2g16060.1 68415.m01841 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (HB1) (GLB1...) identical to SP|O24520 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (Hb1) (ARAth GLB1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-59 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240885 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240885 J065029A17 At2g16060.1 68415.m01841 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (HB1) (GLB1...) identical to SP|O24520 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (Hb1) (ARAth GLB1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-49 ...

  18. Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. Results We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced dicot genomes, Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa by using genes coding for proteases in the MEROPS database 1 for Arabidopsis to identify homologous sequences in Populus. A multigene-based phylogenetic analysis was performed. Most protease families were found to be larger in Populus than in Arabidopsis, reflecting recent genome duplication. Detailed studies on e.g. the DegP, Clp, FtsH, Lon, rhomboid and papain-Like protease families showed the pattern of gene family expansion and gene loss was complex. We finally show that different Populus tissues express unique suites of protease genes and that the mRNA levels of different classes of proteases change along a developmental gradient. Conclusion Recent gene family expansion and contractions have made the Arabidopsis and Populus complements of proteases different and this, together with expression patterns, gives indications about the roles of the individual gene products or groups of proteases.

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241728 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241728 J065199H08 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 3e-36 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240645 J023003B03 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 1e-17 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243302 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243302 J100054J17 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-82 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241015 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241015 J065054A13 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 8e-37 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288091 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288091 J075184D14 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-29 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318617 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318617 J100090H20 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-63 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103452 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103452 J033129I11 At1g19850.1 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) / auxin-respon...sive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-166 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243230 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243230 J100044L04 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-65 ...

  7. Reference: 346 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16496096i Todd Christopher...midohydrolase activity from Arabidopsis thaliana. 5 1108-13 16496096 2006 Apr Planta Polacco Joe C|Todd Christopher D

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242980 J090094F15 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-19 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241644 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241644 J065189M04 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-37 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241055 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241055 J065063N18 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-26 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242211 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242211 J075171C16 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-21 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243669 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243669 J100089N11 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 6e-14 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100613 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100613 J023107M18 At4g10180.1 light-mediated development protein 1 / deetiolated1... (DET1) identical to Light-mediated development protein DET1 (Deetiolated1) (Swiss-Prot:P48732) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058683 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058683 001-019-A06 At4g10180.1 light-mediated development protein 1 / deetiolated...1 (DET1) identical to Light-mediated development protein DET1 (Deetiolated1) (Swiss-Prot:P48732) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241645 J065189N07 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243043 J100008P08 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241277 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241277 J065134P20 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241074 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241074 J065068E03 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  19. Reference: 386 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 386 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16698900i Hricová Andrea...d mesophyll cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. 3 942-56 16698900 2006 Jul Plant physiology Hricová Andrea|Micol José Luis|Quesada Victor

  20. Reference: 394 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 394 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16766689i Rudella Andrea...and defects in chloroplast biogenesis in Arabidopsis. 7 1704-21 16766689 2006 Jul The Plant cell Alonso Jose M|Ecker Joseph R|Friso Giulia|Rudella Andrea|van Wijk Klaas J