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  1. Arabidopsis gene co-expression network and its functional modules

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    Dash Sudhansu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological networks characterize the interactions of biomolecules at a systems-level. One important property of biological networks is the modular structure, in which nodes are densely connected with each other, but between which there are only sparse connections. In this report, we attempted to find the relationship between the network topology and formation of modular structure by comparing gene co-expression networks with random networks. The organization of gene functional modules was also investigated. Results We constructed a genome-wide Arabidopsis gene co-expression network (AGCN by using 1094 microarrays. We then analyzed the topological properties of AGCN and partitioned the network into modules by using an efficient graph clustering algorithm. In the AGCN, 382 hub genes formed a clique, and they were densely connected only to a small subset of the network. At the module level, the network clustering results provide a systems-level understanding of the gene modules that coordinate multiple biological processes to carry out specific biological functions. For instance, the photosynthesis module in AGCN involves a very large number (> 1000 of genes which participate in various biological processes including photosynthesis, electron transport, pigment metabolism, chloroplast organization and biogenesis, cofactor metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and vitamin metabolism. The cell cycle module orchestrated the coordinated expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell cycle, DNA metabolism, and cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis. We also compared the AGCN constructed in this study with a graphical Gaussian model (GGM based Arabidopsis gene network. The photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and cell cycle modules identified from the GGM network had much smaller module sizes compared with the modules found in the AGCN, respectively. Conclusion This study reveals new insight into the topological properties of

  2. Arabidopsis PED2 positively modulates plant drought stress resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Shi; Tiantian Ye; Fan Yang; Zhulong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that functions in seed germination, plant development, and multiple stress responses. Arabidopsis Peroxisome defective 2 (AtPED2) (also known as AtPEXOXIN14, AtPEX14), is involved in the intracellular transport of thiolase from the cytosol to glyoxysomes, and perosisomal matrix protein import in plants. In this study, we assigned a new role for AtPED2 in drought stress resistance. The transcript level of AtPED2 was down-regulated by ABA and abiotic stress treatments. AtPED2 knockout mutants were insensitive to ABA-mediated seed germination, primary root elongation, and stomatal response, while AtPED2 over-expressing plants were sensitive to ABA in comparison to wide type (WT). AtPED2 also positively regulated drought stress resistance, as evidenced by the changes of water loss rate, electrolyte leakage, and survival rate. Notably, AtPED2 positively modulated expression of several stress-responsive genes (RAB18, RD22, RD29A, and RD29B), positively affected underlying antioxidant enzyme activities and negatively regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level under drought stress conditions. Moreover, multiple carbon metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and aromatic amines were also positively regulated by AtPED2. Taken together, these results indicated a positive role for AtPED2 in drought resistance, through modulation of stress-responsive genes expression, ROS metabolism, and metabolic homeostasis, at least partially.

  3. Arabidopsis PED2 positively modulates plant drought stress resistance.

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    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Yang, Fan; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-09-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that functions in seed germination, plant development, and multiple stress responses. Arabidopsis Peroxisome defective 2 (AtPED2) (also known as AtPEXOXIN14, AtPEX14), is involved in the intracellular transport of thiolase from the cytosol to glyoxysomes, and perosisomal matrix protein import in plants. In this study, we assigned a new role for AtPED2 in drought stress resistance. The transcript level of AtPED2 was downregulated by ABA and abiotic stress treatments. AtPED2 knockout mutants were insensitive to ABA-mediated seed germination, primary root elongation, and stomatal response, while AtPED2 over-expressing plants were sensitive to ABA in comparison to wide type (WT). AtPED2 also positively regulated drought stress resistance, as evidenced by the changes of water loss rate, electrolyte leakage, and survival rate. Notably, AtPED2 positively modulated expression of several stress-responsive genes (RAB18, RD22, RD29A, and RD29B), positively affected underlying antioxidant enzyme activities and negatively regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level under drought stress conditions. Moreover, multiple carbon metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and aromatic amines were also positively regulated by AtPED2. Taken together, these results indicated a positive role for AtPED2 in drought resistance, through modulation of stress-responsive genes expression, ROS metabolism, and metabolic homeostasis, at least partially. PMID:25588806

  4. Environmental History Modulates Arabidopsis Pattern-Triggered Immunity in a HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1-Dependent Manner.

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    Singh, Prashant; Yekondi, Shweta; Chen, Po-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Yu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Keqiang; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2014-06-24

    In nature, plants are exposed to a fluctuating environment, and individuals exposed to contrasting environmental factors develop different environmental histories. Whether different environmental histories alter plant responses to a current stress remains elusive. Here, we show that environmental history modulates the plant response to microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to repetitive heat, cold, or salt stress were more resistant to virulent bacteria than Arabidopsis grown in a more stable environment. By contrast, long-term exposure to heat, cold, or exposure to high concentrations of NaCl did not provide enhanced protection against bacteria. Enhanced resistance occurred with priming of Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes and the potentiation of PTI-mediated callose deposition. In repetitively stress-challenged Arabidopsis, PTI-responsive genes showed enrichment for epigenetic marks associated with transcriptional activation. Upon bacterial infection, enrichment of RNA polymerase II at primed PTI marker genes was observed in environmentally challenged Arabidopsis. Finally, repetitively stress-challenged histone acetyltransferase1-1 (hac1-1) mutants failed to demonstrate enhanced resistance to bacteria, priming of PTI, and increased open chromatin states. These findings reveal that environmental history shapes the plant response to bacteria through the development of a HAC1-dependent epigenetic mark characteristic of a primed PTI response, demonstrating a mechanistic link between the primed state in plants and epigenetics.

  5. Della proteins modulate arabidopsis defences induced in response to caterpillar herbivory

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    Lan, Z.Y.; Krosse, S.; Achard, P.; Van Dam, N.M.; Bede, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Upon insect herbivory, many plant species change the direction of metabolic flux from growth into defence. Two key pathways modulating these processes are the gibberellin (GA)/DELLA pathway and the jasmonate pathway. In this study, the effect of caterpillar herbivory on plant-induced responses was compared between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and quad-della mutants that have constitutively elevated GA responses. The labial saliva (LS) of caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodop...

  6. The PSE1 gene modulates lead tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Fan, Tingting; Yang, Libo; Wu, Xi; Ni, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Haikun; Zhang, Qi’an; Fang, Ling; Sheng, Yibao; Ren, Yongbing; Cao, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a dangerous heavy metal contaminant with high toxicity to plants. However, the regulatory mechanism of plant Pb tolerance is poorly understood. Here, we showed that the PSE1 gene confers Pb tolerance in Arabidopsis. A novel Pb-sensitive mutant pse1-1 (Pb-sensitive1) was isolated by screening T-DNA insertion mutants. PSE1 encodes an unknown protein with an NC domain and was localized in the cytoplasm. PSE1 was induced by Pb stress, and the pse1-1 loss-of-function mutant showed enhanced Pb sensitivity; overexpression of PSE1 resulted in increased Pb tolerance. PSE1-overexpressing plants showed increased Pb accumulation, which was accompanied by the activation of phytochelatin (PC) synthesis and related gene expression. In contrast, the pse1-1 mutant showed reduced Pb accumulation, which was associated with decreased PC synthesis and related gene expression. In addition, the expression of PDR12 was also increased in PSE1-overexpressing plants subjected to Pb stress. Our results suggest that PSE1 regulates Pb tolerance mainly through glutathione-dependent PC synthesis by activating the expression of the genes involved in PC synthesis and at least partially through activating the expression of the ABC transporter PDR12/ABCG40. PMID:27335453

  7. Auxin modulation of salt stress signaling in Arabidopsis seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination is an elaborate developmental process that is regulated through intricate signaling networks integrating diverse environmental cues into endogenous hormonal signaling pathways. Accumulating evidence in recent years supports the role of auxin in seed germination. Whereas the roles of gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the germination process have been studied extensively, how auxin modulates seed germination is largely unknown. We found that a membrane-bound NAC ...

  8. Conserved non-coding regulatory signatures in Arabidopsis co-expressed gene modules.

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    Jacob B Spangler

    Full Text Available Complex traits and other polygenic processes require coordinated gene expression. Co-expression networks model mRNA co-expression: the product of gene regulatory networks. To identify regulatory mechanisms underlying coordinated gene expression in a tissue-enriched context, ten Arabidopsis thaliana co-expression networks were constructed after manually sorting 4,566 RNA profiling datasets into aerial, flower, leaf, root, rosette, seedling, seed, shoot, whole plant, and global (all samples combined groups. Collectively, the ten networks contained 30% of the measurable genes of Arabidopsis and were circumscribed into 5,491 modules. Modules were scrutinized for cis regulatory mechanisms putatively encoded in conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs previously identified as remnants of a whole genome duplication event. We determined the non-random association of 1,361 unique CNSs to 1,904 co-expression network gene modules. Furthermore, the CNS elements were placed in the context of known gene regulatory networks (GRNs by connecting 250 CNS motifs with known GRN cis elements. Our results provide support for a regulatory role of some CNS elements and suggest the functional consequences of CNS activation of co-expression in specific gene sets dispersed throughout the genome.

  9. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth.

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    Francesco Dovana

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E and roots (root-E of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L. Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI. Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW and dry weight (DW was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi.

  10. Modulation of leaf conductance by root to shoot signaling under water stress in Arabidopsis

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    Fan Yi-juan; Liu Qing; Wei Kai-fa; Li Bing-bing; Ren Hui-bo; Gao Zhi-hui; Jia Wen-suo

    2006-01-01

    Signal communication between root and shoot plays a crucial role in plant resistance to water stress. While many studies on root to shoot signals have been carried out in many plant species, no information is available for the model plant, Arabidopsis, whose adoption has great significance for further probing the molecular aspects of long distance stress signals. Here, we introduced the establishment of techniques for investigations of root to shoot signals in Arabidopsis. Stomatal movements in relation to root signals were probed by using these techniques. The results show that Arabidopsis is a suitable plant species for partial roots drying (PRD)experiments. In the PRD system, while no significant differences were found in leaf water potential between well-watered and stressed plants, water stress led to a decrease in leaf conductance, which suggests a regulation of stomatal movements by root to shoot signals. While water stress caused a significant increase in the concentration of sap abscisic acid (ABA) of xylem, no increase in xylem sap pH was observed. Moreover, the increase in the ABA content of xylem coincided with the decrease in leaf conductance,which suggests a possible role of ABA in the regulation of stomatal movements. Infrared temperature images showed that leaf temperatures of PRD plant were higher compared with those of well-watered plants, which further indicates that stomatal movements can be modulated by root signals. The confirmation of root to shoot signaling in Arabidopsis has established a basis for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of the root to shoot signaling under water stress.

  11. Potential role of salicylic acid in modulating diacylglycerol homeostasis in response to freezing temperatures in Arabidopsis.

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    Tan, Wei-Juan; Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    In our recent article in Molecular Plant, we reported that 3 lipase-like defense regulators SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. The transcripts of SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 were inducible by cold stress and their knockout or knockdown mutants exhibited enhanced chilling and freezing tolerance in comparison to the wild type. The freezing tolerance phenotype showed in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants was correlated with the transcriptional upregulation of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs (CBFs) and their regulons as well as increased levels of proline. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants showed ameliorated cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which were highly induced by freezing stress in the wild-type leaves. Moreover, the contents of salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) were significantly decreased in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants compared to the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that the SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 are negative regulators in the freezing response and function, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG in Arabidopsis.

  12. Endogenous cytokinin overproduction modulates ROS homeostasis and decreases salt stress resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Yanping eWang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8 and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of CAT and SOD, which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis.

  13. Cytokinin modulates proteomic, transcriptomic and growth responses to temperature shocks in Arabidopsis.

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    Cerný, Martin; Jedelský, Petr L; Novák, Jan; Schlosser, Andreas; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2014-07-01

    As sessile organisms, plants must sense environmental conditions and adjust their growth and development processes accordingly, through adaptive responses regulated by various internal factors, including hormones. A key environmental factor is temperature, but temperature-sensing mechanisms are not fully understood despite intense research. We investigated proteomic responses to temperature shocks (15 min cold or heat treatments) with and without exogenous applications of cytokinin in Arabidopsis. Image and mass spectrometric analysis of the two-dimensionally separated proteins detected 139 differentially regulated spots, in which 148 proteins were identified, most of which have not been previously linked to temperature perception. More than 70% of the temperature-shock response proteins were modulated by cytokinin, mostly in a similar manner as heat shock. Data mining of previous transcriptomic datasets supported extensive interactions between temperature and cytokinin signalling. The biological significance of this finding was tested by assaying an independent growth response of Arabidopsis seedlings to heat stress: hypocotyl elongation. This response was strongly inhibited in mutants with deficiencies in cytokinin signalling or endogenous cytokinin levels. Thus, cytokinins may directly participate in heat signalling in plants. Finally, large proportions of both temperature-shock and cytokinin responsive proteomes co-localize to the chloroplast, which might therefore host a substantial proportion of the temperature response machinery.

  14. Statistical modeling of nitrogen-dependent modulation of root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao Araya; Takuya Kubo; Nicolaus von Wiren; Hideki Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Plant root development is strongly affected by nutrient availability. Despite the importance of structure and function of roots in nutrient acquisition, statistical modeling approaches to evaluate dynamic and temporal modulations of root system architecture in response to nutrient availability have remained as widely open and exploratory areas in root biology. In this study, we developed a statistical modeling approach to investigate modulations of root system archi-tecture in response to nitrogen availability. Mathematical models were designed for quantitative assessment of root growth and root branching phenotypes and their dynamic relationships based on hierarchical configuration of primary and lateral roots formulating the fishbone-shaped root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana. Time-series datasets reporting dynamic changes in root developmental traits on different nitrate or ammonium concentrations were gener-ated for statistical analyses. Regression analyses unraveled key parameters associated with:(i) inhibition of primary root growth under nitrogen limitation or on ammonium;(i ) rapid progression of lateral root emergence in response to ammonium; and (i i) inhibition of lateral root elongation in the presence of excess nitrate or ammonium. This study provides a statistical framework for interpreting dynamic modulation of root system architecture, supported by meta-analysis of datasets displaying morphological responses of roots to diverse nitrogen supplies.

  15. Assessing the functional coherence of modules found in multiple-evidence networks from Arabidopsis

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    Hodgman Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining multiple evidence-types from different information sources has the potential to reveal new relationships in biological systems. The integrated information can be represented as a relationship network, and clustering the network can suggest possible functional modules. The value of such modules for gaining insight into the underlying biological processes depends on their functional coherence. The challenges that we wish to address are to define and quantify the functional coherence of modules in relationship networks, so that they can be used to infer function of as yet unannotated proteins, to discover previously unknown roles of proteins in diseases as well as for better understanding of the regulation and interrelationship between different elements of complex biological systems. Results We have defined the functional coherence of modules with respect to the Gene Ontology (GO by considering two complementary aspects: (i the fragmentation of the GO functional categories into the different modules and (ii the most representative functions of the modules. We have proposed a set of metrics to evaluate these two aspects and demonstrated their utility in Arabidopsis thaliana. We selected 2355 proteins for which experimentally established protein-protein interaction (PPI data were available. From these we have constructed five relationship networks, four based on single types of data: PPI, co-expression, co-occurrence of protein names in scientific literature abstracts and sequence similarity and a fifth one combining these four evidence types. The ability of these networks to suggest biologically meaningful grouping of proteins was explored by applying Markov clustering and then by measuring the functional coherence of the clusters. Conclusions Relationship networks integrating multiple evidence-types are biologically informative and allow more proteins to be assigned to a putative functional module. Using additional

  16. Arabidopsis AIP1-2 restricted by WER-mediated patterning modulates planar polarity.

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    Kiefer, Christian S; Claes, Andrea R; Nzayisenga, Jean-Claude; Pietra, Stefano; Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for coordinated planar polarity of ROP downstream of ethylene signalling. Strikingly, AIP1-2 displays hair cell file-enriched expression, restricted by WEREWOLF (WER)-dependent patterning and modified by ethylene and auxin action. Hence, our findings reveal AIP1-2, expressed under control of the WER-dependent patterning machinery and the ethylene signalling pathway, as a modulator of actin-mediated planar polarity.

  17. PGR5-PGRL1-Dependent Cyclic Electron Transport Modulates Linear Electron Transport Rate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Suorsa, Marjaana; Rossi, Fabio; Tadini, Luca; Labs, Mathias; Colombo, Monica; Jahns, Peter; Kater, Martin M; Leister, Dario; Finazzi, Giovanni; Aro, Eva-Mari; Barbato, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Plants need tight regulation of photosynthetic electron transport for survival and growth under environmental and metabolic conditions. For this purpose, the linear electron transport (LET) pathway is supplemented by a number of alternative electron transfer pathways and valves. In Arabidopsis, cyclic electron transport (CET) around photosystem I (PSI), which recycles electrons from ferrodoxin to plastoquinone, is the most investigated alternative route. However, the interdependence of LET and CET and the relative importance of CET remain unclear, largely due to the difficulties in precise assessment of the contribution of CET in the presence of LET, which dominates electron flow under physiological conditions. We therefore generated Arabidopsis mutants with a minimal water-splitting activity, and thus a low rate of LET, by combining knockout mutations in PsbO1, PsbP2, PsbQ1, PsbQ2, and PsbR loci. The resulting Δ5 mutant is viable, although mature leaves contain only ∼ 20% of wild-type naturally less abundant PsbO2 protein. Δ5 plants compensate for the reduction in LET by increasing the rate of CET, and inducing a strong non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) response during dark-to-light transitions. To identify the molecular origin of such a high-capacity CET, we constructed three sextuple mutants lacking the qE component of NPQ (Δ5 npq4-1), NDH-mediated CET (Δ5 crr4-3), or PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET (Δ5 pgr5). Their analysis revealed that PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET plays a major role in ΔpH formation and induction of NPQ in C3 plants. Moreover, while pgr5 dies at the seedling stage under fluctuating light conditions, Δ5 pgr5 plants are able to survive, which underlines the importance of PGR5 in modulating the intersystem electron transfer. PMID:26687812

  18. Brassinosteroids stimulate plant tropisms through modulation of polar auxin transport in Brassica and Arabidopsis.

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    Li, Li; Xu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2005-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant growth regulators in multiple developmental processes. Previous studies have indicated that BR treatment enhanced auxin-related responses, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using (14)C-labeled indole-3-acetic acid and Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring an auxin-responsive reporter construct, we show that the BR brassinolide (BL) stimulates polar auxin transport capacities and modifies the distribution of endogenous auxin. In plants treated with BL or defective in BR biosynthesis or signaling, the transcription of PIN genes, which facilitate functional auxin transport in plants, was differentially regulated. In addition, BL enhanced plant tropistic responses by promoting the accumulation of the PIN2 protein from the root tip to the elongation zone and stimulating the expression and dispersed localization of ROP2 during tropistic responses. Constitutive overexpression of ROP2 results in enhanced polar accumulation of PIN2 protein in the root elongation region and increased gravitropism, which is significantly affected by latrunculin B, an inhibitor of F-actin assembly. The ROP2 dominant negative mutants (35S-ROP2-DA/DN) show delayed tropistic responses, and this delay cannot be reversed by BL addition, strongly supporting the idea that ROP2 modulates the functional localization of PIN2 through regulation of the assembly/reassembly of F-actins, thereby mediating the BR effects on polar auxin transport and tropistic responses.

  19. The role of Arabidopsis 5PTase13 in root gravitropism through modulation of vesicle trafficking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Wang; Wen-Hui Lin; Xu Chen; Hong-Wei Xue

    2009-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5PTases) are enzymes of phosphatidylinositoi metabolism that affect various aspects of plant growth and development. Arabidopsis 5PTasel3 regulates auxin homeostasis and hormone-related cotyledon vein development, and here we demonstrate that its knockout mutant 5pt13 has elevated sensitivity to gravistimulation in root gravitropic responses. The altered responses of 5pt13 mutants to 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (an auxin transport inhibitor) indicate that 5PTasel3 might be involved in the regulation of auxin transport. Indeed, the auxin efflux carrier PIN2 is expressed more broadly under 5PTasel3 deficiency, and observations of the internalization of the membrane-selective dye FM4-64 reveal altered vesicle trafficking in 5pt13 mutants. Compared with wild-type, 5pt13 mutant seedlings are less sensitive to the inhibition by brefeldin A of vesicle cycling, seedling growth, and the intracellular cycling of the PINI and PIN2 proteins. Further, auxin redistribution upon gravitropic stimulation is stimulated under 5PTasel3 deficiency. These results suggest that 5PTasel3 may modulate auxin trans-port by regulating vesicle trafficking and thereby play a role in root gravitropism.

  20. Modulation of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Qiao [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Xu, Wei; Li, Fanghua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Min [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Bian, Po [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The effects of microgravity on the radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) were definitely demonstrated. • The effects of microgravity on RIBE might be divergent for different biological events. • The microgravity mainly modified the generation or transport of bystander signals at early stage. - Abstract: Both space radiation and microgravity have been demonstrated to have inevitable impact on living organisms during space flights and should be considered as important factors for estimating the potential health risk for astronauts. Therefore, the question whether radiation effects could be modulated by microgravity is an important aspect in such risk evaluation. Space particles at low dose and fluence rate, directly affect only a fraction of cells in the whole organism, which implement radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in cellular response to space radiation exposure. The fact that all of the RIBE experiments are carried out in a normal gravity condition bring forward the need for evidence regarding the effect of microgravity on RIBE. In the present study, a two-dimensional rotation clinostat was adopted to demonstrate RIBE in microgravity conditions, in which the RIBE was assayed using an experimental system of root-localized irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants. The results showed that the modeled microgravity inhibited significantly the RIBE-mediated up-regulation of expression of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transcriptional activation of multicopy P35S:GUS, but made no difference to the induction of homologous recombination by RIBE, showing divergent responses of RIBE to the microgravity conditions. The time course of interaction between the modeled microgravity and RIBE was further investigated, and the results showed that the microgravity mainly modulated the processes of the generation or translocation of the bystander signal(s) in roots.

  1. The NF-YC–RGL2 module integrates GA and ABA signalling to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis

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    Liu, Xu; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Mingkun; Tang, Yang; Li, Yuge; Li, Ling; Hou, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic crosstalk between gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in the modulation of seed germination. However, the molecular mechanism of such phytohormone interaction remains largely elusive. Here we show that three Arabidopsis NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y C (NF-YC) homologues NF-YC3, NF-YC4 and NF-YC9 redundantly modulate GA- and ABA-mediated seed germination. These NF-YCs interact with the DELLA protein RGL2, a key repressor of GA signalling. The NF-YC–RGL2 module targets ABI5, a gene encoding a core component of ABA signalling, via specific CCAAT elements and collectively regulates a set of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, thus controlling germination. These results suggest that the NF-YC–RGL2–ABI5 module integrates GA and ABA signalling pathways during seed germination. PMID:27624486

  2. Modulation of Anti-Oxidation Ability by Proanthocyanidins during Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Guo Jia; Zi-Wei Sheng; Wei-Feng Xu; Ying-Xuan Li; Ying-Gao Liu; Yi-Ji Xia; Jian-Hua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) as the end products of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway mainly accumulate in seed coat but their biological function is largely unknown.We studied the anti-oxidation ability in seed coat and germination changes under externally applied oxidative stresses in PAs-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis.Germination of PAs-deficient mutant seeds was faster than that of wild-type under low or no oxidative stress,suggesting a PAs-induced inhibition of germination.When the applied oxidative stress was high,germination of PAs-deficient mutants was lower than that of wild-type,suggesting a loss of PAs-related anti-oxidation ability in the mutants.Using ABA signaling mutants,our studies demonstrated that both ABA signaling pathway and PAs were important for the response to serve oxidative stress during seed germination.However,the discrepancy of the response between abi mutants and PAs mutants to oxidative stress suggests that ABA signaling pathway may not play a major role in PAs' action in alleviating oxidative stress.Under low or no oxidative stress,germination was mainly determined by the ABA content in seed and the PAs-deficient mutant seeds germinated faster due to their lower ABA content than wild-type.However,oxidative injury inhibited germination when PAs-deficient seeds germinated under high oxidative stress.Wild-type exhibited higher germination under the high oxidative stress due to the PAs' anti-oxidation ability.Oxidative stress applied externally led to changes in endogenous PAs contents that coincided with the expression changes of PAs biogenesis genes.PAs modulated the activities of some key enzymes that controlled the levels of reactive oxygen species and the anti-oxidation capacity during the seed germination.This work suggests that PAs contribute to the adaptive mechanism that helps germination under environmental stresses by playing dual roles in both germination control and anti-oxidation reaction.

  3. DELLA proteins modulate Arabidopsis defences induced in response to caterpillar herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhiyi; Krosse, Sebastian; Achard, Patrick; van Dam, Nicole M; Bede, Jacqueline C

    2014-02-01

    Upon insect herbivory, many plant species change the direction of metabolic flux from growth into defence. Two key pathways modulating these processes are the gibberellin (GA)/DELLA pathway and the jasmonate pathway. In this study, the effect of caterpillar herbivory on plant-induced responses was compared between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and quad-della mutants that have constitutively elevated GA responses. The labial saliva (LS) of caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is known to influence induced plant defence responses. To determine the role of this herbivore cue in determining metabolic shifts, plants were subject to herbivory by caterpillars with intact or impaired LS secretions. In both wild-type and quad-della plants, a jasmonate burst is an early response to caterpillar herbivory. Negative growth regulator DELLA proteins are required for the LS-mediated suppression of hormone levels. Jasmonate-dependent marker genes are induced in response to herbivory independently of LS, with the exception of AtPDF1.2 that showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. Early expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-marker gene, AtPR1, was not affected by herbivory which also reflected SA hormone levels; however, this gene showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. DELLA proteins may positively regulate glucosinolate levels and suppress laccase-like multicopper oxidase activity in response to herbivory. The present results show a link between DELLA proteins and early, induced plant defences in response to insect herbivory; in particular, these proteins are necessary for caterpillar LS-associated attenuation of defence hormones. PMID:24399173

  4. Cyclic mononucleotides modulate potassium and calcium flux responses to H2O2 in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñez, Natalia Maria

    2014-02-13

    Cyclic mononucleotides are messengers in plant stress responses. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces rapid net K+-efflux and Ca2+-influx in Arabidopsis roots. Pre-treatment with either 10 μM cAMP or cGMP for 1 or 24 h does significantly reduce net K+-leakage and Ca2+-influx, and in the case of the K+-fluxes, the cell permeant cyclic mononucleotides are more effective. We also examined the effect of 10 μM of the cell permeant 8-Br-cGMP on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome and noted a specific increase in proteins with a role in stress responses and ion transport, suggesting that cGMP is sufficient to directly and/or indirectly induce complex adaptive changes to cellular stresses induced by H2O2. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulation of reactive oxygen species by salicylic acid in arabidopsis seed germination under high salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangmin; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-01-01

    Potential roles of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination have been explored in many plant species. However, it is still controversial how SA regulates seed germination, mainly because the results have been somewhat variable, depending on plant genotypes used and experimental conditions employed. We found that SA promotes seed germination under high salinity in Arabidopsis. Seed germination of the sid2 mutant, which has a defect in SA biosynthesis, is hypersensitive to high salinity, but the...

  6. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Dovana; Marco Mucciarelli; Maurizio Mascarello; Anna Fusconi

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 i...

  7. Hydrogen peroxide modulates abscisic acid signaling in root growth and development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Ling; ZHOU Yun; ZHANG XiaoRan; SONG ChunPeng; Gao MingQing

    2007-01-01

    Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) can inhibit root growth and promote formation of more root hairs in the root tip of Arabidopsis. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie root ABA signaling are largely unknown. We report here that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduces the root growth of wild type,and the phenotype of H2O2 on the root growth is similar to ABA response. Meanwhile ABA-induced changes in the morphology of root system can be partly reversed by ascorbic acid in wild type and abolished in NADPH oxidase defective mutant atrbohF and atrbohC. Further, ABA can induce H2O2 accumulation in the root cells and enhance transcription level of OXI1, which is necessary for many more AOS-dependent processes such as root hair growth in Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that H2O2 as an important signal molecule is required for the ABA-regulated root growth and development in Arabidopsis.

  8. Arabidopsis scaffold protein RACK1A modulates rare sugar D-allose regulated gibberellin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fennell, Herman; Olawin, Abdulquadri; Mizanur, Rahman M; Izumori, Ken; Chen, Jin-Gui; Ullah, Hemayet

    2012-01-01

    As energy sources and structural components, sugars are the central regulators of plant growth and development. In addition to the abundant natural sugars in plants, more than 50 different kinds of rare sugars exist in nature, several of which show distinct roles in plant growth and development. Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, an epimer of D-glucose at C3, is found to suppress plant hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice. Scaffold protein RACK1A in the model plant Arabidopsis ...

  9. Hydrogen peroxide is involved in cGMP modulating the lateral root development of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jisjeng; Jia, Honglei

    2013-01-01

    3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) function as the important signaling molecule which promote the lateral root development of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, interestingly, application of 8-Br-cGMP (the membrane permeable cGMP analog) promoted the endogenous H2O2 production. In addition, the decrease of endogenous H2O2 also inhibited the effect of cGMP on the lateral root development. Thus, H2O2 maybe act as a downstream signaling of cGMP molecule wh...

  10. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:26564029

  11. SIZ1-Dependent Post-Translational Modification by SUMO Modulates Sugar Signaling and Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto; Verde, Nuno; Lourenço, Tiago; Magalhães, Alexandre Papadopoulos; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Bejarano, Eduardo Rodríguez; Azevedo, Herlânder

    2015-12-01

    Post-translational modification mechanisms function as switches that mediate the balance between optimum growth and the response to environmental stimuli, by regulating the activity of key proteins. SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) attachment, or sumoylation, is a post-translational modification that is essential for the plant stress response, also modulating hormonal circuits to co-ordinate developmental processes. The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase SAP and Miz 1 (SIZ1) is the major SUMO conjugation enhancer in response to stress, and is implicated in several aspects of plant development. Here we report that known SUMO targets are over-represented in multiple carbohydrate-related proteins, suggesting a functional link between sumoylation and sugar metabolism and signaling in plants. We subsequently observed that SUMO-conjugated proteins accumulate in response to high doses of sugar in a SIZ1-dependent manner, and that the null siz1 mutant displays increased expression of sucrose and starch catabolic genes and shows reduced starch levels. We demonstrated that SIZ1 controls germination time and post-germination growth via osmotic and sugar-dependent signaling, respectively. Glucose was specifically linked to SUMO-sugar interplay, with high levels inducing root growth inhibition and aberrant root hair morphology in siz1. The use of sugar analogs and sugar marker gene expression analysis allowed us to implicate SIZ1 in a signaling pathway dependent on glucose metabolism, probably involving modulation of SNF1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity.

  12. Auxin modulates the enhanced development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under elevated CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Chongwei; Jin, Gulei; Zhou, Qingyan; Lin, Xianyong; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong

    2011-08-01

    Root hairs may play a critical role in nutrient acquisition of plants grown under elevated CO(2) . This study investigated how elevated CO(2) enhanced the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The plants under elevated CO(2) (800 µL L(-1)) had denser and longer root hairs, and more H-positioned cells in root epidermis than those under ambient CO(2) (350 µL L(-1)). The elevated CO(2) increased auxin production in roots. Under elevated CO(2) , application of either 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) blocked the enhanced development of root hairs. The opposite was true when the plants under ambient CO(2) were treated with 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), an auxin analogue. Furthermore, the elevated CO(2) did not enhance the development of root hairs in auxin-response mutants, axr1-3, and auxin-transporter mutants, axr4-1, aux1-7 and pin1-1. Both elevated CO(2) and NAA application increased expressions of caprice, triptychon and rho-related protein from plants 2, and decreased expressions of werewolf, GLABRA2, GLABRA3 and the transparent testa glabra 1, genes related to root-hair development, while 1-NOA and NPA application had an opposite effect. Our study suggests that elevated CO(2) enhanced the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis via the well-characterized auxin signalling and transport that modulate the initiation of root hairs and the expression of its specific genes.

  13. Haemoglobin modulates NO emission and hyponasty under hypoxia-related stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; van Zanten, Martijn; Mandon, Julien;

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are signalling molecules that are synthesized in response to oxygen depletion. Non-symbiotic plant haemoglobins (Hbs) have been demonstrated to act in roots under oxygen depletion to scavenge NO. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the online emission of NO or ethylene...... represented a major loss of nitrogen equivalent to 0.2mM nitrate per 24h under hypoxic conditions. Hb gene expression was greatly enhanced in flooded roots, suggesting induction by reduced oxygen diffusion. The function could be to limit loss of nitrogen under NO emission. NO reacts with thiols to form S......-nitrosylated compounds, and it is demonstrated that hypoxia substantially increased the content of S-nitrosylated compounds. A parallel up-regulation of Hb gene expression in the normoxic shoots of the flooded plants may reflect signal transmission from root to shoot via ethylene and a role for Hb in the shoots. Hb gene...

  14. Ethylene modulates flavonoid accumulation and gravitropic responses in roots of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buer, Charles S; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria K

    2006-04-01

    Plant organs change their growth direction in response to reorientation relative to the gravity vector. We explored the role of ethylene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root gravitropism. Treatment of wild-type Columbia seedlings with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) reduced root elongation and gravitropic curvature. The ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 and etr1-3 had wild-type root gravity responses, but lacked the growth and gravity inhibition by ACC found in the wild type. We examined the effect of ACC on tt4(2YY6) seedlings, which have a null mutation in the gene encoding chalcone synthase, the first enzyme in flavonoid synthesis. The tt4(2YY6) mutant makes no flavonoids, has elevated indole-3-acetic acid transport, and exhibits a delayed gravity response. Roots of tt4(2YY6), the backcrossed line tt4-2, and two other tt4 alleles had wild-type sensitivity to growth inhibition by ACC, whereas the root gravitropic curvature of these tt4 alleles was much less inhibited by ACC than wild-type roots, suggesting that ACC may reduce gravitropic curvature by altering flavonoid synthesis. ACC treatment induced flavonoid accumulation in root tips, as judged by a dye that becomes fluorescent upon binding flavonoids in wild type, but not in ein2-5 and etr1-3. ACC also prevented a transient peak in flavonoid synthesis in response to gravity. Together, these experiments suggest that elevated ethylene levels negatively regulate root gravitropism, using EIN2- and ETR1-dependent pathways, and that ACC inhibition of gravity response occurs through altering flavonoid synthesis. PMID:16489132

  15. Overexpression of the carbohydrate binding module of strawberry expansin2 in Arabidopsis thaliana modifies plant growth and cell wall metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Cristina F; Villarreal, Natalia M; Rossi, Franco R; Martínez, Santiago; Martínez, Gustavo A; Civello, Pedro M

    2015-05-01

    Several cell wall enzymes are carbohydrate active enzymes that contain a putative Carbohydrate Binding Module (CBM) in their structures. The main function of these non-catalitic modules is to facilitate the interaction between the enzyme and its substrate. Expansins are non-hydrolytic proteins present in the cell wall, and their structure includes a CBM in the C-terminal that bind to cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins. We studied the ability of the Expansin2 CBM (CBMFaEXP2) from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) to modify the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants overexpressing CBMFaEXP2 were characterized phenotypically and biochemically. Transgenic plants were taller than wild type, possibly owing to a faster growth of the main stem. Cell walls of CBMFaEXP2-expressing plants were thicker and contained higher amount of pectins. Lower activity of a set of enzymes involved in cell wall degradation (PG, β-Gal, β-Xyl) was found, and the expression of the corresponding genes (AtPG, Atβ-Gal, Atβ-Xyl5) was reduced also. In addition, a decrease in the expression of two A. thaliana Expansin genes (AtEXP5 and AtEXP8) was observed. Transgenic plants were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea infection than wild type, possibly as a consequence of higher cell wall integrity. Our results support the hypothesis that the overexpression of a putative CBM is able to modify plant cell wall structure leading to modulation of wall loosening and plant growth. These findings might offer a tool to controlling physiological processes where cell wall disassembly is relevant, such as fruit softening. PMID:25837738

  16. DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate de novo shoot regeneration in Arabidopsis by modulating WUSCHEL expression and auxin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have a profound capacity to regenerate organs from differentiated somatic tissues, based on which propagating plants in vitro was made possible. Beside its use in biotechnology, in vitro shoot regeneration is also an important system to study de novo organogenesis. Phytohormones and transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS play critical roles in this process but whether and how epigenetic modifications are involved is unknown. Here, we report that epigenetic marks of DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate de novo shoot regeneration of Arabidopsis through modulating WUS expression and auxin signaling. First, functional loss of key epigenetic genes-including METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1 encoding for DNA methyltransferase, KRYPTONITE (KYP for the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9 methyltransferase, JMJ14 for the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4 demethylase, and HAC1 for the histone acetyltransferase-resulted in altered WUS expression and developmental rates of regenerated shoots in vitro. Second, we showed that regulatory regions of WUS were developmentally regulated by both DNA methylation and histone modifications through bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Third, DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of WUS was lost in the met1 mutant, thus leading to increased WUS expression and its localization. Fourth, we did a genome-wide transcriptional analysis and found out that some of differentially expressed genes between wild type and met1 were involved in signal transduction of the phytohormone auxin. We verified that the increased expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3 in met1 indeed was due to DNA demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation regulates de novo shoot regeneration by modulating auxin signaling. We propose that DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate de novo shoot regeneration by modulating WUS expression and auxin signaling. The study demonstrates that, although molecular components involved in organogenesis

  17. Modulation of redox homeostasis under suboptimal conditions by Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambunathan Niranjani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nudix hydrolases play a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by hydrolyzing various nuceloside diphosphate derivatives and capped mRNAs. Several independent studies have demonstrated that Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7 (AtNUDT7 hydrolyzes NADH and ADP-ribose. Loss of function Atnudt7-1 mutant plants (SALK_046441 exhibit stunted growth, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, enhanced resistance to pathogens. However, using the same T-DNA line, two other groups reported that mutant plants do not exhibit any visible phenotypes. In this study we analyze plausible factors that account for differences in the observed phenotypes in Atnudt7. Secondly, we evaluate the biochemical and molecular consequences of increased NADH levels due to loss of function of AtNUDT7 in Arabidopsis. Results We identified a novel conditional phenotype of Atnudt7-1 knockout plants that was contingent upon nutrient composition of potting mix. In nutrient-rich Metro-Mix, there were no phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type (WT plants. In the nutrient-poor mix (12 parts vermiculite: 3 parts Redi-earth and 1 part sand, mutant plants showed the characteristic stunted phenotype. Compared with WT plants, levels of glutathione, NAD+, NADH, and in turn NADH:NAD+ ratio were higher in Atnudt7-1 plants growing in 12:3:1 potting mix. Infiltrating NADH and ADP-ribose into WT leaves was sufficient to induce AtNUDT7 protein. Constitutive over-expression of AtNudt7 did not alter NADH levels or resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome analysis identified nearly 700 genes differentially expressed in the Atnudt7-1 mutant compared to WT plants grown in 12:3:1 potting mix. In the Atnudt7-1 mutant, genes associated with defense response, proteolytic activities, and systemic acquired resistance were upregulated, while gene ontologies for transcription and phytohormone signaling were downregulated. Conclusions Based on these observations, we conclude that the

  18. NITRIC OXIDE BINDS TO AND MODULATES THE ACTIVITY OF A POLLEN SPECIFIC ARABIDOPSIS DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2014-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in plants. In the pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana, NO causes re-orientation of the growing tube and this response is mediated by 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). However, in plants, NO-sensors have remained somewhat elusive. Here, the findings of an NO-binding candidate, Arabidopsis thaliana DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE 4 (ATDGK4; AT5G57690) is presented. In addition to the annotated diacylglycerol kinase domain, this molecule also harbors a predicted heme-NO/oxygen (H-NOX) binding site and a guanylyl cyclase (GC) catalytic domain which have been identified based on the alignment of functionally conserved amino acid residues across species. A 3D model of the molecule was constructed, and from which the locations of the kinase catalytic center, the ATP-binding site, the GC and H-NOX domains were estimated. Docking of ATP to the kinase catalytic center was also modeled. The recombinant ATDGK4 demonstrated kinase activity in vitro, catalyzing the ATP-dependent conversion of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity was inhibited by the mammalian DAG kinase inhibitor R59949 and importantly also by the NO donors diethylamine NONOate (DEA NONOate) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Recombinant ATDGK4 also has GC activity in vitro, catalyzing the conversion of guanosine-5\\'-triphosphate (GTP) to cGMP. The catalytic domains of ATDGK4 kinase and GC may be independently regulated since the kinase but not the GC, was inhibited by NO while Ca2+ only stimulates the GC. It is likely that the DAG kinase product, PA, causes the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores and Ca2+ in turn activates the GC domain of ATDGK4 through a feedback mechanism. Analysis of publicly available microarray data has revealed that ATDGK4 is highly expressed in the pollen. Here, the pollen tubes of mis-expressing atdgk4 recorded slower growth rates than the wild-type (Col-0) and importantly, they showed altered

  19. Arabidopsis FH1 Formin Affects Cotyledon Pavement Cell Shape by Modulating Cytoskeleton Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, Amparo; Oulehlová, Denisa; Stillerová, Lenka; Schiebertová, Petra; Grunt, Michal; Žárský, Viktor; Cvrčková, Fatima

    2016-03-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis involves concerted rearrangements of microtubules and actin microfilaments. We previously reported that FH1, the main Arabidopsis thaliana housekeeping Class I membrane-anchored formin, contributes to actin dynamics and microtubule stability in rhizodermis cells. Here we examine the effects of mutations affecting FH1 (At3g25500) on cell morphogenesis and above-ground organ development in seedlings, as well as on cytoskeletal organization and dynamics, using a combination of confocal and variable angle epifluorescence microscopy with a pharmacological approach. Homozygous fh1 mutants exhibited cotyledon epinasty and had larger cotyledon pavement cells with more pronounced lobes than the wild type. The pavement cell shape alterations were enhanced by expression of the fluorescent microtubule marker GFP-microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). Mutant cotyledon pavement cells exhibited reduced density and increased stability of microfilament bundles, as well as enhanced dynamics of microtubules. Analogous results were also obtained upon treatments with the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 (small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains). Pavement cell shape in wild-type (wt) and fh1 plants in some situations exhibited a differential response towards anti-cytoskeletal drugs, especially the microtubule disruptor oryzalin. Our observations indicate that FH1 participates in the control of microtubule dynamics, possibly via its effects on actin, subsequently influencing cell morphogenesis and macroscopic organ development. PMID:26738547

  20. LOV Domain-Containing F-Box Proteins:Light-Dependent Protein Degradation Modules in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shogo Ito; Young Hun Song; Takato Imaizumi

    2012-01-01

    Plants constantly survey the surrounding environment using several sets of photoreceptors.They can sense changes in the quantity (=intensity) and quality (=wavelength) of light and use this information to adjust their physiological responses,growth,and developmental patterns.In addition to the classical photoreceptors,such as phytochromes,cryptochromes,and phototropins,ZEITLUPE (ZTL),FLAVIN-BINDING,KELCH REPEAT,F-BOX 1 (FKF1),and LOV KELCH PROTEIN 2 (LKP2) proteins have been recently identified as blue-light photoreceptors that are important for regulation of the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering.The ZTL/FKF1/LKP2 protein family possesses a unique combination of domains:a blue-light-absorbing LOV (Light,Oxygen,or Voltage) domain along with domains involved in protein degradation.Here,we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the function of the Arabidopsis ZTL/FKF1/LKP2 proteins.We summarize the distinct photochemical properties of their LOV domains and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the ZTL/FKF1/LKP2 proteins regulate the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering by controlling blue-light-dependent protein degradation.

  1. Endogenous salicylic acid is required for promoting cadmium tolerance of Arabidopsis by modulating glutathione metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Chen; Li, Hua; Yi, Keke; Ding, Nengfei; Li, Ningyu; Lin, Yicheng; Fu, Qinglin

    2016-10-01

    A few studies with NahG transgenic lines of Arabidopsis show that depletion of SA enhances cadmium (Cd) tolerance. However, it remains some uncertainties that the defence signaling may be a result of catechol accumulation in NahG transgenic lines but not SA deficiency. Here, we conducted a set of hydroponic assays with another SA-deficient mutant sid2 to examine the endogenous roles of SA in Cd tolerance, especially focusing on the glutathione (GSH) cycling. Our results showed that reduced SA resulted in negative effects on Cd tolerance, including decreased Fe uptake and chlorophyll concentration, aggravation of oxidative damage and growth inhibition. Cd exposure significantly increased SA concentration in wild-type leaves, but did not affect it in sid2 mutants. Depletion of SA did not disturb the Cd uptake in either roots or shoots. The reduced Cd tolerance in sid2 mutants is due to the lowered GSH status, which is associated with the decreased expression of serine acetyltransferase along with a decline in contents of non-protein thiols, phytochelatins, and the lowered transcription and activities of glutathione reductase1 (GR1) which reduced GSH regeneration. Finally, the possible mode of SA signaling through the GR/GSH pathway during Cd exposure is discussed. PMID:27209521

  2. Purification and simultaneous immobilization of Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxynitrile lyase using a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Benita; Diener, Martin; Wirtz, Astrid; Pohl, Martina; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Krauss, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Tedious, time- and labor-intensive protein purification and immobilization procedures still represent a major bottleneck limiting the widespread application of enzymes in synthetic chemistry and industry. We here exemplify a simple strategy for the direct site-specific immobilization of proteins from crude cell extracts by fusion of a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) derived from the exoglucanase/xylanase Cex from Cellulomonas fimi to a target enzyme. By employing a tripartite fusion protein consisting of the CBM, a flavin-based fluorescent protein (FbFP), and the Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxynitrile lyase (AtHNL), binding to cellulosic carrier materials can easily be monitored via FbFP fluorescence. Adsorption properties (kinetics and quantities) were studied for commercially available Avicel PH-101 and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) derived from Avicel. The resulting immobilizates showed similar activities as the wild-type enzyme but displayed increased stability in the weakly acidic pH range. Finally, Avicel, RAC and cellulose acetate (CA) preparations were used for the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile in micro-aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) demonstrating the applicability and stability of the immobilizates for biotransformations in both aqueous and organic reaction systems. PMID:25755120

  3. Translocation of phospholipase A2α to apoplasts is modulated by developmental stages and bacterial infection in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye eJung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-2 position to yield lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Of the four paralogs expressed in Arabidopsis, the cellular functions of PLA2α in planta are poorly understood. The present study shows that PLA2α possesses unique characteristics in terms of spatiotemporal subcellular localization, as compared with the other paralogs that remain in the ER and/or Golgi apparatus during secretory processes. Only PLA2α is secreted out to extracellular spaces, and its secretion to apoplasts is modulated according to the developmental stages of plant tissues. Observation of PLA2α-RFP transgenic plants suggests that PLA2α localizes mostly at the Golgi bodies in actively growing leaf tissues, but is gradually trans-located to apoplasts as the leaves become mature. When Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 carrying the avirulent factor avrRpm1 infects the apoplasts of host plants, PLA2α rapidly trans-locates to the apoplasts where bacteria attempt to become established. PLA2α promoter::GUS assays show that PLA2α gene expression is controlled in a developmental stage- and tissue-specific manner. It would be interesting to investigate if PLA2α functions in plant defense responses at apoplasts where secreted PLA2α confronts with invading pathogens.

  4. GNC and CGA1 modulate chlorophyll biosynthesis and glutamate synthase (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT expression in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Hudson

    Full Text Available Chloroplast development is an important determinant of plant productivity and is controlled by environmental factors including amounts of light and nitrogen as well as internal phytohormones including cytokinins and gibberellins (GA. The paralog GATA transcription factors GNC and CGA1/GNL up-regulated by light, nitrogen and cytokinin while also being repressed by GA signaling. Modifying the expression of these genes has previously been shown to influence chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis while also altering aspects of germination, elongation growth and flowering time. In this work, we also use transgenic lines to demonstrate that GNC and CGA1 exhibit a partially redundant control over chlorophyll biosynthesis. We provide novel evidence that GNC and CGA1 influence both chloroplast number and leaf starch in proportion to their transcript level. GNC and CGA1 were found to modify the expression of chloroplast localized GLUTAMATE SYNTHASE (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT, which is the primary factor controlling nitrogen assimilation in green tissue. Altering GNC and CGA1 expression was also found to modulate the expression of important chlorophyll biosynthesis genes (GUN4, HEMA1, PORB, and PORC. As previously demonstrated, the CGA1 transgenic plants demonstrated significantly altered timing to a number of developmental events including germination, leaf production, flowering time and senescence. In contrast, the GNC transgenic lines we analyzed maintain relatively normal growth phenotypes outside of differences in chloroplast development. Despite some evidence for partial divergence, results indicate that regulation of both GNC and CGA1 by light, nitrogen, cytokinin, and GA acts to modulate nitrogen assimilation, chloroplast development and starch production. Understanding the mechanisms controlling these processes is important for agricultural biotechnology.

  5. GNC and CGA1 Modulate Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Glutamate Synthase (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT) Expression in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darryl; Guevara, David; Yaish, Mahmoud W.; Hannam, Carol; Long, Nykoll; Clarke, Joseph D.; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplast development is an important determinant of plant productivity and is controlled by environmental factors including amounts of light and nitrogen as well as internal phytohormones including cytokinins and gibberellins (GA). The paralog GATA transcription factors GNC and CGA1/GNL up-regulated by light, nitrogen and cytokinin while also being repressed by GA signaling. Modifying the expression of these genes has previously been shown to influence chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis while also altering aspects of germination, elongation growth and flowering time. In this work, we also use transgenic lines to demonstrate that GNC and CGA1 exhibit a partially redundant control over chlorophyll biosynthesis. We provide novel evidence that GNC and CGA1 influence both chloroplast number and leaf starch in proportion to their transcript level. GNC and CGA1 were found to modify the expression of chloroplast localized GLUTAMATE SYNTHASE (GLU1/Fd-GOGAT), which is the primary factor controlling nitrogen assimilation in green tissue. Altering GNC and CGA1 expression was also found to modulate the expression of important chlorophyll biosynthesis genes (GUN4, HEMA1, PORB, and PORC). As previously demonstrated, the CGA1 transgenic plants demonstrated significantly altered timing to a number of developmental events including germination, leaf production, flowering time and senescence. In contrast, the GNC transgenic lines we analyzed maintain relatively normal growth phenotypes outside of differences in chloroplast development. Despite some evidence for partial divergence, results indicate that regulation of both GNC and CGA1 by light, nitrogen, cytokinin, and GA acts to modulate nitrogen assimilation, chloroplast development and starch production. Understanding the mechanisms controlling these processes is important for agricultural biotechnology. PMID:22102866

  6. Modulation of auxin content in Arabidopsis confers improved drought stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Chen, Li; Ye, Tiantian; Liu, Xiaodong; Ding, Kejian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Auxin is a well-known plant phytohormone that is involved in multiple plant growth processes and stress responses. In this study, auxin response was significantly modulated under drought stress condition. The iaaM-OX transgenic lines with higher endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level and IAA pre-treated wild type (WT) plants exhibited enhanced drought stress resistance, while the yuc1yuc2yuc6 triple mutants with lower endogenous IAA level showed decreased stress resistance in comparison to non-treated WT plants. Additionally, endogenous and exogenous auxin positively modulated the expression levels of multiple abiotic stress-related genes (RAB18, RD22, RD29A, RD29B, DREB2A, and DREB2B), and positively affected reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and underlying antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, auxin significantly modulated some carbon metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols and aromatic amines. Notably, endogenous and exogenous auxin positively modulated root architecture especially the lateral root number. Taken together, this study demonstrated that auxin might participate in the positive regulation of drought stress resistance, through regulation of root architecture, ABA-responsive genes expression, ROS metabolism, and metabolic homeostasis, at least partially. PMID:24992887

  7. Photoactivated UVR8-COP1 module determines photomorphogenic UV-B signaling output in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Yang, Panyu; Ouyang, Xinhao; Chen, Liangbi; Deng, Xing Wang

    2014-03-01

    In Arabidopsis, ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced photomorphogenesis is initiated by a unique photoreceptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8) which utilizes its tryptophan residues as internal chromophore to sense UV-B. As a result of UV-B light perception, the UVR8 homodimer shaped by its arginine residues undergoes a conformational switch of monomerization. Then UVR8 associates with the constitutively photomorphogenic 1-suppressor of PHYA (COP1-SPA) core complex(es) that is released from the cullin 4-damaged dna binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1) E3 apparatus. This association, in turn, causes COP1 to convert from a repressor to a promoter of photomorphogenesis. It is not fully understood, however, regarding the biological significance of light-absorbing and dimer-stabilizing residues for UVR8 activity in photomorphogenic UV-B signaling. Here, we take advantage of transgenic UVR8 variants to demonstrate that two light-absorbing tryptophans, W233 and W285, and two dimer-stabilizing arginines, R286 and R338, play pivotal roles in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis. Mutation of each residue results in alterations in UV-B light perception, UVR8 monomerization and UVR8-COP1 association in response to photomorphogenic UV-B. We also identify and functionally characterize two constitutively active UVR8 variants, UVR8W285A and UVR8R338A, whose photobiological activities are enhanced by the repression of CUL4, a negative regulator in this pathway. Based on our molecular and biochemical evidence, we propose that the UVR8-COP1 affinity in plants critically determines the photomorphogenic UV-B signal transduction coupling with UVR8-mediated UV-B light perception.

  8. Photoactivated UVR8-COP1 module determines photomorphogenic UV-B signaling output in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, ultraviolet (UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis is initiated by a unique photoreceptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8 which utilizes its tryptophan residues as internal chromophore to sense UV-B. As a result of UV-B light perception, the UVR8 homodimer shaped by its arginine residues undergoes a conformational switch of monomerization. Then UVR8 associates with the constitutively photomorphogenic 1-suppressor of PHYA (COP1-SPA core complex(es that is released from the cullin 4-damaged dna binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1 E3 apparatus. This association, in turn, causes COP1 to convert from a repressor to a promoter of photomorphogenesis. It is not fully understood, however, regarding the biological significance of light-absorbing and dimer-stabilizing residues for UVR8 activity in photomorphogenic UV-B signaling. Here, we take advantage of transgenic UVR8 variants to demonstrate that two light-absorbing tryptophans, W233 and W285, and two dimer-stabilizing arginines, R286 and R338, play pivotal roles in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis. Mutation of each residue results in alterations in UV-B light perception, UVR8 monomerization and UVR8-COP1 association in response to photomorphogenic UV-B. We also identify and functionally characterize two constitutively active UVR8 variants, UVR8W285A and UVR8R338A, whose photobiological activities are enhanced by the repression of CUL4, a negative regulator in this pathway. Based on our molecular and biochemical evidence, we propose that the UVR8-COP1 affinity in plants critically determines the photomorphogenic UV-B signal transduction coupling with UVR8-mediated UV-B light perception.

  9. Arabidopsis glutamate receptor homolog3.5 modulates cytosolic Ca2+ level to counteract effect of abscisic acid in seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongdong; Ju, Chuanli; Parihar, Aisha; Kim, So; Cho, Daeshik; Kwak, June M

    2015-04-01

    Seed germination is a critical step in a plant's life cycle that allows successful propagation and is therefore strictly controlled by endogenous and environmental signals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying germination control remain elusive. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) glutamate receptor homolog3.5 (AtGLR3.5) is predominantly expressed in germinating seeds and increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration that counteracts the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) to promote germination. Repression of AtGLR3.5 impairs cytosolic Ca2+ concentration elevation, significantly delays germination, and enhances ABA sensitivity in seeds, whereas overexpression of AtGLR3.5 results in earlier germination and reduced seed sensitivity to ABA. Furthermore, we show that Ca2+ suppresses the expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), a key transcription factor involved in ABA response in seeds, and that ABI4 plays a fundamental role in modulation of Ca2+-dependent germination. Taken together, our results provide molecular genetic evidence that AtGLR3.5-mediated Ca2+ influx stimulates seed germination by antagonizing the inhibitory effects of ABA through suppression of ABI4. These findings establish, to our knowledge, a new and pivotal role of the plant glutamate receptor homolog and Ca2+ signaling in germination control and uncover the orchestrated modulation of the AtGLR3.5-mediated Ca2+ signal and ABA signaling via ABI4 to fine-tune the crucial developmental process, germination, in Arabidopsis.

  10. The S-Domain Receptor Kinase Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase2 and the U Box/Armadillo Repeat-Containing E3 Ubiquitin Ligase9 Module Mediates Lateral Root Development under Phosphate Starvation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Srijani; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Wewala, Gayathri; Widdup, Ellen; Samuel, Marcus A

    2014-06-25

    When plants encounter nutrient-limiting conditions in the soil, the root architecture is redesigned to generate numerous lateral roots (LRs) that increase the surface area of roots, promoting efficient uptake of these deficient nutrients. Of the many essential nutrients, reduced availability of inorganic phosphate has a major impact on plant growth because of the requirement of inorganic phosphate for synthesis of organic molecules, such as nucleic acids, ATP, and phospholipids, that function in various crucial metabolic activities. In our screens to identify a potential role for the S-domain receptor kinase1-6 and its interacting downstream signaling partner, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant U box/armadillo repeat-containing E3 ligase9 (AtPUB9), we identified a role for this module in regulating LR development under phosphate-starved conditions. Our results show that Arabidopsis double mutant plants lacking AtPUB9 and Arabidopsis Receptor Kinase2 (AtARK2; ark2-1/pub9-1) display severely reduced LRs when grown under phosphate-starved conditions. Under these starvation conditions, these plants accumulated very low to no auxin in their primary root and LR tips as observed through expression of the auxin reporter DR5::uidA transgene. Exogenous auxin was sufficient to rescue the LR developmental defects in the ark2-1/pub9-1 lines, indicating a requirement of auxin accumulation for this process. Our subcellular localization studies with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension-cultured cells indicate that interaction between ARK2 and AtPUB9 results in accumulation of AtPUB9 in the autophagosomes. Inhibition of autophagy in wild-type plants resulted in reduction of LR development and auxin accumulation under phosphate-starved conditions, suggesting a role for autophagy in regulating LR development. Thus, our study has uncovered a previously unknown signaling module (ARK2-PUB9) that is required for auxin-mediated LR development under phosphate-starved conditions

  11. SEUSS Integrates Gibberellin Signaling with Transcriptional Inputs from the SHR-SCR-SCL3 Module to Regulate Middle Cortex Formation in the Arabidopsis Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Flores-Vergara, Miguel A; Hong, Jing Han; Chu, Huangwei; Lim, Jun; Franks, Robert G; Liu, Zhongchi; Xu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    A decade of studies on middle cortex (MC) formation in the root endodermis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have revealed a complex regulatory network that is orchestrated by several GRAS family transcription factors, including SHORT-ROOT (SHR), SCARECROW (SCR), and SCARECROW-LIKE3 (SCL3). However, how their functions are regulated remains obscure. Here we show that mutations in the SEUSS (SEU) gene led to a higher frequency of MC formation. seu mutants had strongly reduced expression of SHR, SCR, and SCL3, suggesting that SEU positively regulates these genes. Our results further indicate that SEU physically associates with upstream regulatory sequences of SHR, SCR, and SCL3; and that SEU has distinct genetic interactions with these genes in the control of MC formation, with SCL3 being epistatic to SEU. Similar to SCL3, SEU was repressed by the phytohormone GA and induced by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, suggesting that SEU acts downstream of GA signaling to regulate MC formation. Consistently, we found that SEU mediates the regulation of SCL3 by GA signaling. Together, our study identifies SEU as a new critical player that integrates GA signaling with transcriptional inputs from the SHR-SCR-SCL3 module to regulate MC formation in the Arabidopsis root.

  12. NO serves as a signaling intermediate downstream of H2O2 to modulate dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton during responses to VD-toxins in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Lin-Lin; Pei, Bao-Lei; Zhou, Qun; Li, Ying-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Although hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) can act as an upstream signaling molecule to modulate the dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton during the defense responses to Verticillium dahliae (VD) toxins in Arabidopsis, it is not known the relationship between these two signaling molecules. Here, we show that VD-toxin-induced NO accumulation was dependent on prior H2O2 production, NO is downstream of H2O2 in the signaling process, and that H2O2 acted synergistically with NO to modulat...

  13. Light has a specific role in modulating Arabidopsis gene expression at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battchikova Natalia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Light and temperature are the key abiotic modulators of plant gene expression. In the present work the effect of light under low temperature treatment was analyzed by using microarrays. Specific attention was paid to the up and down regulated genes by using promoter analysis. This approach revealed putative regulatory networks of transcription factors behind the induction or repression of the genes. Results Induction of a few oxidative stress related genes occurred only under the Cold/Light treatment including genes encoding iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD and glutathione-dependent hydrogen peroxide peroxidases (GPX. The ascorbate dependent water-water cycle genes showed no response to Cold/Light or Cold/Dark treatments. Cold/Light specifically induced genes encoding protective molecules like phenylpropanoids and photosynthesis-related carotenoids also involved in the biosynthesis of hormone abscisic acid (ABA crucial for cold acclimation. The enhanced/repressed transcript levels were not always reflected on the respective protein levels as demonstrated by dehydrin proteins. Conclusion Cold/Light up regulated twice as many genes as the Cold/Dark treatment and only the combination of light and low temperature enhanced the expression of several genes earlier described as cold-responsive genes. Cold/Light-induced genes included both cold-responsive transcription factors and several novel ones containing zinc-finger, MYB, NAC and AP2 domains. These are likely to function in concert in enhancing gene expression. Similar response elements were found in the promoter regions of both the transcription factors and their target genes implying a possible parallel regulation or amplification of the environmental signals according to the metabolic/redox state in the cells.

  14. AtHsfA2 modulates expression of stress responsive genes and enhances tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunguang; CHEN Qijun; GAO Xinqi; QI Bishu; CHEN Naizhi; XU Shouming; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for considerable interlinking between the responses to heat stress and oxidative stress, and recent researches suggest heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals. In this paper, we present evidence that AtHsfA2 modulated expression of stress responsive genes and enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Using Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of AtHsfA2 was induced by not only HS but also oxidative stress. By functional analysis of AtHsfA2 knockout mutants and AtHsfA2 overexpressing transgenic plants, we also demonstrated that the mutants displayed reduced the basal and acquired thermotolerance as well as oxidative stress tolerance but the overexpression lines displayed increased tolerance to these stress. The phenotypes correlated with the expression of some Hsps and APX1, ion leakage, H2O2 level and degree of oxidative injuries. These results showed that, by modulated expression of stress responsive genes, AtHsfA2 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. So we suggest that AtHsfA2 plays an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals.

  15. AtNOA1 modulates nitric oxide accumulation and stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Li Rong; Hao, Fu Shun; Lu, Bao Shi; Ma, Li Ya

    2010-01-01

    Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) has been documented to induce nitric oxide (NO) generation and stomatal closure in plants. However, the cellular components mediating these processes are limited. Here, we report that NO synthesis in guard cells and stomatal closure are markedly induced by SA in Arabidopsis wild type plants, whereas these effects caused by SA are suppressed significantly in noa1 T-DNA mutant plants. These results suggest that AtNOA1 regulates SA-triggered NO accumulation and s...

  16. Modulation of biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and light-harvesting complex in wild-type and gun5 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana during impaired chloroplast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Gopal K; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2016-05-01

    Plants in response to different environmental cues need to modulate the expression of nuclear and chloroplast genomes that are in constant communication. To understand the signals that are responsible for inter-organellar communication, levulinic acid (LA), an inhibitor of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, was used to suppress the synthesis of pyrrole-derived tetrapyrroles chlorophylls. Although, it does not specifically inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, LA reduced the carotenoid contents during photomorphogenesis of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The expression of nuclear genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, i.e., geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, and phytoene desaturase, was downregulated in LA-treated seedlings. Similarly, the transcript abundance of nuclear genes, i.e., Lhcb1, PsbO, and RcbS, coding for chloroplastic proteins was severely attenuated in LA-treated samples. In contrast, LA treatment did not affect the transcript abundance of chalcone synthase, a marker gene for cytoplasm, and β-ATP synthase, a marker gene for mitochondria. This demonstrates the retrograde signaling from chloroplast to nucleus to suppress chloroplastic proteins during impaired chloroplast development. However, under identical conditions in LA-treated tetrapyrrole-deficient gun5 mutant, retrograde signal continued. The tetrapyrrole biosynthesis inhibitor LA suppressed formation of all tetrapyrroles both in WT and gun5. This rules out the role of tetrapyrroles as signaling molecules in WT and gun5. The removal of LA from the Arabidopsis seedlings restored the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and expression of nuclear genes coding for chloroplastic proteins involved in chloroplast biogenesis. Therefore, LA could be used to modulate chloroplast biogenesis at a desired phase of chloroplast development. PMID:27001427

  17. The WRKY6 transcription factor modulates PHOSPHATE1 expression in response to low Pi stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Fang; Li, Li-Qin; Xu, Qian; Kong, You-Han; Wang, Hui; Wu, Wei-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY family comprises 74 members and some of them are involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study demonstrated that WRKY6 is involved in Arabidopsis responses to low-Pi stress through regulating PHOSPHATE1 (PHO1) expression. WRKY6 overexpression lines, similar to the pho1 mutant, were more sensitive to low Pi stress and had lower Pi contents in shoots compared with wild-type seedlings and the wrky6-1 mutant. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that WRKY6 can bind to two W-boxes of the PHO1 promoter. RNA gel blot and beta-glucuronidase activity assays showed that PHO1 expression was repressed in WRKY6-overexpressing lines and enhanced in the wrky6-1 mutant. Low Pi treatment reduced WRKY6 binding to the PHO1 promoter, which indicates that PHO1 regulation by WRKY6 is Pi dependent and that low Pi treatment may release inhibition of PHO1 expression. Protein gel blot analysis showed that the decrease in WRKY6 protein induced by low Pi treatment was inhibited by a 26S proteosome inhibitor, MG132, suggesting that low Pi-induced release of PHO1 repression may result from 26S proteosome-mediated proteolysis. In addition, WRKY42 also showed binding to W-boxes of the PHO1 promoter and repressed PHO1 expression. Our results demonstrate that WRKY6 and WRKY42 are involved in Arabidopsis responses to low Pi stress by regulation of PHO1 expression.

  18. Salicylic acid modulates levels of phosphoinositide dependent-phospholipase C substrates and products to remodel the Arabidopsis suspension cell transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eRuelland

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PI-PLC activity controls gene expression in Arabidopsis suspension cells and seedlings. PI-PLC catalyzes the production of phosphorylated inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG from phosphoinositides. It is not known how PI-PLC regulates the transcriptome although the action of DAG-kinase (DGK on DAG immediately downstream from PI-PLC is responsible for some of the regulation. We previously established a list of genes whose expression is affected in the presence of PI-PLC inhibitors. Here this list of genes was used as a signature in similarity searches of curated plant hormone response transcriptome data. The strongest correlations obtained with the inhibited PI-PLC signature were with salicylic acid (SA treatments. We confirm here that in Arabidopsis suspension cells SA treatment leads to an increase in phosphoinositides, then demonstrate that SA leads to a significant 20% decrease in phosphatidic acid, indicative of a decrease in PI-PLC products. Previous sets of microarray data were re-assessed. The SA response of one set of genes was dependent on phosphoinositides. Alterations in the levels of a second set of genes, mostly SA-repressed genes, could be related to decreases in PI-PLC products that occur in response to SA action. Together, the two groups of genes comprise at least 40% of all SA-responsive genes. Overall these two groups of genes are distinct in the functional categories of the proteins they encode, their promoter cis-elements and their regulation by DGK or phospholipase D. SA-regulated genes dependent on phosphoinositides are typical SA response genes while those with an SA response that is possibly dependent on PI-PLC products are less SA-specific. We propose a model in which SA inhibits PI-PLC activity and alters levels of PI-PLC products and substrates, thereby regulating gene expression divergently.

  19. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A.; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M.; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G.; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein–protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors—PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)—that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  20. Mechanical constraints imposed by 3D cellular geometry and arrangement modulate growth patterns in the Arabidopsis embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, George W; Stamm, Petra; Mosca, Gabriella; Barbier de Reuille, Pierre; Gibbs, Daniel J; Winter, Robin; Janka, Ales; Holdsworth, Michael J; Smith, Richard S

    2014-06-10

    Morphogenesis occurs in 3D space over time and is guided by coordinated gene expression programs. Here we use postembryonic development in Arabidopsis plants to investigate the genetic control of growth. We demonstrate that gene expression driving the production of the growth-stimulating hormone gibberellic acid and downstream growth factors is first induced within the radicle tip of the embryo. The center of cell expansion is, however, spatially displaced from the center of gene expression. Because the rapidly growing cells have very different geometry from that of those at the tip, we hypothesized that mechanical factors may contribute to this growth displacement. To this end we developed 3D finite-element method models of growing custom-designed digital embryos at cellular resolution. We used this framework to conceptualize how cell size, shape, and topology influence tissue growth and to explore the interplay of geometrical and genetic inputs into growth distribution. Our simulations showed that mechanical constraints are sufficient to explain the disconnect between the experimentally observed spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression and early postembryonic growth. The center of cell expansion is the position where genetic and mechanical facilitators of growth converge. We have thus uncovered a mechanism whereby 3D cellular geometry helps direct where genetically specified growth takes place.

  1. METACASPASE9 modulates autophagy to confine cell death to the target cells during Arabidopsis vascular xylem differentiation

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    Sacha Escamez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We uncovered that the level of autophagy in plant cells undergoing programmed cell death determines the fate of the surrounding cells. Our approach consisted of using Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures capable of differentiating into two different cell types: vascular tracheary elements (TEs that undergo programmed cell death (PCD and protoplast autolysis, and parenchymatic non-TEs that remain alive. The TE cell type displayed higher levels of autophagy when expression of the TE-specific METACASPASE9 (MC9 was reduced using RNAi (MC9-RNAi. Misregulation of autophagy in the MC9-RNAi TEs coincided with ectopic death of the non-TEs, implying the existence of an autophagy-dependent intercellular signalling from within the TEs towards the non-TEs. Viability of the non-TEs was restored when AUTOPHAGY2 (ATG2 was downregulated specifically in MC9-RNAi TEs, demonstrating the importance of autophagy in the spatial confinement of cell death. Our results suggest that other eukaryotic cells undergoing PCD might also need to tightly regulate their level of autophagy to avoid detrimental consequences for the surrounding cells.

  2. The Arabidopsis AP2/ERF Transcription Factor RAP2.11 Modulates Plant Response to Low-Potassium Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Jung Kim; Daniel Ruzicka; Ryoung Shin; Daniel P.Schachtman

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to low-nutrient conditions through metabolic and morphology changes that increase their ability to survive and grow.The transcription factor RAP2.11 was identified as a component in the response to low potassium through regulation of the high-affinity K+ uptake transporter AtHAK5 and other components of the lowpotassium signal transduction pathway.RAP2.11 was identified through the activation tagging of Arabidopsis lines that contained a luciferase marker driven by the AtHAK5 promoter that is normally only induced by low potassium.This factor bound to a GCC-box of the AtHAK5 promoter in vitro and in vivo.Transcript profiling revealed that a large number of genes were up-regulated in roots by RAP2.11 overexpression.Many regulated genes were identified to be in functional categories that are important in low-K+ signaling.These categories included ethylene signaling,reactive oxygen species production,and calcium signaling.Promoter regions of the up-regulated genes were enriched in the GCCGGC motif also contained in the AtHAK5 promoter.These results suggest that RAP2.11 regulates AtHAK5 expression under low-K+ conditions and also contributes to a coordinated response to low-potassium conditions through the regulation of other genes in the low-K+ signaling cascade.

  3. BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 gene expression modulates arginine and urea content and stress recovery in Arabidopsis leaves.

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    Séverine ePlanchais

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants, basic amino acids are important for the synthesis of proteins and signaling molecules and for nitrogen recycling. The Arabidopsis nuclear gene BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 (BAC2 encodes a mitochondria-located carrier that transports basic amino acids in vitro. We present here an analysis of the physiological and genetic function of BAC2 in planta. When BAC2 is overexpressed in vivo, it triggers catabolism of arginine, a basic amino acid, leading to arginine depletion and urea accumulation in leaves. BAC2 expression was known to be strongly induced by stress. We found that compared to wild type plants, bac2 null mutants (bac2-1 recover poorly from hyperosmotic stress when restarting leaf expansion. The bac2-1 transcriptome differs from the wild-type transcriptome in control conditions and under hyperosmotic stress. The expression of genes encoding stress-related transcription factors, arginine metabolism enzymes, and transporters is particularly disturbed in bac2-1, and in control conditions, the bac2-1 transcriptome has some hallmarks of a wild-type stress transcriptome. The BAC2 carrier is therefore involved in controlling the balance of arginine and arginine-derived metabolites and its associated amino acid metabolism is physiologically important in equipping plants to respond to and recover from stress.

  4. Environmental and genetic interactions reveal FLOWERING LOCUS C as a modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Savic, Marija; Ausín, Israel; Ramiro, Mercedes; Martín, Beatriz; Picó, F Xavier; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The timing of flowering initiation depends strongly on the environment, a property termed as the plasticity of flowering. Such plasticity determines the adaptive potential of plants because it provides phenotypic buffer against environmental changes, and its natural variation contributes to evolutionary adaptation. We addressed the genetic mechanisms of the natural variation for this plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana by analysing a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Don-0 and Ler accessions collected from distinct climates. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in four environmental conditions differing in photoperiod, vernalization treatment and ambient temperature detected the folllowing: (i) FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) as a large effect QTL affecting flowering time differentially in all environments; (ii) numerous QTL displaying smaller effects specifically in some conditions; and (iii) significant genetic interactions between FLC and other loci. Hence, the variation for the plasticity of flowering is determined by a combination of environmentally sensitive and specific QTL, and epistasis. Analysis of FLC from Don identified a new and more active allele likely caused by a cis-regulatory deletion covering the non-coding RNA COLDAIR. Further characterization of four FLC natural alleles showed different environmental and genetic interactions. Thus, FLC appears as a major modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering to multiple environmental factors. PMID:26173848

  5. Distinct role of Arabidopsis mitochondrial P-type pentatricopeptide repeat protein-modulating editing protein, PPME, in nad1 RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Kuan-Chieh; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun; Wang, Huei-Jing; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2016-06-01

    The mitochondrion is an important power generator in most eukaryotic cells. To preserve its function, many essential nuclear-encoded factors play specific roles in mitochondrial RNA metabolic processes, including RNA editing. RNA editing consists of post-transcriptional deamination, which alters specific nucleotides in transcripts to mediate gene expression. In plant cells, many pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPRs) participate in diverse organellar RNA metabolic processes, but only PLS-type PPRs are involved in RNA editing. Here, we report a P-type PPR protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, P-type PPR-Modulating Editing (PPME), which has a distinct role in mitochondrial nad1 RNA editing via RNA binding activity. In the homozygous ppme mutant, cytosine (C)-to-uracil (U) conversions at both the nad1-898 and 937 sites were abolished, disrupting Arg(300)-to-Trp(300) and Pro(313)-to-Ser(313) amino acid changes in the mitochondrial NAD1 protein. NAD1 is a critical component of mitochondrial respiration complex I; its activity is severely reduced in the homozygous ppme mutant, resulting in significantly altered growth and development. Both abolished RNA editing and defective complex I activity were completely rescued by CaMV 35S promoter- and PPME native promoter-driven PPME genomic fragments tagged with GFP in a homozygous ppme background. Our experimental results demonstrate a distinct role of a P-type PPR protein, PPME, in RNA editing in plant organelles. PMID:27149614

  6. Hydrolases of the ILR1-like family of Arabidopsis thaliana modulate auxin response by regulating auxin homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Carranza, Ana Paula; Singh, Aparajita; Steinberger, Karoline; Panigrahi, Kishore; Palme, Klaus; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Dal Bosco, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Amide-linked conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) have been identified in most plant species. They function in storage, inactivation or inhibition of the growth regulator auxin. We investigated how the major known endogenous amide-linked IAA conjugates with auxin-like activity act in auxin signaling and what role ILR1-like proteins play in this process in Arabidopsis. We used a genetically encoded auxin sensor to show that IAA-Leu, IAA-Ala and IAA-Phe act through the TIR1-dependent signaling pathway. Furthermore, by using the sensor as a free IAA reporter, we followed conjugate hydrolysis mediated by ILR1, ILL2 and IAR3 in plant cells and correlated the activity of the hydrolases with a modulation of auxin response. The conjugate preferences that we observed are in agreement with available in vitro data for ILR1. Moreover, we identified IAA-Leu as an additional substrate for IAR3 and showed that ILL2 has a more moderate kinetic performance than observed in vitro. Finally, we proved that IAR3, ILL2 and ILR1 reside in the endoplasmic reticulum, indicating that in this compartment the hydrolases regulate the rates of amido-IAA hydrolysis which results in activation of auxin signaling. PMID:27063913

  7. Cytosolic calcium, hydrogen peroxide and related gene expression and protein modulation in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures respond immediately to altered gravitation: parabolic flight data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, N; Fengler, S; Hennig, A; Franz-Wachtel, M; Hampp, R; Neef, M

    2014-01-01

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were exposed to parabolic flights in order to assess molecular, short-term responses to altered gravity fields. Using transgenic cell lines, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and cytosolic Ca(2+) were continuously monitored. In parallel, the metabolism of samples was chemically quenched (RNAlater, Ambion for RNA; acid/base for NADPH, NADP) at typical stages of a parabola [1 g before pull up; end of pull up (1.8 g), end of microgravity (20 s) and end of pull out (1.8 g)]. Cells exhibited an increase in both Ca(2+) and H2 O2 with the onset of microgravity, and a decline thereafter. This behaviour was accompanied by a decrease of the NADPH/NADP redox ratio, indicating Ca(2+) -dependent activation of a NADPH oxidase. Microarray analyses revealed concomitant expression profiles. At the end of the microgravity phase, 396 transcripts were specifically up-, while 485 were down-regulated. Up-regulation was dominated by Ca(2+) - and ROS-related gene products. The same material was also used for analysis of phosphopeptides with 2-D SDS PAGE. Relevant spots were identified by liquid chromatography-MS. With the exception of a chaperone (HSP 70-3), hypergravity (1.8 g) and microgravity modified different sets of proteins. These are partly involved in primary metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle) and detoxification of ROS. Taken together, these data show that both gene expression and protein modulation jointly respond within seconds to alterations in the gravity field, with a focus on metabolic adaptation, signalling and control of ROS.

  8. Increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens in the Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 mutant is EDS1 and PAD4-dependent and modulated by environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Maryke; McCrindle, Tyronne K; Adams, Nicolette; Diener, Anastashia; Guzha, Delroy T; Murray, Shane L; Parker, Jane E; Denby, Katherine J; Ingle, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 (cir1) mutant displays salicylic acid (SA)-dependent constitutive expression of defence genes and enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens. To further characterise the role of CIR1 in plant immunity we conducted epistasis analyses with two key components of the SA-signalling branch of the defence network, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4). We demonstrate that the constitutive defence phenotypes of cir1 require both EDS1 and PAD4, indicating that CIR1 lies upstream of the EDS1-PAD4 regulatory node in the immune signalling network. In light of this finding we examined EDS1 expression in cir1 and observed increased protein, but not mRNA levels in this mutant, suggesting that CIR1 might act as a negative regulator of EDS1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Finally, as environmental temperature is known to influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, we analysed cir1 plants grown at 18, 22 or 25°C. We found that susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 is modulated by temperature in cir1. Greatest resistance to this pathogen (relative to PR-1:LUC control plants) was observed at 18°C, while at 25°C no difference in susceptibility between cir1 and control plants was apparent. The increase in resistance to Pst DC3000 at 18°C correlated with a stunted growth phenotype, suggesting that activation of defence responses may be enhanced at lower temperatures in the cir1 mutant.

  9. Increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens in the Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 mutant is EDS1 and PAD4-dependent and modulated by environmental temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke Carstens

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 (cir1 mutant displays salicylic acid (SA-dependent constitutive expression of defence genes and enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens. To further characterise the role of CIR1 in plant immunity we conducted epistasis analyses with two key components of the SA-signalling branch of the defence network, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4. We demonstrate that the constitutive defence phenotypes of cir1 require both EDS1 and PAD4, indicating that CIR1 lies upstream of the EDS1-PAD4 regulatory node in the immune signalling network. In light of this finding we examined EDS1 expression in cir1 and observed increased protein, but not mRNA levels in this mutant, suggesting that CIR1 might act as a negative regulator of EDS1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Finally, as environmental temperature is known to influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, we analysed cir1 plants grown at 18, 22 or 25°C. We found that susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 is modulated by temperature in cir1. Greatest resistance to this pathogen (relative to PR-1:LUC control plants was observed at 18°C, while at 25°C no difference in susceptibility between cir1 and control plants was apparent. The increase in resistance to Pst DC3000 at 18°C correlated with a stunted growth phenotype, suggesting that activation of defence responses may be enhanced at lower temperatures in the cir1 mutant.

  10. Overexpression of Crocus carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, CsCCD4b, in Arabidopsis imparts tolerance to dehydration, salt and oxidative stresses by modulating ROS machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Shoib Ahmad; Jain, Deepti; Abbas, Nazia; Ashraf, Nasheeman

    2015-09-15

    Apocarotenoids modulate vital physiological and developmental processes in plants. These molecules are formed by the cleavage of carotenoids, a reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes called carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). Apocarotenoids like β-ionone and β-cyclocitral have been reported to act as stress signal molecules during high light stress in many plant species. In Crocus sativus, these two apocarotenoids are formed by enzymatic cleavage of β-carotene at 9, 10 and 7, 8 bonds by CsCCD4 enzymes. In the present study three isoforms of CsCCD4 were subjected to molecular modeling and docking analysis to determine their substrate specificity and all the three isoforms displayed high substrate specificity for β-carotene. Further, expression of these three CsCCD4 isoforms investigated in response to various stresses revealed that CsCCD4a and CsCCD4b exhibit enhanced expression in response to dehydration, salt and methylviologen, providing a clue towards their role in mediating plant defense response. This was confirmed by overexpressing CsCCD4b in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plants developed longer roots and possessed higher number of lateral roots. Further, overexpression of CsCCD4b imparted enhanced tolerance to salt, dehydration and oxidative stresses as was evidenced by higher survival rate, increased relative root length and biomass in transgenic plants as compared to wild type. Transgenic plants also displayed higher activity and expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolizing enzymes. This indicates that β-ionone and β-cyclocitral which are enzymatic products of CsCCD4b may act as stress signals and mediate reprogramming of stress responsive genes which ultimately leads to plant defense.

  11. Cytosolic Calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and related gene expression and protein modulation in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures respond immediately to altered gravitation: Parabolic flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Ruediger; Hausmann, Niklas; Neef, Maren; Fengler, Svenja

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were exposed to parabolic flights in order to assess molecular short-term responses to altered gravity fields. Using transgenic cell lines, hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic Ca2+ were continuously monitored. In parallel, the metabolism of samples was chemically quenched (RNAlater, Ambion, for RNA; acid/base for NADPH, NADP) at typical stages of a parabola (1g before pull up; end of pull up (1.8 g), end of microgravity (µg, 20 sec), and end of pull out (1.8 g)). Cells exhibited an increase of both Ca2+ and hydrogen peroxide with the onset of µg, and a decline thereafter. This behaviour was accompanied by a decrease of the NADPH/NADP redox ratio, indicating a Ca2+-dependent activation of a NADPH oxidase. Microarray analyses revealed concomitant expression profiles. At the end of the microgravity phase, 396 transcripts were specifically up-, while 485 were down-regulated. Up-regulation was dominated by Ca2+- and ROS(reactive oxygen species)-related gene products. The same material was also used for the analysis of phosphopeptides by 2D SDS PAGE. Relevant spots were identified by liquid chromatography-MS. With the exception of a chaperone (HSP 70-3), hypergravity (1.8 g) and microgravity modified different sets of proteins. These are partly involved in primary metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle) and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these data show that both gene expression and protein modulation jointly respond within seconds to alterations in the gravity field, with a focus on metabolic adaptation, signalling and control of ROS.

  12. Ectopic expression of UGT75D1, a glycosyltransferase preferring indole-3-butyric acid, modulates cotyledon development and stress tolerance in seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Dong, Rui-Rui; Li, Pan; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The formation of auxin glucose conjugate is proposed to be one of the molecular modifications controlling auxin homeostasis. However, the involved mechanisms and relevant physiological significances are largely unknown or poorly understood. In this study, Arabidopsis UGT75D1 was at the first time identified to be an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) preferring glycosyltransferase. Assessment of enzyme activity and IBA conjugates in transgenic plants ectopically expressing UGT75D1 indicated that the UGT75D1 catalytic specificity was maintained in planta. It was found that the expression pattern of UGT75D1 was specific in germinating seeds. Consistently, we found that transgenic seedlings with over-produced UGT75D1 exhibited smaller cotyledons and cotyledon epidermal cells than the wild type. In addition, UGT75D1 was found to be up-regulated under mannitol, salt and ABA treatments and the over-expression lines were tolerant to osmotic and salt stresses during germination, resulting in an increased germination rate. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of ABA INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABI5 gene in ABA signaling were substantially down-regulated in the transgenic lines under stress treatments. Interestingly, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 (ARF16) gene of transgenic lines was also dramatically down-regulated under the same stress conditions. Since ARF16 functions as an activator of ABI3 transcription, we supposed that UGT75D1 might play a role in stress tolerance during germination through modulating ARF16-ABI3 signaling. Taken together, our work indicated that, serving as the IBA preferring glycosyltransferase but distinct from other auxin glycosyltransferases identified so far, UGT75D1 might be a very important player mediating a crosstalk between cotyledon development and stress tolerance of germination at the early stage of plant growth.

  13. Modulation of ethylene- and heat-controlled hyponastic leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana by the plant defence hormones jasmonate and salicylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, M. van; Ritsema, T.; Polko, J.K.; Leon-Reyes, A.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Millenaar, F.F.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Peeters, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (

  14. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane glucose-responsive regulator (AtPGR) expression by A. thaliana storekeeper-like transcription factor, AtSTKL, modulates glucose response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Moon-Soo; Lee, Sungbeom; Min, Ji-Hee; Huang, Ping; Ju, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2016-07-01

    Biochemical, genetic, physiological, and molecular research in plants has demonstrated a central role of glucose (Glc) in the control of plant growth, metabolism, and development, and has revealed networks that integrate light, stresses, nutrients, and hormone signaling. Previous studies have reported that AtPGR protein as potential candidates for Glc signaling protein. In the present study, we characterized transcription factors that bind to the upstream region of the AtPGR gene isolated using the yeast one-hybrid screening with an Arabidopsis cDNA library. One of the selected genes (AtSTKL) appeared to confer elevated sensitivity to Glc response. Overexpression of AtSTKLs (AtSTKL1 and AtSTKL2) increased the sensitivity to Glc during the post-germination stages. In contrast, atstkl1 and atstkl2 antisense lines displayed reduced sensitivity to high Glc concentration during the early seedling stage. Furthermore, we showed that the two AtSTKLs bind to the 5'-GCCT-3' element of the upstream promoter region of the AtPGR gene in vitro and repress the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in AtPGR promoter-GUS (P999-GUS) transgenic plants. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged AtSTKLs were localized in the nuclei of transgenic Arabidopsis cells. Collectively, these results suggest that AtSTKL1 and AtSTKL2 function both as repressors of AtPGR transcription and as novel transcription factors in the Glc signaling pathway. PMID:27031427

  15. Roles of NIA/NR/NOA1-dependent nitric oxide production and HY1 expression in the modulation of Arabidopsis salt tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Tianqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence on the separate roles of Arabidopsis nitric oxide-associated 1 (NOA1)-associated nitric oxide (NO) production and haem oxygenase 1 (HY1) expression in salt tolerance, their integrative signalling pathway remains largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, the interaction network among nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and NOA1-dependent NO production and HY1 expression was studied at the genetic and molecular levels. Upon salinity stress, the majority of NO production ...

  16. Modulation of ethylene and heat-controlled hyponastic leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana by the plant defense hormones jasmonate and salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    van Zanten, Martijn; Ritsema, Tita; Polko, Joanna K.; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Frank F Millenaar; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (heat). Recent studies indicated that the defence-related phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) synthesized by the plant upon biotic infestation repress low light-induced hyponast...

  17. Trafficking modulator TENin1 inhibits endocytosis, causes endomembrane protein accumulation at the pre-vacuolar compartment and impairs gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Paudyal, R; Jamaluddin, A.; Warren, JP; Doyle, SM; Robert, S.; Warriner, SL; Baker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Auxin gradients are established and maintained by polarized distribution of auxin transporters that undergo constitutive endocytic recycling from the PM (plasma membrane) and are essential for the gravitropic response in plants. The present study characterizes an inhibitor of endomembrane protein trafficking, TE1 (trafficking and endocytosis inhibitor 1/TENin1) that reduces gravitropic root bending in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Short-term TE1 treatment causes accumulation of PM proteins,...

  18. The Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase CRK20 modulates host responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    In plants, the cysteine-rich repeat kinases (CRKs) are a sub-family of receptor-like protein kinases that contain the DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains. It has been shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana, CRK20 is transcriptionally induced by pathogens, salicylic acid and ozone (O3). However, its role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress remains to be elucidated. To determine the function of CRK20 in such responses, two CRK20 loss-of-function mutants, crk20-1 and crk20-2, were isolated from public collections of Arabidopsis T-DNA tagged lines and examined for responses to O3 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. crk20-1 and crk20-2 showed similar O3 sensitivities and no differences in the expression of defense genes when compared with the wild-type. However, pathogen growth was significantly reduced, while there were no differences in the induction of salicylic acid related defense genes or salicylic acid accumulation. Furthermore, correlation analysis of CRK20 gene expression suggests that it has a role in the control of H2O and/or nutrient transport. We therefore propose that CRK20 promotes conditions that are favorable for Pst DC3000 growth in Arabidopsis, possibly through the regulation of apoplastic homeostasis, and consequently, of the environment of this biotrophic pathogen. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 is a competitive and dynamic modulator of SNARE binding and SYP121-dependent vesicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Rucha; Grefen, Christopher; Bayne, Robert; Honsbein, Annegret; Köhler, Tim; Kioumourtzoglou, Dimitrios; Williams, Mary; Bryant, Nia J; Blatt, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana Qa-SNARE SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) drives vesicle traffic at the plasma membrane of cells throughout the vegetative plant. It facilitates responses to drought, to the water stress hormone abscisic acid, and to pathogen attack, and it is essential for recovery from so-called programmed stomatal closure. How SYP121-mediated traffic is regulated is largely unknown, although it is thought to depend on formation of a fusion-competent SNARE core complex with the cognate partners VAMP721 and SNAP33. Like SYP121, the Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 (=KEULE) is expressed throughout the vegetative plant. We find that SEC11 binds directly with SYP121 both in vitro and in vivo to affect secretory traffic. Binding occurs through two distinct modes, one requiring only SEC11 and SYP121 and the second dependent on assembly of a complex with VAMP721 and SNAP33. SEC11 competes dynamically for SYP121 binding with SNAP33 and VAMP721, and this competition is predicated by SEC11 association with the N terminus of SYP121. These and additional data are consistent with a model in which SYP121-mediated vesicle fusion is regulated by an unusual "handshaking" mechanism of concerted SEC11 debinding and rebinding. They also implicate one or more factors that alter or disrupt SEC11 association with the SYP121 N terminus as an early step initiating SNARE complex formation.

  20. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii modulates the expression of WRKY transcription factors in syncytia to favour its development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Kreil, David P; Bohlmann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is the only source of nutrients throughout their life. A recent transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that thousands of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in syncytia as compared to root segments from uninfected plants. Among the down-regulated genes are many which code for WRKY transcription factors. Arabidopsis contains 66 WRKY genes with 59 represented by the ATH1 GeneChip. Of these, 28 were significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated in syncytia as compared to control root segments. We have studied here the down-regulated genes WRKY6, WRKY11, WRKY17 and WRKY33 in detail. We confirmed the down-regulation in syncytia with promoter::GUS lines. Using various overexpression lines and mutants it was shown that the down-regulation of these WRKY genes is important for nematode development, probably through interfering with plant defense reactions. In case of WRKY33, this might involve the production of the phytoalexin camalexin.

  1. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii modulates the expression of WRKY transcription factors in syncytia to favour its development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Ali

    Full Text Available Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is the only source of nutrients throughout their life. A recent transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that thousands of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in syncytia as compared to root segments from uninfected plants. Among the down-regulated genes are many which code for WRKY transcription factors. Arabidopsis contains 66 WRKY genes with 59 represented by the ATH1 GeneChip. Of these, 28 were significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated in syncytia as compared to control root segments. We have studied here the down-regulated genes WRKY6, WRKY11, WRKY17 and WRKY33 in detail. We confirmed the down-regulation in syncytia with promoter::GUS lines. Using various overexpression lines and mutants it was shown that the down-regulation of these WRKY genes is important for nematode development, probably through interfering with plant defense reactions. In case of WRKY33, this might involve the production of the phytoalexin camalexin.

  2. Arabidopsis monothiol glutaredoxin, AtGRXS17, is critical for temperature-dependent postembryonic growth and development via modulating auxin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ning-Hui; Liu, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xing; Wu, Qingyu; Thompson, Sean M; Lin, Julie; Chang, Joyce; Whitham, Steven A; Park, Sunghun; Cohen, Jerry D; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2011-06-10

    Global environmental temperature changes threaten innumerable plant species. Although various signaling networks regulate plant responses to temperature fluctuations, the mechanisms unifying these diverse processes are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that an Arabidopsis monothiol glutaredoxin, AtGRXS17 (At4g04950), plays a critical role in redox homeostasis and hormone perception to mediate temperature-dependent postembryonic growth. AtGRXS17 expression was induced by elevated temperatures. Lines altered in AtGRXS17 expression were hypersensitive to elevated temperatures and phenocopied mutants altered in the perception of the phytohormone auxin. We show that auxin sensitivity and polar auxin transport were perturbed in these mutants, whereas auxin biosynthesis was not altered. In addition, atgrxs17 plants displayed phenotypes consistent with defects in proliferation and/or cell cycle control while accumulating higher levels of reactive oxygen species and cellular membrane damage under high temperature. Together, our findings provide a nexus between reactive oxygen species homeostasis, auxin signaling, and temperature responses.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana extracts optimized for polyphenols production as potential therapeutics for the APOE-modulated neuroinflammation characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghura, Shivesh; Tai, Leon; Zhao, Ming; Collins, Nicole; Che, Chun-Tao; Warpeha, Katherine M.; LaDu, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Although the cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is unknown, glial-induced neuroinflammation is an early symptom. Familial AD is caused by increases in amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, particularly soluble oligomeric (oAβ), considered a proximal neurotoxin and neuroinflammatory stimuli. APOE4, a naturally occurring genotype of APOE, is the greatest genetic risk factor for AD; increasing risk up to 12-fold compared to APOE3 and APOE2. oAβ-induced neuroinflammation is greater with APOE4 compared to APOE3 and APOE2. As sinapates and flavonoids have anti-inflammatory properties, a protocol was developed for optimizing polyphenol production in seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Three mutants (cop1, prn1, xpf3) were identified, and the extracts treated with liver microsomes to mimic physiological metabolism, with HPLC and MS performed on the resulting metabolites for peak identification. These extracts were used to treat primary glial cells isolated from human APOE-targeted-replacement (APOE-TR) and APOE-knock-out (KO) mice, with neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or oAβ. The dose-response data for TNFα secretion demonstrate the followed the order: APOE-KO > APOE4 > APOE3 > APOE2, with xpf3 the most effective anti-neuroinflammatory across APOE genotypes. Thus, the plant-based approach described herein may be particularly valuable in treating the APOE4-induced neuroinflammatory component of AD risk. PMID:27383500

  4. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  5. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  6. Regulation of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE genes/microRNA 156 Module by the Homeodomain Proteins PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shruti Lal; Leo Bryan Pacis; Harley M.S. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of inflorescences is regulated in part by the temporal and spatial events that regulate flower specification.In Arabidopsis,an endogenous flowering time pathway mediated by a subset of SQUAMOSA PROMOTERBINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors,including SPL3,SPL4,and SPL5,function to specify flowers by activating floral meristem identity genes.During shoot development,SPL3,SPL4,and SPL5 are post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNA156 (miR156).The photoperiod regulated florigenic signal,FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT),promotes floral induction,in part by activating SPL3,SPL4,and SPL5.In turn,these SPLs function in parallel with FT to specify flower meristems.Two related BELL1-like homeobox genes PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) expressed in the shoot apical meristem are absolutely required for the specification of floral meristems.Genetic studies show that the floral specification function of FT depends upon PNY and PNF; however,the interplay between these homeodomain proteins and SPLs is not known.In this manuscript,we show that the photoperiodic floral induction of SPL3,SPL4,and SPL5 is dependent upon PNY and PNF.Further,PNY and PNF also control SPL3,SPL4,and SPL5 expression by negatively regulating miR156.Lastly,ectopic expression of SPL4 partially rescues the pny pnf non-flower-producing phenotype,while overexpression of SPL3 or SPL5 in pny pnf plants was unable to restore flower specification.These results suggest that:(1) SPL3,SPL4,and SPL5 function is dependent upon PNY and PNF,or (2) expression of multiple SPLs is required for floral specification in pny pnf plants.

  7. The OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is a critical modulator of carbon and nitrogen nutrient balance response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available The balance between carbon (C and nitrogen (N nutrients must be tightly coordinated so that cells can optimize their opportunity for metabolism, growth and development. However, the C and N nutrient balance perception and signaling mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two allelic oversensitive to sugar 1 mutants (osu1-1, osu1-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the cotyledon anthocyanin accumulation and root growth inhibition assays, we show that the osu1 mutants are more sensitive than wild-type to both of the imbalanced C/N conditions, high C/low N and low C/high N. However, under the balanced C/N conditions (low C/low N or high C/high N, the osu1 mutants have similar anthocyanin levels and root lengths as wild-type. Consistently, the genes encoding two MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and MYB90 and an Asn synthetase isoform (ASN1 are strongly up-regulated by the OSU1 mutation in response to high C/low N and low C/high N, respectively. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity of osu1-1 to high C/low N with respect to anthocyanin accumulation but not root growth inhibition can be suppressed by co-suppression of MYB75, indicating that MYB75 acts downstream of OSU1 in the high C/low N imbalance response. Map-based cloning reveals that OSU1 encodes a member of a large family of putative methyltransferases and is allelic to the recently reported QUA2/TSD2 locus identified in genetic screens for cell-adhesion-defective mutants. Accumulation of OSU1/QUA2/TSD2 transcript was not regulated by C and N balance, but the OSU1 promoter was slightly more active in the vascular system. Taken together, our results show that the OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is required for normal C/N nutrient balance response in plants.

  8. AtCCR4a and AtCCR4b are Involved in Determining the Poly(A) Length of Granule-bound starch synthase 1 Transcript and Modulating Sucrose and Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuya; Arae, Toshihiro; Green, Pamela J; Yamaguchi, Junji; Chiba, Yukako

    2015-05-01

    Removing the poly(A) tail is the first and rate-limiting step of mRNA degradation and apparently an effective step not only for modulating mRNA stability but also for translation of many eukaryotic transcripts. Carbon catabolite repressor 4 (CCR4) has been identified as a major cytoplasmic deadenylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Arabidopsis thaliana homologs of the yeast CCR4, AtCCR4a and AtCCR4b, were identified by sequence-based analysis; however, their role and physiological significance in plants remain to be elucidated. In this study, we revealed that AtCCR4a and AtCCR4b are localized to cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies, which are specific granules consisting of many enzymes involved in mRNA turnover. Double mutants of AtCCR4a and AtCCR4b exhibited tolerance to sucrose application but not to glucose. The levels of sucrose in the seedlings of the atccr4a/4b double mutants were reduced, whereas no difference was observed in glucose levels. Further, amylose levels were slightly but significantly increased in the atccr4a/4b double mutants. Consistent with this observation, we found that the transcript encoding granule-bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1), which is responsible for amylose synthesis, is accumulated to a higher level in the atccr4a/4b double mutant plants than in the control plants. Moreover, we revealed that GBSS1 has a longer poly(A) tail in the double mutant than in the control plant, suggesting that AtCCR4a and AtCCR4b can influence the poly(A) length of transcripts related to starch metabolism. Our results collectively suggested that AtCCR4a and AtCCR4b are involved in sucrose and starch metabolism in A. thaliana.

  9. Meta-analysis of Arabidopsis KANADI1 direct target genes identifies basic growth-promoting module acting upstream of hormonal signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yakun; Straub, Daniel; Eguen, Teinai Ebimienere;

    2015-01-01

    -wide datasets. Our analysis revealed that KAN1 acts upstream of several genes encoding auxin biosynthetic enzymes. When exposed to shade, we find three YUCCA genes, YUC2, YUC5 and YUC8 to be transcriptionally upregulated, which correlates with an increase in the levels of free auxin. When ectopically expressed......, KAN1 is able to transcriptionally repress these three YUC genes and thereby block shade-induced auxin biosynthesis. Consequently, KAN1 is able to strongly suppress shade avoidance responses. Taken together, we hypothesize that HD-ZIPIII/KAN form the basis of a basic growth-promoting module. Hypocotyl...... extension in the shade and outgrowth of new leaves both involve auxin-synthesis and -signaling, which are under the direct control by HD-ZIPIII/KAN....

  10. ABA modulates root growth through regulating auxin in Arabidopsis thaliana%脱落酸通过影响生长素合成及分布抑制拟南芥主根伸长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冰剑; 张森磊; 曹萌萌; 王志娟; 李霞

    2014-01-01

    脱落酸(ABA)在介导植物生长发育及逆境响应中发挥重要功能,但ABA抑制根伸长的机制尚不清楚。本文以拟南芥为材料,通过研究 ABA 对拟南芥根伸长的影响以及 ABA 受体突变体根发育表型的鉴定,探讨ABA抑制植物主根的机制。研究发现:ABA能够抑制主根生长及伸长,并且经典受体PYR1/PRL介导了ABA抑制根伸长的过程;ABA能够改变细胞周期蛋白CycB1;1:GUS表达模式,并影响根中生长素分布和响应。结果表明, ABA可能通过影响生长素在根部的分布和剂量,进而影响根尖分生区细胞分裂,从而抑制根伸长。%As sessile organism, plants exhibit an amazing developmental plasticity in adapting to changing growth conditions in response to environmental stimuli. As an important organ of plants, roots variously make active changes in the face of different stimuli. It is well known that ABA (abscisic acid) is an important molecule that inhibits root growth. ABA receptor PYR1/PYL mediates ABA signaling transduction by binding with PP2C proteins and activating kinases SnRK2s. However, little is known about how ABA regulates root growth and plastic development. In order to understand the mechanism underlying root growth inhibition by ABA, the effects of ABA on the size and activity of root meristem, meristematic cell cycle, and auxin amount and distribution patterns were analyzed with Arabidopsis thaliana as materials. The results showed that ABA inhibited the growth of primary roots and reduced the size of meristems of primary roots. The inhibition effect of ABA on pyr1/pyl1/pyl2 root growth reduced, which showed that ABA receptor PYR1/PYL was involved in the inhibition of root growth. Further analysis showed that ABA treatment blocked G2/M-phase transition during cell division with the accumulation of cyclin protein CYCB1;1::GUS expression. In addition, we noted that the amounts and distribution patterns of auxin in the roots

  11. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  12. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important role in the development of this model, based on interdisciplinary collaborations using genetics as a major tool to investigate aspects of physiology, development, plant-microbe interactions and evol...

  13. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  14. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis AtNUDX9 as a GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphohydrolase: its involvement in root growth inhibition in response to ammonium

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Maruta, Takanori; Ogawa, Takahisa; Tanabe, Noriaki; Tamoi, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Highlight AtNUDX9, a GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase in Arabidopsis, is involved in the regulation of GDP-d-Man levels affecting ammonium sensitivity via modulation of protein N-glycosylation in the roots.

  15. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  16. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, Metwaly; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian;

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defense pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds...... of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defense-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin......, camalexin, and increased expression of defense-related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence. The prominent headspace...

  17. Evolution of NIN-like proteins in Arabidopsis, rice, and Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauser, Leif; Wieloch, Wioletta; Stougaard, Jens

    2005-02-01

    Genetic studies in Lotus japonicus and pea have identified Nin as a core symbiotic gene required for establishing symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria collectively called Rhizobium. Sequencing of additional Lotus cDNAs combined with analysis of genome sequences from Arabidopsis and rice reveals that Nin homologues in all three species constitute small gene families. In total, the Arabidopsis and rice genomes encode nine and three NIN-like proteins (NLPs), respectively. We present here a bioinformatics analysis and prediction of NLP evolution. On a genome scale we show that in Arabidopsis, this family has evolved through segmental duplication rather than through tandem amplification. Alignment of all predicted NLP protein sequences shows a composition with six conserved modules. In addition, Lotus and pea NLPs contain segments that might characterize NIN proteins of legumes and be of importance for their function in symbiosis. The most conserved region in NLPs, the RWP-RK domain, has secondary structure predictions consistent with DNA binding properties. This motif is shared by several other small proteins in both Arabidopsis and rice. In rice, the RWP-RK domain sequences have diversified significantly more than in Arabidopsis. Database searches reveal that, apart from its presence in Arabidopsis and rice, the motif is also found in the algae Chlamydomonas and in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Thus, the origin of this putative DNA binding region seems to predate the fungus-plant divide. PMID:15785851

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ostergaard, L;

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the neutral peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATP N) has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 A and a free R value of 20.5%. ATP N has the expected characteristic fold of the class III peroxidases, with a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. of 0.82 A when compared with horseradish peroxidase C...... (HRP C). HRP C is 54% identical to ATP N in sequence. When the structures of four class III plant peroxidases are superimposed, the regions with structural differences are non-randomly distributed; all are located in one half of the molecule. The architecture of the haem pocket of ATP N is very similar...... to that of HRP C, in agreement with the low small-molecule substrate specificity of all class III peroxidases. The structure of ATP N suggests that the pH dependence of the substrate turnover will differ from that of HRP C owing to differences in polarity of the residues in the substrate-access channel. Since...

  19. SET DOMAIN GROUP2 is the major histone H3 lysine 4 trimethyltransferase in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lin; Yu, Yanchun; Law, Julie A.; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histones play important roles in modulating chromatin structure and regulating gene expression. We have previously shown that more than two thirds of Arabidopsis genes contain histone H3 methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me) and that trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3) is preferentially located at actively transcribed genes. In addition, several Arabidopsis mutants with locus-specific loss of H3K4me have been found to display various developmental abnormalities. The...

  20. Exploiting Natural Variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana . This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  1. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar; J.J.B. Keurentjes

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of g

  2. Multisite light-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF3 is necessary for both its rapid degradation and concomitant negative feedback modulation of photoreceptor phyB levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weimin; Xu, Shou-Ling; Chalkley, Robert J; Pham, Thao Nguyen D; Guan, Shenheng; Maltby, Dave A; Burlingame, Alma L; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Quail, Peter H

    2013-07-01

    Plants constantly monitor informational light signals using sensory photoreceptors, which include the phytochrome (phy) family (phyA to phyE), and adjust their growth and development accordingly. Following light-induced nuclear translocation, photoactivated phy molecules bind to and induce rapid phosphorylation and degradation of phy-interacting basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH) transcription factors (PIFs), such as PIF3, thereby regulating the expression of target genes. However, the mechanisms underlying the signal-relay process are still not fully understood. Here, using mass spectrometry, we identify multiple, in vivo, light-induced Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites in PIF3. Using transgenic expression of site-directed mutants of PIF3, we provide evidence that a set of these phosphorylation events acts collectively to trigger rapid degradation of the PIF3 protein in response to initial exposure of dark-grown seedlings to light. In addition, we show that phyB-induced PIF3 phosphorylation is also required for the known negative feedback modulation of phyB levels in prolonged light, potentially through codegradation of phyB and PIF3. This mutually regulatory intermolecular transaction thus provides a mechanism with the dual capacity to promote early, graded, or threshold regulation of the primary, PIF3-controlled transcriptional network in response to initial light exposure, and later, to attenuate global sensitivity to the light signal through reductions in photoreceptor levels upon prolonged exposure. PMID:23903316

  3. Conservation and diversification of QTGs involved in photoperiodic flowering between rice and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki eMatsubara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L. is determined primarily by daylength (photoperiod, and natural variation in flowering time is due to quantitative trait loci involved in photoperiodic flowering. To date, genetic analysis of natural variants in rice flowering time has resulted in the positional cloning of at least 12 quantitative trait genes (QTGs, including our recently cloned QTGs, Hd17 and Hd16. The QTGs have been assigned to specific photoperiodic flowering pathways. Among them, 9 have homologs in the Arabidopsis genome, whereas it was evident that there are differences in the pathways between rice and Arabidopsis, such that the rice Ghd7–Ehd1–Hd3a/RFT1 pathway modulated by Hd16 is not present in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe QTGs underlying natural variation in rice flowering time. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the variation in adaptive divergence and its importance in rice breeding.

  4. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin Gibberellin Oxidases Alters Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Development of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Abeer; Lange, Theo; Niki, Tomoya; Koshioka, Masaji; Lange, Maria João Pimenta

    2006-01-01

    Immature pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds contain gibberellin (GA) oxidases with unique catalytic properties resulting in GAs of unknown function for plant growth and development. Overexpression of pumpkin GA 7-oxidase (CmGA7ox) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in seedlings with elongated roots, taller plants that flower earlier with only a little increase in bioactive GA4 levels compared to control plants. In the same way, overexpression of the pumpkin GA 3-oxidase1 (CmGA3ox1) resulted in a GA overdose phenotype with increased levels of endogenous GA4. This indicates that, in Arabidopsis, 7-oxidation and 3-oxidation are rate-limiting steps in GA plant hormone biosynthesis that control plant development. With an opposite effect, overexpression of pumpkin seed-specific GA 20-oxidase1 (CmGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis resulted in dwarfed plants that flower late with reduced levels of GA4 and increased levels of physiological inactive GA17 and GA25 and unexpected GA34 levels. Severe dwarfed plants were obtained by overexpression of the pumpkin GA 2-oxidase1 (CmGA2ox1) in Arabidopsis. This dramatic change in phenotype was accompanied by a considerable decrease in the levels of bioactive GA4 and an increase in the corresponding inactivation product GA34 in comparison to control plants. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of four pumpkin GA oxidase-encoding genes to modulate the GA plant hormone pool and alter plant stature and development. PMID:16384902

  5. Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufichon, Laure; Rothstein, Steven J; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nitrogen in the form of ammonium is assimilated into asparagine via multiple steps involving glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in Arabidopsis. The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in vegetative and senescence organs. A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine aminotransferase encoded by a single gene. The aim of this study is to highlight the structure of the genes and encoded enzyme proteins involved in asparagine metabolic pathways; the regulation and role of different isogenes; and kinetic and physiological properties of encoded enzymes in different tissues and developmental stages. PMID:26628609

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay,; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide impor...

  7. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-11 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288052 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288052 J075151I09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 6e-14 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240911 J065037E05 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-22 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241119 J065094C22 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-13 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243149 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243149 J100032I21 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 7e-12 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-15 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287479 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287479 J043023O14 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 1e-17 ...

  15. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) genetic…

  16. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  17. Alterations in auxin homeostasis suppress defects in cell wall function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaire J Steinwand

    Full Text Available The plant cell wall is a highly dynamic structure that changes in response to both environmental and developmental cues. It plays important roles throughout plant growth and development in determining the orientation and extent of cell expansion, providing structural support and acting as a barrier to pathogens. Despite the importance of the cell wall, the signaling pathways regulating its function are not well understood. Two partially redundant leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs, FEI1 and FEI2, regulate cell wall function in Arabidopsis thaliana roots; disruption of the FEIs results in short, swollen roots as a result of decreased cellulose synthesis. We screened for suppressors of this swollen root phenotype and identified two mutations in the putative mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α homolog, IAA-Alanine Resistant 4 (IAR4. Mutations in IAR4 were shown previously to disrupt auxin homeostasis and lead to reduced auxin function. We show that mutations in IAR4 suppress a subset of the fei1 fei2 phenotypes. Consistent with the hypothesis that the suppression of fei1 fei2 by iar4 is the result of reduced auxin function, disruption of the WEI8 and TAR2 genes, which decreases auxin biosynthesis, also suppresses fei1 fei2. In addition, iar4 suppresses the root swelling and accumulation of ectopic lignin phenotypes of other cell wall mutants, including procuste and cobra. Further, iar4 mutants display decreased sensitivity to the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor isoxaben. These results establish a role for IAR4 in the regulation of cell wall function and provide evidence of crosstalk between the cell wall and auxin during cell expansion in the root.

  18. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  19. Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich - a simpler Arabidopsis protoplast isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shu-Hong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplasts isolated from leaves are useful materials in plant research. One application, the transient expression of recombinant genes using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts (TEAMP, is currently commonly used for studies of subcellular protein localization, promoter activity, and in vivo protein-protein interactions. This method requires cutting leaves into very thin slivers to collect mesophyll cell protoplasts, a procedure that often causes cell damage, may yield only a few good protoplasts, and is time consuming. In addition, this protoplast isolation method normally requires a large number of leaves derived from plants grown specifically under low-light conditions, which may be a concern when material availability is limited such as with mutant plants, or in large scale experiments. Results In this report, we present a new procedure that we call the Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich. This is a simple and fast mesophyll protoplast isolation method. Two kinds of tape (Time tape adhered to the upper epidermis and 3 M Magic tape to the lower epidermis are used to make a "Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich". The Time tape supports the top side of the leaf during manipulation, while tearing off the 3 M Magic tape allows easy removal of the lower epidermal layer and exposes mesophyll cells to cell wall digesting enzymes when the leaf is later incubated in an enzyme solution. The protoplasts released into solution are collected and washed for further use. For TEAMP, plasmids carrying a gene expression cassette for a fluorescent protein can be successfully delivered into protoplasts isolated from mature leaves grown under optimal conditions. Alternatively, these protoplasts may be used for bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC to investigate protein-protein interactions in vivo, or for Western blot analysis. A significant advantage of this protocol over the current method is that it allows the generation of protoplasts in less than 1 hr

  20. An ANN-GA model based promoter prediction in Arabidopsis thaliana using tilling microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Hrishikesh; Singh, Nitya; Misra, Krishna; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2011-01-01

    Identification of promoter region is an important part of gene annotation. Identification of promoters in eukaryotes is important as promoters modulate various metabolic functions and cellular stress responses. In this work, a novel approach utilizing intensity values of tilling microarray data for a model eukaryotic plant Arabidopsis thaliana, was used to specify promoter region from non-promoter region. A feed-forward back propagation neural network model supported by genetic algorithm was ...

  1. Redox state of plastoquinone pool regulates expression of Arabidopsis thaliana genes in response to elevated irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Małgorzata; Drath, Maria; Jackowski, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    DNA microarray technology was applied to gain insight into the role of the redox state of PQ pool as a retrograde factor mediating differential expression of Arabidopsis nuclear genes during the acclimation to changing irradiance. DNA microarray chips containing probes corresponding to 24,000 Arabidopsis nuclear genes were screened with cRNA samples prepared from leaves of plants exposed for 5 h to low irradiance (control) vs. medium, high and excessive irradiances (MI, HI and EI, respectively). Six hundred and sixty three genes were differentially expressed as a result of an exposure to at least one elevated irradiance. Among 663 differentially expressed genes a total of 50 were reverted by DCMU--24 ones modulated at medium irradiance, 32 ones modulated at high irradiance and a single one modulated at excessive irradiance. We postulate that their expression is regulated by redox state of plastoquinone (PQ) pool. Thus the PQ-mediated redox regulation of expression of Arabidopsis nuclear genes is probably limited to the irradiance window representing non-stressing conditions. We found that the promoter regions of the PQ-regulated genes contained conserved elements, suggesting transcriptional control by a shared set of trans-acting factors which participate in signal transduction from the redox state of the PQ pool. PMID:18231654

  2. Polyploidy in the Arabidopsis genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Madlung, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD), which gives rise to polyploids, is a unique type of mutation that duplicates all the genetic material in a genome. WGD provides an evolutionary opportunity by generating abundant genetic "raw material," and has been implicated in diversification, speciation, adaptive radiation, and invasiveness, and has also played an important role in crop breeding. However, WGD at least initially challenges basic biological functions by increasing cell size, altering relationships between cell volume and DNA content, and doubling the number of homologous chromosome copies that must be sorted during cell division. Newly polyploid lineages often have extensive changes in gene regulation, genome structure, and may suffer meiotic or mitotic chromosome mis-segregation. The abundance of species that persist in nature as polyploids shows that these problems are surmountable and/or that advantages of WGD might outweigh drawbacks. The molecularly especially tractable Arabidopsis genus has several ancient polyploidy events in its history and contains several independent more recent polyploids. This genus can thus provide important insights into molecular aspects of polyploid formation, establishment, and genome evolution. The ability to integrate ecological and evolutionary questions with molecular and genetic understanding makes comparative analyses in this genus particularly attractive and holds promise for advancing our general understanding of polyploid biology. Here, we highlight some of the findings from Arabidopsis that have given us insights into the origin and evolution of polyploids. PMID:24788061

  3. The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiping; Feng, Suhua; Nakayama, Naomi; Crosby, W L; Irish, Vivian; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2003-05-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is involved in multiple developmental processes. It interacts with SCF ubiquitin ligases and deconjugates Nedd8/Rub1 from cullins (deneddylation). CSN is highly expressed in Arabidopsis floral tissues. To investigate the role of CSN in flower development, we examined the expression pattern of CSN in developing flowers. We report here that two csn1 partially deficient Arabidopsis strains exhibit aberrant development of floral organs, decline of APETALA3 (AP3) expression, and low fertility in addition to defects in shoot and inflorescence meristems. We show that UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) forms a SCF(UFO) complex, which is associated with CSN in vivo. Genetic interaction analysis indicates that CSN is necessary for the gain-of-function activity of the F-box protein UFO in AP3 activation and in floral organ transformation. Compared with the previously reported csn5 antisense and csn1 null mutants, partial deficiency of CSN1 causes a reduction in the level of CUL1 in the mutant flowers without an obvious defect in CUL1 deneddylation. We conclude that CSN is an essential regulator of Arabidopsis flower development and suggest that CSN regulates Arabidopsis flower development in part by modulating SCF(UFO)-mediated AP3 activation. PMID:12724534

  4. The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiping; Feng, Suhua; Nakayama, Naomi; Crosby, W L; Irish, Vivian; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2003-05-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is involved in multiple developmental processes. It interacts with SCF ubiquitin ligases and deconjugates Nedd8/Rub1 from cullins (deneddylation). CSN is highly expressed in Arabidopsis floral tissues. To investigate the role of CSN in flower development, we examined the expression pattern of CSN in developing flowers. We report here that two csn1 partially deficient Arabidopsis strains exhibit aberrant development of floral organs, decline of APETALA3 (AP3) expression, and low fertility in addition to defects in shoot and inflorescence meristems. We show that UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) forms a SCF(UFO) complex, which is associated with CSN in vivo. Genetic interaction analysis indicates that CSN is necessary for the gain-of-function activity of the F-box protein UFO in AP3 activation and in floral organ transformation. Compared with the previously reported csn5 antisense and csn1 null mutants, partial deficiency of CSN1 causes a reduction in the level of CUL1 in the mutant flowers without an obvious defect in CUL1 deneddylation. We conclude that CSN is an essential regulator of Arabidopsis flower development and suggest that CSN regulates Arabidopsis flower development in part by modulating SCF(UFO)-mediated AP3 activation.

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061395 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061395 006-305-E02 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multip...lication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-125 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104882 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104882 001-044-H04 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multip...lication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-119 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066854 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066854 J013075C10 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multipl...ication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-119 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101318 J033034D12 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multipl...ication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-125 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069960 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-60 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-112 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104764 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK098998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-57 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-100 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  4. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101526 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ucosaminyltransferase, putative similar to N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5139335]; contains AT-AC non-consensus splice sites at intron 13 1e-179 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119708 002-157-E08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060981 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060981 006-202-H08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111576 J013075J23 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120838 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120838 J023022B11 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111921 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111921 001-013-A10 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly i...dentical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profil

  11. Isolation of Promoters and Fragments of Genes Controlling Endosperm Development Without Fertilization in Arabidopsis and Engineering of the Antisense Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory A. Gerashchenkov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apomixis is asexual seed reproduction without both meiosis and fertilization based on the complex developmental processes such as apomeiosis, parthenogenesis and specific endosperm development. This investigation is aimed at engineering of apomixis in Arabidopsis thaliana with sexual seed reproduction. The fragments of known genes of endosperm formation MEA, FIE, FIS2 and gene of apomeiosis DYAD (as control were isolated using Q5 high fidelity DNA polymerase. These gene fragments of interest at the antisense orientation were fused with isolated constitutive and meiosis specific promoters of Arabidopsis at NcoI sites. The fused promoter-gene fragment modules were cloned in pCambia1301 at SalI cites. The engineered constructions will be used for the floral dip transformation of Arabidopsis and down regulation of these genes at engineering of apomixis.

  12. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mech...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064342 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064342 002-107-H07 At5g58270.1 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287662 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287662 J065112L10 At5g58270.1 68418.m07295 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 1e-65 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242094 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242094 J075142E09 At5g58270.1 68418.m07295 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 2e-33 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102879 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102879 J033112G11 At5g58270.1 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 1e-122 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287488 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287488 J043029O04 At5g58270.1 68418.m07295 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 4e-27 ...

  18. Epigenomic Diversity in a Global Collection of Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Jupe, Florian; Sasaki, Eriko; Schmitz, Robert J; Urich, Mark A; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Barragan, Cesar; He, Yupeng; Chen, Huaming; Dubin, Manu; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Wang, Congmao; Bemm, Felix; Becker, Claude; O'Neil, Ryan; O'Malley, Ronan C; Quarless, Danjuma X; Schork, Nicholas J; Weigel, Detlef; Nordborg, Magnus; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-07-14

    The epigenome orchestrates genome accessibility, functionality, and three-dimensional structure. Because epigenetic variation can impact transcription and thus phenotypes, it may contribute to adaptation. Here, we report 1,107 high-quality single-base resolution methylomes and 1,203 transcriptomes from the 1001 Genomes collection of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the genetic basis of methylation variation is highly complex, geographic origin is a major predictor of genome-wide DNA methylation levels and of altered gene expression caused by epialleles. Comparison to cistrome and epicistrome datasets identifies associations between transcription factor binding sites, methylation, nucleotide variation, and co-expression modules. Physical maps for nine of the most diverse genomes reveal how transposons and other structural variants shape the epigenome, with dramatic effects on immunity genes. The 1001 Epigenomes Project provides a comprehensive resource for understanding how variation in DNA methylation contributes to molecular and non-molecular phenotypes in natural populations of the most studied model plant.

  19. Defence responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to infection by Pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000, with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime.

  20. Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock

    KAUST Repository

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav

    2011-10-31

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.

  1. Abelian modules

    OpenAIRE

    S. Halıcıoğlu; Harmanci, A.; GÜNGÖROĞLU, G.; N. Agayev

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce abelian modules as a generalization of abelian rings. Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity. A module M is called abelian if, for any m Î M and any a Î R, any idempotent e Î R, mae=mea. We prove that every reduced module, every symmetric module, every semicommutative module and every Armendariz module is abelian. For an abelian ring R, we show that the module MR is abelian iff M[x]R[x] is abelian. We produce an example to show that M[x, α] need not be abe...

  2. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  3. Functional interconnection of MYC2 and SPA1 in the photomorphogenic seedling development of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Sreeramaiah N; Prasad, V Babu Rajendra; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2010-11-01

    MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that cross talks with light, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Here, we have shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MYC2 directly binds to the G-box present in the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A1 (SPA1) promoter and that it controls the expression of SPA1 in a COP1-dependent manner. Analyses of atmyc2 spa1 double mutants suggest that whereas MYC2 and SPA1 act redundantly to suppress photomorphogenic growth in the dark, they function synergistically for the suppression of photomorphogenic growth in the light. Our studies have also revealed that MYC2-mediated ABA and JA responses are further modulated by SPA1. Taken together, this study demonstrates the molecular and physiological interrelations of MYC2 and SPA1 in light, ABA, and JA signaling pathways.

  4. Rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals coordinate MYB72 in Arabidopsis roots during onset of induced systemic resistance and iron deficiency responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Korteland, J.; Van Pelt, J.A.; Van Hamersveld, M.; Dombrowski, N.; Bai, Y.; Hanson, J.; Van Verk, M.C.; Ling, H.-Q.; Schulze-Lefert, P.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis roots, the transcription factor MYB72 plays a dual role in the onset of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant survival under conditions of limited iron availability. Previously, it was shown that MYB72 coordinates the expression of a gene module that promotes synth

  5. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  6. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  7. Expression of a High Mobility Group Protein Isolated from Cucumis sativus Affects the Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Young Jang; Kyung Jin Kwak; Hunseung Kang

    2008-01-01

    Although high mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have been identified from a variety of plant species, their importance and functional roles in plant responses to changing environmental conditions are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional roles of a CsHMGB isolated from cucumber (Cucurnis sativus L.) in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Under normal growth conditions or when subjected to cold stress, no differences in plant growth were found between the wild.type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing CsHMGB. By contrast, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed retarded germination compared with the wild-type plants when grown under high salt or dehydration stress conditions. Germination of the transgenic plants was delayed by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA), implying that CsHMGB affects germination through an ABA-dependent way. The expression of CsHMGB had affected only the germination stage, and CsHMGB did not affect the seedling growth of the transgenic plants under the stress conditions. The transcript levels of several germination-responsive genes were modulated by the expression of CsHMGB in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that ectopic expression of a CsHMGB in Arabidopsis modulates the expression of several germination-responsive genes, and thereby affects the germination of Arabidopsis plants under different stress conditions.

  8. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  9. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  10. Overexpression of OsWRKY72 gene interferes in the abscisic acid signal and auxin transport pathway of Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Song Yu; Chen Ligang; Zhang Liping; Yu Diqiu

    2010-09-01

    Through activating specific transcriptional programmes, plants can launch resistance mechanisms to stressful environments and acquire a new equilibrium between development and defence. To screen the rice WRKY transcription factor which functions in abiotic stress tolerance and modulates the abscisic acid (ABA) response, we generated a whole array of 35S-OsWRKY transgenic Arabidopsis. In this study, we report that 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis, whose seed germination was retarded under normal conditions, emerged more sensitive to mannitol, NaCl, ABA stresses and sugar starvation than vector plants. Meanwhile, 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed early flowering, reduced apical dominance, lost high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation response, and enhanced gravitropism response, which were similar to the auxin-related gene mutants aux1, axr1 and bud1. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression patterns of three auxin-related genes AUX1, AXR1 and BUD1 were significantly altered in rosette leaves and inflorescences of 35S-OsWRKY72 plants compared with control Arabidopsis, and two ABA-related genes ABA2 and ABI4 were induced in 35S-OsWRKY72 seedlings. In addition, northern blot analysis indicated that, in rice, OsWRKY72 was inducible by polyethylene glycol (PEG), NaCl, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), ABA and 42°C, similar to its orthologue AtWRKY75 in Arabidopsis, implying that these two WRKY genes might be required for multiple physiological processes in their plants. Together, these results suggest that OsWRKY72 interferes in the signal cross-talk between the ABA signal and auxin transport pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  11. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Kammerhofer, N.; Radakovic, Z.; Regis, J.M.A.; Dobrev, P.; Vaňková, R. (Radomíra); Grundler, F. M. W.; Siddique, S.; Hofmann, J.; Wieczorek, K.

    2015-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and ...

  12. The involvement of ethylene in regulation of Arabidopsis gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhu, Lin

    Plant gravitropism is a directional response to gravity stimulus. This response involves a com-plex signaling network. Ethylene, a major plant hormone, has been found to modulate grav-itropism. The biosynthesis of ethylene is induced by the gravi-stimulus and the requirement for ethylene during gravitropism is tissue-dependent. While ethylene plays a modulating role in inflorescence stems, the light-grown hypocotyls of Arabidopsis requires ethylene to achieve a maximum gravicurvature. Because both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of ethylene on gravitropism have been overwhelmingly documented, there is a need to postulate a new theory to consolidate the apparently contradictory results. A dual-and-opposing effects (DOE) theory is therefore hypothesized to address how ethylene is involved in regulation of Arabidopsis grav-itropism, in which it is suggested that both stimulatory and inhibitory effects act on the same organ of a plant and co-exist at the same time in a mutually opposing manner. The final out-come of gravitropic response is determined by the dynamic display between the two opposing effects. A prolonged pretreatment of ethylene promotes the gravitropism in both inflorescence and light-grown hypocotyls, while a short ethylene pretreatment inhibits gravitropism. Gener-ally speaking, the inhibitory effect of ethylene is dominant over the expression of the stimula-tory effect in light-grown hypocotyls, whereas the stimulatory effect is dominant in inflorescence stem. Each effect is also positively correlated with concentrations of ethylene and in a time-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect occurs slowly but continues to react after the removal of ethylene, whereas the inhibitory effect takes place abruptly and diminishes shortly after its removal. Forward genetic screening based on the DOE phenotype of ethylene-treated Arabidop-sis has revealed a novel component in gravity signaling pathway: EGY1 (ethylene-dependent gravitropism-deficient and yellow

  13. Arabidopsis PIZZA has the capacity to acylate brassinosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katja; Breuer, Christian; Kawamura, Ayako; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Hanada, Atsushi; Fujioka, Shozo; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kondou, Youichi; Matsui, Minami; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Sugimoto, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) affect a wide range of developmental processes in plants and compromised production or signalling of BRs causes severe growth defects. To identify new regulators of plant organ growth, we searched the Arabidopsis FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene) collection for mutants with altered organ size and isolated two overexpression lines that display typical BR deficient dwarf phenotypes. The phenotype of these lines, caused by an overexpression of a putative acyltransferase gene PIZZA (PIZ), was partly rescued by supplying exogenous brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS), indicating that endogenous BR levels are rate-limiting for the growth of PIZ overexpression lines. Our transcript analysis further showed that PIZ overexpression leads to an elevated expression of genes involved in BR biosynthesis and a reduced expression of BR inactivating hydroxylases, a transcriptional response typical to low BR levels. Taking the advantage of relatively high endogenous BR accumulation in a mild bri1-301 background, we found that overexpression of PIZ results in moderately reduced levels of BL and CS and a strong reduction of typhasterol (TY) and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS), suggesting a role of PIZ in BR metabolism. We tested a set of potential substrates in vitro for heterologously expressed PIZ and confirmed its acyltransferase activity with BL, CS and TY. The PIZ gene is expressed in various tissues but as reported for other genes involved in BR metabolism, the loss-of-function mutants did not display obvious growth phenotypes under standard growth conditions. Together, our data suggest that PIZ can modify BRs by acylation and that these properties might help modulating endogenous BR levels in Arabidopsis.

  14. Arabidopsis PIZZA has the capacity to acylate brassinosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schneider

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs affect a wide range of developmental processes in plants and compromised production or signalling of BRs causes severe growth defects. To identify new regulators of plant organ growth, we searched the Arabidopsis FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene collection for mutants with altered organ size and isolated two overexpression lines that display typical BR deficient dwarf phenotypes. The phenotype of these lines, caused by an overexpression of a putative acyltransferase gene PIZZA (PIZ, was partly rescued by supplying exogenous brassinolide (BL and castasterone (CS, indicating that endogenous BR levels are rate-limiting for the growth of PIZ overexpression lines. Our transcript analysis further showed that PIZ overexpression leads to an elevated expression of genes involved in BR biosynthesis and a reduced expression of BR inactivating hydroxylases, a transcriptional response typical to low BR levels. Taking the advantage of relatively high endogenous BR accumulation in a mild bri1-301 background, we found that overexpression of PIZ results in moderately reduced levels of BL and CS and a strong reduction of typhasterol (TY and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS, suggesting a role of PIZ in BR metabolism. We tested a set of potential substrates in vitro for heterologously expressed PIZ and confirmed its acyltransferase activity with BL, CS and TY. The PIZ gene is expressed in various tissues but as reported for other genes involved in BR metabolism, the loss-of-function mutants did not display obvious growth phenotypes under standard growth conditions. Together, our data suggest that PIZ can modify BRs by acylation and that these properties might help modulating endogenous BR levels in Arabidopsis.

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073532 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ical to ARL2 G-protein (Halimasch; HAL; TITAN5) GI:20514265 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA A...AK073532 J033046D12 At2g18390.1 ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2 (ARL2) ident

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061294 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061294 006-301-D01 At3g08900.1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptide-3 (RGP3) nearl...y identical to reversibly glycosylated polypeptide-3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:11863238; contains non-consensus GA-donor splice site at intron 2 0.0 ...

  17. Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. Results We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced dicot genomes, Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa by using genes coding for proteases in the MEROPS database 1 for Arabidopsis to identify homologous sequences in Populus. A multigene-based phylogenetic analysis was performed. Most protease families were found to be larger in Populus than in Arabidopsis, reflecting recent genome duplication. Detailed studies on e.g. the DegP, Clp, FtsH, Lon, rhomboid and papain-Like protease families showed the pattern of gene family expansion and gene loss was complex. We finally show that different Populus tissues express unique suites of protease genes and that the mRNA levels of different classes of proteases change along a developmental gradient. Conclusion Recent gene family expansion and contractions have made the Arabidopsis and Populus complements of proteases different and this, together with expression patterns, gives indications about the roles of the individual gene products or groups of proteases.

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066153 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287906 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit / ClpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF028...61: Clp amino terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058510 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amin...o terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069552 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062711 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062711 001-106-C02 At5g37770.1 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 9e-34 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 9e-19 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-44 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-11 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-19 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-18 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-17 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-15 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108506 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108506 002-143-H11 At5g37770.1 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-14 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241786 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241786 J065207F05 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-19 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-44 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-26 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-26 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-16 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071661 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071661 J023105D07 At5g37770.1 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-33 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-14 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-25 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-41 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-16 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-20 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243230 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243230 J100044L04 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-65 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103452 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103452 J033129I11 At1g19850.1 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) / auxin-respon...sive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-166 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318617 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318617 J100090H20 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-63 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289177 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289177 J100024E07 At1g62360.1 68414.m07036 homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (S...TM) identical to homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) SP:Q38874 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-29 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241312 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241312 J065141L09 At1g62360.1 68414.m07036 homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (S...TM) identical to homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) SP:Q38874 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-40 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243352 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243352 J100060L07 At1g62360.1 68414.m07036 homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (S...TM) identical to homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) SP:Q38874 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-28 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241438 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241438 J065162G03 At1g62360.1 68414.m07036 homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (S...TM) identical to homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) SP:Q38874 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-29 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058585 001-017-G01 At3g57040.1 two-component responsive regulator / response reactor... 4 (RR4) identical to responce reactor4 GI:3273202 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain 6e-55 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101721 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101721 J033061A20 At3g57040.1 two-component responsive regulator / response reactor... 4 (RR4) identical to responce reactor4 GI:3273202 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain 9e-49 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241055 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241055 J065063N18 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-26 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241644 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241644 J065189M04 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-37 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242980 J090094F15 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-19 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243669 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243669 J100089N11 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 6e-14 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242211 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242211 J075171C16 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-21 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121261 J023104H13 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  18. Shotgun Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shotgun tandem mass spectrometry proteomics approaches, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS, were used to identify Arabidopsis thaliana leaf proteins. These methods utilize different protein/peptide separation strategies. Detergents not compatible wit...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241281 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-12 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242986 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-13 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241762 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 9e-17 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 3e-13 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242807 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242807 J090060H17 At5g37500.1 68418.m04516 guard cell outward rectifying K+ chann...el (GORK) identical to guard cell outward rectifying K+ channel [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|11414742|emb|CAC17

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243408 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 1e-151 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242797 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 2e-23 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243408 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 2e-12 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243428 J100067L15 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-36 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288699 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288699 J090061C22 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-36 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243271 J100049K04 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 4e-35 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241812 J065210K15 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-22 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241549 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241549 J065176M15 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-32 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241615 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241615 J065186D02 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-35 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288487 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288487 J090040H24 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-37 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287469 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287469 J043021L20 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-36 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241370 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241370 J065154C10 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-31 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288415 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288415 J090031E07 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-37 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240830 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240830 J065014C16 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121431 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121431 J023138G19 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064987 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064987 J013001D03 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241627 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241627 J065187G05 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287689 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-23 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240736 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-22 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241705 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-11 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-37 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.2 68417.m02149 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063585 001-118-A04 At4g13870.2 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX) contains Pf...am profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 6e-16 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.1 68417.m02148 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 1e-150 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287576 J065037D19 At1g28300.1 68414.m03473 transcriptional factor B3 family protein / leaf...y cotyledon 2 (LEC2) nearly identical to LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15987516; contains Pfam profile PF02362: B3 DNA binding domain 5e-13 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243493 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243493 J100074A10 At2g23380.1 68415.m02792 curly leaf protein (CURLY LEAF) / poly...comb-group protein identical to polycomb group [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:1903019 (curly leaf); contains Pfam profile PF00856: SET domain 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111743 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111743 J023052J10 At2g23380.1 curly leaf protein (CURLY LEAF) / polycomb-group pr...otein identical to polycomb group [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:1903019 (curly leaf); contains Pfam profile PF00856: SET domain 3e-22 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-130 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 2e-65 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110534 002-168-A07 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-114 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-24 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-45 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 3e-66 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069071 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069071 J023010H01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-124 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060286 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060286 001-006-C08 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 6e-78 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-29 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-25 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-28 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105393 001-123-B04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-25 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-126 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 8e-63 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 1e-125 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-26 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-47 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-98 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-98 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109812 002-147-H02 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 5e-90 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-31 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121003 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121003 J023045B21 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-48 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-45 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 4e-27 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061162 006-209-A01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-35 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-50 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119521 001-202-D09 At3g57050.2 cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast / beta-cystathionase...thionase) (Cysteine lyase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-173 ... ... / cysteine lyase (CBL) identical to SP|P53780 Cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast precursor (EC 4.4.1.8) (CBL) (Beta-cysta

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108403 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108403 002-142-G06 At3g57050.2 cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast / beta-cystathionase...thionase) (Cysteine lyase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-36 ... ... / cysteine lyase (CBL) identical to SP|P53780 Cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast precursor (EC 4.4.1.8) (CBL) (Beta-cysta

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241330 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241330 J065144B19 At3g29410.1 68416.m03695 terpene synthase/cyclase family protein similar to terpene... synthase GB:CAA72074 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], contains Pfam profile: PF01397 terpene synthase family 5e-64 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242212 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242212 J075171E13 At3g29410.1 68416.m03695 terpene synthase/cyclase family protein similar to terpene... synthase GB:CAA72074 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], contains Pfam profile: PF01397 terpene synthase family 1e-21 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241679 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241679 J065193F24 At3g29410.1 68416.m03695 terpene synthase/cyclase family protein similar to terpene... synthase GB:CAA72074 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], contains Pfam profile: PF01397 terpene synthase family 5e-65 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105299 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105299 001-116-H10 At1g72660.1 developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein, put...ative very strong similarity to developmentally regulated GTP binding protein (DRG1) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2345150 0.0 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111540 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111540 J013037H01 At1g72660.1 developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein, puta...tive very strong similarity to developmentally regulated GTP binding protein (DRG1) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2345150 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240892 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240892 J065030K10 At4g36920.1 68417.m05233 floral homeotic protein APETALA2 (AP2)... Identical to (SP:P47927) Floral homeotic protein APETALA2. [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-41 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287726 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287726 J065138E17 At4g36920.1 68417.m05233 floral homeotic protein APETALA2 (AP2)... Identical to (SP:P47927) Floral homeotic protein APETALA2. [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-41 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242211 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242211 J075171C16 At1g69120.1 68414.m07909 floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AP1)... / agamous-like MADS box protein (AGL7) identical to SP|P35631 Floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AGL7 protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-22 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242387 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242387 J080051E14 At4g36920.1 68417.m05233 floral homeotic protein APETALA2 (AP2)... Identical to (SP:P47927) Floral homeotic protein APETALA2. [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-27 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121171 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121171 J023081C04 At1g69120.1 floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AP1) / agamous-li...ke MADS box protein (AGL7) identical to SP|P35631 Floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AGL7 protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-37 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242957 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242957 J090089I15 At4g36920.1 68417.m05233 floral homeotic protein APETALA2 (AP2)... Identical to (SP:P47927) Floral homeotic protein APETALA2. [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-56 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241644 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241644 J065189M04 At1g69120.1 68414.m07909 floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AP1)... / agamous-like MADS box protein (AGL7) identical to SP|P35631 Floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AGL7 protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-32 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241055 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241055 J065063N18 At1g69120.1 68414.m07909 floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AP1)... / agamous-like MADS box protein (AGL7) identical to SP|P35631 Floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AGL7 protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-28 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069331 J023019N01 At1g69120.1 floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AP1) / agamous-li...ke MADS box protein (AGL7) identical to SP|P35631 Floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AGL7 protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-58 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241272 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241272 J065132I19 At4g36920.1 68417.m05233 floral homeotic protein APETALA2 (AP2)... Identical to (SP:P47927) Floral homeotic protein APETALA2. [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-41 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242980 J090094F15 At1g69120.1 68414.m07909 floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AP1)... / agamous-like MADS box protein (AGL7) identical to SP|P35631 Floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AGL7 protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-18 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243669 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243669 J100089N11 At1g69120.1 68414.m07909 floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AP1)... / agamous-like MADS box protein (AGL7) identical to SP|P35631 Floral homeotic protein APETALA1 (AGL7 protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-15 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287621 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287621 J065066I09 At4g36920.1 68417.m05233 floral homeotic protein APETALA2 (AP2)... Identical to (SP:P47927) Floral homeotic protein APETALA2. [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana} 6e-43 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105724 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105724 001-201-G07 At1g07110.1 fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase / fructose-2,6-bisph...osphatase (F2KP) identical to fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F2KP) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13096098 0.0 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072243 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072243 J023003N10 At1g07110.1 fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase / fructose-2,6-bispho...sphatase (F2KP) identical to fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F2KP) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13096098 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287911 J065213B08 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 3e-85 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318551 J075138M12 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 4e-27 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241823 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241823 J065212G21 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 1e-150 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243378 J100063A13 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 5e-18 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288351 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288351 J090024C17 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 2e-24 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242252 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242252 J075182G16 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 6e-88 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243008 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243008 J090097H12 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242849 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242849 J090072M15 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243505 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243505 J100074N19 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288959 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288959 J090084E19 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287577 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287577 J065037N08 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288072 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288072 J075161I05 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065706 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065706 J013038P03 At5g48030.1 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted (...GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:21429604; cont

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120746 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120746 J023004K12 At5g48030.1 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted (...GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:21429604; cont

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243178 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243178 J100036P15 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058985 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058985 001-020-E06 At5g48030.1 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted ...(GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:21429604; con

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-129 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288349 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288349 J090023P19 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting... germination 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-23 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068893 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068893 J023001G24 At4g15090.1 far-red impaired response protein (FAR1) / far-red impaired... responsive protein (FAR1) identical to far-red impaired response protein FAR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|5764395|gb|AAD51282; contains Pfam:PF03101 domain: FAR1 family 1e-39 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241728 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241728 J065199H08 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 3e-36 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240645 J023003B03 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 1e-17 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243302 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243302 J100054J17 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-82 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241015 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241015 J065054A13 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 8e-37 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288091 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288091 J075184D14 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-29 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110694 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110694 002-170-A08 At5g59560.2 sensitivity to red light reduced protein (SRR1) id...entical to sensitivity to red light reduced protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:25527089; supporting cDNA gi|25527088|gb|AY127047.1| 1e-18 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.2 68418.m02892 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.3 68418.m02893 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287566 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287566 J065027L04 At1g34790.1 68414.m04337 transparent testa 1 protein (TT1) / zi...nc finger (C2H2 type) protein TT1 identical to transparent testa 1 GI:18253279 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00096: Zinc finger, C2H2 type 2e-77 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.1 68418.m02891 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289209 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289209 J100058I16 At1g34790.1 68414.m04337 transparent testa 1 protein (TT1) / zi...nc finger (C2H2 type) protein TT1 identical to transparent testa 1 GI:18253279 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00096: Zinc finger, C2H2 type 1e-12 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.1 68418.m02891 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.3 68418.m02893 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243285 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243285 J100051N01 At1g34790.1 68414.m04337 transparent testa 1 protein (TT1) / zi...nc finger (C2H2 type) protein TT1 identical to transparent testa 1 GI:18253279 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00096: Zinc finger, C2H2 type 1e-24 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.2 68418.m02892 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100613 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100613 J023107M18 At4g10180.1 light-mediated development protein 1 / deetiolated1... (DET1) identical to Light-mediated development protein DET1 (Deetiolated1) (Swiss-Prot:P48732) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058683 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058683 001-019-A06 At4g10180.1 light-mediated development protein 1 / deetiolated...1 (DET1) identical to Light-mediated development protein DET1 (Deetiolated1) (Swiss-Prot:P48732) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ...

  3. HYDROPONIC METHOD FOR CULTURING POPULATIONS OF ARABIDOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A plant life-cycle bioassay using Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. was developed to detect potential chemical phytotoxicity. The bioassay requires large numbers of plants to maximize the probability of detecting deleterious effect and to avoid any bias that could occur if only a ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240809 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240809 J065006K12 At4g17030.1 68417.m02569 expansin-related identical to SWISS-PROT:O23547 expansi...n-related protein 1 precursor (At-EXPR1)[Arabidopsis thaliana]; related to expansins, http://www.bio.psu.edu/expansins/ 2e-21 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107208 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ala hydrolase, putative virtually identical to gr1-protein from [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3559811; similar t...AK107208 002-125-B11 At1g44350.1 IAA-amino acid hydrolase 6, putative (ILL6) / IAA-

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059353 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059353 001-026-D01 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066771 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066771 J013083K07 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative s...imilar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059160 001-023-D05 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 3e-28 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242200 J075166M12 At3g20740.1 68416.m02624 fertilization-independent endosperm pr...otein (FIE) contains 6 WD-40 repeats (PF00400); identical to fertilization-independent endosperm protein (GI:4567095) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-142 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111761 J023058F21 At3g20740.1 fertilization-independent endosperm protein (FIE) c...ontains 6 WD-40 repeats (PF00400); identical to fertilization-independent endosperm protein (GI:4567095) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-158 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243221 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243221 J100043L21 At5g15410.2 68418.m01803 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic... nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-40 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288592 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288592 J090051B06 At5g15410.2 68418.m01803 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic... nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-145 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243602 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243602 J100084P18 At5g15410.2 68418.m01803 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic... nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-98 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241942 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857 9e-20 ... ...AK241942 J075088H12 At2g24450.1 68415.m02922 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121828 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121828 J033099G20 At3g46550.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like arab...inogalactan protein FLA8 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|10880493|gb|AAG24276 4e-87 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241942 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857; 3e-21 ... ...AK241942 J075088H12 At3g12660.1 68416.m01578 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108772 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108772 002-150-H07 At3g12660.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like ara...binogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857; 1e-35 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241942 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857 2e-15 ... ...AK241942 J075088H12 At4g31370.1 68417.m04448 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241942 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein FLA8 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|10880493|gb|AAG24276 1e-21 ... ...AK241942 J075088H12 At3g46550.1 68416.m05053 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109762 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109762 002-146-G11 At3g12660.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like ara...binogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857; 3e-24 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289211 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein FLA8 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|10880493|gb|AAG24276 4e-90 ... ...AK289211 J100060N06 At3g46550.1 68416.m05053 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119375 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119375 001-132-A06 At3g46550.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like ara...binogalactan protein FLA8 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|10880493|gb|AAG24276 2e-85 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241364 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241364 J065152E11 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-20 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287447 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287447 J043016O04 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-30 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241519 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241519 J065170E12 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 3e-23 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242651 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242651 J090026B08 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 1e-16 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243050 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243050 J100011E04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 2e-24 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242271 J075187A19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 4e-17 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240655 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240655 J023135E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 1e-40 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242638 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242638 J090023J02 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 1e-29 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242681 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242681 J090032N04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 8e-38 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288923 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288923 J090081P06 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 1e-59 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243187 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243187 J100039E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 4e-24 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111785 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111785 J023089N11 At5g62310.1 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) / protein kin...ase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 9e-31 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242859 J090073L24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 2e-21 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242717 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242717 J090043H19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 1e-23 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287631 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287631 J065073J24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 2e-35 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242733 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242733 J090047O22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 2e-24 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242758 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242758 J090051H03 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 1e-59 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair elongation (IRE) .../ protein kinase, putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj|BAA89783 6e-29 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100867 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100867 J023124E13 At2g29640.1 josephin family protein contains Pfam domain PF02099: Jose...phin; similar to Josephin-like protein (Swiss-Prot:O82391) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-59 ...

  3. AtMYB12 regulates flavonoids accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feibing; Kong, Weili; Wong, Gary; Fu, Lifeng; Peng, Rihe; Li, Zhenjun; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tool for modulating flavonoid biosynthesis. The AtMYB12 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to regulate the expression of key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, leading to the increased accumulation of flavonoids. In this study, the codon-optimized AtMYB12 gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AtMYB12 was localized to the nucleus. Its overexpression significantly increased accumulation of flavonoids and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that overexpression of AtMYB12 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis, stress responses and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Further analyses under salt and drought stresses showed significant increases of ABA, proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, as well as significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. The results demonstrate the explicit role of AtMYB12 in conferring salt and drought tolerance by increasing the levels of flavonoids and ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. The AtMYB12 gene has the potential to be used to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:27033553

  4. Green peach aphid infestation induces Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 expression at site of insect feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Joe; Mondal, Hossain A; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-11-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) protein, which has homology to lipases, is required for phloem-based resistance against the green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae Sülzer). PAD4 modulates antibiotic and antixenotic defenses against GPA. PAD4 in conjunction with its interacting partner ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) also functions in basal resistance to bacterial and oomycete pathogens by promoting salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent defenses. By contrast, neither EDS1 nor SA is required for PAD4-controlled defense against GPA. Distinct molecular activities of PAD4 are involved in different aspects of Arabidopsis defense against GPA and pathogens. Histochemical analysis of plants containing a PAD4p:GUS chimera, which expresses the GUS reporter from the PAD4 promoter, indicated strong PAD4 promoter activity at the site of penetration of the vasculature by the insect stylet. GUS activity was also observed in non-vascular tissues of GPA-infested leaves, thus raising the possibility that a combination of distinct PAD4 activities in vascular and non-vascular tissues contribute to Arabidopsis defense against GPA.

  5. Genome-wide comparative analysis of the IQD gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Maggie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium signaling plays a prominent role in plants for coordinating a wide range of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues. Stimulus-specific generation of intracellular calcium transients, decoding of calcium signatures, and transformation of the signal into cellular responses are integral modules of the transduction process. Several hundred proteins with functions in calcium signaling circuits have been identified, and the number of downstream targets of calcium sensors is expected to increase. We previously identified a novel, calmodulin-binding nuclear protein, IQD1, which stimulates glucosinolate accumulation and plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we present a comparative genome-wide analysis of a new class of putative calmodulin target proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. Results We identified and analyzed 33 and 29 IQD1-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. The encoded IQD proteins contain a plant-specific domain of 67 conserved amino acid residues, referred to as the IQ67 domain, which is characterized by a unique and repetitive arrangement of three different calmodulin recruitment motifs, known as the IQ, 1-5-10, and 1-8-14 motifs. We demonstrated calmodulin binding for IQD20, the smallest IQD protein in Arabidopsis, which consists of a C-terminal IQ67 domain and a short N-terminal extension. A striking feature of IQD proteins is the high isoelectric point (~10.3 and frequency of serine residues (~11%. We compared the Arabidopsis and rice IQD gene families in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, predicted protein properties and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary history. The existence of an IQD-like gene in bryophytes suggests that IQD proteins are an ancient family of calmodulin-binding proteins and arose during the early evolution of land plants. Conclusion Comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that the major IQD gene lineages

  6. Post-transcriptional regulation of ethylene perception and signaling in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, George Eric

    2014-03-19

    The simple gas ethylene functions as an endogenous regulator of plant growth and development, and modulates such energy relevant processes as photosynthesis and biomass accumulation. Ethylene is perceived in the plant Arabidopsis by a five-member family of receptors related to bacterial histidine kinases. Our data support a general model in which the receptors exist as parts of larger protein complexes. Our goals have been to (1) characterize physical interactions among members of the signaling complex; (2) the role of histidine-kinase transphosphorylation in signaling by the complex; and (3) the role of a novel family of proteins that regulate signal output by the receptors.

  7. Natural variations in expression of regulatory and detoxification related genes under limiting phosphate and arsenate stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapsi eShukla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress including nutrient deficiency and heavy metal toxicity severely affects plant growth, development, and productivity. Genetic variations within and in between species are one of the important factors in establishing interactions and responses of plants with the environment. In the recent past, natural variations in Arabidopsis thaliana have been used to understand plant development and response towards different stresses at genetic level. Phosphorus (Pi deficiency negatively affects plant growth and metabolism and modulates expression of the genes involved in Pi homeostasis. Arsenate, As(V, a chemical analogue of Pi, is taken up by the plants via phosphate transport system. Studies suggest that during Pi deficiency, enhanced As(V uptake leads to increased toxicity in plants. Here, the natural variations in Arabidopsis have been utilized to study the As(V stress response under limiting Pi condition. The primary root length was compared to identify differential response of three Arabidopsis accessions (Col-0, Sij-1 and Slavi-1 under limiting Pi and As(V stress. To study the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differential response, comprehensive expression profiling of the genes involved in uptake, detoxification and regulatory mechanisms was carried out. Analysis suggests genetic variation-dependent regulatory mechanisms may affect differential response of Arabidopsis natural variants towards As(V stress under limiting Pi condition. Therefore, it is hypothesized that detailed analysis of the natural variations under multiple stress conditions might help in the better understanding of the biological processes involved in stress tolerance and adaptation.

  8. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  9. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to 8 different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of th...

  10. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  11. Expression profiling and functional analysis reveals that TOR is a key player in regulating photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pan; Xiong, Fangjie; Que, Yumei; Wang, Kai; Yu, Lihua; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2015-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as a master regulator to control cell growth by integrating nutrient, energy, and growth factors in all eukaryotic species. TOR plays an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating the transcription of genes associated with anabolic and catabolic processes in Arabidopsis, but little is known about the functions of TOR in photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling, which are unique features of plants. In this study, AZD8055 (AZD) was screened as the strongest active-site TOR inhibitor (asTORi) in Arabidopsis compared with TORIN1 and KU63794 (KU). Gene expression profiles were evaluated using RNA-seq after treating Arabidopsis seedlings with AZD. More than three-fold differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in AZD-treated plants relative to rapamycin-treated plants in previous studies. Most of the DEGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways involved in cell wall elongation, ribosome biogenesis, and cell autophagy were common to both AZD- and rapamycin-treated samples, but AZD displayed much broader and more efficient inhibition of TOR compared with rapamycin. Importantly, the suppression of TOR by AZD resulted in remodeling of the expression profile of the genes associated with photosynthesis and various phytohormones, indicating that TOR plays a crucial role in modulating photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling in Arabidopsis. These newly identified DEGs expand the understanding of TOR signaling in plants. This study elucidates the novel functions of TOR in photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling and provides a platform to study the downstream targets of TOR in Arabidopsis.

  12. Modulation of root branching by a coumarin derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Ming-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A healthy root system is crucial to plant growth and survival. To maintain efficiency of root function, plants have to dynamically modulate root system architecture through various adaptive mechanisms such as lateral root formation to respond to a changing and diversified soil environment. Exogenous application of a coumarin derivative, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), in Arabidopsis thaliana inhibits seed germination by mainly reducing primary root growth. UDP-glycosyltransferases play an integ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062144 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062144 001-045-G08 At5g54080.2 homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase / homogentisicase/homogentis...ate oxygenase / homogentisic acid oxidase (HGO) identical to SP|Q9ZRA2 Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase... (EC 1.13.11.5) (Homogentisicase) (Homogentisate oxygenase) (Homogentisic acid oxidase) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam profile PF04209: homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase 1e-155 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065189 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065189 J013002E07 At5g54080.2 homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase / homogentisicase/homogentis...ate oxygenase / homogentisic acid oxidase (HGO) identical to SP|Q9ZRA2 Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.5) (Homogenti...sicase) (Homogentisate oxygenase) (Homogentisic acid oxidase) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam profile PF04209: homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain famil...y cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101133 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-10 ... ...eneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum and contains P...AK101133 J033026F23 At1g12980.1 AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, putative / enhancer of shoot reg

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-10 ... ...ve / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum and contains ...AK119645 002-130-G05 At1g12980.1 AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, putati

  18. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  19. Analyzing Synthetic Promoters Using Arabidopsis Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Ralf; Thiedig, Katharina; Kuhlmann, Melanie; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a transient protoplast co-transfection method that can be used to quantitatively study in vivo the activity and function of promoters and promoter elements (reporters), and their induction or repression by transcription factors (effectors), stresses, hormones, or metabolites. A detailed protocol for carrying out transient co-transfection assays with Arabidopsis At7 protoplasts and calculating the promoter activity is provided. PMID:27557761

  20. Flavonoid-specific staining of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, J J; Rechnitz, G A

    1992-12-01

    Crop yields may be threatened by increases in UV-B radiation resulting from depletion of the ozone layer. In higher plants, the presence of flavonols provides a protective mechanism, and we report a novel staining procedure for the visualization of such protectants in plant tissue. It is shown that the proposed technique provides sensitive and specific fluorescence of flavonoids in chlorophyll-bleached tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:1282347

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242789 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242789 J090057B20 At2g31510.1 68415.m03850 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADN...E-like protein ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contai...ns similarity to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 8e-12 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110331 002-164-D12 At2g31510.1 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADNE-like prote...in ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contains similarit...y to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 3e-59 ...

  3. Dynamics of membrane potential variation and gene expression induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bricchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (V(m and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. V(m depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min -2 h than to M. persicae (4-6 h. M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a V(m depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between V(m depolarization and gene expression was found. At V(m depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen

  4. Metabolic Profiling of Intact Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves during Circadian Cycle Using 1H High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schadewijk, R.; de Groot, H. J. M.; Alia, A.

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used model organism for research in plant biology. While significant advances in understanding plant growth and development have been made by focusing on the molecular genetics of Arabidopsis, extracting and understanding the functional framework of metabolism is challenging, both from a technical perspective due to losses and modification during extraction of metabolites from the leaves, and from the biological perspective, due to random variation obscuring how well the function is performed. The purpose of this work is to establish the in vivo metabolic profile directly from the Arabidopsis thaliana leaves without metabolite extraction, to reduce the complexity of the results by multivariate analysis, and to unravel the mitigation of cellular complexity by predominant functional periodicity. To achieve this, we use the circadian cycle that strongly influences metabolic and physiological processes and exerts control over the photosynthetic machinery. High resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) was applied to obtain the metabolic profile directly from intact Arabidopsis leaves. Combining one- and two-dimensional 1H HR-MAS NMR allowed the identification of several metabolites including sugars and amino acids in intact leaves. Multivariate analysis on HR-MAS NMR spectra of leaves throughout the circadian cycle revealed modules of primary metabolites with significant and consistent variations of their molecular components at different time points of the circadian cycle. Since robust photosynthetic performance in plants relies on the functional periodicity of the circadian rhythm, our results show that HR-MAS NMR promises to be an important non-invasive method that can be used for metabolomics of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered physiology and photosynthetic efficiency. PMID:27662620

  5. Phosphorylation of plastoglobular proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohscheider, Jens N; Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2016-06-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles with a small specialized proteome and metabolome. Among the 30 core PG proteins are six proteins of the ancient ABC1 atypical kinase (ABC1K) family and their locations in an Arabidopsis mRNA-based co-expression network suggested central regulatory roles. To identify candidate ABC1K targets and a possible ABC1K hierarchical phosphorylation network within the chloroplast PG proteome, we searched Arabidopsis phosphoproteomics data from publicly available sources. Evaluation of underlying spectra and/or associated information was challenging for a variety of reasons, but supported pSer sites and a few pThr sites in nine PG proteins, including five FIBRILLINS. PG phosphorylation motifs are discussed in the context of possible responsible kinases. The challenges of collection and evaluation of published Arabidopsis phosphorylation data are discussed, illustrating the importance of deposition of all mass spectrometry data in well-organized repositories such as PRIDE and ProteomeXchange. This study provides a starting point for experimental testing of phosho-sites in PG proteins and also suggests that phosphoproteomics studies specifically designed toward the PG proteome and its ABC1K are needed to understand phosphorylation networks in these specialized particles. PMID:26962209

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase in family GT14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    of glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT 14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14...... in the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database (CAZy; www.cazy.org), in which a total of 11 proteins, including AtGLCAT 14A, are classified from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report the enzyme activities for the rest of the Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, analyzed in the same way as for AtGlcAT 14A. Evidently, two...... other Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, At5g15050 and At2g37585, also possess the glucuronosyltransferase activity adding glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans. Therefore, we named At5g15050 and At2g37585 as AtGlcAT 14B and AtGlcAT 14C, respectively. © 2014 Landes Bioscience....

  7. Systems analysis of transcriptome data provides new hypotheses about Arabidopsis root response to nitrate treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eCanales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Plants adapt to changes in N availability partly by changes in global gene expression. We integrated publicly available root microarray data under contrasting nitrate conditions to identify new genes and functions important for adaptive nitrate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Overall, more than two thousand genes exhibited changes in expression in response to nitrate treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana root organs. Global regulation of gene expression by nitrate depends largely on the experimental context. However, despite significant differences from experiment to experiment in the identity of regulated genes, there is a robust nitrate response of specific biological functions. Integrative gene network analysis uncovered relationships between nitrate-responsive genes and eleven highly co-expressed gene clusters (modules. Four of these gene network modules have robust nitrate responsive functions such as transport, signaling and metabolism. Network analysis hypothesized G2-like transcription factors are key regulatory factors controlling transport and signaling functions. Our meta-analysis highlights the role of biological processes not studied before in the context of the nitrate response such as root hair development and provides testable hypothesis to advance our understanding of nitrate responses in plants.

  8. Exposure to Sound Vibrations Lead to Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Hormonal Changes in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ritesh; Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Choi, Bosung; Kwon, Young Sang; Bae, Dong Won; Park, Soo-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    Sound vibration (SV) is considered as an external mechanical force that modulates plant growth and development like other mechanical stimuli (e.g., wind, rain, touch and vibration). A number of previous and recent studies reported developmental responses in plants tailored against SV of varied frequencies. This strongly suggests the existence of sophisticated molecular mechanisms for SV perception and signal transduction. Despite this there exists a huge gap in our understanding regarding the SV-mediated molecular alterations, which is a prerequisite to gain insight into SV-mediated plant development. Herein, we investigated the global gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana upon treatment with five different single frequencies of SV at constant amplitude for 1 h. As a next step, we also studied the SV-mediated proteomic changes in Arabidopsis. Data suggested that like other stimuli, SV also activated signature cellular events, for example, scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration of primary metabolism, and hormonal signaling. Phytohormonal analysis indicated that SV-mediated responses were, in part, modulated by specific alterations in phytohormone levels; especially salicylic acid (SA). Notably, several touch regulated genes were also up-regulated by SV treatment suggesting a possible molecular crosstalk among the two mechanical stimuli, sound and touch. Overall, these results provide a molecular basis to SV triggered global transcriptomic, proteomic and hormonal changes in plant. PMID:27665921

  9. Molecule mechanism of stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess the ability to continually produce new tissues and organs throughout their life. Unlike animals, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. The vitality of plants is so powerful that they can survive several hundreds of years or even more making it an amazing miracle that comes from plant stem cells. The stem cells continue to divide to renew themselves and provide cells for the formation of leaves, stems, and flowers. Stem cells are not only quiescent but also immortal, pluripotent and homeostatic. Stem cells are the magic cells that repair tissues and regenerate organs. During the past decade, scholars around the world have paid more and more attention toward plant stem cells. At present, the major challenge is in relating molecule action mechanism to root apical meristem, shoot apical meristem and vascular system. The coordination between stem cells maintenance and differentiation is critical for normal plant growth and development. Elements such as phytohormones, transcription factors and some other known or unknown genes cooperate to balance this process. In this review, Arabidopsis thaliana as a pioneer system, we highlight recent developments in molecule modulating, illustrating how plant stem cells generate new mechanistic insights into the regulation of plants growth and development.

  10. A proteomics study of auxin effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqing Xing; Hongwei Xue

    2012-01-01

    Many phytohormones regulate plant growth and development through modulating protein degradation.In this study,a proteome study based on multidimensional non-gel shotgun approach was performed to analyze the auxin-induced protein degradation via ubiquitinproteasome pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana,with the emphasis to study the overall protein changes after auxin treatment (1 nM or 1 μM indole-3-acetic acid for 6,12,or 24 h).More than a thousand proteins were detected by using label-free shotgun method,and 386 increased proteins and 370 decreased ones were identified after indole-3-acetic acid treatment.By using the auxin receptor-deficient mutant,tir1-1,as control,comparative analysis revealed that 69 and 79 proteins were significantly decreased and increased,respectively.Detailed analysis showed that among the altered proteins,some were previously reported to be associated with auxin regulation and others are potentially involved in mediating the auxin effects on specific cellular and physiological processes by regulating photosynthesis,chloroplast development,cytoskeleton,and intracellular signaling.Our results demonstrated that label-free shotgun proteomics is a powerful tool for large-scale protein identification and the analysis of the proteomic profiling of auxin-regulated biological processes will provide informative clues of underlying mechanisms of auxin effects.These results will help to expand the understanding of how auxin regulates plant growth and development via protein degradation.

  11. Epigenomic Diversity in a Global Collection of Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Jupe, Florian; Sasaki, Eriko; Schmitz, Robert J; Urich, Mark A; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Barragan, Cesar; He, Yupeng; Chen, Huaming; Dubin, Manu; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Wang, Congmao; Bemm, Felix; Becker, Claude; O'Neil, Ryan; O'Malley, Ronan C; Quarless, Danjuma X; Schork, Nicholas J; Weigel, Detlef; Nordborg, Magnus; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-07-14

    The epigenome orchestrates genome accessibility, functionality, and three-dimensional structure. Because epigenetic variation can impact transcription and thus phenotypes, it may contribute to adaptation. Here, we report 1,107 high-quality single-base resolution methylomes and 1,203 transcriptomes from the 1001 Genomes collection of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the genetic basis of methylation variation is highly complex, geographic origin is a major predictor of genome-wide DNA methylation levels and of altered gene expression caused by epialleles. Comparison to cistrome and epicistrome datasets identifies associations between transcription factor binding sites, methylation, nucleotide variation, and co-expression modules. Physical maps for nine of the most diverse genomes reveal how transposons and other structural variants shape the epigenome, with dramatic effects on immunity genes. The 1001 Epigenomes Project provides a comprehensive resource for understanding how variation in DNA methylation contributes to molecular and non-molecular phenotypes in natural populations of the most studied model plant. PMID:27419873

  12. The plant Apolipoprotein D ortholog protects Arabidopsis against oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houde Mario

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipocalins are a large and diverse family of small, mostly extracellular proteins implicated in many important functions. This family has been studied in bacteria, invertebrate and vertebrate animals but little is known about these proteins in plants. We recently reported the identification and molecular characterization of the first true lipocalins from plants, including the Apolipoprotein D ortholog AtTIL identified in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. This study aimed to determine its physiological role in planta. Results Our results demonstrate that the AtTIL lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. AtTIL knock-out plants are very sensitive to sudden drops in temperature and paraquat treatment, and dark-grown plants die shortly after transfer to light. These plants accumulate a high level of hydrogen peroxide and other ROS, which causes an oxidative stress that is associated with a reduction in hypocotyl growth and sensitivity to light. Complementation of the knock-out plants with the AtTIL cDNA restores the normal phenotype. On the other hand, overexpression enhances tolerance to stress caused by freezing, paraquat and light. Moreover, this overexpression delays flowering and maintains leaf greenness. Microarray analyses identified several differentially-regulated genes encoding components of oxidative stress and energy balance. Conclusion This study provides the first functional evidence that a plant lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. These findings are in agreement with recently published data showing that overexpression of ApoD enhances tolerance to oxidative stress and increases life span in mice and Drosophila. Together, the three papers strongly support a similar function of lipocalins in these evolutionary-distant species.

  13. Herbivore-induced resistance against microbial pathogens in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de M.; Zaanen, van W.; Koornneef, A.; Korzelius, J.P.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van L.C.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Caterpillars of the herbivore Pieris rapae stimulate the production of jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and trigger a defense response that affects insect performance on systemic tissues. To investigate the spectrum of effectiveness of P. rapae-induced resis

  14. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  15. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ontents Results of blastp searches against Arabidopsis thaliana CDSs Data file File name: kome_arabidopsis_c...b/view/kome_arabidopsis_cds_blastp_result#en Data acquisition method Predicted CDSs of Arabidopsis thaliana used for the searche...er. 5. Data analysis method Performed blastp searches with the full-length cDNA sequences against predicted

  17. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  18. *-Modules, co-*-modules and cotilting modules over Noetherian rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明义; 许永华

    1996-01-01

    Let R be a Noetherian ring. The projectivity and injectivity of modules over R are discussed. The concept of modules is introduced and the descriptions for co-*-modules over R are given. At last, cotilting modules over R are characterized by means of co-*-modules.

  19. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly...

  20. Ethylene antagonizes salt-induced growth retardation and cell death process via transcriptional controlling of ethylene-, BAG- and senescence-associated genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    YaJie ePan; Ling eLiu; YingChao eLin; YuanGang eZu; Zhonghua eTang; LeiPeng eLi

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan’s blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly...

  1. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    . However, it has been unclear by which molecular mechanisms plants execute PCD during innate immune responses. We recently examined HR PCD in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg) and find that PCD conditioned by one class of plant innate immune receptors is suppressed in atg mutants....... Intriguingly, HR triggered by another class of immune receptors with different genetic requirements is not compromised, indicating that only a specific subset of immune receptors engage the autophagy pathway for HR execution. Thus, our work provides a primary example of autophagic cell death associated...... with innate immune responses in eukaryotes as well as of prodeath functions for the autophagy pathway in plants....

  2. Inflorescence stem grafting made easy in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Nazia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant grafting techniques have deepened our understanding of the signals facilitating communication between the root and shoot, as well as between shoot and reproductive organs. Transmissible signalling molecules can include hormones, peptides, proteins and metabolites: some of which travel long distances to communicate stress, nutrient status, disease and developmental events. While hypocotyl micrografting techniques have been successfully established for Arabidopsis to explore root to shoot communications, inflorescence grafting in Arabidopsis has not been exploited to the same extent. Two different strategies (horizontal and wedge-style inflorescence grafting have been developed to explore long distance signalling between the shoot and reproductive organs. We developed a robust wedge-cleft grafting method, with success rates greater than 87%, by developing better tissue contact between the stems from the inflorescence scion and rootstock. We describe how to perform a successful inflorescence stem graft that allows for reproducible translocation experiments into the physiological, developmental and molecular aspects of long distance signalling events that promote reproduction. Results Wedge grafts of the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem were supported with silicone tubing and further sealed with parafilm to maintain the vascular flow of nutrients to the shoot and reproductive tissues. Nearly all (87% grafted plants formed a strong union between the scion and rootstock. The success of grafting was scored using an inflorescence growth assay based upon the growth of primary stem. Repeated pruning produced new cauline tissues, healthy flowers and reproductive siliques, which indicates a healthy flow of nutrients from the rootstock. Removal of the silicone tubing showed a tightly fused wedge graft junction with callus proliferation. Histological staining of sections through the graft junction demonstrated the differentiation of

  3. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  4. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  5. Tight interconnection and multi-level control of Arabidopsis MYB44 in MAPK cascade signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persak, Helene; Pitzschke, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stress poses a huge, ever-increasing problem to plants and agriculture. The dissection of signalling pathways mediating stress tolerance is a prerequisite to develop more resistant plant species. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signalling modules. In Arabidopsis, the MAPK MPK3 and its upstream regulator MAPK kinase MKK4 initiate the adaptation response to numerous abiotic and biotic stresses. Yet, molecular steps directly linked with MKK4-MPK3 activation are largely unknown. Starting with a yeast-two-hybrid screen for interacting partners of MKK4, we identified a transcription factor, MYB44. MYB44 is controlled at multiple levels by and strongly inter-connected with MAPK signalling. As we had shown earlier, stress-induced expression of the MYB44 gene is regulated by a MPK3-targeted bZIP transcription factor VIP1. At the protein level, MYB44 interacts with MPK3 in vivo. MYB44 is phosphorylated by MPK3 in vitro at a single residue, Ser145. Although replacement of Ser145 by a non-phosphorylatable (S145A) or phosphomimetic (S145D) residue did not alter MYB44 subcellular localisation, dimerization behaviour nor DNA-binding characteristics, abiotic stress tolerance tests in stable transgenic Arabidopsis plants clearly related S145 phosphorylation to MYB44 function: Compared to Arabidopsis wild type plants, MYB44 overexpressing lines exhibit an enhanced tolerance to osmotic stress and are slightly more sensitive to abscisic acid. Interestingly, overexpression of the S145A variant revealed that impaired phosphorylation does not render the MYB44 protein non-functional. Instead, S145A lines are highly sensitive to abiotic stress, and thereby remarkably similar to mpk3-deficient plants. Its in vivo interaction with the nuclear sub-pools of both MPK3 and MKK4 renders MYB44 the first plant transcription factor to have a second function as putative MAPK cascade scaffolding protein.

  6. Phospholipase D affects translocation of NPR1 to the nucleus in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eJanda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA is a crucial component of plant induced defense against biotrophic pathogens. Although the key players of SA pathway are known, there are still gaps in our understanding of molecular mechanism and regulation of particular steps. In our previous research we showed in Arabidopsis suspension cells that n-butanol, which specifically modulates phospholipase D activity, significantly supresses transcription of pathogenesis related (PR1 gene generally accepted as SA pathway marker. In the presented study, we have investigated the site of n-butanol action in SA pathway. We were able to show in Arabidopsis plants treated with SA that n-butanol inhibits the transcription of defense genes (PR-1, WRKY38. Fluorescence microscopy of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants expressing 35S::NPR1-GFP (nonexpressor pathogenesis related 1 revealed significantly decreased nuclear localization of NPR1 in the presence of n-butanol. On the other hand, n-butanol did not affect nuclear localization of NPR1 in 35S::npr1C82A-GFP and 35S::npr1C216A-GFP mutants constitutively expressing NPR1 monomers. We also observed decreasing effect of n-butanol on ROS production, another important factor in plant response to pathogen attack.Mass spectrometric analysis of plant extracts showed that n-butanol significantly changes metabolic fingerprinting while t-butanol had no effect. We found groups of plant metabolites, influenced differently by SA and n-butanol treatment and we proposed several metabolites as markers for n-butanol action.

  7. Discovery of core biotic stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrine, Katherine C H; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Cantu, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Intricate signal networks and transcriptional regulators translate the recognition of pathogens into defense responses. In this study, we carried out a gene co-expression analysis of all currently publicly available microarray data, which were generated in experiments that studied the interaction of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with microbial pathogens. This work was conducted to identify (i) modules of functionally related co-expressed genes that are differentially expressed in response to multiple biotic stresses, and (ii) hub genes that may function as core regulators of disease responses. Using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) we constructed an undirected network leveraging a rich curated expression dataset comprising 272 microarrays that involved microbial infections of Arabidopsis plants with a wide array of fungal and bacterial pathogens with biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic lifestyles. WGCNA produced a network with scale-free and small-world properties composed of 205 distinct clusters of co-expressed genes. Modules of functionally related co-expressed genes that are differentially regulated in response to multiple pathogens were identified by integrating differential gene expression testing with functional enrichment analyses of gene ontology terms, known disease associated genes, transcriptional regulators, and cis-regulatory elements. The significance of functional enrichments was validated by comparisons with randomly generated networks. Network topology was then analyzed to identify intra- and inter-modular gene hubs. Based on high connectivity, and centrality in meta-modules that are clearly enriched in defense responses, we propose a list of 66 target genes for reverse genetic experiments to further dissect the Arabidopsis immune system. Our results show that statistical-based data trimming prior to network analysis allows the integration of expression datasets generated by different groups, under different

  8. Discovery of core biotic stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C H Amrine

    Full Text Available Intricate signal networks and transcriptional regulators translate the recognition of pathogens into defense responses. In this study, we carried out a gene co-expression analysis of all currently publicly available microarray data, which were generated in experiments that studied the interaction of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with microbial pathogens. This work was conducted to identify (i modules of functionally related co-expressed genes that are differentially expressed in response to multiple biotic stresses, and (ii hub genes that may function as core regulators of disease responses. Using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA we constructed an undirected network leveraging a rich curated expression dataset comprising 272 microarrays that involved microbial infections of Arabidopsis plants with a wide array of fungal and bacterial pathogens with biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic lifestyles. WGCNA produced a network with scale-free and small-world properties composed of 205 distinct clusters of co-expressed genes. Modules of functionally related co-expressed genes that are differentially regulated in response to multiple pathogens were identified by integrating differential gene expression testing with functional enrichment analyses of gene ontology terms, known disease associated genes, transcriptional regulators, and cis-regulatory elements. The significance of functional enrichments was validated by comparisons with randomly generated networks. Network topology was then analyzed to identify intra- and inter-modular gene hubs. Based on high connectivity, and centrality in meta-modules that are clearly enriched in defense responses, we propose a list of 66 target genes for reverse genetic experiments to further dissect the Arabidopsis immune system. Our results show that statistical-based data trimming prior to network analysis allows the integration of expression datasets generated by different groups

  9. MTHFD1 controls DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Martin; Moissiard, Guillaume; Wirtz, Markus; Wang, Haifeng; Garcia-Salinas, Carolina; Ramos-Parra, Perla A.; Bischof, Sylvain; Feng, Suhua; Cokus, Shawn J.; John, Amala; Smith, Danielle C.; Zhai, Jixian; Hale, Christopher J.; Long, Jeff A.; Hell, Ruediger; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has important functions in transcriptional silencing and is associated with repressive histone methylation (H3K9me). To further investigate silencing mechanisms, we screened a mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana population for expression of SDCpro-GFP, redundantly controlled by DNA methyltransferases DRM2 and CMT3. Here, we identify the hypomorphic mutant mthfd1-1, carrying a mutation (R175Q) in the cytoplasmic bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (MTHFD1). Decreased levels of oxidized tetrahydrofolates in mthfd1-1 and lethality of loss-of-function demonstrate the essential enzymatic role of MTHFD1 in Arabidopsis. Accumulation of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine, genome-wide DNA hypomethylation, loss of H3K9me and transposon derepression indicate that S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation is inhibited in mthfd1-1. Comparative analysis of DNA methylation revealed that the CMT3 and CMT2 pathways involving positive feedback with H3K9me are mostly affected. Our work highlights the sensitivity of epigenetic networks to one-carbon metabolism due to their common S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation and has implications for human MTHFD1-associated diseases. PMID:27291711

  10. Diuretics Prime Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application. PMID:23144763

  11. Diuretics prime plant immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Noutoshi

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application.

  12. Arabidopsis Growth Simulation Using Image Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a method to represent the virtual Arabidopsis plant at each growth stage. It includes simulating the shape and providing growth parameters. The shape is described with elliptic Fourier descriptors. First, the plant is segmented from the background with the chromatic coordinates. With the segmentation result, the outer boundary series are obtained by using boundary tracking algorithm. The elliptic Fourier analysis is then carried out to extract the coefficients of the contour. The coefficients require less storage than the original contour points and can be used to simulate the shape of the plant. The growth parameters include total area and the number of leaves of the plant. The total area is obtained with the number of the plant pixels and the image calibration result. The number of leaves is derived by detecting the apex of each leaf. It is achieved by using wavelet transform to identify the local maximum of the distance signal between the contour points and the region centroid. Experiment result shows that this method can record the growth stage of Arabidopsis plant with fewer data and provide a visual platform for plant growth research.

  13. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  14. Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2014-01-01

    Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities. PMID:22859206

  15. Two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase in Arabidopsis are regulated by calcium/calmodulin and differ in organ distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zik, M; Arazi, T; Snedden, W A; Fromm, H

    1998-08-01

    The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs encoding two isoforms of Arabidopsis glutamate decarboxylase, designated GAD1 (57.1 kDa) and GAD2 (56.1 kDa) and sharing 82% identical amino acid sequences, were determined. The recombinant proteins bound [35S] calmodulin (CaM) in the presence of calcium, and a region of 30-32 amino acids from the C-terminal of each isoform was sufficient for CaM binding when fused to glutathione S-transferase. Full-length GAD1 and GAD2 were expressed in Sf9 insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus vectors. Recombinant proteins were partially purified by CaM affinity chromatography and were found to exhibit glutamate decarboxylase activity, which was dependent on the presence of Ca2+/CaM at pH 7.3. Southern hybridizations with GAD gene-specific probes suggest that Arabidopsis possesses one gene related to GAD1 and one to GAD2. Northern hybridization and western blot analysis revealed that GAD1 was expressed only in roots and GAD2 in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems and flowers. Our study provides the first evidence for the occurrence of multiple functional Ca2+/CaM-regulated GAD gene products in a single plant, suggesting that regulation of Arabidopsis GAD activity involves modulation of isoform-specific gene expression and stimulation of the catalytic activity of GAD by calcium signalling via CaM.

  16. Disruption of the Arabidopsis Defense Regulator Genes SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 Confers Enhanced Freezing Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin-Fang; Xu, Le; Tan, Wei-Juan; Chen, Liang; Qi, Hua; Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Liu, Bin-Yi; Yu, Lu-Jun; Yao, Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, three lipase-like regulators, SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4, act downstream of resistance protein-associated defense signaling. Although the roles of SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 in biotic stress have been extensively studied, little is known about their functions in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. With or without cold acclimation, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 single mutants, as well as their double mutants, exhibited similarly enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants showed increased transcript levels of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs and their regulons compared with the wild type. Moreover, freezing-induced cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide were ameliorated in sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants. The sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants had much lower salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents than the wild type, and exogenous application of SA and DAG compromised the freezing tolerance of the mutants. Furthermore, SA suppressed the cold-induced expression of DGATs and DGKs in the wild-type leaves. These findings indicate that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the freezing response in Arabidopsis, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG.

  17. Overexpressing HRS1 Confers Hypersensitivity to Low Phosphate-Elicited Inhibition of Primary Root Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Liu; Huixia Yang; Chongming Wu; Juanjuan Feng; Xin Liu; Huanju Qin; Daowen Wang

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency causes dramatic root system architecture (RSA) changes in higher plants.Here we report that overexpression of HRS1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to low Pi-elicited inhibition of primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.Bioinformatic investigations uncovered that HRS1 and its six homologs encode putative G2-1ike transcription factors in Arabidopsis.Analysis of promoter::GUS reporter lines revealed that HRS1 transcripts were present mainly in the root hair region and root hair cells under Pi-sufficient conditions.Pi deprivation Increased HRS1 expression level and expanded its expression domain.Although HRS1 knockout mutant did not differ from wild type (WT) control irrespective of Pi status,its overexpreesion lines were significantly more susceptible to low Pi-elicited primary root shortening.In both WT and HRS1 overexpression seedlings,low Pi-induced primary root shortening was accompanied by enhanced root hair cell differentiation,but this enhancement occurred to a greater extent in the latter genotype.Collectively,our data suggest that HRS1 may be involved in the modulation of primary root and root hair growth in Pi-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings,and provide useful clues for further research into the function of HRS1 and its homologs and the mechanisms behind RSA changes under Pi-deficient conditions.

  18. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wencai [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Zhang, Liang [College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Xu, Hangbo; Wang, Lin [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Jiao, Zhen, E-mail: jiaozhen@zzu.edu.cn [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. • The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. • Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. • Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. • Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  19. FUM2, a Cytosolic Fumarase, Is Essential for Acclimation to Low Temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Beth C.; Miller, Matthew A.E.; Feil, Regina; Rattray, Nicholas; Bowsher, Caroline G.

    2016-01-01

    Although cold acclimation is a key process in plants from temperate climates, the mechanisms sensing low temperature remain obscure. Here, we show that the accumulation of the organic acid fumaric acid, mediated by the cytosolic fumarase FUM2, is essential for cold acclimation of metabolism in the cold-tolerant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A nontargeted metabolomic approach, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, identifies fumarate as a key component of the cold response in this species. Plants of T-DNA insertion mutants, lacking FUM2, show marked differences in their response to cold, with contrasting responses both in terms of metabolite concentrations and gene expression. The fum2 plants accumulated higher concentrations of phosphorylated sugar intermediates and of starch and malate. Transcripts for proteins involved in photosynthesis were markedly down-regulated in fum2.2 but not in wild-type Columbia-0. Plants of fum2 show a complete loss of the ability to acclimate photosynthesis to low temperature. We conclude that fumarate accumulation plays an essential role in low temperature sensing in Arabidopsis, either indirectly modulating metabolic or redox signals or possibly being itself directly involved in cold sensing. PMID:27440755

  20. The ACR11 encodes a novel type of chloroplastic ACT domain repeat protein that is coordinately expressed with GLN2 in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chih-Ping

    2011-08-01

    of ACR11 and GLN2 is highly coordinated. These results suggest that the ACR11 and GLN2 genes may belong to the same functional module. The Arabidopsis ACR11 protein may function as a regulatory protein that is related to glutamine metabolism or signaling in the chloroplast.

  1. An ANN-GA model based promoter prediction in Arabidopsis thaliana using tilling microarray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Hrishikesh; Singh, Nitya; Misra, Krishna; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2011-01-01

    Identification of promoter region is an important part of gene annotation. Identification of promoters in eukaryotes is important as promoters modulate various metabolic functions and cellular stress responses. In this work, a novel approach utilizing intensity values of tilling microarray data for a model eukaryotic plant Arabidopsis thaliana, was used to specify promoter region from non-promoter region. A feed-forward back propagation neural network model supported by genetic algorithm was employed to predict the class of data with a window size of 41. A dataset comprising of 2992 data vectors representing both promoter and non-promoter regions, chosen randomly from probe intensity vectors for whole genome of Arabidopsis thaliana generated through tilling microarray technique was used. The classifier model shows prediction accuracy of 69.73% and 65.36% on training and validation sets, respectively. Further, a concept of distance based class membership was used to validate reliability of classifier, which showed promising results. The study shows the usability of micro-array probe intensities to predict the promoter regions in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:21887014

  2. Decreased glutathione reductase2 leads to early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shunhua; Wang, Liang; Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and participates in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which scavenges H2 O2 . Here, we report that chloroplastic/mitochondrial GR2 is an important regulator of leaf senescence. Seed development of the homozygous gr2 knockout mutant was blocked at the globular stage. Therefore, to investigate the function of GR2 in leaf senescence, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants with decreased GR2 using RNAi. The GR2 RNAi plants displayed early onset of age-dependent and dark- and H2 O2 -induced leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the induction of the senescence-related marker genes SAG12 and SAG13. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to leaf senescence, oxidative stress, and phytohormone pathways were upregulated directly before senescence in RNAi plants. In addition, H2 O2 accumulated to higher levels in RNAi plants than in wild-type plants and the levels of H2 O2 peaked in RNAi plants directly before the early onset of leaf senescence. RNAi plants showed a greater decrease in GSH/GSSG levels than wild-type plants during leaf development. Our results suggest that GR2 plays an important role in leaf senescence by modulating H2 O2 and glutathione signaling in Arabidopsis.

  3. Structural and Functional Studies of the Mitochondrial Cysteine Desulfurase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria R; Turowski; Maria V.Busi; Diego F.Gomez-Casati

    2012-01-01

    AtNfs1 is the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial homolog of the bacterial cysteine desulfurases NifS and lscS,having an essential role in cellular Fe-S cluster assembly.Homology modeling of AtNfs1m predicts a high global similarity with E.coli IscS showing a full conservation of residues involved in the catalytic site,whereas the chloroplastic AtNfs2 is more similar to the Synechocystis sp.SufS.Pull-down assays showed that the recombinant mature form,AtNfs1m,specifically binds to Arabidopsis frataxin (AtFH).A hysteretic behavior,with a lag phase of several minutes,was observed and hysteretic parameters were affected by pre-incubation with AtFH.Moreover,AtFH modulates AtNfs1m kinetics,increasing Vmax and decreasing the S0.5 value for cysteine.Results suggest that AtFH plays an important role in the early steps of Fe-S cluster formation by regulating AtNfs1 activity in olant mitochondria.

  4. Autophagy contributes to regulation of the hypoxia response during submergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Liao, Bin; Qi, Hua; Xie, Li-Juan; Huang, Li; Tan, Wei-Juan; Zhai, Ning; Yuan, Li-Bing; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Lu-Jun; Chen, Qin-Fang; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy involves massive degradation of intracellular components and functions as a conserved system that helps cells to adapt to adverse conditions. In mammals, hypoxia rapidly stimulates autophagy as a cell survival response. Here, we examine the function of autophagy in the regulation of the plant response to submergence, an abiotic stress that leads to hypoxia and anaerobic respiration in plant cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, submergence induces the transcription of autophagy-related (ATG) genes and the formation of autophagosomes. Consistent with this, the autophagy-defective (atg) mutants are hypersensitive to submergence stress and treatment with ethanol, the end product of anaerobic respiration. Upon submergence, the atg mutants have increased levels of transcripts of anaerobic respiration genes (alcohol dehydrogenase 1, ADH1 and pyruvate decarboxylase 1, PDC1), but reduced levels of transcripts of other hypoxia- and ethylene-responsive genes. Both submergence and ethanol treatments induce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the rosettes of atg mutants more than in the wild type. Moreover, the production of ROS by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases is necessary for plant tolerance to submergence and ethanol, submergence-induced expression of ADH1 and PDC1, and activation of autophagy. The submergence- and ethanol-sensitive phenotypes in the atg mutants depend on a complete salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. Together, our findings demonstrate that submergence-induced autophagy functions in the hypoxia response in Arabidopsis by modulating SA-mediated cellular homeostasis.

  5. Signalling of Arabidopsis thaliana response to Pieris brassicae eggs shares similarities with PAMP-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Schmiesing, André; Bonnet, Christelle; Lassueur, Steve; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Insect egg deposition activates plant defence, but very little is known about signalling events that control this response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, oviposition by Pieris brassicae triggers salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and induces the expression of defence genes. This is similar to the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are involved in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Here, the involvement of known signalling components of PTI in response to oviposition was studied. Treatment with P. brassicae egg extract caused a rapid induction of early PAMP-responsive genes. In addition, expression of the defence gene PR-1 required EDS1, SID2, and, partially, NPR1, thus implicating the SA pathway downstream of egg recognition. PR-1 expression was triggered by a non-polar fraction of egg extract and by an oxidative burst modulated through the antagonistic action of EDS1 and NUDT7, but which did not depend on the NADPH oxidases RBOHD and RBOHF. Searching for receptors of egg-derived elicitors, a receptor-like kinase mutant, lecRK-I.8, was identified which shows a much reduced induction of PR-1 in response to egg extract treatment. These results demonstrate the importance of the SA pathway in response to egg-derived elicitor(s) and unravel intriguing similarities between the detection of insect eggs and PTI in Arabidopsis.

  6. Spatial relationship between chromosomal domains in diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis thaliana nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Nowosielska, H; Bernas, T

    2016-04-25

    Polyploids constitute more than 80% of angiosperm plant species. Their DNA content is often further increased by endoreplication, which occurs as a part of cell differentiation. Here, we explore the relationship between 3D chromatin architecture, number of genome copies and their origin in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Spatial proximity between pericentromeric, interstitial and subtelomeric domains of chromosomes 1 and 4 was quantified over a range of distances. The results indicate that average nuclear volume as well as chromatin density increase with the genome copy number. Similar dependence is observed when association of homologous chromosomes (in 2C/ endopolyploid nuclei) and sister chromatid separation (in endopolyploid nuclei) is studied. Moreover, clusters of chromosomal domains are detectable at the spatial scale above microscopy resolution. Subtelomeric, interstitial and pericentromeric chromosomal domains are affected to different extent by these processes, which are modulated by endopolyploidy. This factor influences fusion of heterochromatin as well. Nonetheless, local chromatin architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana depends mainly on endopolyploidy level, and to lesser extend on polyploidy. PMID:27310308

  7. Fruit development is actively restricted in the absence of fertilization in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian-Smith, A; Luo, M; Chaudhury, A; Koltunow, A

    2001-06-01

    Flowering plants usually require fertilization to form fruit and seed and to initiate floral organ abscission in structures that do not contribute to the fruit. An Arabidopsis mutant that initiates seedless fruit without fertilization (fwf) or parthenocarpy was isolated and characterized to understand the factors regulating the transition between the mature flower and the initiation of seed and fruit development. The fwf mutant is fertile and has normal plant growth and stature. It sets fertile seed following self-pollination and fertilization needs to be prevented to observe parthenocarpy. The initiation of parthenocarpic siliques (fruit) was found to be dependent upon carpel valve identity conferred by FRUITFULL but was independent of the perception of gibberellic acid, shown to stimulate parthenocarpy in Arabidopsis following exogenous application. The recessive nature of fwf is consistent with the involvement of FWF in processes that inhibit fruit growth and differentiation in the absence of fertilization. The enhanced cell division and expansion in the silique mesocarp layer, and increased lateral vascular bundle development imply FWF has roles also in modulating silique growth post-fertilization. Parthenocarpy was inhibited by the presence of other floral organs suggesting that both functional FWF activity and inter-organ communication act in concert to prevent fruit initiation in the absence of fertilization. PMID:11493551

  8. The Arabidopsis Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 Is Required for Osmotic Stress-Induced Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2014-11-21

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through a pathway that is rate limited by the carotenoid cleavage enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the signal transduction mechanism underlying the activation of ABA biosynthesis, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate mutants defective in osmotic stress regulation of the NCED3 gene. Here, we identified the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 (VSR1) as a unique regulator of ABA biosynthesis. The vsr1 mutant not only shows increased sensitivity to osmotic stress, but also is defective in the feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis by ABA. Further analysis revealed that vacuolar trafficking mediated by VSR1 is required for osmotic stress-responsive ABA biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance. Moreover, under osmotic stress conditions, the membrane potential, calcium flux, and vacuolar pH changes in the vsr1 mutant differ from those in the wild type. Given that manipulation of the intracellular pH is sufficient to modulate the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes, including NCED3, and ABA accumulation, we propose that intracellular pH changes caused by osmotic stress may play a signaling role in regulating ABA biosynthesis and that this regulation is dependent on functional VSR1.

  9. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zhi-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru

    2008-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant h...

  10. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  11. Alternative translational initiation of ATP sulfurylase underlying dual localization of sulfate assimilation pathways in plastids and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie eBohrer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants assimilate inorganic sulfate into sulfur-containing vital metabolites. ATP sulfurylase (ATPS is the enzyme catalyzing the key entry step of the sulfate assimilation pathway in both plastids and cytosol in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana has four ATPS genes (ATPS1, -2, -3 and -4 encoding ATPS pre-proteins containing N-terminal transit peptide sequences for plastid targeting, however, the genetic identity of the cytosolic ATPS has remained unverified. Here we show that Arabidopsis ATPS2 dually encodes plastidic and cytosolic ATPS isoforms, differentiating their subcellular localizations by initiating translation at AUGMet1 to produce plastid-targeted ATPS2 pre-proteins or at AUGMet52 or AUGMet58 within the transit peptide to have ATPS2 stay in cytosol. Translational initiation of ATPS2 at AUGMet52 or AUGMet58 was verified by expressing a tandem-fused synthetic gene, ATPS2(5’UTR-His12:Renilla luciferase:ATPS2(Ile13-Val77:firefly luciferase, under a single constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis protoplasts and examining the activities of two different luciferases translated in-frame with split N-terminal portions of ATPS2. Introducing missense mutations at AUGMet52 and AUGMet58 significantly reduced the firefly luciferase activity, while AUGMet52 was a relatively preferred site for the alternative translational initiation. The activity of luciferase fusion protein starting at AUGMet52 or AUGMet58 was not modulated by changes in sulfate conditions. The dual localizations of ATPS2 in plastids and cytosol were further evidenced by expression of ATPS2-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts and transgenic lines, while they were also under control of tissue-specific ATPS2 promoter activity found predominantly in leaf epidermal cells, guard cells, vascular tissues and roots.

  12. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  13. Control of differential petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, M.

    2009-01-01

    Plants react quickly and profoundly to changes in their environment. For example, complete submergence and low light intensities induce differential petiole growth, resulting in upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) in Arabidopsis thaliana. This thesis deals with the physiological-, genetic- and

  14. Identification of Polyadenylation Sites within Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal

    2011-09-01

    Machine Learning (ML) is a field of artificial intelligence focused on the design and implementation of algorithms that enable creation of models for clustering, classification, prediction, ranking and similar inference tasks based on information contained in data. Many ML algorithms have been successfully utilized in a variety of applications. The problem addressed in this thesis is from the field of bioinformatics and deals with the recognition of polyadenylation (poly(A)) sites in the genomic sequence of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. During the RNA processing, a tail consisting of a number of consecutive adenine (A) nucleotides is added to the terminal nucleotide of the 3’- untranslated region (3’UTR) of the primary RNA. The process in which these A nucleotides are added is called polyadenylation. The location in the genomic DNA sequence that corresponds to the start of terminal A nucleotides (i.e. to the end of 3’UTR) is known as a poly(A) site. Recognition of the poly(A) sites in DNA sequence is important for better gene annotation and understanding of gene regulation. In this study, we built an artificial neural network (ANN) for the recognition of poly(A) sites in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Our study demonstrates that this model achieves improved accuracy compared to the existing predictive models for this purpose. The key factor contributing to the enhanced predictive performance of our ANN model is a distinguishing set of features used in creation of the model. These features include a number of physico-chemical characteristics of relevance, such as dinucleotide thermodynamic characteristics, electron-ion interaction potential, etc., but also many of the statistical properties of the DNA sequences from the region surrounding poly(A) site, such as nucleotide and polynucleotide properties, common motifs, etc. Our ANN model was compared in performance with several other ML models, as well as with the PAC tool that is specifically developed for

  15. Rapid endocytosis is triggered upon imbibition in Arabidopsis seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnussat, Luciana; Burbach, Christian; Baluška, František; de la Canal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    During seed imbibition and embryo activation, rapid change from a metabolically resting state to the activation of diverse extracellular and/or membrane bound molecules is essential and, hence, endocytosis could be activated too. In fact, we have documented endocytic internalization of the membrane impermeable endocytic tracer FM4–64 already upon 30 min of imbibition of Arabidopsis seeds. This finding suggest that endocytosis is activated early during seed imbibition in Arabidopsis. Immunoloc...

  16. 3D gel map of Arabidopsis complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin ePeters; Katharina eBelt; Hans-Peter eBraun

    2013-01-01

    Complex I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves and roots. Subunits of complex I were resolved by 3D blue native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, 7 of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis complex I consists of 49 distinct types of su...

  17. Spaceflight Induces Specific Alterations in the Proteomes of Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferl, Robert J.; Koh, Jin; Denison, Fiona; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Life in spaceflight demonstrates remarkable acclimation processes within the specialized habitats of vehicles subjected to the myriad of unique environmental issues associated with orbital trajectories. To examine the response processes that occur in plants in space, leaves and roots from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings from three GFP reporter lines that were grown from seed for 12 days on the International Space Station and preserved on orbit in RNAlater were returned to Earth a...

  18. Characterization Of Laccase T-DNA Mutants In Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Asp, Torben; Mansfield, Shawn;

    Laccases (P-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2), also termed laccase-like multicopper oxidases, are blue copper-containing oxidases which comprise multigene families in plants. In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 17 laccase genes (LAC1 to LAC17) have been annotated. To identify laccases invo...... quite different and distinct biochemical pathways and that laccases might be involved in polymerization of both polysaccharides and monolignols in the Arabidopsis cell wall....

  19. Forms of zinc accumulated in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri

    OpenAIRE

    Sarret, Geraldine; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Bert, Valerie; Proux, Olivier; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Traverse, Agnes; Marcus, Matthew,; Manceau, Alain

    2002-01-01

    The chemical forms of zinc (Zn) in the Zn-tolerant and hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and in the non-tolerant and nonaccumulator Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. petraea were determined at the molecular level by combining chemical analyses, extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), synchrotron-based x-ray microfluorescence, and micro--EXAFS. Plants weree grown in hydroponics with various Zn concentrations, and A. halleri specimens growing naturally in a contaminated site were also collec...

  20. Evidence for five divergent thioredoxin h sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Madrid, R.; Mestres, D; Marinho, P.; Jacquot, J P; Decottignies, P; Miginiac-Maslow, M; Meyer, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Five different clones encoding thioredoxin homologues were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA libraries. On the basis of the sequences they encode divergent proteins, but all belong to the cytoplasmic thioredoxins h previously described in higher plants. The five proteins obtained by overexpressing the coding sequences in Escherichia coli present typical thioredoxin activities (NADP(+)-malate dehydrogenase activation and reduction by Arabidopsis thioredoxin reductase) despite the presenc...

  1. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  2. Overexpression of Arabidopsis AnnAt8 Alleviates Abiotic Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deepanker; Ahmed, Israr; Shukla, Pawan; Boyidi, Prasanna; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress results in massive loss of crop productivity throughout the world. Because of our limited knowledge of the plant defense mechanisms, it is very difficult to exploit the plant genetic resources for manipulation of traits that could benefit multiple stress tolerance in plants. To achieve this, we need a deeper understanding of the plant gene regulatory mechanisms involved in stress responses. Understanding the roles of different members of plant gene families involved in different stress responses, would be a step in this direction. Arabidopsis, which served as a model system for the plant research, is also the most suitable system for the functional characterization of plant gene families. Annexin family in Arabidopsis also is one gene family which has not been fully explored. Eight annexin genes have been reported in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression studies of different Arabidopsis annexins revealed their differential regulation under various abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 (At5g12380), a member of this family has been shown to exhibit ~433 and ~175 fold increase in transcript levels under NaCl and dehydration stress respectively. To characterize Annexin8 (AnnAt8) further, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants constitutively expressing AnnAt8, which were evaluated under different abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher seed germination rates, better plant growth, and higher chlorophyll retention when compared to wild type plants under abiotic stress treatments. Under stress conditions transgenic plants showed comparatively higher levels of proline and lower levels of malondialdehyde compared to the wild-type plants. Real-Time PCR analyses revealed that the expression of several stress-regulated genes was altered in AnnAt8 over-expressing transgenic tobacco plants, and the enhanced tolerance exhibited by the transgenic plants can be correlated with altered expressions of

  3. Using Arabidopsis to study shoot branching in biomass willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sally P; Salmon, Jemma; Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela; Leyser, Ottoline

    2013-06-01

    The success of the short-rotation coppice system in biomass willow (Salix spp.) relies on the activity of the shoot-producing meristems found on the coppice stool. However, the regulation of the activity of these meristems is poorly understood. In contrast, our knowledge of the mechanisms behind axillary meristem regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has grown rapidly in the past few years through the exploitation of integrated physiological, genetic, and molecular assays. Here, we demonstrate that these assays can be directly transferred to study the control of bud activation in biomass willow and to assess similarities with the known hormone regulatory system in Arabidopsis. Bud hormone response was found to be qualitatively remarkably similar in Salix spp. and Arabidopsis. These similarities led us to test whether Arabidopsis hormone mutants could be used to assess allelic variation in the cognate Salix spp. hormone genes. Allelic differences in Salix spp. strigolactone genes were observed using this approach. These results demonstrate that both knowledge and assays from Arabidopsis axillary meristem biology can be successfully applied to Salix spp. and can increase our understanding of a fundamental aspect of short-rotation coppice biomass production, allowing more targeted breeding.

  4. A Genome-Scale Resource for the Functional Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Pruneda-Paz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive transcriptional networks play major roles in cellular and organismal functions. Transcript levels are in part determined by the combinatorial and overlapping functions of multiple transcription factors (TFs bound to gene promoters. Thus, TF-promoter interactions provide the basic molecular wiring of transcriptional regulatory networks. In plants, discovery of the functional roles of TFs is limited by an increased complexity of network circuitry due to a significant expansion of TF families. Here, we present the construction of a comprehensive collection of Arabidopsis TFs clones created to provide a versatile resource for uncovering TF biological functions. We leveraged this collection by implementing a high-throughput DNA binding assay and identified direct regulators of a key clock gene (CCA1 that provide molecular links between different signaling modules and the circadian clock. The resources introduced in this work will significantly contribute to a better understanding of the transcriptional regulatory landscape of plant genomes.

  5. A Space Flight Cultivation Protocol for Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.

    2008-06-01

    A tube-based method is presented for the cultivation and manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana during space flight experimentation. Seeds were germinated on rock-wool plugs and subsequently transferred into modified polypropylene conical tubes (cut to 5 cm lengths) at 7 days after planting. Each tube contained four side-situated slits through which capillary mat strips were woven. An additional capillary mat wick extended from below the tube up through the bottom to the mid-interior portion. The incorporation of Fibrous Ion Exchange Resin Substrate provided nutrients. The tubes were transferred to plant compartments containing a horticulture foam matrix that received water inputs. Vigorous seedling development through to seed production was achieved. Dispersed seeds frequently germinated on top of the foam substrate, yielding a 2nd generation of seedlings. The methods used herein could be applied to other plant species to be flown in space.

  6. Histone Deacetylase Genes in Arabidopsis Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtney Hollender; Zhongchi Liu

    2008-01-01

    Histone acetylatlon and deacetylation are directly connected with transcriptional activation and silencing in eukaryotas.Gene families for enzymes that accomplish these histone modifications show surprising complexity in domain organization,tissue-specific expression, and function. This review is focused on the family of histone deacetylases (HDACs) that remove the acetyl group from core histone tails, resulting in a "closed" chromatin and transcriptional repression. In Arabidopsis,18 HDAC genes are divided in to three different types - RPD3-1ike, HD-tuin and sirtuin - with two or more members ineach type. The structural feature of each HDAC class, the expression profile of each HDAC gene during development and functional insights of important family members are summarized here. It is clear that HDACs are an important class of global transcriptional regulators that play crucial roles in plant development, defense, and adaptation.

  7. Genetic Analyses of Meiotic Recombination in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and recombination is a critical step required for normal meiosis. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate recombination ie important for medical, agricultural and ecological reasons. Readily available molecular and cytological tools make Arabidopsis an excellent system to study meiosis. Here we review recent developments in molecular genetic analyses on meiotic recombination. These Include studies on plant homologs of yeast and animal genes, as well as novel genes that were first identified in plants. The characterizations of these genes have demonstrated essential functions from the initiation of recombination by double-strand breaks to repair of such breaks, from the formation of double-Holliday junctions to possible resolution of these junctions, both of which are critical for crossover formation. The recent advances have ushered a new era in plant meiosis, in which the combination of genetics, genomics, and molecular cytology can uncover important gene functions.

  8. Oxylipin Pathway in Rice and Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Wassim Chehab; John V. Perea; Banu Gopalan; Steve Theg; Katayoon Dehesh

    2007-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex signaling pathways to coordinate responses to developmental and environmental information. The oxylipin pathway is one pivotal lipid-based signaling network, composed of several competing branch pathways, that determines the plant's ability to adapt to various stimuli. Activation of the oxylipin pathway induces the de novo synthesis of biologically active metabolltes called "oxylipins". The relative levels of these metabolltes are a distinct indicator of each plant species and determine the ability of plants to adapt to different stimuli. The two major branches of the oxylipln pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) are responsible for production of the signaling compounds,jasmonates and aldehydes respectively. Here, we compare and contrast the regulation of AOS and HPL branch pathways in rice and Arabidopsis as model monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous systems. These analyses provide new Insights into the evolution of JAs and aldehydes signaling pathways, and the complex network of processes responsible for stress adaptations in monocots and dicots.

  9. The ethylene signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Using a simple response of etiolated seedlings to ethylene as a genetic screen, genes involved in ethylene signal transduction have been identified in Arabidopsis. Analysis of two of these genes that have been cloned reveals that ethylene signalling involves a combination of a protein (ETR1) with similarity to bacterial histidine kinases and a protein (CTR1) with similarity to Raf-1, a protein kinase involved in multiple signalling cascades in eukaryotic cells. Several lines of investigation provide compelling evidence that ETR1 encodes an ethylene receptor. For the first time there is a glimpse of the molecular circuitry underlying the signal transduction pathway for a plant hormone.

  10. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Chuan Li; Ding-Ming Kang; Zhang-Liang Chen; Li-Jia Qu

    2007-01-01

    Leaf morphogenesis is strictly controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors, such as transcriptional factors, but also by environmental cues, such as light, water and pathogens. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of how leaf rnorphogenesis is regulated by genetic programs and environmental cues is far from clear. Numerous series of events demonstrate that plant hormones, mostly small and simple molecules,play crucial roles in plant growth and development, and in responses of plants to environmental cues such as light. With more and more genetics and molecular evidence obtained from the model plant Arabidopsis,several fundamental aspects of leaf rnorphogenesis including the initiation of leaf primordia, the determination of leaf axes, the regulation of cell division and expansion in leaves have been gradually unveiled.Among these phytohormones, auxin is found to be essential in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis.

  11. Network discovery pipeline elucidates conserved time-of-day-specific cis-regulatory modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd P Michael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Correct daily phasing of transcription confers an adaptive advantage to almost all organisms, including higher plants. In this study, we describe a hypothesis-driven network discovery pipeline that identifies biologically relevant patterns in genome-scale data. To demonstrate its utility, we analyzed a comprehensive matrix of time courses interrogating the nuclear transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under different thermocycles, photocycles, and circadian conditions. We show that 89% of Arabidopsis transcripts cycle in at least one condition and that most genes have peak expression at a particular time of day, which shifts depending on the environment. Thermocycles alone can drive at least half of all transcripts critical for synchronizing internal processes such as cell cycle and protein synthesis. We identified at least three distinct transcription modules controlling phase-specific expression, including a new midnight specific module, PBX/TBX/SBX. We validated the network discovery pipeline, as well as the midnight specific module, by demonstrating that the PBX element was sufficient to drive diurnal and circadian condition-dependent expression. Moreover, we show that the three transcription modules are conserved across Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice. These results confirm the complex interplay between thermocycles, photocycles, and the circadian clock on the daily transcription program, and provide a comprehensive view of the conserved genomic targets for a transcriptional network key to successful adaptation.

  12. A maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, ZmMKK1, positively regulated the salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Liu, Yang; Pan, Jiaowen; Li, Dequan

    2014-07-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction modules in animals, plants and yeast. MAPK cascades are complicated networks and play vital roles in signal transduction pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a maize MAPKK gene, ZmMKK1, was characterized. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 transcripts were induced by diverse stresses and ABA signal molecule in maize root. Further study showed that the ZmMKK1-overexpressing Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. However, seed germination, post-germination growth and stomatal aperture analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 overexpression was sensitive to ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that the overexpression of ZmMKK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of ROS scavenging enzyme- and ABA-related genes, such as POD, CAT, RAB18 and RD29A under salt and drought conditions. In addition, heterologous overexpression of ZmMKK1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) improved the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. These results suggested that ZmMKK1 might act as an ABA- and ROS-dependent protein kinase in positive modulation of salt and drought tolerance. Most importantly, ZmMKK1 interacted with ZmMEKK1 as evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assay, redeeming a deficiency of MAPK interaction partners in maize. PMID:24974327

  13. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  14. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH is required for localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Seung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin or linear (amylose. The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM. We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is

  15. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-12-29

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation-responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses. PMID:26668375

  16. Mutations in the Arabidopsis Lst8 and Raptor genes encoding partners of the TOR complex, or inhibition of TOR activity decrease abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alena; Citerne, Sylvie; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Bersimbaev, Rakhmetkazhi I; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian; Leprince, Anne-Sophie

    2015-11-27

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates essential processes in plant growth and development by modulation of metabolism and translation in response to environmental signals. In this study, we show that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism is also regulated by the TOR kinase. Indeed ABA hormone level strongly decreases in Lst8-1 and Raptor3g mutant lines as well as in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants treated with AZD-8055, a TOR inhibitor. However the growth and germination of these lines are more sensitive to exogenous ABA. The diminished ABA hormone accumulation is correlated with lower transcript levels of ZEP, NCED3 and AAO3 biosynthetic enzymes, and higher transcript amount of the CYP707A2 gene encoding a key-enzyme in abscisic acid catabolism. These results suggest that the TOR signaling pathway is implicated in the regulation of ABA accumulation in Arabidopsis.

  17. Arsenic uptake and speciation in Arabidopsis thaliana under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Han, Young-Soo; Seong, Hye Jin; Ahn, Joo Sung; Nam, In-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic (As) uptake and species in Arabidopsis thaliana were evaluated under hydroponic conditions. Plant nutrient solutions were treated with arsenite [As(III)] or arsenate [As(V)], and aqueous As speciation was conducted using a solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Arabidopsis reduced As(V) to As(III) in the nutrient solution, possibly due to root exudates such as organic acids or the efflux of As(III) from plant roots after in vivo reduction of As(V) to As(III). Arsenic uptake by Arabidopsis was associated with increased levels of Ca and Fe, and decreased levels of K in plant tissues. Arsenic in Arabidopsis mainly occurred as As(III), which was coordinated with oxygen and sulfur based on XANES and EXAFS results. The existence of As(III)O and As(III)S in EXAFS indicates partial biotransformation of As(III)O to a sulfur-coordinated form because of limited amount of glutathione in plants. Further understanding the mechanism of As biotransformation in Arabidopsis may help to develop measures that can mitigate As toxicity via genetic engineering.

  18. Sensitive detection and measurement of oligogalacturonides in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ePontiggia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oligogalacturonides (OGs are pectin fragments derived from the partial hydrolysis of the plant cell wall pectin; they are elicitors of various defense responses. While their activity is well documented, the detection of OGs produced in planta is still a challenging task.A protocol has been developed for the extraction and analysis of OGs from small samples of Arabidopsis tissues by using fluorescent labelled OGs, which allowed to monitor the efficiency of extraction. An efficient recovery was obtained by using a combination of calcium chelating agents at acidic pH. Off-line coupling of HPAEC with MALDI-TOF-MS or nanoESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS was used for the identification and characterization of oligosaccharides. The protocol was successfully applied to detect OGs by using low amounts (50 mg of Arabidopsis leaves and very low amounts (30 mg of senescent leaves. The protocol was also successfully used to detect OGs in Arabidopsis cell wall material digested with pectinases.The proposed extraction protocol followed by sensitive and high-resolution analysis methods allowed detection of OGs released from the cell wall in Arabidopsis tissues by using minimal sample material. The protocol may be useful to study OG-triggered plant immunity and cell wall remodeling during Arabidopsis growth and development.

  19. Arsenic uptake and speciation in Arabidopsis thaliana under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Han, Young-Soo; Seong, Hye Jin; Ahn, Joo Sung; Nam, In-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic (As) uptake and species in Arabidopsis thaliana were evaluated under hydroponic conditions. Plant nutrient solutions were treated with arsenite [As(III)] or arsenate [As(V)], and aqueous As speciation was conducted using a solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Arabidopsis reduced As(V) to As(III) in the nutrient solution, possibly due to root exudates such as organic acids or the efflux of As(III) from plant roots after in vivo reduction of As(V) to As(III). Arsenic uptake by Arabidopsis was associated with increased levels of Ca and Fe, and decreased levels of K in plant tissues. Arsenic in Arabidopsis mainly occurred as As(III), which was coordinated with oxygen and sulfur based on XANES and EXAFS results. The existence of As(III)O and As(III)S in EXAFS indicates partial biotransformation of As(III)O to a sulfur-coordinated form because of limited amount of glutathione in plants. Further understanding the mechanism of As biotransformation in Arabidopsis may help to develop measures that can mitigate As toxicity via genetic engineering. PMID:27058920

  20. Transposed genes in Arabidopsis are often associated with flanking repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Woodhouse

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Much of the eukaryotic genome is known to be mobile, largely due to the movement of transposons and other parasitic elements. Recent work in plants and Drosophila suggests that mobility is also a feature of many nontransposon genes and gene families. Indeed, analysis of the Arabidopsis genome suggested that as many as half of all genes had moved to unlinked positions since Arabidopsis diverged from papaya roughly 72 million years ago, and that these mobile genes tend to fall into distinct gene families. However, the mechanism by which single gene transposition occurred was not deduced. By comparing two closely related species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, we sought to determine the nature of gene transposition in Arabidopsis. We found that certain categories of genes are much more likely to have transposed than others, and that many of these transposed genes are flanked by direct repeat sequence that was homologous to sequence within the orthologous target site in A. lyrata and which was predominantly genic in identity. We suggest that intrachromosomal recombination between tandemly duplicated sequences, and subsequent insertion of the circular product, is the predominant mechanism of gene transposition.

  1. The Microtubule-Associated Protein END BINDING1 Modulates Membrane Trafficking Pathways in Plant Root Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    EB1 protein preferentially binds to the fast growing ends of microtubules where it regulates microtubule dynamics. In addition to microtubules, EB1 interacts with several additional proteins, and through these interactions modulates various cellular processes. Arabidopsis thaliana eb1 mutants have roots that exhibit aberrant responses to touch/gravity cues. Columella cells in the centre of the root cap are polarized and play key roles in these responses by functioning as sensors.I examined th...

  2. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed. PMID:19015126

  3. Spiralizations and tropisms in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, F; Piconese, S

    2001-12-01

    When Arabidopsis seedlings are grown on a hard-agar plate, their primary roots show characteristic spiralling movements, apparent as waves, coils and torsions, together with a slanting toward the right-hand side. All these movements are believed to be the result of three different processes acting on the roots: circumnutation, positive gravitropism and negative thigmotropism. The basic movement of the roots is described as that of a growing right-handed helix, which, because of the root tip hitting the agar plate, is continuously switched from the right-hand to the left-hand of the growth direction, and vice versa. This movement also produces a slanting root-growth direction toward the right-hand because of the incomplete waves made by the right-handed root to the left-hand. By contrast, the torsions seen in the coils and waves are interpreted as artefacts that form as an adaptation of the three-dimensional root helix to the flat two-dimensional agar surface.

  4. Momilactone sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kitajima, Shinya

    2015-05-01

    The labdane-related diterpenoid, momilactone B has potent growth inhibitory activity and was demonstrated to play a particularly critical role in the allelopathy of rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is limited information available about the mode of action of momilactone B on the growth inhibition. The present research describes the effects of momilactone B on protein expression in the early development of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling, which was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOFMS. Momilactone B inhibited the accumulation of subtilisin-like serine protease, amyrin synthase LUP2, β-glucosidase and malate synthase at 1 h after the momilactone application. Those proteins are involved in the metabolic turnover and the production of intermediates needed for cell structures resulting in plant growth and development. Momilactone B also inhibited the breakdown of cruciferin 2, which is essential for seed germination and seedling growth to construct cell structures. Momilactone B induced the accumulation of translationally controlled tumor protein, glutathione S-transferase and 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin 1. These proteins are involved in stress responses and increased stress tolerance. In addition, glutathione S-transferase has the activity of herbicide detoxification and 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin 1 has inhibitory activity for seed germination under unfavorable conditions. The present research suggests that momilactone B may inhibit the seedling growth by the inhibition of the metabolic turnover and the production of intermediates for cell structures. In addition, momilactone induced proteins associated with plant defense responses. PMID:26058145

  5. Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Ward

    2009-03-31

    Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

  6. Chromatin associations in Arabidopsis interphase nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit eSchubert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of chromatin within interphase nuclei seems to be caused by topological constraints and related to gene expression depending on tissue and developmental stage. In yeast and animals it was found that homologous and heterologous chromatin association are required to realize faithful expression and DNA repair. To test whether such associations are present in plants we analysed Arabidopsis thaliana interphase nuclei by FISH using probes from different chromosomes. We found that chromatin fibre movement and variable associations, although in general relatively seldom, may occur between euchromatin segments along chromosomes, sometimes even over large distances. The combination of euchromatin segments bearing high or low co-expressing genes did not reveal different association frequencies probably due to adjacent genes of deviating expression patterns.Based on previous data and on FISH analyses presented here, we conclude that the global interphase chromatin organization in A. thaliana is relatively stable, due to the location of its ten centromeres at the nuclear periphery and of the telomeres mainly at the centrally localized nucleolus. Nevertheless, chromatin movement enables a flexible spatial genome arrangement in plant nuclei.

  7. G2 Checkpoint Responses in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Anne

    2013-03-18

    This project focused on the mechanism and biological significance of the G2 arrest response to replication stress in plants. We employed both forward and reverse genetic approaches to identify genes required for this response. A total of 3 different postdocs, 5 undergraduates, and 2 graduate students participated in the project. We identified several genes required for damage response in plants, including homologs of genes previously identified in animals (ATM and ATR), novel, a plant-specific genes (SOG1) and a gene known in animals but previously thought to be missing from the Arabidopsis genome (ATRIP). We characterized the transcriptome of gamma-irradiated plants, and found that plants, unlike animals, express a robust transcriptional response to damage, involving genes that regulate the cell cycle and DNA metabolism. This response requires both ATM and the transcription factor SOG1. We found that both ATM and ATR play a role in meiosis in plants. We also found that plants have a cell-type-specific programmed cell death response to ionizing radiation and UV light, and that this response requires ATR, ATM, and SOG1. These results were published in a series of 5 papers.

  8. Interactions between Axillary Branches of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronica Ongaro; Katherine Bainbridge; Lisa Williamson; Ottoline Leyser

    2008-01-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean,in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches.In these two-branch shoots,a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other,prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals,which are still poorly understood.Here,we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis,using consecutive branches on the bolting stem.As with the classical studies in pea and bean,these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth.Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch,but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch,illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals.Using mutants,we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch,the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak,and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem.

  9. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Shipp, Jessie; Hamilton, George A; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Keebaugh, Michael; Hill, Hansina; Dutta, Arnab; Zhuo, Xiaoding; Upadhyay, Nabin; Hutchings, James; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Shock, Everett; Hartnett, Hilairy E

    2013-03-01

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3-67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. PMID:23262070

  10. The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We resequenced 876 short fragments in a sample of 96 individuals of Arabidopsis thaliana that included stock center accessions as well as a hierarchical sample from natural populations. Although A. thaliana is a selfing weed, the pattern of polymorphism in general agrees with what is expected for a widely distributed, sexually reproducing species. Linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, within 50 kb. Variation is shared worldwide, although population structure and isolation by distance are evident. The data fail to fit standard neutral models in several ways. There is a genome-wide excess of rare alleles, at least partially due to selection. There is too much variation between genomic regions in the level of polymorphism. The local level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with gene density and positively correlated with segmental duplications. Because the data do not fit theoretical null distributions, attempts to infer natural selection from polymorphism data will require genome-wide surveys of polymorphism in order to identify anomalous regions. Despite this, our data support the utility of A. thaliana as a model for evolutionary functional genomics.

  11. Chromosomal rearrangement in autotetraploid plants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Maluszynska, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent development of cytogenetic techniques has facilitated significant progress in Arabidopsis thaliana karyotype studies. Double-target FISH with rRNA genes provides makers that allow individual chromosome in the genome to be distinguished. Those studies have revealed that the number and position of rDNA loci is ecotype-specific. Arabidopsis is believed to be a true diploid (x = 5) with numerous ecotypes (accessions) and only a very few natural polyploid populations reported. Few studies were undertaken to induce polyploidy in Arabidopsis, however none of those gave the cytogenetic characteristics of polyploid plants. Our analysis of chromosome pairing of colchicine-induced autotetraploid Arabidopsis (Wilna ecotype) revealed preferential bivalent pairing in PMCs (pollen mother cells). In order to attempt to explain this phenomenon, first of all more detailed cytogenetic studies of autopolyploid plants have been undertaken. The localization of 45S and 5S rDNA loci in the diploid and autotetraploid plants revealed that Wilna ecotypes belongs to the group of Arabidopsis accessions with only two 5S rDNA loci present in a genome. Furthermore, the rearrangement of 45S rDNA locus in autopolyploid, when compared to the diploid plants of the same ecotype, was revealed. These results are interesting also in the context of the recently emphasised role of polyploidy in plant evolution and speciation. Arabidopsis, despite having small chromosomes, is a good system to study chromosome behaviour in relation to diploidization of autopolyploids and to evaluate the degree of chromosomal rearrangements during this process. PMID:11433970

  12. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  13. Identification of proteins interacting with Arabidopsis ACD11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Joensen, Jan; McKinney, Lea V;

    2009-01-01

    The Arabidopsis ACD11 gene encodes a sphingosine transfer protein and was identified by the accelerated cell death phenotype of the loss of function acd11 mutant, which exhibits heightened expression of genes involved in the disease resistance hypersensitive response (HR). We used ACD11 as bait...... in a yeast two-hybrid screen of an Arabidopsis cDNA library to identify ACD11 interacting proteins. One interactor identified is a protein of unknown function with an RNA recognition motif (RRM) designated BPA1 (binding partner of ACD11). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the ACD11-BPA1...

  14. Omics analysis of high-energy Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chao; 梁超

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) is a phosphatase dually targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Overexpression (OE) of AtPAP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana was reported to speed up plant growth and promote flowering, seed yield and biomass at maturity in a previous study. Under long-day (16 hours light at 22°C / 8 hours dark at 18°C) growth conditions, the leaves of 20-day-old OE lines contained significant higher sucrose and glucose than the wild-type (WT) plants, r...

  15. Computational analyses and annotations of the Arabidopsis peroxidasegene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Jespersen, Hans M.;

    1998-01-01

    Classical heme-containing plant peroxidases have been ascribed a wide variety of functional roles related to development, defense, lignification and hormonal signaling. More than 40 peroxidase genes are now known in Arabidopsis thaliana for which functional association is complicated by a general...... lack of peroxidase substrate specificity. Computational analysis was performed on 30 near full-length Arabidopsis peroxidase cDNAs for annotation of start codons and signal peptide cleavage sites. A compositional analysis revealed that 23 of the 30 peroxidase cDNAs have 5' untranslated regions...

  16. Proteomic identification of S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindermayr, C.; Saalbach, G.; Durner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Although nitric oxide (NO) has grown into a key signaling molecule in plants during the last few years, less is known about how NO regulates different events in plants. Analyses of NO-dependent processes in animal systems have demonstrated protein S-nitrosylation of cysteine (Cys) residues to be ...... to be one of the dominant regulation mechanisms for many animal proteins. For plants, the principle of S-nitrosylation remained to be elucidated. We generated S-nitrosothiols by treating extracts from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell suspension cultures with the NO-donor S...

  17. Characterization of a calmodulin binding protein kinase from Arabidopsis thalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A full-length calmodulin binding protein kinase cDNA, AtCBK1, from Arabidopsis has been isolated by screening of an Arabidopsis cDNA library and by 5′-RACE. Northern blot and in situ hybridization indicated that the expression of AtCBK1 was more abundant in the vascular bundles and the meristems than in other tissues. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that AtCBK1 is different from animal CaMKs and it falls into CRK subgroup, indicating that they may come from different ancestors. The result suggests that AtCBK1 encodes a CaM-binding serine/threonine protein kinase.

  18. Exploring potential new floral organ morphogenesis genes of Arabidopsis thaliana using systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenchuan; Huang, Junfeng; Liu, Yang; Rao, Jianan; Luo, Da; He, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is one of the important defining features of angiosperms. The initiation of flower development and the formation of different floral organs are the results of the interplays among numerous genes. But until now, just fewer genes have been found linked with flower development. And the functions of lots of genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Although, the quartet model successfully simplified the ABCDE model to elaborate the molecular mechanism by introducing protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We still don't know much about several important aspects of flower development. So we need to discriminate even more genes involving in the flower development. In this study, we identified seven differentially modules through integrating the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) method to analyze co-expression network and PPIs using the public floral and non-floral expression profiles data of Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis was used for the functional annotation of the related genes, and some of the hub genes were identified in each module. The potential floral organ morphogenesis genes of two significant modules were integrated with PPI information in order to detail the inherent regulation mechanisms. Finally, the functions of the floral patterning genes were elucidated by combining the PPI and evolutionary information. It was indicated that the sub-networks or complexes, rather than the genes, were the regulation unit of flower development. We found that the most possible potential new genes underlining the floral pattern formation in A. thaliana were FY, CBL2, ZFN3, and AT1G77370; among them, FY, CBL2 acted as an upstream regulator of AP2; ZFN3 activated the flower primordial determining gene AP1 and AP2 by HY5/HYH gene via photo induction possibly. And AT1G77370 exhibited similar function in floral morphogenesis, same as ELF3. It possibly formed a complex between RFC3 and RPS15 in

  19. Exploring potential new floral organ morphogenesis genes of Arabidopsis thaliana using systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchuan eXie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering is one of the important defining features of angiosperms. The initiation of flower development and the formation of different floral organs are the results of the interplays among numerous genes. But until now, just fewer genes have been found linked with flower development. And the functions of lots of genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Although, the quartet model successfully simplified the ABCDE model to elaborate the molecular mechanism by introducing protein-protein interactions (PPIs. We still don't know much about several important aspects of flower development. So we need to discriminate even more genes involving in the flower development. In this study, we identified seven differentially modules through integrating the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA and Support Vector Machine (SVM method to analyze co-expression network and PPIs using the public floral and non-floral expression profiles data of Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis was used for the functional annotation of the related genes, and some of the hub genes were identified in each module. The potential floral organ morphogenesis genes of two significant modules were integrated with PPI information in order to detail the inherent regulation mechanisms. Finally, the functions of the floral patterning genes were elucidated by combining the PPI and evolutionary information. It was indicated that the sub-networks or complexes, rather than the genes, were the regulation unit of flower development. We found that the most possible potential new genes underlining the floral pattern formation in A. thaliana were FY, CBL2, ZFN3 and AT1G77370; among them, FY, CBL2 acted as an upstream regulator of AP2; ZFN3 activated the flower primordial determining gene AP1 and AP2 by HY5/HYH gene via photo induction possibly. And AT1G77370 exhibited similar function in floral morphogenesis, same as ELF3. It possibly formed a complex between RFC3

  20. PIF4 and ELF3 Act Independently in Arabidopsis thaliana Thermoresponsive Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Maximilian O; Lanctot, Amy; Queitsch, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved elaborate mechanisms controlling developmental responses to environmental stimuli. A particularly important stimulus is temperature. Previous work has identified the interplay of PIF4 and ELF3 as a central circuit underlying thermal responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, thermal responses vary widely among strains, possibly offering mechanistic insights into the wiring of this circuit. ELF3 contains a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is crucial for ELF3 function and varies in length across strains. Here, we use transgenic analysis to test the hypothesis that natural polyQ variation in ELF3 is associated with the observed natural variation in thermomorphogenesis. We found little evidence that the polyQ tract plays a specific role in thermal responses beyond modulating general ELF3 function. Instead, we made the serendipitous discovery that ELF3 plays a crucial, PIF4-independent role in thermoresponsive flowering under conditions more likely to reflect field conditions. We present evidence that ELF3 acts through the photoperiodic pathway, pointing to a previously unknown symmetry between low and high ambient temperature responses. Moreover, in analyzing two strain backgrounds with different thermal responses, we demonstrate that responses may be shifted rather than fundamentally rewired across strains. Our findings tie together disparate observations into a coherent framework in which multiple pathways converge in accelerating flowering in response to temperature, with some such pathways modulated by photoperiod.