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Sample records for arabidopsis flavonoid transporter

  1. The transparent testa4 mutation prevents flavonoid synthesis and alters auxin transport and the response of Arabidopsis roots to gravity and light.

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    Buer, Charles S; Muday, Gloria K

    2004-05-01

    We examined whether flavonoids act as endogenous auxin transport regulators during gravity vector and light intensity changes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Flavonoid deficient transparent testa4 [tt4(2YY6)] seedlings had elevated root basipetal auxin transport compared with the wild type, consistent with the absence of a negative auxin transport regulator. The tt4(2YY6) roots had delayed gravitropism that was chemically complemented with a flavonoid intermediate. Flavonoid accumulation was found in wild-type columella cells, the site of gravity perception, and in epidermal and cortical cells, the site of differential growth, but flavonoid accumulation was absent in tt4(2YY6) roots. Flavonoid accumulation was higher in gravity-stimulated root tips as compared with vertical controls, with maximum differences coinciding with the timing of gravitropic bending, and was located in epidermal cells. Exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) also elevated flavonoid accumulation, suggesting that flavonoid changes in response to gravity might be partly as a result of changing IAA distribution. Acropetal IAA transport was also elevated in roots of tt4(2YY6). Flavonoid synthesis was repressed in the dark, as were differences in root acropetal transport in tt4(2YY6). These results are consistent with light- and gravity-induced flavonoid stimulation that alters auxin transport in roots and dependent physiological processes, including gravitropic bending and root development.

  2. Flavonoid-specific staining of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, J J; Rechnitz, G A

    1992-12-01

    Crop yields may be threatened by increases in UV-B radiation resulting from depletion of the ozone layer. In higher plants, the presence of flavonols provides a protective mechanism, and we report a novel staining procedure for the visualization of such protectants in plant tissue. It is shown that the proposed technique provides sensitive and specific fluorescence of flavonoids in chlorophyll-bleached tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:1282347

  3. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  4. Ethylene modulates flavonoid accumulation and gravitropic responses in roots of Arabidopsis.

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    Buer, Charles S; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria K

    2006-04-01

    Plant organs change their growth direction in response to reorientation relative to the gravity vector. We explored the role of ethylene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root gravitropism. Treatment of wild-type Columbia seedlings with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) reduced root elongation and gravitropic curvature. The ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 and etr1-3 had wild-type root gravity responses, but lacked the growth and gravity inhibition by ACC found in the wild type. We examined the effect of ACC on tt4(2YY6) seedlings, which have a null mutation in the gene encoding chalcone synthase, the first enzyme in flavonoid synthesis. The tt4(2YY6) mutant makes no flavonoids, has elevated indole-3-acetic acid transport, and exhibits a delayed gravity response. Roots of tt4(2YY6), the backcrossed line tt4-2, and two other tt4 alleles had wild-type sensitivity to growth inhibition by ACC, whereas the root gravitropic curvature of these tt4 alleles was much less inhibited by ACC than wild-type roots, suggesting that ACC may reduce gravitropic curvature by altering flavonoid synthesis. ACC treatment induced flavonoid accumulation in root tips, as judged by a dye that becomes fluorescent upon binding flavonoids in wild type, but not in ein2-5 and etr1-3. ACC also prevented a transient peak in flavonoid synthesis in response to gravity. Together, these experiments suggest that elevated ethylene levels negatively regulate root gravitropism, using EIN2- and ETR1-dependent pathways, and that ACC inhibition of gravity response occurs through altering flavonoid synthesis. PMID:16489132

  5. Metabolite profiling and quantitative genetics of natural variation for flavonoids in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Dubos, Christian; Beck, Gilles; Marques, Catherine; Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Loudet, Olivier; Lepiniec, Loic

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the range and the genetic bases of naturally occurring variation for flavonoids. Using Arabidopsis thaliana seed as a model, the flavonoid content of 41 accessions and two recombinant inbred line (RIL) sets derived from divergent accessions (Cvi-0×Col-0 and Bay-0×Shahdara) were analysed. These accessions and RILs showed mainly quantitative rather than qualitative changes. To dissect the genetic architecture underlying these differences, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) a...

  6. AtMYB12 regulates flavonoids accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feibing; Kong, Weili; Wong, Gary; Fu, Lifeng; Peng, Rihe; Li, Zhenjun; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tool for modulating flavonoid biosynthesis. The AtMYB12 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to regulate the expression of key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, leading to the increased accumulation of flavonoids. In this study, the codon-optimized AtMYB12 gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AtMYB12 was localized to the nucleus. Its overexpression significantly increased accumulation of flavonoids and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that overexpression of AtMYB12 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis, stress responses and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Further analyses under salt and drought stresses showed significant increases of ABA, proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, as well as significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. The results demonstrate the explicit role of AtMYB12 in conferring salt and drought tolerance by increasing the levels of flavonoids and ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. The AtMYB12 gene has the potential to be used to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:27033553

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR and BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 are low-temperature regulators of flavonoid accumulation.

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    Petridis, Antonios; Döll, Stefanie; Nichelmann, Lars; Bilger, Wolfgang; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoid synthesis is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level through the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 (MBW) (MYB: transcription factor of the myeloblastosis protein family, WD40: tanscription factor with a short structural motif of 40 amino acids which terminates in an aspartic acid-tryptophan dipeptide) complex, and responds to both environmental and developmental stimuli. Although the developmental regulation of flavonoid accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been examined in great detail, the response of the flavonoid synthesis pathway to abiotic stress (particularly low temperature) remains unclear. A screen of a Dissociation element (Ds) transposon-induced mutation collection identified two lines which exhibited an altered profile of phenylpropanoid accumulation following exposure to low-temperature stress. One of the mutated genes (BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 (BEE1)) encoded a brassinosteroid enhanced expression transcription factor, while the other (G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR (GFR)) encoded a G2-like flavonoid regulator. Phenylpropanoid-targeted analysis was performed using high-performance LC-MS, and gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In both mutants, the accumulation of quercetins and scopolin was reduced under low-temperature growing conditions, whereas that of anthocyanin was increased. BEE1 and GFR were both shown to negatively regulate anthocyanin accumulation by inhibiting anthocyanin synthesis genes via the suppression of the bHLH (TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) and GLABROUS3 (GL3)) and/or the MYB (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS2 (PAP2)) components of the MBW complex. Our results provide new insight into the regulatory control of phenylpropanoid metabolism at low temperatures, and reveal that BEE1 and GFR act as important components of the signal transduction chain. PMID:27125220

  8. Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Ward

    2009-03-31

    Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

  9. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress. PMID:27266252

  10. Stone formation in peach fruit exhibits spatial coordination of the lignin and flavonoid pathways and similarity to Arabidopsis dehiscence

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    Piagnani M Claudia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignification of the fruit endocarp layer occurs in many angiosperms and plays a critical role in seed protection and dispersal. This process has been extensively studied with relationship to pod shatter or dehiscence in Arabidopsis. Dehiscence is controlled by a set of transcription factors that define the fruit tissue layers and whether or not they lignify. In contrast, relatively little is known about similar processes in other plants such as stone fruits which contain an extremely hard lignified endocarp or stone surrounding a single seed. Results Here we show that lignin deposition in peach initiates near the blossom end within the endocarp layer and proceeds in a distinct spatial-temporal pattern. Microarray studies using a developmental series from young fruits identified a sharp and transient induction of phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonoid pathway genes concurrent with lignification and subsequent stone hardening. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that specific phenylpropanoid (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and lignin (caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, peroxidase and laccase pathway genes were induced in the endocarp layer over a 10 day time period, while two lignin genes (p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase and cinnamoyl CoA reductase were co-regulated with flavonoid pathway genes (chalcone synthase, dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygen-ase and flavanone-3-hydrosylase which were mesocarp and exocarp specific. Analysis of other fruit development expression studies revealed that flavonoid pathway induction is conserved in the related Rosaceae species apple while lignin pathway induction is not. The transcription factor expression of peach genes homologous to known endocarp determinant genes in Arabidopsis including SHATTERPROOF, SEEDSTCK and NAC SECONDARY WALL THICENING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 were found to be specifically expressed in the endocarp while the

  11. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang;

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that promote a wide range of developmental processes. While GA signalling is well understood, little is known about how GA is transported or how GA distribution is regulated. Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants...... deficient in GA transport. We show that the NPF3 transporter efficiently transports GA across cell membranes in vitro and GA-Fl in vivo. NPF3 is expressed in root endodermis and repressed by GA. NPF3 is targeted to the plasma membrane and subject to rapid BFA-dependent recycling. We show that abscisic acid...... (ABA), an antagonist of GA, is also transported by NPF3 in vitro. ABA promotes NPF3 expression and GA-Fl uptake in plants. On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting as an influx carrier and that GA-ABA interaction may...

  12. A three-component gene expression system and its application for inducible flavonoid overproduction in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Feng

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression is a powerful tool to study and engineer genes whose overexpression could be detrimental for the host organisms. However, only limited systems have been adopted in plant biotechnology. We have developed an osmotically inducible system using three components of plant origin, RD29a (Responsive to Dehydration 29A promoter, CBF3 (C-repeat Binding Factor 3 transcription factor and cpl1-2 (CTD phosphatase-like 1 mutation. The osmotic stress responsible RD29a promoter contains the CBF3 binding sites and thus RD29A-CBF3 feedforward cassette enhances induction of RD29a promoter under stress. The cpl1-2 mutation in a host repressor CPL1 promotes stress responsible RD29a promoter expression. The efficacy of this system was tested using PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 transgene, a model transcription factor that regulates the anthocyanin pathway in Arabidopsis. While transgenic plants with only one or two of three components did not reproducibly accumulate anthocyanin pigments above the control level, transgenic cpl1 plants containing homozygous RD29a-PAP1 and RD29a-CBF3 transgenes produced 30-fold higher level of total anthocyanins than control plants upon cold treatment. Growth retardation and phytochemical production of transgenic plants were minimum under normal conditions. The flavonoid profile in cold-induced transgenic plants was determined by LC/MS/MS, which resembled that of previously reported pap1-D plants but enriched for kaempferol derivatives. These results establish the functionality of the inducible three-component gene expression system in plant metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we show that PAP1 and environmental signals synergistically regulate the flavonoid pathway to produce a unique flavonoid blend that has not been produced by PAP1 overexpression or cold treatment alone.

  13. Identification of mitochondrial coenzyme a transporters from maize and Arabidopsis.

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    Zallot, Rémi; Agrimi, Gennaro; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Teresinski, Howard J; Frelin, Océane; Ellens, Kenneth W; Castegna, Alessandra; Russo, Annamaria; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Mullen, Robert T; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Hanson, Andrew D

    2013-06-01

    Plants make coenzyme A (CoA) in the cytoplasm but use it for reactions in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes, implying that these organelles have CoA transporters. A plant peroxisomal CoA transporter is already known, but plant mitochondrial or chloroplastic CoA transporters are not. Mitochondrial CoA transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family, however, have been identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Leu-5p) and mammals (SLC25A42). Comparative genomic analysis indicated that angiosperms have two distinct homologs of these mitochondrial CoA transporters, whereas nonflowering plants have only one. The homologs from maize (Zea mays; GRMZM2G161299 and GRMZM2G420119) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; At1g14560 and At4g26180) all complemented the growth defect of the yeast leu5Δ mitochondrial CoA carrier mutant and substantially restored its mitochondrial CoA level, confirming that these proteins have CoA transport activity. Dual-import assays with purified pea (Pisum sativum) mitochondria and chloroplasts, and subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein fusions in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cells, showed that the maize and Arabidopsis proteins are targeted to mitochondria. Consistent with the ubiquitous importance of CoA, the maize and Arabidopsis mitochondrial CoA transporter genes are expressed at similar levels throughout the plant. These data show that representatives of both monocotyledons and eudicotyledons have twin, mitochondrially located mitochondrial carrier family carriers for CoA. The highly conserved nature of these carriers makes possible their reliable annotation in other angiosperm genomes. PMID:23590975

  14. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate is an essential nutrient for plant growth, and inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored largely in the vacuole of plant cells. Thus, vacuolar Pi maintains homeostasis of cytosolic Pi to ensure an optimal Pi supply for plants under variable Pi status in the soil. This study uncovered in Arabidopsis a vacuolar phosphate transporter, VPT1, that mediates vacuolar Pi sequestration. Lack of VPT1 caused growth defects under both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, implicating VPT1 in plant adaptation...

  15. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Pisanty, Odelia; Barbosa, Inês C R; Zourelidou, Melina; Regnault, Thomas; Crocoll, Christoph; Olsen, Carl Erik; Weinstain, Roy; Schwechheimer, Claus; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Estelle, Mark; Shani, Eilon

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that promote a wide range of developmental processes. While GA signalling is well understood, little is known about how GA is transported or how GA distribution is regulated. Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants deficient in GA transport. We show that the NPF3 transporter efficiently transports GA across cell membranes in vitro and GA-Fl in vivo. NPF3 is expressed in root endodermis and repressed by GA. NPF3 is targeted to the plasma membrane and subject to rapid BFA-dependent recycling. We show that abscisic acid (ABA), an antagonist of GA, is also transported by NPF3 in vitro. ABA promotes NPF3 expression and GA-Fl uptake in plants. On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting as an influx carrier and that GA-ABA interaction may occur at the level of transport. PMID:27139299

  16. Long-distance phloem transport of glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

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    Chen, S; Petersen, B L; Olsen, C E; Schulz, A; Halkier, B A

    2001-09-01

    Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites found mainly in the order Capparales, which includes a large number of economically important Brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis. In the present study, several lines of evidence are provided for phloem transport of glucosinolates in Arabidopsis. When radiolabeled p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (p-OHBG) and sucrose were co-applied to the tip of detached leaves, both tracers were collected in the phloem exudates at the petioles. Long-distance transport of [(14)C]p-OHBG was investigated in wild-type and transgenic 35S::CYP79A1 plants, synthesizing high amounts of p-OHBG, which is not a natural constituent of wild-type Arabidopsis. In both wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants, radiolabeled p-OHBG was rapidly transported from the application site into the whole plant and intact p-OHBG was recovered from different tissues. The pattern of distribution of the radioactivity corresponded to that expected for transport of photoassimilates such as sucrose, and was consistent with translocation in phloem following the source-sink relationship. Radiolabeled p-OHBG was shown to accumulate in the seeds of wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants, where p-OHBG had been either exogenously applied or endogenously synthesized from Tyr in the leaves. p-OHBG was found in phloem exudates collected from cut petioles of leaves from both wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants. Phloem exudates were shown to contain intact glucosinolates, and not desulphoglucosinolates, as the transport form. It is concluded that intact glucosinolates are readily loaded into and transported by the phloem. PMID:11553747

  17. Mutation of Arabidopsis HY1 causes UV-C hypersensitivity by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis and the down-regulation of antioxidant defence.

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    Xie, Yanjie; Xu, Daokun; Cui, Weiti; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-06-01

    Previous pharmacological results confirmed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in protection of cells against ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative damage in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seedlings, but there remains a lack of genetic evidence. In this study, the link between Arabidopsis thaliana HO-1 (HY1) and UV-C tolerance was investigated at the genetic and molecular levels. The maximum inducible expression of HY1 in wild-type Arabidopsis was observed following UV-C irradiation. UV-C sensitivity was not observed in ho2, ho3, and ho4 single and double mutants. However, the HY1 mutant exhibited UV-C hypersensitivity, consistent with the observed decreases in chlorophyll content, and carotenoid and flavonoid metabolism, as well as the down-regulation of antioxidant defences, thereby resulting in severe oxidative damage. The addition of the carbon monoxide donor carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), in particular, and bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HY1, partially rescued the UV-C hypersensitivity, and other responses appeared in the hy1 mutant. Transcription factors involved in the synthesis of flavonoid or UV responses were induced by UV-C, but reduced in the hy1 mutant. Overall, the findings showed that mutation of HY1 triggered UV-C hypersensitivity, by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid synthesis and antioxidant defences.

  18. Transport of aspalathin, a Rooibos tea flavonoid, across the skin and intestinal epithelium.

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    Huang, Miao; du Plessis, Jeanetta; du Preez, Jan; Hamman, Josias; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2008-05-01

    Since Rooibos tea contains high levels of flavonoid antioxidants with potential health benefits when taken orally or applied topically, the quantity of the antioxidants crossing the physiological barriers is of scientific, clinical and commercial importance. This study investigated the in vitro transport of aspalathin, a unique flavonoid constituent of Rooibos tea, across intestinal epithelial cells and the human skin. The transport studies were conducted for both pure aspalathin solutions and extracts from unfermented (or green) Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) aerial plant material across human abdominal skin in vertical Franz diffusion cells and Caco-2 cell monolayers in Transwell 6-well plates. The results obtained from the percutaneous permeation studies demonstrated that only 0.01% of the initial aspalathin dose from both the test solution and extract permeated through the skin, which was in accordance with the prediction from its log P value of -0.347. A portion of 0.07% of the initial aspalathin dose penetrated the different layers of the skin for the green Rooibos extract solution and 0.08% for the pure aspalathin solution. The transport of aspalathin across Caco-2 cell monolayers was concentration dependent and reached almost 100% (P(app) = 20.93 x 10(-6) cm/s) of the initial dose in the highest concentration tested for the extract, while it was only 79.03% (P(app) = 15.34 x 10(-6) cm/s) of the initial dose for the highest concentration of the aspalathin solution.

  19. A Mitochondrial Magnesium Transporter Functions in Arabidopsis Pollen Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le-Gong Li; Lubomir N.Sokolov; Yong-Hua Yang; Dong-Ping Li; Julie Ting; Girdhar K.Pandy; Sheng Luan

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium is an abundant divalent cation in plant cells and plays a critical role in many physiological processes.We have previously described the jdentification of a 10-member Arabidopsis gene family encoding putative magnesium transport(MGT)proteins.Here,we report that a member of the MGT family,AtMGT5, functions as a dual-functional Mg-transporter that operates in a concentration-dependent manner, namely it serves as a Mg-importer at micromolar levels and facilitates the efflux in the millimolar range.The AtMGT5 protein is localized in the mitochondria,suggesting that AtMGT5 mediates Mg-trafficking between the cytosol and mitochondria.The AtMGT5 gene was exclusively expressed in anthers at early stages of flower development.Examination of two independent T-DNA insertional mutants of AtMGT5 gene demonstrated that AtMG7-5 played an essential role for pollen development and male fertility.This study suggests a critical role for Mg2+ transport between cytosol and mitochondria in male gametogenesis in plants.

  20. Phytotoxicity, accumulation and transport of silver nanoparticles by Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Geisler-Lee, Jane; Wang, Qiang; Yao, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Geisler, Matt; Li, Kungang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Yongsheng; Kolmakov, Andrei; Ma, Xingmao

    2013-05-01

    The widespread availability of nano-enabled products in the global market may lead to the release of a substantial amount of engineered nanoparticles in the environment, which frequently display drastically different physiochemical properties than their bulk counterparts. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of citrate-stabilised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the plant Arabidopsis thaliana at three levels, physiological phytotoxicity, cellular accumulation and subcellular transport of AgNPs. The monodisperse AgNPs of three different sizes (20, 40 and 80 nm) aggregated into much larger sizes after mixing with quarter-strength Hoagland solution and became polydisperse. Immersion in AgNP suspension inhibited seedling root elongation and demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship within the tested concentration range. The phytotoxic effect of AgNPs could not be fully explained by the released silver ions. Plants exposed to AgNP suspensions bioaccumulated higher silver content than plants exposed to AgNO3 solutions (Ag(+) representative), indicating AgNP uptake by plants. AgNP toxicity was size and concentration dependent. AgNPs accumulated progressively in this sequence: border cells, root cap, columella and columella initials. AgNPs were apoplastically transported in the cell wall and found aggregated at plasmodesmata. In all the three levels studied, AgNP impacts differed from equivalent dosages of AgNO3.

  1. Auxin transport in an auxin-resistant mutant of arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, C.; Benning, C.; Estelle, M.

    1987-04-01

    The authors are studying a group of allelic recessive mutations in Arabidopsis called axr-1. Homozygous axr-1 plants are resistant to exogenously applied auxin. In addition, axr-1 mutations all confer a number of development abnormalities including an apparent reduction in apical dominance, loss of normal geotropic response, and a failure to self-fertilize due to a decrease in stamen elongation. In order to determine whether this pleiotropic phenotype is due to an alteration in auxin transport they have adapted the agar block transport assay for use in Arabidopsis stem segments. Their results indicate that as in other plant species, auxin transport is strongly polar in Arabidopsis stem segments. In addition transport is inhibited by the well characterized auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid and the artificial auxin 2,4-D. These results as well as the characterization of transport in axr-1 plants will be presented.

  2. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rh...

  3. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Sylvie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  4. PGR5-PGRL1-Dependent Cyclic Electron Transport Modulates Linear Electron Transport Rate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suorsa, Marjaana; Rossi, Fabio; Tadini, Luca; Labs, Mathias; Colombo, Monica; Jahns, Peter; Kater, Martin M; Leister, Dario; Finazzi, Giovanni; Aro, Eva-Mari; Barbato, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Plants need tight regulation of photosynthetic electron transport for survival and growth under environmental and metabolic conditions. For this purpose, the linear electron transport (LET) pathway is supplemented by a number of alternative electron transfer pathways and valves. In Arabidopsis, cyclic electron transport (CET) around photosystem I (PSI), which recycles electrons from ferrodoxin to plastoquinone, is the most investigated alternative route. However, the interdependence of LET and CET and the relative importance of CET remain unclear, largely due to the difficulties in precise assessment of the contribution of CET in the presence of LET, which dominates electron flow under physiological conditions. We therefore generated Arabidopsis mutants with a minimal water-splitting activity, and thus a low rate of LET, by combining knockout mutations in PsbO1, PsbP2, PsbQ1, PsbQ2, and PsbR loci. The resulting Δ5 mutant is viable, although mature leaves contain only ∼ 20% of wild-type naturally less abundant PsbO2 protein. Δ5 plants compensate for the reduction in LET by increasing the rate of CET, and inducing a strong non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) response during dark-to-light transitions. To identify the molecular origin of such a high-capacity CET, we constructed three sextuple mutants lacking the qE component of NPQ (Δ5 npq4-1), NDH-mediated CET (Δ5 crr4-3), or PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET (Δ5 pgr5). Their analysis revealed that PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET plays a major role in ΔpH formation and induction of NPQ in C3 plants. Moreover, while pgr5 dies at the seedling stage under fluctuating light conditions, Δ5 pgr5 plants are able to survive, which underlines the importance of PGR5 in modulating the intersystem electron transfer. PMID:26687812

  5. Two IIIf Clade-bHLHs from Freesia hybrida Play Divergent Roles in Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Trichome Formation when Ectopically Expressed in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueqing; Shan, Xiaotong; Gao, Ruifang; Yang, Song; Wang, Shucai; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The MBW complex, comprised by R2R3-MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40, is a single regulatory protein complex that drives the evolution of multiple traits such as flavonoid biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. In this study, two IIIf Clade-bHLH regulator genes, FhGL3L and FhTT8L, were isolated and functionally characterized from Freesia hybrida. Different spatio-temporal transcription patterns were observed showing diverse correlation with anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, FhGL3L could enhance the anthocyanin accumulation through up-regulating endogenous regulators and late structural genes. Unexpectedly, trichome formation was inhibited associating with the down-regulation of AtGL2. Comparably, only the accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins was strengthened in FhTT8L transgenic lines. Furthermore, transient expression assays demonstrated that FhGL3L interacted with AtPAP1, AtTT2 and AtGL1, while FhTT8L only showed interaction with AtPAP1 and AtTT2. In addition, similar activation of the AtDFR promoter was found between AtPAP1-FhGL3L/FhTT8L and AtPAP1- AtGL3/AtTT8 combinations. When FhGL3L was fused with a strong activation domain VP16, it could activate the AtGL2 promoter when co-transfected with AtGL1. Therefore, it can be concluded that the functionality of bHLH factors may have diverged, and a sophisticated interaction and hierarchical network might exist in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and trichome formation. PMID:27465838

  6. Two IIIf Clade-bHLHs from Freesia hybrida Play Divergent Roles in Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Trichome Formation when Ectopically Expressed in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueqing; Shan, Xiaotong; Gao, Ruifang; Yang, Song; Wang, Shucai; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The MBW complex, comprised by R2R3-MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40, is a single regulatory protein complex that drives the evolution of multiple traits such as flavonoid biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. In this study, two IIIf Clade-bHLH regulator genes, FhGL3L and FhTT8L, were isolated and functionally characterized from Freesia hybrida. Different spatio-temporal transcription patterns were observed showing diverse correlation with anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, FhGL3L could enhance the anthocyanin accumulation through up-regulating endogenous regulators and late structural genes. Unexpectedly, trichome formation was inhibited associating with the down-regulation of AtGL2. Comparably, only the accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins was strengthened in FhTT8L transgenic lines. Furthermore, transient expression assays demonstrated that FhGL3L interacted with AtPAP1, AtTT2 and AtGL1, while FhTT8L only showed interaction with AtPAP1 and AtTT2. In addition, similar activation of the AtDFR promoter was found between AtPAP1-FhGL3L/FhTT8L and AtPAP1- AtGL3/AtTT8 combinations. When FhGL3L was fused with a strong activation domain VP16, it could activate the AtGL2 promoter when co-transfected with AtGL1. Therefore, it can be concluded that the functionality of bHLH factors may have diverged, and a sophisticated interaction and hierarchical network might exist in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and trichome formation. PMID:27465838

  7. The Golgi localized bifunctional UDP-rhamnose/UDP-galactose transporter family of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Moreno, Ignacio;

    2014-01-01

    that are specifically presumed to deliver the diverse array of nucleotide sugars found in plants. This study has developed a novel approach that enabled functional characterization of six bifunctional UDP-rhamnose (Rha)/UDP-galactose (Gal) transporters from Arabidopsis. An analysis of loss...

  8. Routes to the tonoplast: the sorting of tonoplast transporters in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenstetter, Susanne; Wirsching, Petra; Dotzauer, Dorina; Schneider, Sabine; Sauer, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Vacuoles perform a multitude of functions in plant cells, including the storage of amino acids and sugars. Tonoplast-localized transporters catalyze the import and release of these molecules. The mechanisms determining the targeting of these transporters to the tonoplast are largely unknown. Using the paralogous Arabidopsis thaliana inositol transporters INT1 (tonoplast) and INT4 (plasma membrane), we performed domain swapping and mutational analyses and identified a C-terminal di-leucine motif responsible for the sorting of higher plant INT1-type transporters to the tonoplast in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. We demonstrate that this motif can reroute other proteins, such as INT4, SUCROSE TRANSPORTER2 (SUC2), or SWEET1, to the tonoplast and that the position of the motif relative to the transmembrane helix is critical. Rerouted INT4 is functionally active in the tonoplast and complements the growth phenotype of an int1 mutant. In Arabidopsis plants defective in the β-subunit of the AP-3 adaptor complex, INT1 is correctly localized to the tonoplast, while sorting of the vacuolar sucrose transporter SUC4 is blocked in cis-Golgi stacks. Moreover, we demonstrate that both INT1 and SUC4 trafficking to the tonoplast is sensitive to brefeldin A. Our data show that plants possess at least two different Golgi-dependent targeting mechanisms for newly synthesized transporters to the tonoplast.

  9. Family business: the multidrug-resistance related protein (MRP) ABC transporter genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolukisaoglu, H Uner; Bovet, Lucien; Klein, Markus; Eggmann, Thomas; Geisler, Markus; Wanke, Dierk; Martinoia, Enrico; Schulz, Burkhard

    2002-11-01

    Despite the completion of the sequencing of the entire genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the exact determination of each single gene and its function remains an open question. This is especially true for multigene families. An approach that combines analysis of genomic structure, expression data and functional genomics to ascertain the role of the members of the multidrug-resistance-related protein ( MRP) gene family, a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters from Arabidopsis is presented. We used cDNA sequencing and alignment-based re-annotation of genomic sequences to define the exact genic structure of all known AtMRP genes. Analysis of promoter regions suggested different induction conditions even for closely related genes. Expression analysis for the entire gene family confirmed these assumptions. Phylogenetic analysis and determination of segmental duplication in the regions of AtMRP genes revealed that the evolution of the extraordinarily high number of ABC transporter genes in plants cannot solely be explained by polyploidisation during the evolution of the Arabidopsis genome. Interestingly MRP genes from Oryza sativa L. (rice; OsMRP) show very similar genomic structures to those from Arabidopsis. Screening of large populations of T-DNA-mutagenised lines of A. thaliana resulted in the isolation of AtMRP insertion mutants. This work opens the way for the defined analysis of a multigene family of important membrane transporters whose broad variety of functions expands their traditional role as cellular detoxifiers. PMID:12430019

  10. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation play an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. AtALMT1, an Al-activated malate transporter, is a major contributor to Arabidopsis Al tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that a second, unrelated gene, AtMATE, encodes an Arabidopsi...

  11. Auxin distribution and transport during embryogenesis and seed germi-nation of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin distribution during embryogenesis and seed germination were studied with transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GUS gene driven by a synthetic DR5 promoter, an auxin responsive promoter. The results showed that GUS activity is higher in ends of hypophysis and cotyledon primordia of heart-, torpedo- and cotyledon-stage embryos, leaf tip area, lateral root primordia, root apex and cotyledon of young seedlings.And GUS accumulated in root apex of the seedlings grown on auxin transport inhibitor containing media.All these suggested that above-mentioned part of the organs and tissues have a higher level of auxin, and auxin polar transport inhibitor could cause the accumulation of auxin in root apex. And auxin transport inhibitor also resulted in aberration of Arabidopsis leaf pattern formation, root gravitropism and elongation.

  12. Flavonoids: from cell cycle regulation to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Jeong, Byeong Ryong; Hawes, Martha C

    2005-03-01

    Flavonoids have been proposed to play diverse roles in plant growth and development, including defense, symbiosis, pollen development and male fertility, polar auxin transport, and protection against ultraviolet radiation. Recently, a new role in cell cycle regulation has emerged. Genetic alteration of glucuronide metabolism by altered expression of a Pisum sativum UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (PsUGT1) results in an altered cell cycle in pea, alfalfa, and Arabidopsis. In alfalfa, altered expression of PsUGT1 results in accumulation of a flavonoid-like compound that suppresses growth of cultured cells. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PsUGT1 functions by controlling cellular levels of a factor controlling cell cycle (FCC). PMID:15834800

  13. Multidrug Resistance–like Genes of Arabidopsis Required for Auxin Transport and Auxin-Mediated Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Bosl; Murphy, Angus S.; Spalding, Edgar P.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis possesses several genes related to the multidrug resistance (MDR) genes of animals, one of which, AtMDR1, was shown to be induced by the hormone auxin. Plants having mutations in AtMDR1 or its closest relative, AtPGP1, were isolated by a reverse genetic strategy. Auxin transport activity was greatly impaired in atmdr1 and atmdr1 atpgp1 double mutant plants. Epinastic cotyledons and reduced apical dominance were mutant phenotypes consistent with the disrupted basipetal flow of auxin. The auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid was shown to bind tightly and specifically to AtMDR1 and AtPGP1 proteins. The results indicate that these two MDR-like genes of Arabidopsis encode 1-naphthylphthalamic acid binding proteins that are required for normal auxin distribution and auxin-mediated development. PMID:11701880

  14. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development. PMID:27381418

  15. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-07-06

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development.

  16. Reproductive Toxicity and Life History Study of Silver Nanoparticle Effect, Uptake and Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Geisler-Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about nanotechnology have prompted studies on how the release of these engineered nanoparticles impact our environment. Herein, the impact of 20 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the life history traits of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in both above- and below-ground parts, at macroscopic and microscopic scales. Both gross phenotypes (in contrast to microscopic phenotypes and routes of transport and accumulation were investigated from roots to shoots. Wild type Arabidopsis growing in soil, regularly irrigated with 75 μg/L of AgNPs, did not show any obvious morphological change. However, their vegetative development was prolonged by two to three days and their reproductive growth shortened by three to four days. In addition, the germination rates of offspring decreased drastically over three generations. These findings confirmed that AgNPs induce abiotic stress and cause reproductive toxicity in Arabidopsis. To trace transport of AgNPs, this study also included an Arabidopsis reporter line genetically transformed with a green fluorescent protein and grown in an optical transparent medium with 75 μg/L AgNPs. AgNPs followed three routes: (1 At seven days after planting (DAP at S1.0 (stages defined by Boyes et al. 2001 [41], AgNPs attached to the surface of primary roots and then entered their root tips; (2 At 14 DAP at S1.04, as primary roots grew longer, AgNPs gradually moved into roots and entered new lateral root primordia and root hairs; (3 At 17 DAP at S1.06 when the Arabidopsis root system had developed multiple lateral roots, AgNPs were present in vascular tissue and throughout the whole plant from root to shoot. In some cases, if cotyledons of the Arabidopsis seedlings were immersed in melted transparent medium, then AgNPs were taken up by and accumulated in stomatal guard cells. These findings in Arabidopsis are the first to document specific routes and rates of AgNP uptake in vivo and in situ.

  17. Phytochelatin-metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC-metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As-PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2 -Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2 -Cd transport activity compared with PC2 -As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2 -Cd and PC2 -As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s.

  18. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis.

  19. A major facilitator superfamily transporter plays a dual role in polar auxin transport and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Cabrito, Tânia R; Baster, Pawel; Batista, Rita A; Teixeira, Miguel C; Friml, Jiri; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Duque, Paula

    2013-03-01

    Many key aspects of plant development are regulated by the polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin. Cellular auxin efflux, the rate-limiting step in this process, has been shown to rely on the coordinated action of PIN-formed (PIN) and B-type ATP binding cassette (ABCB) carriers. Here, we report that polar auxin transport in the Arabidopsis thaliana root also requires the action of a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter, Zinc-Induced Facilitator-Like 1 (ZIFL1). Sequencing, promoter-reporter, and fluorescent protein fusion experiments indicate that the full-length ZIFL1.1 protein and a truncated splice isoform, ZIFL1.3, localize to the tonoplast of root cells and the plasma membrane of leaf stomatal guard cells, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we show that the ZIFL1.1 transporter regulates various root auxin-related processes, while the ZIFL1.3 isoform mediates drought tolerance by regulating stomatal closure. Auxin transport and immunolocalization assays demonstrate that ZIFL1.1 indirectly modulates cellular auxin efflux during shootward auxin transport at the root tip, likely by regulating plasma membrane PIN2 abundance. Finally, heterologous expression in yeast revealed that ZIFL1.1 and ZIFL1.3 share H(+)-coupled K(+) transport activity. Thus, by determining the subcellular and tissue distribution of two isoforms, alternative splicing dictates a dual function for the ZIFL1 transporter. We propose that this MFS carrier regulates stomatal movements and polar auxin transport by modulating potassium and proton fluxes in Arabidopsis cells.

  20. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. An improved grafting technique for mature Arabidopsis plants demonstrates long-distance shoot-to-root transport of phytochelatins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice; Komives, Elizabeth A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2006-05-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are peptides that function in heavy-metal chelation and detoxification in plants and fungi. A recent study showed that PCs have the ability to undergo long-distance transport in a root-to-shoot direction in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether long-distance transport of PCs can occur in the opposite direction, from shoots to roots, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) PC synthase (TaPCS1) gene was expressed under the control of a shoot-specific promoter (CAB2) in an Arabidopsis PC-deficient mutant, cad1-3 (CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3). Analyses demonstrated that TaPCS1 is expressed only in shoots and that CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 lines complement the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic metal sensitivity of cad1-3 shoots. CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants exhibited higher Cd accumulation in roots and lower Cd accumulation in shoots compared to wild type. Fluorescence HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry analyses directly detected PC2 in the roots of CAB2:TaPCS1/cad1-3 but not in cad1-3 controls, suggesting that PC2 is transported over long distances in the shoot-to-root direction. In addition, wild-type shoot tissues were grafted onto PC synthase cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double loss-of-function mutant root tissues. An Arabidopsis grafting technique for mature plants was modified to obtain an 84% success rate, significantly greater than a previous rate of approximately 11%. Fluorescence HPLC-mass spectrometry showed the presence of PC2, PC3, and PC4 in the root tissue of grafts between wild-type shoots and cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double-mutant roots, demonstrating that PCs are transported over long distances from shoots to roots in Arabidopsis.

  2. From the Soil to the Seed. Metal Transport in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerinot, Mary Lou [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Deficiencies of micronutrients such as Fe, Mn, and Zn commonly limit plant growth and crop yields. The long-term goals of our program are to understand how plants acquire metal micronutrients from the soil and distribute them while protecting themselves from the potential redox damage metals can cause to living tissues. Metals serve as important co-factors for photosynthesis and respiration, yet we still know very little about metal transport. Our approach combines experimental and computational tools from the physical sciences with biochemistry and molecular biology. Specifically, we combine mutant analysis with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) spectroscopy, a technique that allows us to image the elemental composition of living plant material in 3-D. By analyzing the phenotypes of lines carrying mutations in various metal transporters, we have identified the genes responsible for uptake of zinc from the soil as well as genes involved in loading the seeds with metal micronutrients. Several of these transporters affect the localization of metals in the seed without affecting the overall metal content. Understanding how seeds obtain and store nutrients is key to developing crops with higher agronomic and nutritional value.

  3. The Arabidopsis ATNRT2.7 nitrate transporter controls nitrate content in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Franck; Orsel, Mathilde; Dorbe, Marie-France; Chardon, Fabien; Truong, Hoai-Nam; Miller, Anthony J; Krapp, Anne; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2007-05-01

    In higher plants, nitrate is taken up by root cells where Arabidopsis thaliana NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 (ATNRT2.1) chiefly acts as the high-affinity nitrate uptake system. Nitrate taken up by the roots can then be translocated from the root to the leaves and the seeds. In this work, the function of the ATNRT2.7 gene, one of the seven members of the NRT2 family in Arabidopsis, was investigated. High expression of the gene was detected in reproductive organs and peaked in dry seeds. beta-Glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein reporter gene expression driven by the ATNRT2.7 promoter confirmed this organ specificity. We assessed the capacity of ATNRT2.7 to transport nitrate in Xenopus laevis oocytes or when it is expressed ectopically in mutant plants deficient in nitrate transport. We measured the impact of an ATNRT2.7 mutation and found no difference from the wild type during vegetative development. By contrast, seed nitrate content was affected by overexpression of ATNRT2.7 or a mutation in the gene. Finally, we showed that this nitrate transporter protein was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Our results demonstrate that ATNRT2.7 plays a specific role in nitrate accumulation in the seed.

  4. Cadmium and iron transport by members of a plant metal transporter family in Arabidopsis with homology to Nramp genes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomine, Sébastien; Wang, Rongchen; Ward, John M.; Crawford, Nigel M.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2000-01-01

    Metal cation homeostasis is essential for plant nutrition and resistance to toxic heavy metals. Many plant metal transporters remain to be identified at the molecular level. In the present study, we have isolated AtNramp cDNAs from Arabidopsis and show that these genes complement the phenotype of a metal uptake deficient yeast strain, smf1. AtNramps show homology to the Nramp gene family in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals. Expression of AtNramp cDNAs increases Cd2+ sensitivity and Cd2+ a...

  5. Endocytosis and degradation of BOR1, a boron transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana, regulated by boron availability

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Junpei; Miwa, Kyoko; Yuan, Lixing; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Fujiwara, Toru

    2005-01-01

    Boron (B) is essential for plants but toxic when present in excess. Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 is a B exporter for xylem loading and is essential for efficient B translocation from roots to shoots under B limitation. B translocation to shoots was enhanced under B limitation in WT but not in bor1-1 mutant plants. The enhanced translocation was suppressed upon resupply of high levels of B within several hours. Unlike a number of transporters for essential mineral nutrients, BOR1 mRNA accumulatio...

  6. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  7. AtMGT7: An Arabidopsis Gene Encoding a Low-Affinity Magnesium Transporter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-Dan Mao; Lian-Fu Tian; Le-Gong Li; Jian Chen; Pei-Yi Deng; Dong-Ping Li; Sheng Luan

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) is one of the essential cations in all calls. Although the Mg2+ transport mechanism has been well-documented in bacteria, less is known about Mg2+ transporters in eukaryotes. The AtMGT gene family encoding putative magnesium transport proteins had been described previously. We report here that one of the Arabidopsis MGT family members, the AtMGT7 gene, encodes two mRNAs that have resulted from alternative splicing variants, designated AtMGT7a and AtMGTTb. Interestingly, the two mRNA variants were expressed with different patterns with AtMGT7a expressing in all organs, but AtMGTTb appearing only in root and flowers. The AtMGT7a variant functionally complemented a bacterial mutant lacking Mg2+ transport capacity, whereas AtMGT7b did not. The 63Ni2+ tracer uptake analysis in the bacterial model showed that AtMGT7a mediated low-affinity transport of Mg2+. Consistent with the complementation assay result, 63Ni2+ tracer uptake analysis revealed that AtMGT7b did not transport Mg2+. This study therefore has identified from a higher plant the first low-affinity Mg2+ transporter encoded by a gana with alternatively spliced transcripts that produce proteins with distinct functions.

  8. Arabidopsis POLYOL TRANSPORTER5, a new member of the monosaccharide transporter-like superfamily, mediates H+-Symport of numerous substrates, including myo-inositol, glycerol, and ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Geiger, Dietmar; Stadler, Ruth; Klebl, Franz; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Lemoine, Rémi; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Six genes of the Arabidopsis thaliana monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) superfamily share significant homology with polyol transporter genes previously identified in plants translocating polyols (mannitol or sorbitol) in their phloem (celery [Apium graveolens], common plantain [Plantago major], or sour cherry [Prunus cerasus]). The physiological role and the functional properties of this group of proteins were unclear in Arabidopsis, which translocates sucrose and small amounts of raffinose rather than polyols. Here, we describe POLYOL TRANSPORTER5 (AtPLT5), the first member of this subgroup of Arabidopsis MST-like transporters. Transient expression of an AtPLT5-green fluorescent protein fusion in plant cells and functional analyses of the AtPLT5 protein in yeast and Xenopus oocytes demonstrate that AtPLT5 is located in the plasma membrane and characterize this protein as a broad-spectrum H+-symporter for linear polyols, such as sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, or glycerol. Unexpectedly, however, AtPLT5 catalyzes also the transport of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol and of different hexoses and pentoses, including ribose, a sugar that is not transported by any of the previously characterized plant sugar transporters. RT-PCR analyses and AtPLT5 promoter-reporter gene plants revealed that AtPLT5 is most strongly expressed in Arabidopsis roots, but also in the vascular tissue of leaves and in specific floral organs. The potential physiological role of AtPLT5 is discussed. PMID:15598803

  9. An in vitro and in silico study on the flavonoid-mediated modulation of the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Freidig, A.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Groten, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated th

  10. An in vitro and in silico study on the flavonoid mediated modulation of the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Freidig, A.P.; Sandt, van de J.J.M.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Groten, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated th

  11. Long-distance root-to-shoot transport of phytochelatins and cadmium in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ji-Ming; Lee, David A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2003-08-19

    Phytochelatin synthases (PCS) mediate cellular heavy-metal resistance in plants, fungi, and worms. However, phytochelatins (PCs) are generally considered to function as intracellular heavy-metal detoxification mechanisms, and whether long-distance transport of PCs occurs during heavy-metal detoxification remains unknown. Here, wheat TaPCS1 cDNA expression was either targeted to Arabidopsis roots with the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter (Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3) or ectopically expressed with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S::TaPCS1/cad1-3) in the PC-deficient mutant cad1-3. Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3 and 35S::TaPCS1/cad1-3 complemented the cadmium, mercury, and arsenic sensitivities of the cad1-3 mutant. Northern blot, RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses showed Adh promoter-driven TaPCS1 expression only in roots and thus demonstrated lack of long-distance TaPCS1 mRNA and protein transport in plants. Fluorescence HPLC analyses showed that under Cd2+ stress, no PCs were detectable in cad1-3. However, in Adh::TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants, PCs were detected in roots and in rosette leaves and stems. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses showed that either root-specific or ectopic expression of TaPCS1 significantly enhanced long-distance Cd2+ transport into stems and rosette leaves. Unexpectedly, transgenic expression of TaPCS1 reduced Cd2+ accumulation in roots compared with cad1-3. The reduced Cd2+ accumulation in roots and enhanced root-to-shoot Cd2+ transport in transgenic plants were abrogated by l-buthionine sulfoximine. The presented findings show that (i) transgenic expression of TaPCS1 suppresses the heavy-metal sensitivity of cad1-3, (ii) PCs can be transported from roots to shoots, and (iii) transgenic expression of the TaPCS1 gene increases long-distance root-to-shoot Cd2+ transport and reduces Cd2+ accumulation in roots.

  12. Arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis is mediated by two ABCC-type phytochelatin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Park, Jiyoung; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Suter-Grotemeyer, Marianne; Shim, Donghwan; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Geisler, Markus; Weder, Barbara; Rea, Philip A; Rentsch, Doris; Schroeder, Julian I; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metalloid causing serious health problems. In Southeast Asia, aquifers providing drinking and agricultural water for tens of millions of people are contaminated with arsenic. To reduce nutritional arsenic intake through the consumption of contaminated plants, identification of the mechanisms for arsenic accumulation and detoxification in plants is a prerequisite. Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that chelate heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic, thereby functioning as the first step in their detoxification. Plant vacuoles act as final detoxification stores for heavy metals and arsenic. The essential PC-metal(loid) transporters that sequester toxic metal(loid)s in plant vacuoles have long been sought but remain unidentified in plants. Here we show that in the absence of two ABCC-type transporters, AtABCC1 and AtABCC2, Arabidopsis thaliana is extremely sensitive to arsenic and arsenic-based herbicides. Heterologous expression of these ABCC transporters in phytochelatin-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhanced arsenic tolerance and accumulation. Furthermore, membrane vesicles isolated from these yeasts exhibited a pronounced arsenite [As(III)]-PC(2) transport activity. Vacuoles isolated from atabcc1 atabcc2 double knockout plants exhibited a very low residual As(III)-PC(2) transport activity, and interestingly, less PC was produced in mutant plants when exposed to arsenic. Overexpression of AtPCS1 and AtABCC1 resulted in plants exhibiting increased arsenic tolerance. Our findings demonstrate that AtABCC1 and AtABCC2 are the long-sought and major vacuolar PC transporters. Modulation of vacuolar PC transporters in other plants may allow engineering of plants suited either for phytoremediation or reduced accumulation of arsenic in edible organs.

  13. Brassinosteroids stimulate plant tropisms through modulation of polar auxin transport in Brassica and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2005-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant growth regulators in multiple developmental processes. Previous studies have indicated that BR treatment enhanced auxin-related responses, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using (14)C-labeled indole-3-acetic acid and Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring an auxin-responsive reporter construct, we show that the BR brassinolide (BL) stimulates polar auxin transport capacities and modifies the distribution of endogenous auxin. In plants treated with BL or defective in BR biosynthesis or signaling, the transcription of PIN genes, which facilitate functional auxin transport in plants, was differentially regulated. In addition, BL enhanced plant tropistic responses by promoting the accumulation of the PIN2 protein from the root tip to the elongation zone and stimulating the expression and dispersed localization of ROP2 during tropistic responses. Constitutive overexpression of ROP2 results in enhanced polar accumulation of PIN2 protein in the root elongation region and increased gravitropism, which is significantly affected by latrunculin B, an inhibitor of F-actin assembly. The ROP2 dominant negative mutants (35S-ROP2-DA/DN) show delayed tropistic responses, and this delay cannot be reversed by BL addition, strongly supporting the idea that ROP2 modulates the functional localization of PIN2 through regulation of the assembly/reassembly of F-actins, thereby mediating the BR effects on polar auxin transport and tropistic responses.

  14. Getting the most sulfate from soil: Regulation of sulfate uptake transporters in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouached, Hatem; Secco, David; Arpat, A Bulak

    2009-06-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Plants require large amounts of sulfate for growth and development, and this serves as a major entry point of sulfate into the food web. Plants acquire S in its ionic form from the soil; they have evolved tightly controlled mechanisms for the regulation of sulfate uptake in response to its external and internal availability. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the first key step in sulfate uptake is presumed to be carried out exclusively by only two high-affinity sulfate transporters: SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2. A better understanding of the mode of regulation for these two transporters is crucial because they constitute the first determinative step in balancing sulfate in respect to its supply and demand. Here, we review the recent progress achieved in our comprehension of (i) mechanisms that regulate these two high-affinity sulfate transporters at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and (ii) their structure-function relationship. Such progress is important to enable biotechnological and agronomic strategies aimed at enhancing sulfate uptake and improving crop yield in S-deficient soils. PMID:19375816

  15. The Vacuolar Manganese Transporter MTP8 Determines Tolerance to Iron Deficiency-Induced Chlorosis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Seckin; Meier, Bastian; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Peiter, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder on calcareous soils. To identify genes involved in the Fe deficiency response, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion lines were screened on a high-pH medium with low Fe availability. This approach identified METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN8 (MTP8), a member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator family, as a critical determinant for the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, also on soil substrate. Subcellular localization to the tonoplast, complementation of a manganese (Mn)-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, and Mn sensitivity of mtp8 knockout mutants characterized the protein as a vacuolar Mn transporter suitable to prevent plant cells from Mn toxicity. MTP8 expression was strongly induced on low-Fe as well as high-Mn medium, which were both strictly dependent on the transcription factor FIT, indicating that high-Mn stress induces Fe deficiency. mtp8 mutants were only hypersensitive to Fe deficiency when Mn was present in the medium, which further suggested an Mn-specific role of MTP8 during Fe limitation. Under those conditions, mtp8 mutants not only translocated more Mn to the shoot than did wild-type plants but suffered in particular from critically low Fe concentrations and, hence, Fe chlorosis, although the transcriptional Fe deficiency response was up-regulated more strongly in mtp8. The diminished uptake of Fe from Mn-containing low-Fe medium by mtp8 mutants was caused by an impaired ability to boost the ferric chelate reductase activity, which is an essential process in Fe acquisition. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the long-known interference of Mn in Fe nutrition and define the molecular processes by which plants alleviate this antagonism. PMID:26668333

  16. Potassium Transporter KUP7 Is Involved in K(+) Acquisition and Translocation in Arabidopsis Root under K(+)-Limited Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Wu, Wei; Wu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Potassium (K(+)) is one of the essential macronutrients for plant growth and development. K(+) uptake from environment and K(+) translocation in plants are conducted by K(+) channels and transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that KT/HAK/KUP transporter KUP7 plays crucial roles in K(+) uptake and translocation in Arabidopsis root. The kup7 mutant exhibited a sensitive phenotype on low-K(+) medium, whose leaves showed chlorosis symptoms compared with wild-type plants. Loss of function of KUP7 led to a reduction of K(+) uptake rate and K(+) content in xylem sap under K(+)-deficient conditions. Thus, the K(+) content in kup7 shoot was significantly reduced under low-K(+) conditions. Localization analysis revealed that KUP7 was predominantly targeted to the plasma membrane. The complementation assay in yeast suggested that KUP7 could mediate K(+) transport. In addition, phosphorylation on S80, S719, and S721 was important for KUP7 activity. KUP7 was ubiquitously expressed in many organs/tissues, and showed a higher expression level in Arabidopsis root. Together, our data demonstrated that KUP7 is crucial for K(+) uptake in Arabidopsis root and might be also involved in K(+) transport into xylem sap, affecting K(+) translocation from root toward shoot, especially under K(+)-limited conditions. PMID:26851373

  17. Overexpression of OsWRKY72 gene interferes in the abscisic acid signal and auxin transport pathway of Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Song Yu; Chen Ligang; Zhang Liping; Yu Diqiu

    2010-09-01

    Through activating specific transcriptional programmes, plants can launch resistance mechanisms to stressful environments and acquire a new equilibrium between development and defence. To screen the rice WRKY transcription factor which functions in abiotic stress tolerance and modulates the abscisic acid (ABA) response, we generated a whole array of 35S-OsWRKY transgenic Arabidopsis. In this study, we report that 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis, whose seed germination was retarded under normal conditions, emerged more sensitive to mannitol, NaCl, ABA stresses and sugar starvation than vector plants. Meanwhile, 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed early flowering, reduced apical dominance, lost high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation response, and enhanced gravitropism response, which were similar to the auxin-related gene mutants aux1, axr1 and bud1. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression patterns of three auxin-related genes AUX1, AXR1 and BUD1 were significantly altered in rosette leaves and inflorescences of 35S-OsWRKY72 plants compared with control Arabidopsis, and two ABA-related genes ABA2 and ABI4 were induced in 35S-OsWRKY72 seedlings. In addition, northern blot analysis indicated that, in rice, OsWRKY72 was inducible by polyethylene glycol (PEG), NaCl, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), ABA and 42°C, similar to its orthologue AtWRKY75 in Arabidopsis, implying that these two WRKY genes might be required for multiple physiological processes in their plants. Together, these results suggest that OsWRKY72 interferes in the signal cross-talk between the ABA signal and auxin transport pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  18. Structure-Function Relationship of a Plant NCS1 Member – Homology Modeling and Mutagenesis Identified Residues Critical for Substrate Specificity of PLUTO, a Nucleobase Transporter from Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Witz; Pankaj Panwar; Markus Schober; Johannes Deppe; Farhan Ahmad Pasha; Joanne Lemieux, M; Torsten Möhlmann

    2014-01-01

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecula...

  19. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  20. PIN6 auxin transporter at endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane mediates auxin homeostasis and organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sibu; Skůpa, Petr; Viaene, Tom; Zwiewka, Marta; Tejos, Ricardo; Klíma, Petr; Čarná, Mária; Rolčík, Jakub; De Rycke, Riet; Moreno, Ignacio; Dobrev, Petre I; Orellana, Ariel; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, Jiří

    2016-07-01

    Plant development mediated by the phytohormone auxin depends on tightly controlled cellular auxin levels at its target tissue that are largely established by intercellular and intracellular auxin transport mediated by PIN auxin transporters. Among the eight members of the Arabidopsis PIN family, PIN6 is the least characterized candidate. In this study we generated functional, fluorescent protein-tagged PIN6 proteins and performed comprehensive analysis of their subcellular localization and also performed a detailed functional characterization of PIN6 and its developmental roles. The localization study of PIN6 revealed a dual localization at the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transport and metabolic profiling assays in cultured cells and Arabidopsis strongly suggest that PIN6 mediates both auxin transport across the PM and intracellular auxin homeostasis, including the regulation of free auxin and auxin conjugates levels. As evidenced by the loss- and gain-of-function analysis, the complex function of PIN6 in auxin transport and homeostasis is required for auxin distribution during lateral and adventitious root organogenesis and for progression of these developmental processes. These results illustrate a unique position of PIN6 within the family of PIN auxin transporters and further add complexity to the developmentally crucial process of auxin transport. PMID:27240710

  1. Mutations in the Arabidopsis Peroxisomal ABC Transporter COMATOSE Allow Differentiation between Multiple Functions In Planta: Insights from an Allelic Series

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Daniela; Schmuths, Heike; Lousa, Carine De Marcos; Baldwin, Jocelyn M.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Baker, Alison; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    COMATOSE (CTS), the Arabidopsis homologue of human Adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), is required for import of substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation. A new allelic series and a homology model based on the bacterial ABC transporter, Sav1866, provide novel insights into structure-function relations of ABC subfamily D proteins. In contrast to ALDP, where the majority of mutations result in protein absence from the peroxisomal membrane, all CTS mutants produced stable protein. Mutation of con...

  2. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2015-12-11

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  3. Regulation of auxin transport during gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, A.; Brady, S.; Kirpalani, N.; Buer, C.; Muday, G.

    Plants respond to changes in the gravity vector by differential growth across the gravity-stimulated organ. The plant hormone auxin, which is normally basipetally transported, changes in direction and auxin redistribution has been suggested to drive this differential growth or gravitropism. The mechanisms by which auxin transport directionality changes in response to a change in gravity vector are largely unknown. Using the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, we have been exploring several regulatory mechanisms that may control auxin transport. Mutations that alter protein phosphorylation suggest that auxin transport in arabidopsis roots may be controlled via phosphorylation and this signal may facilitate gravitropic bending. The protein kinase mutant pinoid (pid9) has reduced auxin transport; whereas the protein phosphatase mutant, rcn1, has elevated transport, suggesting reciprocal regulation of auxin transport by reversible protein phosphorylation. In both of these mutants, the auxin transport defects are accompanied by gravitropic defects, linking phosphorylation signaling to gravity-induced changes in auxin transport. Additionally, auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by changes in an endogenous auxin efflux inhibitor. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol, have been implicated in regulation of auxin transport in vivo and in vitro. Mutants that make no flavonoids have reduced root gravitropic bending. Furthermore, changes in auxin-induced gene expression and flavonoid accumulation patterns have been observed during gravity stimulation. Current studies are examining whether there are spatial and temporal changes in flavonoid accumulation that precede gravitropic bending and whether the absence of these changes are the cause of the altered gravity response in plants with mutations that block flavonoid synthesis. These results support the idea that auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by several mechanisms including

  4. Modelling the dynamics of polar auxin transport in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Kees J M; Hille, Sander C; Libbenga, Kees R; Peletier, Lambertus A; van Spronsen, Paulina C; van Duijn, Bert; Offringa, Remko

    2016-02-01

    The polar transport of the plant hormone auxin has been the subject of many studies, several involving mathematical modelling. Unfortunately, most of these models have not been experimentally verified. Here we present experimental measurements of long-distance polar auxin transport (PAT) in segments of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana together with a descriptive mathematical model that was developed from these data. It is based on a general advection-diffusion equation for auxin density, as suggested by the chemiosmotic theory, but is extended to incorporate both immobilization of auxin and exchange with the surrounding tissue of cells involved in PAT, in order to account for crucial observations. We found that development of the present model assisted effectively in the analysis of experimental observations. As an example, we discuss the analysis of a quadruple mutant for all four AUX1/LAX1-LAX3 influx carriers genes. We found a drastic change in the parameters governing the exchange of PAT channels with the surrounding tissue, whereas the velocity was still of the order of magnitude of the wild type. In addition, the steady-state flux of auxin through the PAT system of the mutant did not exhibit a saturable component, as we found for the wild type, suggesting that the import carriers are responsible for the saturable component in the wild type. In the accompanying Supplementary data available at JXB online, we describe in more detail the data-driven development of the model, review and derive predictions from a mathematical model of the chemiosmotic theory, and explore relationships between parameters in our model and processes and parameters at the cellular level. PMID:26531101

  5. ESKIMO1 disruption in Arabidopsis alters vascular tissue and impairs water transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Lefebvre

    Full Text Available Water economy in agricultural practices is an issue that is being addressed through studies aimed at understanding both plant water-use efficiency (WUE, i.e. biomass produced per water consumed, and responses to water shortage. In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the ESKIMO1 (ESK1 gene has been described as involved in freezing, cold and salt tolerance as well as in water economy: esk1 mutants have very low evapo-transpiration rates and high water-use efficiency. In order to establish ESK1 function, detailed characterization of esk1 mutants has been carried out. The stress hormone ABA (abscisic acid was present at high levels in esk1 compared to wild type, nevertheless, the weak water loss of esk1 was independent of stomata closure through ABA biosynthesis, as combining mutant in this pathway with esk1 led to additive phenotypes. Measurement of root hydraulic conductivity suggests that the esk1 vegetative apparatus suffers water deficit due to a defect in water transport. ESK1 promoter-driven reporter gene expression was observed in xylem and fibers, the vascular tissue responsible for the transport of water and mineral nutrients from the soil to the shoots, via the roots. Moreover, in cross sections of hypocotyls, roots and stems, esk1 xylem vessels were collapsed. Finally, using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, severe chemical modifications of xylem cell wall composition were highlighted in the esk1 mutants. Taken together our findings show that ESK1 is necessary for the production of functional xylem vessels, through its implication in the laying down of secondary cell wall components.

  6. A subgroup of MATE transporter genes regulates hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Liang, Shuang; Ge, Qing; Li, Yuanfeng; Shao, Jingxia; Qi, Yafei; An, Lijun; Yu, Fei

    2015-10-01

    The growth of higher plants is under complex regulation to ensure the elaboration of developmental programmes under a changing environment. To dissect these regulatory circuits, we carried out genetic screens for Arabidopsis abnormal shoot (abs) mutants with altered shoot development. Here, we report the isolation of two dominant mutants, abs3-1D and abs4-1D, through activation tagging. Both mutants showed a 'bushy' loss of apical dominance phenotype. ABS3 and ABS4 code for two closely related putative Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) family of efflux transporters, respectively. ABS3 and ABS4, as well as two related MATE genes, ABS3-Like1 (ABS3L1) and ABS3L2, showed diverse tissue expression profiles but their gene products all localized to the late endosome/prevacuole (LE/PVC) compartment. The over-expression of these four genes individually led to the inhibition of hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. On the other hand, the quadruple knockout mutant (mateq) showed the opposite phenotype of an enhanced hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. Hypocotyl cell elongation and de-etiolation processes in the dark were also affected by the mutations of these genes. Exogenously applied sucrose attenuated the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation caused by abs3-1D and abs4-1D in the dark, and enhanced the hypocotyl elongation of mateq under prolonged dark treatment. We determined that ABS3 genetically interacts with the photoreceptor gene PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB). Our results demonstrate that ABS3 and related MATE family transporters are potential negative regulators of hypocotyl cell elongation and support a functional link between the endomembrane system, particularly the LE/PVC, and the regulation of plant cell elongation. PMID:26160579

  7. Modelling the dynamics of polar auxin transport in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Kees J.M.; Hille, Sander C.; Libbenga, Kees R.; Peletier, Lambertus A.; van Spronsen, Paulina C.; van Duijn, Bert; Offringa, Remko

    2016-01-01

    The polar transport of the plant hormone auxin has been the subject of many studies, several involving mathematical modelling. Unfortunately, most of these models have not been experimentally verified. Here we present experimental measurements of long-distance polar auxin transport (PAT) in segments of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana together with a descriptive mathematical model that was developed from these data. It is based on a general advection–diffusion equation for auxin density, as suggested by the chemiosmotic theory, but is extended to incorporate both immobilization of auxin and exchange with the surrounding tissue of cells involved in PAT, in order to account for crucial observations. We found that development of the present model assisted effectively in the analysis of experimental observations. As an example, we discuss the analysis of a quadruple mutant for all four AUX1/LAX1–LAX3 influx carriers genes. We found a drastic change in the parameters governing the exchange of PAT channels with the surrounding tissue, whereas the velocity was still of the order of magnitude of the wild type. In addition, the steady-state flux of auxin through the PAT system of the mutant did not exhibit a saturable component, as we found for the wild type, suggesting that the import carriers are responsible for the saturable component in the wild type. In the accompanying Supplementary data available at JXB online, we describe in more detail the data-driven development of the model, review and derive predictions from a mathematical model of the chemiosmotic theory, and explore relationships between parameters in our model and processes and parameters at the cellular level. PMID:26531101

  8. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting, E-mail: qixiaoting@cnu.edu.cn

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  9. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd2+ uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance

  10. Mutations in exocyst complex subunit SEC6 gene impaired polar auxin transport and PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis primary root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoyun; Feng, Yihong; Liu, Yulong; Bao, Yiqun

    2016-09-01

    Polar auxin transport, which is critical for land plant pattern formation and directional growth, is largely depended on asymmetric distribution of PIN proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). Endocytosis and recycling processes play important roles in regulating PIN protein distribution and abundance at the PM. Two subunits (SEC8, EXO70A1) of exocyst, an octameric vesicle-tethering complex, have been reported to be involved in PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis. However, the function of exocyst complex in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport remains incompletely understood. In this study, we utilized two SEC6 down-regulation mutants (PRsec6-1 and PRsec6-2) to investigate the role of exocyst subunit SEC6 in the primary root development, polar auxin transport and PIN proteins recycling. We found that in PRsec6 mutants: 1. Primary root growth was retarded, and lateral root initiation were compromised. 2. Primary roots were sensitive to exogenous auxin 1-napthalene acetic acid (NAA) but not 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2.4-D). 3. Recycling of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins from the Brefeldin A (BFA) compartment to the PM was delayed. 4. Vesicles accumulated in the primary root tip cells, especially accumulated in the cytosol closed to the PM. These results further demonstrated that the exocyst complex plays an important role in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis primary root.

  11. Mutations in exocyst complex subunit SEC6 gene impaired polar auxin transport and PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis primary root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoyun; Feng, Yihong; Liu, Yulong; Bao, Yiqun

    2016-09-01

    Polar auxin transport, which is critical for land plant pattern formation and directional growth, is largely depended on asymmetric distribution of PIN proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). Endocytosis and recycling processes play important roles in regulating PIN protein distribution and abundance at the PM. Two subunits (SEC8, EXO70A1) of exocyst, an octameric vesicle-tethering complex, have been reported to be involved in PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis. However, the function of exocyst complex in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport remains incompletely understood. In this study, we utilized two SEC6 down-regulation mutants (PRsec6-1 and PRsec6-2) to investigate the role of exocyst subunit SEC6 in the primary root development, polar auxin transport and PIN proteins recycling. We found that in PRsec6 mutants: 1. Primary root growth was retarded, and lateral root initiation were compromised. 2. Primary roots were sensitive to exogenous auxin 1-napthalene acetic acid (NAA) but not 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2.4-D). 3. Recycling of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins from the Brefeldin A (BFA) compartment to the PM was delayed. 4. Vesicles accumulated in the primary root tip cells, especially accumulated in the cytosol closed to the PM. These results further demonstrated that the exocyst complex plays an important role in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis primary root. PMID:27457987

  12. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  13. Expression of the Znt1 zinc transporter from the metal hyperaccumulator noccaea caerulescens confers enhanced zinc and cadmium tolerance and accumulation to arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ya Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, S.; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis.

  14. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  15. Large-Scale Public Transcriptomic Data Mining Reveals a Tight Connection between the Transport of Nitrogen and Other Transport Processes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Karve, Abhijit A; Maslov, Sergei; Babst, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Movement of nitrogen to the plant tissues where it is needed for growth is an important contribution to nitrogen use efficiency. However, we have very limited knowledge about the mechanisms of nitrogen transport. Loading of nitrogen into the xylem and/or phloem by transporter proteins is likely important, but there are several families of genes that encode transporters of nitrogenous molecules (collectively referred to as N transporters here), each comprised of many gene members. In this study, we leveraged publicly available microarray data of Arabidopsis to investigate the gene networks of N transporters to elucidate their possible biological roles. First, we showed that tissue-specificity of nitrogen (N) transporters was well reflected among the public microarray data. Then, we built coexpression networks of N transporters, which showed relationships between N transporters and particular aspects of plant metabolism, such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, genes associated with several biological pathways were found to be tightly coexpressed with N transporters in different tissues. Our coexpression networks provide information at the systems-level that will serve as a resource for future investigation of nitrogen transport systems in plants, including candidate gene clusters that may work together in related biological roles. PMID:27563305

  16. Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Christina; Schroll, Bettina; Zeisler, Viktoria; Waßmann, Friedrich; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Using (14)C-labeled epoxiconazole as a tracer, cuticular permeability of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was quantitatively measured in order to compare different wax and cutin mutants (wax2, cut1, cer5, att1, bdg, shn3 and shn1) to the corresponding wild types (Col-0 and Ws). Mutants were characterized by decreases or increases in wax and/or cutin amounts. Permeances [ms(-1)] of Arabidopsis cuticles either increased in the mutants compared to wild type or were not affected. Thus, genetic changes in wax and cutin biosynthesis in some of the investigated Arabidopsis mutants obviously impaired the coordinated cutin and wax deposition at the outer leaf epidermal cell wall. As a consequence, barrier properties of cuticles were significantly decreased. However, increasing cutin and wax amounts by genetic modifications, did not automatically lead to improved cuticular barrier properties. As an alternative approach to the radioactive transport assay, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored after foliar application of metribuzine, an herbicide inhibiting electron transport in chloroplasts. Since both, half-times of photosynthesis inhibition as well as times of complete inhibition, in fact correlated with (14)C-epoxiconazole permeances, different rates of decline of photosynthetic yield between mutants and wild type must be a function of foliar uptake of the herbicide across the cuticle. Thus, monitoring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, instead of conducting radioactive transport assays, represents an easy-to-handle and fast alternative evaluating cuticular barrier properties of different genotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  17. Specific and efficient targeting of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu eUehara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Installation of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the inner envelope membrane (IEM of chloroplasts in C3 plants has been thought to improve photosynthetic performance. However, the method to deliver cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM remains to be established. In this study, we provide evidence that the cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters, BicA and SbtA, can be specifically installed into the chloroplast IEM using the chloroplast IEM targeting signal in conjunction with the transit peptide. We fused the transit peptide and the mature portion of Cor413im1, whose targeting mechanism to the IEM has been characterized in detail, to either BicA or SbtA isolated from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Among the seven chimeric constructs tested, we confirmed that four chimeric bicarbonate transporters, designated as BicAI, BicAII, SbtAII, and SbtAIII, were expressed in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, these chimeric transporters were specifically targeted to the chloroplast IEM. They were also resistant to alkaline extraction but can be solubilized by Triton X-100, indicating that they are integral membrane proteins in the chloroplast IEM. One of the transporters, BicA, could reside in the chloroplast IEM even after removal of the IEM targeting signal. Taken together, our results indicate that the addition of IEM targeting signal, as well as the transit peptide, to bicarbonate transporters allows us to efficiently target nuclear-encoded chimeric bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM.

  18. Separating the roles of acropetal and basipetal auxin transport on gravitropism with mutations in two Arabidopsis multidrug resistance-like ABC transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel R; Miller, Nathan D; Splitt, Bessie L; Wu, Guosheng; Spalding, Edgar P

    2007-06-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter genes linked to auxin transport by various previous results were studied in a reverse-genetic fashion. Mutations in Multidrug Resistance-Like1 (MDR1) reduced acropetal auxin transport in roots by 80% without affecting basipetal transport. Conversely, mutations in MDR4 blocked 50% of basipetal transport without affecting acropetal transport. Developmental and auxin distribution phenotypes associated with these altered auxin flows were studied with a high-resolution morphometric system and confocal microscopy, respectively. Vertically grown mdr1 roots produced positive and negative curvatures threefold greater than the wild type, possibly due to abnormal auxin distribution observed in the elongation zone. However, upon 90 degrees reorientation, mdr1 gravitropism was inseparable from the wild type. Thus, acropetal auxin transport maintains straight growth but contributes surprisingly little to gravitropism. Conversely, vertically maintained mdr4 roots grew as straight as the wild type, but their gravitropism was enhanced. Upon reorientation, curvature in this mutant developed faster, was distributed more basally, and produced a greater total angle than the wild type. An amplified auxin asymmetry may explain the mdr4 hypertropism. Double mutant analysis indicated that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. The hypothesis that flavanols regulate MDR-dependent auxin transport was supported by the epistatic relationship of mdr4 to the tt4 phenylpropanoid pathway mutation.

  19. Comprehensive profiling and natural variation of flavonoids in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuekui Dong; Wei Chen; Wensheng Wang; Hongyan Zhang; Xianqing Liu; Jie Luo

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids constitute a major group of plant phenolic compounds. While extensively studied in Arabidopsis, profiling and natural y occurring variation of these compounds in rice (Oryza sativa), the monocot model plant, are less reported. Using a col ection of rice germplasm, comprehensive profiling and natural variation of flavonoids were presented in this report. Application of a widely targeted metabolomics method facilitat-ed the simultaneous identification and quantification of more than 90 flavonoids using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Comparing flavonoid contents in various tissues during different developmental stages revealed tissue-specific accumulation of most flavonoids. Further investi-gation indicated that flavone mono-C-glycosides, malonylated flavonoid O-hexosides, and some flavonoid O-glycosides accu-mulated at significantly higher levels in indica than in japonica, while the opposite was observed for aromatic acylated flavone C-hexosyl-O-hexosides. In contrast to the highly differential accumulation between the two subspecies, relatively smal variations within subspecies were detected for most flavonoids. Besides, an association analysis between flavonoid accumulation and its biosynthetic gene sequence polymorphisms disclosed that natural variation of flavonoids was probably caused by sequence polymorphisms in the coding region of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Our work paves the way for future dissection of biosynthesis and regulation of flavonoid pathway in rice.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTERS 1 and 2: fructose and xylitol/H+ symporters in pollen and young xylem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Volke, Melanie; Konrad, Kai R.; Wippel, Kathrin; Hoth, Stefan; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains six genes, AtPMT1 to AtPMT6 (Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER 1–6), which form a distinct subfamily within the large family of more than 50 monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) genes. So far, only AtPMT5 [formerly named AtPLT5 (At3g18830)] has been characterized and was shown to be a plasma membrane-localized H+-symporter with broad substrate specificity. The characterization of AtPMT1 (At2g16120) and AtPMT2 (At2g16130), ...

  1. The ABCG transporter PEC1/ABCG32 is required for the formation of the developing leaf cuticle in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Guillaume; Garroum, Imène; Mazurek, Sylwester; Daraspe, Jean; Mucciolo, Antonio; Sankar, Martial; Humbel, Bruno M; Nawrath, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The cuticle is an essential diffusion barrier on aerial surfaces of land plants whose structural component is the polyester cutin. The PERMEABLE CUTICLE1/ABCG32 (PEC1) transporter is involved in plant cuticle formation in Arabidopsis. The gpat6 pec1 and gpat4 gapt8 pec1 double and triple mutants are characterized. Their PEC1-specific contributions to aliphatic cutin composition and cuticle formation during plant development are revealed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The composition of cutin changes during rosette leaf expansion in Arabidopsis. C16:0 monomers are in higher abundance in expanding than in fully expanded leaves. The atypical cutin monomer C18:2 dicarboxylic acid is more prominent in fully expanded leaves. Findings point to differences in the regulation of several pathways of cutin precursor synthesis. PEC1 plays an essential role during expansion of the rosette leaf cuticle. The reduction of C16 monomers in the pec1 mutant during leaf expansion is unlikely to cause permeability of the leaf cuticle because the gpat6 mutant with even fewer C16:0 monomers forms a functional rosette leaf cuticle at all stages of development. PEC1/ABCG32 transport activity affects cutin composition and cuticle structure in a specific and non-redundant fashion.

  2. AtHKT1;1 mediates nernstian sodium channel transport properties in Arabidopsis root stelar cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Xue

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis AtHKT1;1 protein was identified as a sodium (Na⁺ transporter by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, direct comparative in vivo electrophysiological analyses of a plant HKT transporter in wild-type and hkt loss-of-function mutants has not yet been reported and it has been recently argued that heterologous expression systems may alter properties of plant transporters, including HKT transporters. In this report, we analyze several key functions of AtHKT1;1-mediated ion currents in their native root stelar cells, including Na⁺ and K⁺ conductances, AtHKT1;1-mediated outward currents, and shifts in reversal potentials in the presence of defined intracellular and extracellular salt concentrations. Enhancer trap Arabidopsis plants with GFP-labeled root stelar cells were used to investigate AtHKT1;1-dependent ion transport properties using patch clamp electrophysiology in wild-type and athkt1;1 mutant plants. AtHKT1;1-dependent currents were carried by sodium ions and these currents were not observed in athkt1;1 mutant stelar cells. However, K⁺ currents in wild-type and athkt1;1 root stelar cell protoplasts were indistinguishable correlating with the Na⁺ over K⁺ selectivity of AtHKT1;1-mediated transport. Moreover, AtHKT1;1-mediated currents did not show a strong voltage dependence in vivo. Unexpectedly, removal of extracellular Na⁺ caused a reduction in AtHKT1;1-mediated outward currents in Columbia root stelar cells and Xenopus oocytes, indicating a role for external Na⁺ in regulation of AtHKT1;1 activity. Shifting the NaCl gradient in root stelar cells showed a Nernstian shift in the reversal potential providing biophysical evidence for the model that AtHKT1;1 mediates passive Na⁺ channel transport properties.

  3. Studies on the role of heavy-metal transporting P-type ATPase family genes on zinc (Zn) transport and accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagavathiannan, M.V. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Plant Science; Broadley, M.R.; Donnelly, S.J.; Smith, R.J.; Mills, V. [Nottingham Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom). School of Biosciences, Plant Sciences Division

    2006-07-01

    Although zinc (Zn) is an essential plant mineral nutrient for normal crop growth, excess amounts can cause environmental contamination problems. Higher amounts of Zn are added into soils every year through effluents from tanning industries and other sources such as sewage treatment plants, metal inputs from rivers and the atmosphere. Studies have shown that specific metal tolerances exist at the cellular level in plants, indicating that specific adaptations to metal ions occur in cells as well as in the whole plant. This paper described the mechanisms that plants develop in order to tolerate heavy metals and showed that transporter genes play a key role in uptake and sequestration of heavy metals in plant systems. Since metal ion transporting genes are also involved in transport and homeostasis of heavy metals in plants, this study examined the role of the metal ion transporting gene family members in Zn transport and tolerance in plant systems. Among the metal ion transporting gene families, P-type ATPase gene family members are considered to be efficient in metal transport in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They form a diverse superfamily of transporters which carry a range of essential and potentially toxic metals across cellular membranes. Genetic-screening experiments were performed in which 3 SALK lines with known disruption in the target gene were studied physiologically and at the molecular level to determine their role in heavy-metal transportation and accumulation. The study showed that one of the family lines may have altered Zn tolerance and uptake characteristics. Ongoing research continues to examine the characteristics of this line. 27 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  4. Uncovering Arabidopsis membrane protein interactome enriched in transporters using mating-based split ubiquitin assays and classification models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eChen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput data are a double-edged sword; for the benefit of large amount of data, there is an associated cost of noise. To increase reliability and scalability of high-throughput protein interaction data generation, we tested the efficacy of classification to enrich potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs. We applied this method to identify interactions among Arabidopsis membrane proteins enriched in transporters. We validated our method with multiple retests. Classification improved the quality of the ensuing interaction network and was effective in reducing the search space and increasing true positive rate. The final network of 541 interactions among 239 proteins (of which 179 are transporters is the first protein interaction network enriched in membrane transporters reported for any organism. This network has similar topological attributes to other published protein interaction networks. It also extends and fills gaps in currently available biological networks in plants and allows building a number of hypotheses about processes and mechanisms involving signal-transduction and transport systems.

  5. The Arabidopsis nitrate transporter AtNRT2.1 is targeted to the root plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Franck; Wirth, Judith; Dorbe, Marie-France; Lejay, Laurence; Krapp, Anne; Gojon, Alain; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2007-08-01

    Arabidopsis AtNRT2.1 protein is the best characterized high affinity nitrate transporter in higher plants. However, nothing is known about its sub-cellular localization. In this work, we used GFP imaging to follow the targeting of the AtNRT2.1 protein to the different cell membranes. A polyclonal antibody was also raised against a peptide derived from the AtNRT2.1 sequence. Comparison of wild type and mutant plant extracts showed that this antibody recognized specifically the AtNRT2.1 protein. Microsomal membranes were fractionated on sucrose gradients and immunological detections were performed on the different fractions. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the AtNRT2.1 protein is located in the plasma membrane of the root cells.

  6. Glucose-1-phosphate transport into protoplasts and chloroplasts from leaves of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettke, Joerg; Malinova, Irina; Albrecht, Tanja; Hejazi, Mahdi; Steup, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Almost all glucosyl transfer reactions rely on glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) that either immediately acts as glucosyl donor or as substrate for the synthesis of the more widely used Glc dinucleotides, ADPglucose or UDPglucose. In this communication, we have analyzed two Glc-1-P-related processes: the carbon flux from externally supplied Glc-1-P to starch by either mesophyll protoplasts or intact chloroplasts from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). When intact protoplasts or chloroplasts are incubated with [U-(14)C]Glc-1-P, starch is rapidly labeled. Incorporation into starch is unaffected by the addition of unlabeled Glc-6-P or Glc, indicating a selective flux from Glc-1-P to starch. However, illuminated protoplasts incorporate less (14)C into starch when unlabeled bicarbonate is supplied in addition to the (14)C-labeled Glc-1-P. Mesophyll protoplasts incubated with [U-(14)C]Glc-1-P incorporate (14)C into the plastidial pool of adenosine diphosphoglucose. Protoplasts prepared from leaves of mutants of Arabidopsis that lack either the plastidial phosphorylase or the phosphoglucomutase isozyme incorporate (14)C derived from external Glc-1-P into starch, but incorporation into starch is insignificant when protoplasts from a mutant possessing a highly reduced ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity are studied. Thus, the path of assimilatory starch biosynthesis initiated by extraplastidial Glc-1-P leads to the plastidial pool of adenosine diphosphoglucose, and at this intermediate it is fused with the Calvin cycle-driven route. Mutants lacking the plastidial phosphoglucomutase contain a small yet significant amount of transitory starch.

  7. Effects of flavonoid mixtures on the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers: an in vitro and a kinetic modeling approach to predict the combined effects on transporter inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Boersma, M.G.; Verhallen, D.A.M.; Groten, J.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes and kinetically models the effect of flavonoid mixtures on PhIP transport through Caco-2 monolayers. Previously it was shown that quercetin, luteolin, naringenin and myricetin increase the apical to basolateral PhIP transport in Caco-2 monolayers. In this study, apigenin was sho

  8. Arabidopsis SOI33/AtENT8 Gene Encodes a Putative Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter That Is Involved in Cytokinin Transport In Planta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqiang SUN; Naoya HIROSE; Xingchun WANG; Pei WEN; Li XUE; Hitoshi SAKAKIBARA; Jianru ZUO

    2005-01-01

    The plant phytohormone cytokinin plays an important role in many facets of plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation. Recent studies have shed significant light into the mechanisms of cytokinin metabolism and signaling. However, little is known about how the hormone is transported in planta, although it has been proposed that the hormone is presumably transported in nucleoside-conjugated forms. Here, we report the identification and characterization of cytokinin transport ers in Arabidopsis. We previously reported that a gain-of-function mutation in the PGA22/AtIPT8 gene caused overproduction of cytokinins in planta. In an effort to screen for suppressor of pga22/atipt8 (soi) mutants, we identified a mutant soi33-1. Molecular and genetic analyses indicated that SOI33 encodes a putative equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT), previously designated as AtENT8. Members of this small gene family are presumed to be involved in the transport of nucleosides in eukaryotic cells. Under conditions of nitrogen starvation, loss-of-function mutations in SOI33/AtENT8 or in a related gene AtENT3 cause a reduced sensitivity to the nucleoside-type cytokinins isopentenyladenine riboside (iPR) and trans zeatin riboside (tZR), but display a normal response to the free base-type cytokinins isopentenyladenine (iP) and trans-zeatin (tZ). Conversely, overexpression of SOI33/AtENT8 renders transgenic plants hyper sensitive to iPR but not to iP. An in planta measurement experiment indicated that uptake efficiency of 3H labeled iPR was reduced more than 40% in soi33 and atent3 mutants. However, a mutation inAtENT1 had no substantial effect on the cytokinin response and iPR uptake efficiency. Our results suggest that SOI33/ AtENT8 and AtENT3 are involved in the transport of nucleoside-type cytokinins in Arabidopsis.

  9. FLAVONOIDS OF SALVIA MICROSTEGIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN**, Z. SUKAL*, B. HALFON*

    2015-01-01

    Three flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-0-glucoside and chrysoeriol, havebeen isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia microstegia Boiss. et Bal.Key words: Salvia, flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol.

  10. Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporter SUT4 Interacts with Cytochrome b5-2 to Regulate Seed Germination in Response to Sucrose and Glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Ling-Li Li; Ren-Chun Fan; Chang-Cao Peng; Hai-Li Sun; Sai-Yong Zhu; Xiao-Fang Wang; Ling-Yun Zhang; Da-Peng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    It remains unknown whether a sucrose transporter mediates sugar signaling.Here,we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sucrose transporter SUT4 interacts with five members of the Arabidopsis cytochrome b5(Cyb5) family,and sucrose represses the interaction between SUT4 and a Cyb5 member Cyb5-2/A.We observed that downregulation of SUT4 and three cytochrome b5 members (Cyb5-2,Cyb5-4,and Cyb5-6) confers the sucrose-and glucoseinsensitive phenotypes in the sucrose/glucose-induced inhibition of seed germination.The sut4 cyb5-2 double mutant displays slightly stronger sucrose/glucose-insensitive phenotypes than either the sut4 or cyb5-2 single mutant.We showed that the SUT4/Cyb5-2-mediated signaling in the sucrose/glucose-induced inhibition of seed germination does not require ABA or the currently known ABI2/ABI4/ABI5-mediated signaling pathway(s).These data provide evidence that the sucrose transporter SUT4 interacts with Cyb5 to positively mediate sucrose and glucose signaling in the sucrose/glucose-induced inhibition of seed germination.

  11. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member - Homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Witz, Sandra

    2014-03-12

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members. 2014 Witz et al.

  12. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member--homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, Sandra; Panwar, Pankaj; Schober, Markus; Deppe, Johannes; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Lemieux, M Joanne; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members. PMID:24621654

  13. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member--homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Witz

    Full Text Available Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members.

  14. Transport of antimony salts by Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts over-expressing the human multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Landry; Picault, Nathalie; Cazalé, Anne-Claire; Beyly, Audrey; Lucas, Philippe; Jacquet, Hélène; Suso, Henri-Pierre; Vavasseur, Alain; Peltier, Gilles; Forestier, Cyrille

    2006-12-22

    ABC transporters from the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) subfamily are glutathione S-conjugate pumps exhibiting a broad substrate specificity illustrated by numerous xenobiotics, such as anticancer drugs, herbicides, pesticides and heavy metals. The engineering of MRP transporters into plants might be interesting either to reduce the quantity of xenobiotics taken up by the plant in the context of "safe-food" strategies or, conversely, in the development of phytoremediation strategies in which xenobiotics are sequestered in the vacuolar compartment. In this report, we obtained Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing human MRP1. In these plants, expression of MRP1 did not increase plant resistance to antimony salts (Sb(III)), a classical glutathione-conjugate substrate of MRP1. However, the transporter was fully translated in roots and shoots, and targeted to the plasma membrane. In order to investigate the functionality of MRP1 in Arabidopsis, mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) were isolated from transgenic plants and transport activities were measured by using calcein or Sb(III) as substrates. Expression of MRP1 at the plasma membrane was correlated with an increase in the MCPs resistance to Sb(III) and a limitation of the metalloid content in the protoplasts due to an improvement in Sb(III) efflux. Moreover, Sb(III) transport was sensitive to classical inhibitors of the human MRP1, such as MK571 or glibenclamide. These results demonstrate that a human ABC transporter can be functionally introduced in Arabidopsis, which might be useful, with the help of stronger promoters, to reduce the accumulation of xenobiotics in plants, such as heavy metals from multi-contaminated soils.

  15. A chimeric protein of aluminum-activated malate transporter generated from wheat and Arabidopsis shows enhanced response to trivalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Ryan, Peter R; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    TaALMT1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and AtALMT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encode aluminum (Al)-activated malate transporters, which confer acid-soil tolerance by releasing malate from roots. Chimeric proteins from TaALMT1 and AtALMT1 (Ta::At, At::Ta) were previously analyzed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Those studies showed that Al could activate malate efflux from the Ta::At chimera but not from At::Ta. Here, functions of TaALMT1, AtALMT1 and the chimeric protein Ta::At were compared in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. We focused on the sensitivity and specificity of their activation by trivalent cations. The activation of malate efflux by Al was at least two-fold greater in the chimera than the native proteins. All proteins were also activated by lanthanides (erbium, ytterbium, gadolinium, and lanthanum), but the chimera again released more malate than TaALMT1 or AtALMT1. In Xenopus oocytes, Al, ytterbium, and erbium activated inward currents from the native TaALMT1 and the chimeric protein, but gadolinium only activated currents from the chimera. Lanthanum inhibited currents from both proteins. These results demonstrated that function of the chimera protein was altered compared to the native proteins and was more responsive to a range of trivalent cations when expressed in plant cells. PMID:27039280

  16. Rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca2+ responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit sensory potentiation and involvement of plastidial KEA transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Aaron B; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Yang, Eric; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-08-30

    Plants experience hyperosmotic stress when faced with saline soils and possibly with drought stress, but it is currently unclear how plant roots perceive this stress in an environment of dynamic water availabilities. Hyperosmotic stress induces a rapid rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in plants, and this Ca(2+) response may reflect the activities of osmo-sensory components. Here, we find in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana that the rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca(2+) response exhibited enhanced response magnitudes after preexposure to an intermediate hyperosmotic stress. We term this phenomenon "osmo-sensory potentiation." The initial sensing and potentiation occurred in intact plants as well as in roots. Having established a quantitative understanding of wild-type responses, we investigated effects of pharmacological inhibitors and candidate channel/transporter mutants. Quintuple mechano-sensitive channels of small conductance-like (MSL) plasma membrane-targeted channel mutants as well as double mid1-complementing activity (MCA) channel mutants did not affect the response. Interestingly, however, double mutations in the plastid K(+) exchange antiporter (KEA) transporters kea1kea2 and a single mutation that does not visibly affect chloroplast structure, kea3, impaired the rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca(2+) responses. These mutations did not significantly affect sensory potentiation of the response. These findings suggest that plastids may play an important role in early steps mediating the response to hyperosmotic stimuli. Together, these findings demonstrate that the plant osmo-sensory components necessary to generate rapid osmotic-induced Ca(2+) responses remain responsive under varying osmolarities, endowing plants with the ability to perceive the dynamic intensities of water limitation imposed by osmotic stress. PMID:27528686

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTERS 1 and 2: fructose and xylitol/H+ symporters in pollen and young xylem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Konrad, Kai R.; Wippel, Kathrin; Hoth, Stefan; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains six genes, AtPMT1 to AtPMT6 (Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER 1–6), which form a distinct subfamily within the large family of more than 50 monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) genes. So far, only AtPMT5 [formerly named AtPLT5 (At3g18830)] has been characterized and was shown to be a plasma membrane-localized H+-symporter with broad substrate specificity. The characterization of AtPMT1 (At2g16120) and AtPMT2 (At2g16130), two other, almost identical, members of this transporter subfamily, are presented here. Expression of the AtPMT1 and AtPMT2 cDNAs in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that these proteins catalyse the energy-dependent, high-capacity transport of fructose and xylitol, and the transport of several other compounds with lower rates. Expression of their cRNAs in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that both proteins are voltage-dependent and catalyse the symport of their substrates with protons. Fusions of AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to Arabidopsis plasma membranes. Analyses of reporter genes performed with AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 promoter sequences showed expression in mature (AtPMT2) or germinating (AtPMT1) pollen grains, as well as in growing pollen tubes, hydathodes, and young xylem cells (both genes). The expression was confirmed with an anti-AtPMT1/AtPMT2 antiserum (αAtPMT1/2) raised against peptides conserved in AtPMT1 and AtPMT2. The physiological roles of the proteins are discussed and related to plant cell wall modifications. PMID:19969532

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTERS 1 and 2: fructose and xylitol/H+ symporters in pollen and young xylem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Volke, Melanie; Konrad, Kai R; Wippel, Kathrin; Hoth, Stefan; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains six genes, AtPMT1 to AtPMT6 (Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER 1-6), which form a distinct subfamily within the large family of more than 50 monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) genes. So far, only AtPMT5 [formerly named AtPLT5 (At3g18830)] has been characterized and was shown to be a plasma membrane-localized H(+)-symporter with broad substrate specificity. The characterization of AtPMT1 (At2g16120) and AtPMT2 (At2g16130), two other, almost identical, members of this transporter subfamily, are presented here. Expression of the AtPMT1 and AtPMT2 cDNAs in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that these proteins catalyse the energy-dependent, high-capacity transport of fructose and xylitol, and the transport of several other compounds with lower rates. Expression of their cRNAs in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that both proteins are voltage-dependent and catalyse the symport of their substrates with protons. Fusions of AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to Arabidopsis plasma membranes. Analyses of reporter genes performed with AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 promoter sequences showed expression in mature (AtPMT2) or germinating (AtPMT1) pollen grains, as well as in growing pollen tubes, hydathodes, and young xylem cells (both genes). The expression was confirmed with an anti-AtPMT1/AtPMT2 antiserum (alphaAtPMT1/2) raised against peptides conserved in AtPMT1 and AtPMT2. The physiological roles of the proteins are discussed and related to plant cell wall modifications. PMID:19969532

  19. Water Deficit Enhances C Export to the Roots in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Contribution of Sucrose Transporters in Both Shoot and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Mickaël; Porcheron, Benoît; Hennion, Nils; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Root high plasticity is an adaptation to its changing environment. Water deficit impairs growth, leading to sugar accumulation in leaves, part of which could be available to roots via sucrose (Suc) phloem transport. Phloem loading is widely described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while unloading in roots is less understood. To gain information on leaf-to-root transport, a soil-based culture system was developed to monitor root system architecture in two dimensions. Under water deficit (50% of soil water-holding capacity), total root length was strongly reduced but the depth of root foraging and the shape of the root system were less affected, likely to improve water uptake. (14)CO2 pulse-chase experiments confirmed that water deficit enhanced carbon (C) export to the roots, as suggested by the increased root-to-shoot ratio. The transcript levels of AtSWEET11 (for sugar will eventually be exported transporter), AtSWEET12, and AtSUC2 (for Suc carrier) genes, all three involved in Suc phloem loading, were significantly up-regulated in leaves of water deficit plants, in accordance with the increase in C export from the leaves to the roots. Interestingly, the transcript levels of AtSUC2 and AtSWEET11 to AtSWEET15 were also significantly higher in stressed roots, underlying the importance of Suc apoplastic unloading in Arabidopsis roots and a putative role for these Suc transporters in Suc unloading. These data demonstrate that, during water deficit, plants respond to growth limitation by allocating relatively more C to the roots to maintain an efficient root system and that a subset of Suc transporters is potentially involved in the flux of C to and in the roots. PMID:26802041

  20. Evidence for several cysteine transport mechanisms in the mitochondrial membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun Pong; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine is essential for many mitochondrial processes in plants, including translation, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and cyanide detoxification. Its biosynthesis is carried out by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL) which can be found in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria. Mutants lacking one compartment-specific OAS-TL isoform show viable phenotypes, leading to the hypothesis that the organellar membranes are permeable to substrates and products of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. In this report, we show that exogenouslly supplied [(35)S]cysteine accumulates in the mitochondrial fraction and is taken up into isolated mitochondria for in organello protein synthesis. Analysis of cysteine uptake by isolated mitochondria and mitoplasts indicates that cysteine is transported by multiple facilitated mechanisms that operate in a concentration gradient-dependent manner. In addition, cysteine uptake is dependent mainly on the ΔpH across the inner membrane. The rates of mitochondrial cysteine transport can be mildly altered by specific metabolites in the cyanide detoxification-linked sulfide oxidation, but not by most substrates and products of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. Based on these results, we propose that the transport of cysteine plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular cysteine biosynthesis as well as modulating the availability of sulfur for mitochondrial metabolism.

  1. Aluminium toxicity targets PIN2 in Arabidopsis root apices: Effects on PIN2 endocytosis, vesicular recycling,and polar auxin transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; HOU NingYan; Markus SCHLICHT; WAN YingLang; Stefano MANCUSO; Frantisek BALUSKA

    2008-01-01

    The most obvious symptom of AI toxicity is the inhibition of root growth.However,the mechanism of AI-inhibiting root growth remains to be elucidated.In this study,auxin transport and vesicle movement of an auxin-efflux carrier (PIN2) were investigated in Arabidopsis roots in response to AI stress.Results indicated that AI inhibited the apical transport of auxin in root tips of Arabidopsis significantly.The severe inhibition was localized in the cells of transition zone,where the concentration of auxin was only 34% that of the control.Brefeldin A (BFA),an inhibitor of vesicle transport,induced the dot-like structure of PIN2 vesicle significantly.Al decreased the size of dot-like structure of PIN2 vesicles.Re-sults of real-time RT-PCR and Western-blotting analysis showed that Al increased the transcript level of PIN2 and the accumulation of PIN2 protein in horizontal direction of plasma membrane,but decreased its distribution in endosomes,suggesting that AI inhibited the transport of PIN2 vesicles from plasma membrane to endosomes.Results of cytoskeleton-depolymering drugs indicated that it was via the pathway of disruption of actin microfilaments that AI inhibited the transport of PIN2 vesicles.Exposed to AI stress,the cells of elongation zone had less AI uptake and less transport frequency of vesicles than cells of transition zone.Taken together,our results suggested that AI inhibited root growth mainly by modulating the transport of PIN2 vesicles between plasma membrane and endosomes,thus block-ing auxin transport and root growth.

  2. Differential Roles for VviGST1, VviGST3, and VviGST4 in Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Transport in Vitis vinífera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Madrid-Espinoza, José; Salinas-Cornejo, Josselyn; González-Villanueva, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, flavonoids are synthesized in the cytosol and then are transported and accumulated in the vacuole. Glutathione S-transferase-mediated transport has been proposed as a mechanism involved in flavonoid transport, however, whether binding of flavonoids to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or their transport is glutathione-dependent is not well understood. Glutathione S-transferases from Vitis vinífera (VviGSTs) have been associated with the transport of anthocyanins, however, their ability to transport other flavonoids such as proanthocyanidins (PAs) has not been established. Following bioinformatics approaches, we analyzed the capability of VviGST1, VviGST3, VviGST4, and Arabidopsis TT19 to bind different flavonoids. Analyses of protein-ligand interactions indicate that these GSTs can bind glutathione and monomers of anthocyanin, PAs and flavonols. A total or partial overlap of the binding sites for glutathione and flavonoids was found in VviGST1, and a similar condition was observed in VviGST3 using anthocyanin and flavonols as ligands, whereas VviGST4 and TT19 have both sites for GSH and flavonoids separated. To validate the bioinformatics predictions, functional complementation assays using the Arabidopsis tt19 mutant were performed. Overexpression of VviGST3 in tt19-1 specifically rescued the dark seed coat phenotype associated to correct PA transport, which correlated with higher binding affinity for PA precursors. VviGST4, originally characterized as an anthocyanin-related GST, complemented both the anthocyanin and PA deposition, resembling the function of TT19. By contrast, VviGST1 only partially rescued the normal seed color. Furthermore the expression pattern of these VviGSTs showed that each of these genes could be associated with the accumulation of different flavonoids in specific tissues during grapevine fruit development. These results provide new insights into GST-mediated PA transport in grapevine and suggest that VviGSTs present

  3. Arabidopsis TT19 Functions as a Carrier to Transport Anthocyanin from the Cytosol to Tonoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Sun; Hong Li; Ji-Rong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are synthesized in the cytosolic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but dominantly accumulate in the vacuole.Little is known about how anthocyanins are transported from the ER to the vacuole.Here,we provide evidence supporting that Transparent Testa 19 (TT19),a glutathione S-transferase (GST),functions as a carrier to transport cyanidin and/or anthocyanins to the tonoplast.We identified a novel tt19 mutant (tt19-7),which barely accumulates anthocyanins but produces a 36% higher level of flavonol than the wild-type (WT),from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenized seeds.Expressing TT19-fused green fluorescence protein (GFP) in tt19-7 rescues the mutant phenotype in defective anthocyanin biosynthesis,indicating that TT19-GFP is functional.We further showed that TT19-GFP is localized not only in the cytoplasm and nuclei,but also on the tonoplast.The membrane localization of TT19-GFP was further ascertained by immunoblot analysis.In vitro assay showed that the purified recombinant TT19 increases water solubility of cyanidin (Cya) and cyanidin-3-O-glycoside (C3G).Compared with C3G,Cya can dramatically quench the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of TT19 to much lower levels,indicating a higher affinity of TT19 to Cya than to C3G.Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis also confirmed physical interaction between TT19 and C3G.Taken together,our data reveal molecular mechanism underlying TT19-mediated anthocyanin transportation.

  4. Single-particle analysis reveals shutoff control of the Arabidopsis ammonium transporter AMT1;3 by clustering and internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinli; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wangxi; Li, Ruili; He, Qihua; Fang, Xiaohong; Michele, Roberto De; Ast, Cindy; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Lin, Jinxing

    2013-08-01

    Ammonium is a preferred source of nitrogen for plants but is toxic at high levels. Plant ammonium transporters (AMTs) play an essential role in NH4(+) uptake, but the mechanism by which AMTs are regulated remains unclear. To study how AMTs are regulated in the presence of ammonium, we used variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy for single-particle fluorescence imaging of EGFP-tagged AMT1;3 on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis root cells at various ammonium levels. We demonstrated that AMT1;3-EGFP dynamically appeared and disappeared on the plasma membrane as moving fluorescent spots in low oligomeric states under N-deprived and N-sufficient conditions. Under external high-ammonium stress, however, AMT1;3-EGFPs were found to amass into clusters, which were then internalized into the cytoplasm. A similar phenomenon also occurred in the glutamine synthetase mutant gln1;2 background. Single-particle analysis of AMT1;3-EGFPs in the clathrin heavy chain 2 mutant (chc2 mutant) and Flotllin1 artificial microRNA (Flot1 amiRNA) backgrounds, together with chemical inhibitor treatments, demonstrated that the endocytosis of AMT1;3 clusters induced by high-ammonium stress could occur mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytic pathways, but the contribution of microdomain-associated endocytic pathway cannot be excluded in the internalization. Our results revealed that the clustering and endocytosis of AMT1;3 provides an effective mechanism by which plant cells can avoid accumulation of toxic levels of ammonium by eliminating active AMT1;3 from the plasma membrane.

  5. Flavonoids and the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are present in almost all terrestrial plants, where they provide UV-protection and colour. Flavonoids have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. The flavonoids can be divided into several classes depending on their structure...... oxidase A or B, thereby working as anti-depressants or to improve the conditions of Parkinson's patients. Flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanidins have protective effects preventing inflammatory processes leading to nerve injury. Flavonoids seem capable of influencing health and mood....

  6. MzPIP2;1: An Aquaporin Involved in Radial Water Movement in Both Water Uptake and Transportation, Altered the Drought and Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available Plants are unavoidably subjected to various abiotic stressors, including high salinity, drought and low temperature, which results in water deficit and even death. Water uptake and transportation play a critical role in response to these stresses. Many aquaporin proteins, localized at different tissues, function in various transmembrane water movements. We targeted at the key aquaporin in charge of both water uptake in roots and radial water transportation from vascular tissues through the whole plant.The MzPIP2;1 gene encoding a plasma membrane intrinsic protein was cloned from salt-tolerant apple rootstock Malus zumi Mats. The GUS gene was driven by MzPIP2;1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis. It indicated that MzPIP2;1 might function in the epidermal and vascular cells of roots, parenchyma cells around vessels through the stems and vascular tissues of leaves. The ectopically expressed MzPIP2;1 conferred the transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance to slight salt and drought stresses, but sensitive to moderate salt stress, which was indicated by root length, lateral root number, fresh weight and K+/Na+ ratio. In addition, the possible key cis-elements in response to salt, drought and cold stresses were isolated by the promoter deletion experiment.The MzPIP2;1 protein, as a PIP2 aquaporins subgroup member, involved in radial water movement, controls water absorption and usage efficiency and alters transgenic plants drought and salt tolerance.

  7. Flavonoids and the CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Jäger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are present in almost all terrestrial plants, where they provide UV-protection and colour. Flavonoids have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. The flavonoids can be divided into several classes depending on their structure. Flavonoids are present in food and medicinal plants and are thus consumed by humans. They are found in plants as glycosides. Before oral absorption, flavonoids undergo deglycosylation either by lactase phloridzin hydrolase or cytosolic β-glucocidase. The absorbed aglycone is then conjugated by methylation, sulphatation or glucuronidation. Both the aglycones and the conjugates can pass the blood-brain barrier. In the CNS several flavones bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA-receptor resulting in sedation, anxiolytic or anti-convulsive effects. Flavonoids of several classes are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A or B, thereby working as anti-depressants or to improve the conditions of Parkinson’s patients. Flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanidins have protective effects preventing inflammatory processes leading to nerve injury. Flavonoids seem capable of influencing health and mood.

  8. The Phosphate Transporter PHT4;6 Is a Determinant of Salt Tolerance that Is Localized to the Golgi Apparatus of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatriz Cubero; Yuko Nakagawa; Xing-Yu jiang; Ken-Ji Miura; Fang Li; Kashchandra G.Raghothama; Ray A.Bressan; Paul M.Hasegawa; Jose M.Pardo

    2009-01-01

    Insertion mutations that disrupt the function of PHT4;6 (At5g44370) cause NaCI hypersensitivity of Arabidop-sis seedlings that is characterized by reduced growth of the primary root,enhanced lateral branching,and swelling of root tips.Mutant phenotypes were exacerbated by sucrose,but not by equiosmolar concentrations of mannitol,and atten-uated by low inorganic phosphate in the medium.Protein PHT4;6 belongs to the Major Facilitator Superfamily of per-meases that shares significant sequence similarity to mammalian type-I Pi transporters and vesicular glutamate transporters,and is a member of the PHT4 family of putative intracellular phosphate transporters of plants.PHT4;6 local-izes to the Golgi membrane and transport studies indicate that PHT4;6 facilitates the selective transport of Pi but not of chloride or inorganic anions.Phenotypic similarities with other mutants displaying root swelling suggest that PHT4;6 likely functions in protein N-glycosylation and cell wall biosynthesis,which are essential for salt tolerance.Together,our results indicate that PHT4;6 transports Pi out of the Golgi lumenal space for the re-cycling of the Pi released from glycosylation processes.

  9. Flavonoids: prospective drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazarolli, Luisa Helena; Zanatta, Leila; Alberton, Elga Heloisa; Figueiredo, Maria Santos Reis Bonorino; Folador, Poliane; Damazio, Rosangela Guollo; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments related to the chemistry and medicinal properties of flavonoids. Major flavonoids that show well categorized structures and well defined structure function-relationships are: flavans, flavanones, flavones, flavanonols, flavonols, catechins, anthocyanidins and isoflavone. The biological properties of flavonoids include antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, antitumoral, antiviral and antibacterial, as well as a direct cytoprotective effect on coronary and vascular systems, the pancreas and the liver. These characteristics place them among the most attractive natural substances available to enrich the current therapy options.

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana AtUTr7 Encodes a Golgi-Localized UDP-Glucose/UDP-Galactose Transporter that Affects Lateral Root Emergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Handford; Cecilia Rodríguez-Furlán; Lorena Marchant; Marcelo Segura; Daniela Gómez; Elena Alvarez-Buyll; Guang-Yan Xiong; Markus Pauly; Ariel Orellana

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are antiporters comprising a gene family that plays a fundamental role in the biosynthesis of complex cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins in plants.However,due to the limited number of related mutants that have observable phenotypes,the biological function(s) of most NSTs in cell wall biosynthesis and assembly have remained elusive.Here,we report the characterization of AtUTr7 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.),which is homologous to multi-specific UDP-sugar transporters from Drosophila melanogaster,humans,and Caenorhabditis elegans.We show that AtUTr7 possesses the common structural characteristics conserved among NSTs.Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged version,we demonstrate that AtUTr7 is localized in the Golgi apparatus.We also show that AtUTr7 is widely expressed,especially in the roots and in specific floral organs.Additionally,the results of an in vitro nucleotide sugar transport assay carried out with a tobacco and a yeast expression system suggest that AtUTr7 is capable of transferring UDP-Gal and UDP-GIc,but not a range of other UDP-and GDP-sugars,into the Golgi lumen.Mutants lacking expression of AtUTr7 exhibited an early proliferation of lateral roots as well as distorted root hairs when cultivated at high sucrose concentrations.Furthermore,the distribution of homogalacturonan with a low degree of methyl esterification differed in lateral root tips of the mutant compared to wild-type plants,although additional analytical procedures revealed no further differences in the composition of the root cell walls.This evidence suggests that the transport of UDP-Gal and UDP-GIc into the Golgi under conditions of high root biomass production plays a role in lateral root and root hair development.

  11. Sphingosine Kinase 2 and Ceramide Transport as Key Targets of the Natural Flavonoid Luteolin to Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Abdel Hadi

    Full Text Available The plant flavonoid luteolin exhibits different biological effects, including anticancer properties. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in colorectal cancer (CRC. Here we investigated the effects of luteolin on colon cancer cells, focusing on the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, two sphingoid mediators with opposite roles on cell fate. Using cultured cells, we found that physiological concentrations of luteolin induce the elevation of ceramide, followed by apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, but not of differentiated enterocytes. Pulse studies revealed that luteolin inhibits ceramide anabolism to complex sphingolipids. Further experiments led us to demonstrate that luteolin induces an alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi flow of ceramide, pivotal to its metabolic processing to complex sphingolipids. We report that luteolin exerts its action by inhibiting both Akt activation, and sphingosine kinase (SphK 2, with the consequent reduction of S1P, an Akt stimulator. S1P administration protected colon cancer cells from luteolin-induced apoptosis, most likely by an intracellular, receptor-independent mechanism. Overall this study reveals for the first time that the dietary flavonoid luteolin exerts toxic effects on colon cancer cells by inhibiting both S1P biosynthesis and ceramide traffic, suggesting its dietary introduction/supplementation as a potential strategy to improve existing treatments in CRC.

  12. HY5 regulates nitrite reductase 1 (NIR1) and ammonium transporter1;2 (AMT1;2) in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifen; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zhang, Huiyong; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2015-09-01

    HY5 (Long Hypocotyles 5) is a key transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana that has a pivotal role in seedling development. Soil nitrogen is an essential macronutrient, and its uptake, assimilation and metabolism are influenced by nutrient availability and by lights. To understand the role of HY5 in nitrogen assimilation pathways, we examined the phenotype as well as the expression of selected nitrogen assimilation-related genes in hy5 mutant grown under various nitrogen limiting and nitrogen sufficient conditions, or different light conditions. We report that HY5 positively regulates nitrite reductase gene NIR1 and negatively regulates the ammonium transporter gene AMT1;2 under all nitrogen and light conditions tested, while it affects several other genes in a nitrogen supply-dependent manner. HY5 is not required for light induction of NIR1, AMT1;2 and NIA genes, but it is necessary for high level expression of NIR1 and NIA under optimal nutrient and light conditions. In addition, nitrogen deficiency exacerbates the abnormal root system of hy5. Together, our results suggest that HY5 exhibits the growth-promoting activity only when sufficient nutrients, including lights, are provided, and that HY5 has a complex involvement in nitrogen acquisition and metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:26259199

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064342 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064342 002-107-H07 At5g58270.1 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287662 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287662 J065112L10 At5g58270.1 68418.m07295 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 1e-65 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242094 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242094 J075142E09 At5g58270.1 68418.m07295 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 2e-33 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102879 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102879 J033112G11 At5g58270.1 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 1e-122 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287488 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287488 J043029O04 At5g58270.1 68418.m07295 mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1) identical to half...-molecule ABC transporter ATM3 GI:9964121 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost identical to mitochondrial half...-ABC transporter STA1 GI:9187883 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene)GI:9187882 4e-27 ...

  18. Flavonoids in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terahara, Norihiko

    2015-03-01

    The flavonoids in edible plants and foods are surveyed. The food materials rich in flavonoids, such as grape, tea, and cocoa receive particular attention. Also, the ingestion of flavonoids, the absorption and the bioavailability in vivo are discussed. Flavonoids have antioxidant and other living-body modulating activities. When expressing these functionalities, interactions between flavonoids and proteins are important. The interactions with various enzymes and receptors are described. Moreover, as an example of a processed food containing flavonoids, fermented red vinegar that we have investigated is highlighted. The structural determination, antioxidant activity and the generation mechanism of the new acylated polyphenols in red vinegar are described. PMID:25924542

  19. Neuroprotection by flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajas F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high morbidity, high socioeconomic costs and lack of specific treatments are key factors that define the relevance of brain pathology for human health and the importance of research on neuronal protective agents. Epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of flavonoids on arteriosclerosis-related pathology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. Flavonoids can protect the brain by their ability to modulate intracellular signals promoting cellular survival. Quercetin and structurally related flavonoids (myricetin, fisetin, luteolin showed a marked cytoprotective capacity in in vitro experimental conditions in models of predominantly apoptotic death such as that induced by medium concentrations (200 µM of H2O2 added to PC12 cells in culture. Nevertheless, quercetin did not protect substantia nigra neurons in vivo from an oxidative insult (6-hydroxydopamine, probably due to difficulties in crossing the blood-brain barrier. On the other hand, treatment of permanent focal ischemia with a lecithin/quercetin preparation decreased lesion volume, showing that preparations that help to cross the blood-brain barrier may be critical for the expression of the effects of flavonoids on the brain. The hypothesis is advanced that a group of quercetin-related flavonoids could become lead molecules for the development of neuroprotective compounds with multitarget anti-ischemic effects.

  20. Flavonoid-mediated inhibition of intestinal ABC transporters may affect the oral bioavailability of drugs, food-borne toxic compounds and bioactive ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, W.; Schutte, M.E.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The transcellular transport of ingested food ingredients across the intestinal epithelial barrier is an important factor determining bioavailability upon oral intake. This transcellular transport of many chemicals, food ingredients, drugs or toxic compounds over the intestinal epithelium can be high

  1. Flavonoids from Carthamus tinctorius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Feng(李锋); HE,Zhi-Sheng(何直昇); YE,Yang(叶阳)

    2002-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, (2S)-4' ,5-dihydroxyl-6,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl flavanone (1) and 6-hydroxykaempferol 6,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from Carthamus tinctorius. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means including 2D NMR, ESIMS and CD.

  2. Flavonoids in Astragalus corniculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina Krasteva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine flavonoids were identified in aerial parts of Astragalus corniculatus Bieb. (Fabaceae by liquid chromatography coupled with ionspray mass spectrometry in the tandem mode (LC/MS/MS with negative ion detection. Vitexin, orientin and eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside are obtained for the first time in genus Astragalus L, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside in the species.

  3. Flavonoids and thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der D.; Kastelijn, J.; Schroder-van der Elst, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The most potent natural plant-derived compounds that can affect thyroid function, thyroid hormone secretion and availability to tissues is the group of flavonoids, i.e. plant pigments. They are present in our daily food, such as vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, wine, and tea. Epidemiological studie

  4. Stripping voltammetry of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of the flavonoids hesperidin, quercetin, naringin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and caffeic acid at the mercury electrode (HMDE, DME) and at a glassy carbon electrode has been studied by differential pulse polarography. Determination of flavonoids can be achieved either by direct reduction of the carbonyl group in the gamma-pyron ring, indirectly by cathodic stripping voltammetry via the formation of different flavonoid-mercury complexes at the mercury electrode surface and by adsorptive stripping voltammetry via the direct oxidation of aromatic o-dihydroxy groups. The advantage of stripping voltammetry is higher sensitivity and due to the possibility of higher sample dilution less influence of matrix effects. The application by cathodic stripping voltammetry to the determination of hesperidin in orange juice, hesperidin and rutin in helopyrin(R) tablets, a phytopharmaceutical preparation, naringin in grapefruit juice is demonstrated. Also the application by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode to the determination of quercetin in blood and sinupret, a phytopharmaceutical preparation and catechin in beer is demonstrated. Both methods are suitable for the determination of low flavonoid concentrations down to the ppb concentration range. (author)

  5. Cadmium-inducible expression of the ABC-type transporter AtABCC3 increases phytochelatin-mediated cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Patrizia; Zanella, Letizia; De Paolis, Angelo; Di Litta, Davide; Cecchetti, Valentina; Falasca, Giuseppina; Barbieri, Maurizio; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Costantino, Paolo; Cardarelli, Maura

    2015-07-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental contaminant with harmful effects on living cells. In plants, phytochelatin (PC)-dependent Cd detoxification requires that PC-Cd complexes are transported into vacuoles. Here, it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings defective in the ABCC transporter AtABCC3 (abcc3) have an increased sensitivity to different Cd concentrations, and that seedlings overexpressing AtABCC3 (AtABCC3ox) have an increased Cd tolerance. The cellular distribution of Cd was analysed in protoplasts from abcc3 mutants and AtABCC3 overexpressors grown in the presence of Cd, by means of the Cd-specific fluorochromes 5-nitrobenzothiazole coumarin (BTC-5N) and Leadmium™ Green AM dye. This analysis revealed that Cd is mostly localized in the cytosol of abcc3 mutant protoplasts whereas there is an increase in vacuolar Cd in protoplasts from AtABCC3ox plants. Overexpression of AtABCC3 in cad1-3 mutant seedlings defective in PC production and in plants treated with l-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of PC biosynthesis, had no effect on Cd tolerance, suggesting that AtABCC3 acts via PCs. In addition, overexpression of AtABCC3 in atabcc1 atabcc2 mutant seedlings defective in the Cd transporters AtABCC1 and AtABCC2 complements the Cd sensitivity of double mutants, but not in the presence of BSO. Accordingly, the level of AtABCC3 transcript in wild type seedlings was lower than that of AtABCC1 and AtABCC2 in the absence of Cd but higher after Cd exposure, and even higher in atabcc1 atabcc2 mutants. The results point to AtABCC3 as a transporter of PC-Cd complexes, and suggest that its activity is regulated by Cd and is co-ordinated with the activity of AtABCC1/AtABCC2.

  6. Effects of molybdenum deficiency and defects in molybdate transporter MOT1 on transcript accumulation and nitrogen/sulphur metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yoko; Kusano, Miyako; Oikawa, Akira; Fukushima, Atsushi; Tomatsu, Hajime; Saito, Kazuki; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fujiwara, Toru

    2011-02-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a micronutrient essential for plant growth, as several key enzymes of plant metabolic pathways contain Mo cofactor in their catalytic centres. Mo-containing oxidoreductases include nitrate reductase, sulphite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. These are involved in nitrate assimilation, sulphite detoxification, purine metabolism or the synthesis of abscisic acid, auxin and glucosinolates in plants. To understand the effects of Mo deficiency and a mutation in a molybdate transporter, MOT1, on nitrogen and sulphur metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana, transcript and metabolite profiling of the mutant lacking MOT1 was conducted in the presence or absence of Mo. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Mo deficiency had impacts on genes involved in metabolisms, transport, stress responses, and signal transductions. The transcript level of a nitrate reductase NR1 was highly induced under Mo deficiency in mot1-1. The metabolite profiles were analysed further by using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The levels of amino acids, sugars, organic acids, and purine metabolites were altered significantly in the Mo-deficient plants. These results are the first investigation of the global effect of Mo nutrition and MOT1 on plant gene expressions and metabolism. PMID:21131548

  7. Dynamics of membrane potential variation and gene expression induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bricchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (V(m and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. V(m depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min -2 h than to M. persicae (4-6 h. M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a V(m depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between V(m depolarization and gene expression was found. At V(m depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen

  8. CHX14 is a plasma membrane K-efflux transporter that regulates K+ redistribution in "Arabidopsis thaliana"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium (K(+)) is essential for plant growth and development, yet the molecular identity of many K(+) transporters remains elusive. Here we characterized cation/H(+) exchanger (CHX) 14 as a plasma membrane K(+) transporter. "CHX14" expression was induced by elevated K(+) and histochemical analysis...

  9. Photosynthetic redox imbalance influences flavonoid biosynthesis in Lemna gibba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Tariq A; Lees, Hazel A; Lampi, Mark A; Enstone, Daryl; Brain, Richard A; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2010-07-01

    Plants accumulate flavonoids in response to a myriad of environmental challenges, especially when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation or situations causing oxidative stress. However, the origin and nature of the signal triggering their accumulation remain obscure. In this study, a group of flavonoids belonging to the flavone class was identified in Lemna gibba (duckweed). These flavones accumulated upon exposure to UV radiation, low temperature, copper and the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) inhibitors 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB) and 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHATQ). All of these stressors were also shown to promote PET chain (PETC) reduction; however, in the co-presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) or a light regime that oxidized the PETC, flavonoid accumulation ceased. Chloroplast-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not associated with all of the stress conditions that promoted both PETC reduction and flavonoid synthesis, indicating that ROS were not a strict requisite for flavonoid accumulation. Transcripts for the flavonoid biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase, were similarly responsive to the PETC redox state, as were a panel of transcripts revealed by differential display PCR. Collectively, these results provide evidence that PETC redox status is one of the factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis. PMID:20199616

  10. The Arabidopsis nitrate transporter NRT2.5 plays a role in nitrate acquisition and remobilization in nitrogen-starved plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhneva, Lina; Kiba, Takatoshi; Feria-Bourrellier, Ana-Belen; Lafouge, Florence; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Zoufan, Parzhak; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; Krapp, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen is a key mineral nutrient playing a crucial role in plant growth and development. Understanding the mechanisms of nitrate uptake from the soil and distribution through the plant in response to nitrogen starvation is an important step on the way to improve nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency for better growth and productivity of plants, and to prevent negative effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the environment and human health. In this study, we show that Arabidopsis NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2.5 (NRT2.5) is a plasma membrane-localized high-affinity nitrate transporter playing an essential role in adult plants under severe nitrogen starvation. NRT2.5 expression is induced under nitrogen starvation and NRT2.5 becomes the most abundant transcript amongst the seven NRT2 family members in shoots and roots of adult plants after long-term starvation. GUS reporter analyses showed that NRT2.5 is expressed in the epidermis and the cortex of roots at the root hair zone and in minor veins of mature leaves. Reduction of NRT2.5 expression resulted in a decrease in high-affinity nitrate uptake without impacting low-affinity uptake. In the background of the high-affinity nitrate transporter mutant nrt2.4, an nrt2.5 mutation reduced nitrate levels in the phloem of N-starved plants further than in the single nrt2.4 mutants. Growth analyses of multiple mutants between NRT2.1, NRT2.2, NRT2.4, and NRT2.5 revealed that NRT2.5 is required to support growth of nitrogen-starved adult plants by ensuring the efficient uptake of nitrate collectively with NRT2.1, NRT2.2 and NRT2.4 and by taking part in nitrate loading into the phloem during nitrate remobilization. PMID:25065551

  11. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mcarmen eMartinez-Ballesta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolatesExposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress

  12. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-{gamma}-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  13. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  15. The signal transducer NPH3 integrates the phototropin1 photosensor with PIN2-based polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis root phototropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yinglang; Jasik, Jan; Wang, Li; Hao, Huaiqing; Volkmann, Dieter; Menzel, Diedrik; Mancuso, Stefano; Baluška, František; Lin, Jinxing

    2012-02-01

    Under blue light (BL) illumination, Arabidopsis thaliana roots grow away from the light source, showing a negative phototropic response. However, the mechanism of root phototropism is still unclear. Using a noninvasive microelectrode system, we showed that the BL sensor phototropin1 (phot1), the signal transducer NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3), and the auxin efflux transporter PIN2 were essential for BL-induced auxin flux in the root apex transition zone. We also found that PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to vacuole-like compartments (VLCs) in dark-grown root epidermal and cortical cells, and phot1/NPH3 mediated a BL-initiated pathway that caused PIN2 redistribution to the plasma membrane. When dark-grown roots were exposed to brefeldin A (BFA), PIN2-GFP remained in VLCs in darkness, and BL caused PIN2-GFP disappearance from VLCs and induced PIN2-GFP-FM4-64 colocalization within enlarged compartments. In the nph3 mutant, both dark and BL BFA treatments caused the disappearance of PIN2-GFP from VLCs. However, in the phot1 mutant, PIN2-GFP remained within VLCs under both dark and BL BFA treatments, suggesting that phot1 and NPH3 play different roles in PIN2 localization. In conclusion, BL-induced root phototropism is based on the phot1/NPH3 signaling pathway, which stimulates the shootward auxin flux by modifying the subcellular targeting of PIN2 in the root apex transition zone. PMID:22374399

  16. Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2014-05-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)⁺ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins.

  17. Generation of boron-deficiency-tolerant tomato by overexpressing an Arabidopsis thaliana borate transporter AtBOR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei eUraguchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient deficiency in soil poses a widespread agricultural problem. Boron (B is an essential micronutrient in plants, and its deficiency causes defects in both vegetative and reproductive growth in various crops in the field. In Arabidopsis thaliana, increased expression of a major borate transporter gene AtBOR1 or boric acid channel gene AtNIP5;1 improves plant growth under B-deficient conditions. In this study, we examined whether high expression of a borate transporter gene increases B accumulation in shoots and improves the growth of tomato plant, a model of fruit-bearing crops, under B-deficient conditions. We established three independent transgenic tomato plants lines expressing AtBOR1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis confirmed that two lines (Line 1 and Line 2 more strongly expressed AtBOR1 than Line 3. Wild-type plants and the transgenic plants were grown hydroponically under B-sufficient and B-deficient conditions. Wild-type and Line 3 (weakly expressing transgenic line showed a defect in shoot growth under B-deficient conditions, especially in the development of new leaves. However, seedlings of Line 1 and Line 2, the transgenic lines showing strong AtBOR1 expression, did not show the B-deficiency phenotype in newly developing leaves. In agreement with this phenotype, shoot biomass under low-B conditions was higher in the strongly expressing AtBOR1 line. B concentrations in leaves or fruits were also higher in Line 2 and Line 1. The present study demonstrates that strong expression of AtBOR1 improved growth in tomato under B-deficient conditions.

  18. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, Sangita; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G M

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading. PMID:26930473

  19. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fen Lin

    Full Text Available Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading.

  20. Identification of a crucial histidine involved in metal transport activity in the Arabidopsis cation/H(+) exchanger CAX1

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, yeast and bacteria, cation/H(+) exchangers (CAXs), have been shown to translocate Ca(2+) and other metals. The best characterized of these related transporters is the plant vacuolar-localized CAX1. We used site-directed mutagenesis to assess the impact of altering the seven histidine re...

  1. Liquiritigenin, a flavonoid aglycone from licorice, has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Woo; Kang, Hee Eun; Lee, Myung Gull; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Chan; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Geon

    2009-02-01

    Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides were monitored in rats. After intravenous administration of LQ, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of glucuronyl metabolites was greater than that of LQ in plasma, which accompanied elevations in bile flow rate and biliary excretion of bile acid, glutathione, and bilirubin. The expressions of hepatocellular transporters and phase-II enzymes were assessed by immunoblots, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the livers of rats treated with LQ, the protein and mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump were increased in the liver, which was verified by their increased localizations in canalicular membrane. In addition, LQ treatment enhanced the expression levels of major hepatic phase-II enzymes. Consistent with these results, LQ treatments attenuated galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats, as supported by decreases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase, liver necrosis, and plasma TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that LQ has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce transporters and phase-II enzymes in the liver, which may be associated with a hepatoprotective effect against galactosamine/LPS. Our findings may provide insight into understanding the action of LQ and its therapeutic use for liver disease.

  2. Flavonoids from Macaranga lowii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiastuti Agustina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available new isoprenylated dihydroflavonol derivative, macalowiinin (1, together with two known flavonoids 4’-O-methyl-8-isoprenylnaringenin (2 and 4’-O-methyl-5,7,4’-trihydroxyflavone (3 (= acasetin, have been isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Macaranga lowii. The structures of these compounds were determined based on UV, NMR, and mass spectral data, and optical rotation. Preliminary cytotoxic evaluation of compounds 1 – 3 against P-388 cells showed that compound 3 is the most active with IC50 was 58.7 mM.

  3. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The light petroleum extract from the roots of Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus Hassl contained nine flavonoids, including six new ones. These are 2,4-cis-2,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan; 2,4-cis-4-hydroxy-2,5,8-trimethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan; 2,4-cis-2-prenyloxy-4,5,8-trimethoxy-(2,3:6,7-fu-ranoflavan; 2,4-cis-2-prenyloxy-4-hydroxy-5,8-dimethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan; 2',5',6'-trimethoxy-9-(1,1-dimethylallyoxy-[2,3:3,4]-furanochalcone; 5,6-dimethoxy-(2,3:7,8-furanoflavone, identi-fied by analysis of their spectral data (UV, IR, ¹H and 13C NMR, 2D-NMR, NOE and MS. The natural occurrence of 2,4-dioxygenated flavan derivatives is being reported for the first time. Quantitative analysis of the petrol extract, by using reversed-phase HPLC, showed that the most abundant flavonoid in the extract is 2,4-cis-2,4,5,8- tetramethoxy-(2,3:6,7-furanoflavan.

  4. Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase 2 is involved in root gravitropism through regulation of polar auxin transport by affecting the cycling of PIN proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Jia, Wen-Jing; Chu, Yu-Jia; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2012-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) catalyzes the synthesis of PI-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) by phosphorylation of PI-4-phosphate at the 5 position of the inositol ring, and is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes and stress responses. We here report on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis PIP5K2, which is expressed during lateral root initiation and elongation, and whose expression is enhanced by exogenous auxin. The knockout mutant pip5k2 shows reduced lateral root formation, which could be recovered with exogenous auxin, and interestingly, delayed root gravity response that could not be recovered with exogenous auxin. Crossing with the DR5-GUS marker line and measurement of free IAA content confirmed the reduced auxin accumulation in pip5k2. In addition, analysis using the membrane-selective dye FM4-64 revealed the decelerated vesicle trafficking caused by PtdIns(4,5)P(2) reduction, which hence results in suppressed cycling of PIN proteins (PIN2 and 3), and delayed redistribution of PIN2 and auxin under gravistimulation in pip5k2 roots. On the contrary, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) significantly enhanced the vesicle trafficking and cycling of PIN proteins. These results demonstrate that PIP5K2 is involved in regulating lateral root formation and root gravity response, and reveal a critical role of PIP5K2/PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in root development through regulation of PIN proteins, providing direct evidence of crosstalk between the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway and auxin response, and new insights into the control of polar auxin transport. PMID:21894193

  5. Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase 2 is involved in root gravitropism through regulation of polar auxin transport by affecting the cycling of PIN proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Mei; Wen-Jing Jia; Yu-Jia Chu; Hong-Wei Xue

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase(PIP5K)catalyzes the synthesis of PI-4,5-bisphosphate(PtdIns(4,5)P2)by phosphorylation of PI-4-phosphate at the 5 position of the inositol ring,and is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes and stress responses.We here report on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis PIP5K2,which is expressed during lateral root initiation and elongation,and whose expression is enhanced by exogenous auxin.The knockout mutant pip5k2 shows reduced lateral root formation,which could be recovered with exogenous auxin,and interestingly,delayed root gravity response that could not be recovered with exogenous auxin.Crossing with the DR5-GUS marker line and measurement of free IAA content confirmed the reduced auxin accumulation in pip5k2.In addition,analysis using the membrane-selective dye FM4-64 revealed the decelerated vesicle trafficking caused by PtdIns(4,5)P2 reduction,which hence results in suppressed cycling of PIN proteins(PIN2 and 3),and delayed redistribution of PIN2 and auxin under gravistimulation in pipSk2 roots.On the contrary,PtdIns(4,5)P2 significantly enhanced the vesicle trafficking and cycling of PIN proteins.These results demonstrate that PIP5K2 is involved in regulating lateral root formation and root gravity response,and reveal a critical role of PIP5K2/Ptdlns(4,5)P2 in root development through regulation of PIN proteins,providing direct evidence of crosstalk between the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway and auxin response,and new insights into the control of polar auxin transport.

  6. Flavonoids from Pseudotsuga menziesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Sowiński, Paweł; Kawiak, Anna; Sparzak, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Four O-acylated flavonol glycosides, new in the plant kingdom, were isolated from the needles of Pseudotsuga menziesii. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR and MS data as: daglesioside I [kaempferol 3-O-[2",5"-O-(4''',4(IV)-dihydroxy)-beta-truxinoyl]-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside] (1), daglesioside II [kaempferol 3-O-[2",5"-O-(4"'-hydroxy)-beta-truxinoyl]-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside] (2), daglesioside III [kaempferol 3-O-[2",5"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside] (3), and daglesioside IV [kaempferol 3-O-[3",6"-di-O-(E)-cinnamoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (4). In addition, the known flavonoids (E)-tiliroside, (E)-ditiliroside, astragalin (kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin were identified. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1 and 3 was evaluated towards the HL-60, HeLa, and MDA-MB468 cell lines.

  7. Molecular Genetics and Subcellular Localization of Flavonoid Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Saslowsky, David

    2000-01-01

    There are at least two models describing how the enzymes of metabolic pathways are arranged in living cells. The first is a stochastic model, where enzymes are freely-diffusing in the aqueous environment of the cell, and the second, the metabolon model, has pathway enzymes organized as enzyme complexes. Both are valid scientific hypotheses in that they make predictions that can be tested regarding pathway regulation, localization, and function. The goal of the work presented here was to te...

  8. Coordinate Regulation of Metabolite Glycosylation and Stress Hormone Biosynthesis by TT8 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Umashankar, Shivshankar; Rai, Megha; Kiat, Lim Boon; Bing, Johanan Aow Shao; Swarup, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    Secondary metabolites play a key role in coordinating ecology and defense strategies of plants. Diversity of these metabolites arises by conjugation of core structures with diverse chemical moieties, such as sugars in glycosylation. Active pools of phytohormones, including those involved in plant stress response, are also regulated by glycosylation. While much is known about the enzymes involved in glycosylation, we know little about their regulation or coordination with other processes. We characterized the flavonoid pathway transcription factor TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using an integrative omics strategy. This approach provides a systems-level understanding of the cellular machinery that is used to generate metabolite diversity by glycosylation. Metabolomics analysis of TT8 loss-of-function and inducible overexpression lines showed that TT8 coordinates glycosylation of not only flavonoids, but also nucleotides, thus implicating TT8 in regulating pools of activated nucleotide sugars. Transcriptome and promoter network analyses revealed that the TT8 regulome included sugar transporters, proteins involved in sugar binding and sequestration, and a number of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Importantly, TT8 affects stress response, along with brassinosteroid and jasmonic acid biosynthesis, by directly binding to the promoters of key genes of these processes. This combined effect on metabolite glycosylation and stress hormones by TT8 inducible overexpression led to significant increase in tolerance toward multiple abiotic and biotic stresses. Conversely, loss of TT8 leads to increased sensitivity to these stresses. Thus, the transcription factor TT8 is an integrator of secondary metabolism and stress response. These findings provide novel approaches to improve broad-spectrum stress tolerance. PMID:27432888

  9. Flavonoid intake and eye health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    In the modern era of evidence-based scientific medicine, there is little recognition of centuries of shaman observational evidence. Yet it is extremely difficult to conduct long duration controlled studies of large populations. The controversy surrounding the issue of flavonoid bioactivity and alleged benefits for eye health is also plagued by natural product industry marketing efforts that rely on small, often poorly designed studies. Ample laboratory evidence exists from in vitro and in vivo studies that provide plausible mechanistic evidence for flavonoid interactions relevant to visual function. Lacking are large randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studies in older subjects who have early signs of vision impairment. These studies could link flavonoid intake and bioavailability to efficacy in prevention of age related vision disorders that develop over decades. Support for clinical trials remains to be found before a full "recommendation" can be made regarding the value of diets high in flavonoids for eye health. PMID:22888841

  10. Flavonoids from Teucrium fruticans L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kisiel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From aerial parts of Teucrium fncticans L. three flavonoids were isolated and identified as 5-hydroxy-6, 7, 3', 4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 5, 4'-dihydroxy-6, 7, 3'-trimethoxyflavone (cirsilineol and 5, 4'-dihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (cirsimaritin. The former compound was found to be a predominant flavone aglycone constituent of the plant material. This is the first report on the isolation of flavonoids from the plant.

  11. Flavonoids from Teucrium fruticans L.

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Kisiel; Anna Stojakowska; Franco Piozzi; Sergio Rosselli

    2014-01-01

    From aerial parts of Teucrium fncticans L. three flavonoids were isolated and identified as 5-hydroxy-6, 7, 3', 4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 5, 4'-dihydroxy-6, 7, 3'-trimethoxyflavone (cirsilineol) and 5, 4'-dihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (cirsimaritin). The former compound was found to be a predominant flavone aglycone constituent of the plant material. This is the first report on the isolation of flavonoids from the plant.

  12. Novel biosensors based on flavonoid-responsive transcriptional regulators introduced into Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Malla, Sailesh;

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum sero....... coli cells containing a flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (fls1). We expect the designed biosensors to be applied for isolation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. © 2013 The Authors.......This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum...... seropedicae SmR1 responds to naringenin, while the repressor QdoR from Bacillus subtilis is inactivated by quercetin and kaempferol. Both biosensors showed over a 7-fold increase of the fluorescent signal after addition of their specific effectors, and a linear correlation between the fluorescence intensity...

  13. Physiological characterization and genetic modifiers of aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis in mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MILDEW LOCUS O genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Noir, Sandra; Shahi, Shermineh; Reinstädler, Anja; Gratkowska, Dominika Marta; Panstruga, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Root architecture and growth patterns are plant features that are still poorly understood. When grown under in vitro conditions, seedlings with mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genes MLO4 or MLO11 exhibit aberrant root growth patterns upon contact with hard surfaces, exemplified as tight root spirals. We used a set of physiological assays and genetic tools to characterize this thigmomorphogenic defect in detail. We observed that the mlo4/mlo11-associated root curling phenotype is not recapitulated in a set of mutants with altered root growth patterns or architecture. We further found that mlo4/mlo11-conditioned root curling is not dependent upon light and endogenous flavonoids, but is pH-sensitive and affected by exogenous calcium levels. Based upon the latter two characteristics, mlo4-associated root coiling appears to be mechanistically different from the natural strong root curvature of the Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg erecta. Gravistimulation reversibly overrides the aberrant thigmomorphogenesis of mlo4 seedlings. Mutants with dominant negative defects in α-tubulin modulate the extent and directionality of mlo4/mlo11-conditioned root coils, whereas mutants defective in polar auxin transport (axr4, aux1) or gravitropism (pgm1) completely suppress the mlo4 root curling phenotype. Our data implicate a joint contribution of calcium signalling, pH regulation, microtubular function, polar auxin transport and gravitropism in root thigmomorphogenesis.

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287911 J065213B08 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 3e-85 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318551 J075138M12 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 4e-27 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241823 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241823 J065212G21 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 1e-150 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243378 J100063A13 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 5e-18 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288351 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288351 J090024C17 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 2e-24 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242252 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242252 J075182G16 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 6e-88 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241728 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241728 J065199H08 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 3e-36 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240645 J023003B03 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 1e-17 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243302 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243302 J100054J17 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-82 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241015 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241015 J065054A13 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 8e-37 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288091 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288091 J075184D14 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-29 ...

  5. Flavonoids modify root growth and modulate expression of SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin.

  6. Flavonoids from Lysidice rhodostegia Hance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song GAO; Guang-Miao FU; Li-Hua FAN; Shi-Shan YU; De-Quan YU

    2005-01-01

    A novel flavonoid named mopanolchin (1), together with seven known flavonoids, was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and spectroscopic methods from the EtOAc extract of the roots of Lysidice rhodostegia Hance. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 1"-(4-hydroxy-3, 5-dimethoxy)phenyl-2"-hydroxymethyl-dioxino [4', 5',1", 2"]mopanol (1) on the basis of spectral analysis.The known compounds were identified as (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (2), epicatechin (3), naringenin (4),eriodictyol (5), luteolin (6), 7, 3', 4'-trihydroxyflavone (7) and (-)-robinetinidol (8).

  7. Modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids comprise the most common group of polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites. In plants, flavonoids play an important role in biological processes. Beside their function as pigments in flowers and fruits, to attract pollinators and seed dispersers, flavonoids are involved in UV-scavenging,

  8. Analysis and health effects of flavonoids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. Flavonoids have a variety of biological effects in numerous mammalian cell systems, in vitro as well as in vivo. Recently much attention has been paid to their

  9. [Advances in studies on flavonoids of licorice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guo-xiu; Li, Nan; Wang, Tong; Yao, Mei-yan

    2003-07-01

    The progress in the research of the active ingredients of licorice flavonoid and the pharmacological activities was reviewed. Licorice flavonoid constituents mainly included flavones, flavonals, isoflavones, chalcones, bihydroflavones and bihydrochalcones. Pharmacological investigation concluded that they had antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumer and inhibiting HIV activities. It is important to study further the flavonoid constituents and pharmacological activities. PMID:15139098

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase responsible for anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in Freesia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The glycosylation of flavonoids increases their solubility and stability in plants. Flowers accumulate anthocyanidin and flavonol glycosides which are synthesized by UDP-sugar flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGTs. In our previous study, a cDNA clone (Fh3GT1 encoding UFGT was isolated from Freesia hybrida, which was preliminarily proved to be invovled in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside biosynthesis. Here, a variety of anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides were detected in flowers and other tissues of F. hybrida, implying the versatile roles of Fh3GT1 in flavonoids biosynthesis. To further unravel its multi-functional roles, integrative analysis between gene expression and metabolites was investigated. The results showed expression of Fh3GT1 was positively related to the accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides, suggesting its potential roles in the biosynthesis of both flavonoid glycosides. Subsequently, biochemical analysis results revealed that a broad range of flavonoid substrates including flavonoid not naturally occurred in F. hybrida could be recognized by the recombinant Fh3GT1. Both UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose could be used as sugar donors by recombinant Fh3GT1, although UDP-galactose was transferred with relatively low activity. Furthermore, regiospecificity analysis demonstrated that Fh3GT1 was able to glycosylate delphinidin at the 3-, 4'- and 7- positions in a sugar-dependent manner. And the introduction of Fh3GT1 into Arabidopsis UGT78D2 mutant successfully restored the anthocyanins and flavonols phenotypes caused by lost-of-function of the 3GT, indicating that Fh3GT1 functions as a flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase in vivo. In summary, these results demonstrate that Fh3GT1 is a flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase using UDP-glucose as the preferred sugar donor and may involve in flavonoid glycosylation in F. hybrida.

  11. Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufichon, Laure; Rothstein, Steven J; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nitrogen in the form of ammonium is assimilated into asparagine via multiple steps involving glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in Arabidopsis. The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in vegetative and senescence organs. A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine aminotransferase encoded by a single gene. The aim of this study is to highlight the structure of the genes and encoded enzyme proteins involved in asparagine metabolic pathways; the regulation and role of different isogenes; and kinetic and physiological properties of encoded enzymes in different tissues and developmental stages. PMID:26628609

  12. Conserved cis-regulatory elements for DNA-binding-with-one-finger and homeo-domain-leucine-zipper transcription factors regulate companion cell-specific expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidereit, Alexander; Imlau, Astrid; Sauer, Norbert

    2008-09-01

    The transition from young carbon-importing sink leaves of higher plants to mature carbon-exporting source leaves is paralleled by a complete reversal of phloem function. While sink-leaf phloem mediates the influx of reduced carbon from older source leaves and the release of this imported carbon to the sink-leaf mesophyll, source-leaf phloem catalyzes the uptake of photoassimilates into companion cells (CCs) and sieve elements (SEs) and the net carbon export from the leaf. Phloem loading in source leaves with sucrose, the main or exclusive transport form for fixed carbon in most higher plants, is catalyzed by plasma membrane-localized sucrose transporters. Consistent with the described physiological switch from sink to source, the promoter of the Arabidopsis AtSUC2 gene is active only in source-leaf CCs of Arabidopsis or of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). For the identification of regulatory elements involved in this companion cell-specific and source-specific gene expression, we performed detailed analyses of the AtSUC2 promoter by truncation and mutagenesis. A 126-bp promoter fragment was identified, which seems to contain these fragments and which drives AtSUC2-typical expression when combined with a 35S minimal promoter. Within this fragment, linker-scanning analyses revealed two cis-regulatory elements that were further characterized as putative binding sites for transcription factors of the DNA-binding-with-one-finger or the homeo-domain-leucine-zipper families. Similar or identical binding sites are found in other genes and in different plant species, suggesting an ancient regulatory mechanism for this important physiological switch. PMID:18551303

  13. Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase 2 is involved in root gravitropism through regulation of polar auxin transport by affecting the cycling of PIN proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Yu; Jia, Wen-Jing; Chu, Yu-Jia; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) catalyzes the synthesis of PI-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) by phosphorylation of PI-4-phosphate at the 5 position of the inositol ring, and is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes and stress responses. We here report on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis PIP5K2, which is expressed during lateral root initiation and elongation, and whose expression is enhanced by exogenous auxin. The knockout mutant pip5k...

  14. Metabolomic and genetic analyses of flavonol synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana support the in vivo involvement of leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, R.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Bartelniewoehner, L.; Ishihara, H.; Sagasser, M.; Martens, S.; Weisshaar, B.

    2009-01-01

    Flavonol synthase (FLS) (EC-number 1.14.11.23), the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of flavonols into dihydroflavonols, is part of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this activity is thought to be encoded by several loci. In addition to the FLAVONOL SYNTHASE1 (FLS1) lo

  15. Differential expression analysis of boron transporters and some stress-related genes in response to 24-epibrassinolide and boron by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surgun Yonca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant steroidal hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs, promote plant developmental processes and enhance tolerance to several abiotic stresses including high boron (B stress. To examine the possible role of BR in high B-induced stress at the transcriptional level, we investigated the response of B transporter genes (BOR1-4, high B-induced genes (MATE, Hsp-like, BR-induced genes (Hsp70-4, Hsp90-1 and other stress-related genes (LTI/COR78, LEA4-5 upon exogenous treatments of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL on Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh exposed to high concentrations of boric acid (BA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. BA treatments led to down regulation of BOR1 and BOR3 genes in leaf and root tissues and higher concentration of EBL further decreased expression of these genes in roots. The expression of high B-induced genes was observed to be upregulated by 1 μM EBL treatment under high B stress in both tissues of the seedlings. The upregulation of BR-induced genes were clearly evident in root tissues co-treated with 1 μM EBL and BA as compared to BA alone. Higher concentration of EBL was found to be more effective in increasing expression of LTI/COR78 gene in root and LEA4-5 gene in shoot tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report how exogenous application of EBL modulates high B stress responses at molecular level in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  16. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangrong Li; Yueming Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindi...

  17. Flavonoides del género croton

    OpenAIRE

    Puebla, P; Guerrero, Mario; Correa, S.

    2009-01-01

    Los flavonoides son una clase de metabolitos secundarios ampliamente distribuidos en el reino vegetal. Actualmente existe un gran interés en los efectos de los flavonoides sobre la salud humana, numerosos estudios sugieren que estos compuestos protegen contra el stress oxidativo, enfermedades coronarias y ciertos cánceres. Este artículo describe los flavonoides conocidos hasta el momento en el género Croton.

  18. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Cui; Xinxin Liu; Yalan Tian; Chen Xie; Qianwen Li; Han Cui; Changqing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990...

  19. Investigation of metal–flavonoid chelates and the determination of flavonoids via metal–flavonoid complexing reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN MALESEV

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids constitute a large group of polyphenolic phytochemicals with antioxidant properties which are overwhelmingly exerted through direct free radical scavenging. Flavonoids also exhibit antioxidant properties through chelating with transition metals, primarily Fe(II, Fe(III and Cu(II, which participate in reactions generating free radicals. Metal–flavonoid chelates are considerably more potent free radical scavengers than the parent flavonoids and play a prominent role in protecting from oxidative stress. To unravel the origin of their potent biological action extensive physico–chemical studies were undertaken to reveal the chemical structure, chelation sites, assess the impact of the metal/ligand ratio on the structure of the complexes and the capacity of flavonoids to bind metal ions. In spite of such extensive efforts, data on the composition, structure and complex-formation properties are incomplete and sometimes even contradictory. The aim of this paper is to give a personal account on the development of the field through a retrospective evaluation of our own research which covers approximately 40 complexes of flavonoids from different flavonoids subclasses (rutin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, morin and hesperidin with several metal ions or groups and suggest directions for future research. Special emphasis will be given to the site of the central ion, the composition of the complexes, the role of pH in complex formation, the stability of metal–flavonoid complexes and their potential application for analytical purposes.

  20. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae); Flavonoides de Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    A new flavone named 3,4',5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'', 3'':7,8] furanoflavone besides the known flavonoids (2S,3R,4S)-3,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanoflavan, 3,6-dimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylcromene-[2'',3'':7,8]-flavone, 3,5,6-trimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone, 2,4',4,5-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanodihydroaurone, (2R,3S,4S)-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavan and 3',4'-methylenedioxy-5,6-dimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone were isolated from the root barks of Lonchocarpus campestris. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments of the new furan flavonoid was performed using 1D and 2D pulse sequences, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. (author)

  1. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih)

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Dhianawaty; Ramdan Panigoro; Samsudin Surialaga; Pricilla Purushothman

    2012-01-01

    A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Me...

  2. Flavonoids:emerging trends and potential health benefits%Flavonoids: emerging trends and potential health benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj K.Keservani; Anil K.Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are widely used in industry for the prevention of various diseases.In daily life we are directly in touch with flavonoids due to their presence in different beverages,fruits and vegetables.Flavonoids are mainly used as a coloring agent in plants,antioxidant and nutritional food for human.Flavonoids have explicit role in UV filtration,symbiotic nitrogen fixation and floral pigmentation.Flavonoids have potential for different biological activities like chelation of metals,decreasing platelets aggregation and cell signaling etc.

  3. A new flavonoid from Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisutthanan, N; Liawruangrath, B; Liawruangrath, S; Bremner, J B

    2006-11-01

    Fractionation of the aerial parts of Chromolaena odorata afforded a new flavonoid, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavanone, in addition to 14 known flavonoid compounds, six of which had not been isolated previously from this plant. The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic methods particularly 2D-NMR analysis. PMID:17127508

  4. Dietary flavonoids: intake, health effects and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal stud

  5. Flavonoid variation in Eurasian Sedum and Sempervivum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.F; 't Hart, H; Elema, E.T; Bolck, A

    1996-01-01

    Flavonoids from vegetative parts of 29 species of Eurasian Sedum, Sedum meyeri-johannis from central East Africa, 34 species of Sempervivum, and Jovibarba heuffelii have been identified after acid hydrolysis. Ten flavonoid aglycones were detected, i.e. kaempferol, herbacetin, sexangularetin, quercet

  6. Methylated Flavonoids From Artemisia Monosperma

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Ismail; Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; Rizk, A. M.; Hassan, N. M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of the flavonoid constituents of Artemisia monosperma resulted in the isolation and identification of four methylated flavonoids: quercetin 3,3',4'-trimethylether, diosmetin (luteolin 4'-methylether), 2',3,5'-trimethoxy-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone and 2',5'-dimethoxy-3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone. أسفرت دراسة الفلافونيدات لنبات العادر عن فصل وتعريف أربعة مركبات هي : كيرستين 3،13،14 - تراي ميثيل إثير ، دايزموتين ( ليتيولين 14 - ميثيل أثير ) ، 12،3،15 - تراي ميثوكس - 14 ،5 ،7 - ترا...

  7. Flavonoids--food sources and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Aleksandra; Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of bioactive compounds that are extensively found in foodstuffs of plant origin. Their regular consumption is associated with reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids are classified into subgroups based on their chemical structure: flavanones, flavones, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins and isoflavones. Their actions at the molecular level include antioxidant effects, as well the ability to modulate several key enzymatic pathways. The growing body of scientific evidence indicates that flavonoids play a beneficial role in disease prevention, however further clinical and epidemiological trials are greatly needed. Among dietary sources of flavonoids there are fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds and spices. Consumption of these substances with diet appears to be safe. It seems that a diet rich in flavonoids is beneficial and its promotion is thus justifiable.

  8. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  9. De novo production of the flavonoid naringenin in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Flavonoids comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolic intermediates that exhibit a wide variety of antioxidant and human health-related properties. Plant production of flavonoids is limited by the low productivity and the complexity of the recovered flavonoids. Thus to overcome these limitations, metabolic engineering of specific pathway in microbial systems have been envisaged to produce high quantity of a single molecules. Result Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce the key intermediate flavonoid, naringenin, solely from glucose. For this, specific naringenin biosynthesis genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were selected by comparative expression profiling and introduced in S. cerevisiae. The sole expression of these A. thaliana genes yielded low extracellular naringenin concentrations (Synthesis of aromatic amino acids was deregulated by alleviating feedback inhibition of 3-deoxy-d-arabinose-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (Aro3, Aro4) and byproduct formation was reduced by eliminating phenylpyruvate decarboxylase (Aro10, Pdc5, Pdc6). Together with an increased copy number of the chalcone synthase gene and expression of a heterologous tyrosine ammonia lyase, these modifications resulted in a 40-fold increase of extracellular naringenin titers (to approximately 200 μM) in glucose-grown shake-flask cultures. In aerated, pH controlled batch reactors, extracellular naringenin concentrations of over 400 μM were reached. Conclusion The results reported in this study demonstrate that S. cerevisiae is capable of de novo production of naringenin by coexpressing the naringenin production genes from A. thaliana and optimization of the flux towards the naringenin pathway. The engineered yeast naringenin production host provides a metabolic chassis for production of a wide range of flavonoids and exploration of their biological functions. PMID:23216753

  10. Bioactive flavonoids from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenjai, Chavi; Prasanphen, Khanchara; Daodee, Supawadee; Wongpanich, Varima; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2004-01-01

    Nine flavonoids (1-9) have been isolated from Kaempferia parviflora. Among these, 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (8) and 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (9) exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, with IC50 values of 3.70 and 4.06 microg/ml, respectively. 3,5,7,4'-Tetramethoxyflavone (7) and compound 8 possessed antifungal activity against Candida albicans with respective IC50 values of 39.71 and 17.63 microg/ml, and also showed mild antimycobacterial activity with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. However, none of the isolated compounds demonstrated cytotoxicity against KB, BC and NCI-H187 cell lines. PMID:14693228

  11. Association of flavonoid-rich foods and statins in the management of hypercholesterolemia: a dangerous or helpful combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Serafini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Statins and dietary modifications are the cornerstone of hypercholesterolemia management. Although it is well known that possible adverse effect of statins can occur due to drug-drug interactions, food-drug interactions are a commonly overlooked aspect. In particular, flavonoids could interfere with statins' bioavailability through different mechanisms, such as competition with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, esterases, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases and transporters (P-glycoprotein, multi-drug resistance-associated proteins, organic anion transporting polypeptides, breast cancer-resistance protein and monocarboxylate transporters). Transporters are characterized by low substrate specificity and flavonoid- rich foods could interfere with the bioavailability of all statins at this level. On the other hand, in addition to being substrates of drug metabolism/ transport systems, flavonoids are also able to modulate gene expression of enzymes and transporters. Therefore, long-term transcriptional induction may increase the clearance of statins, despite flavonoids act as competitive inhibitors after bolus consumption. In humans, major interactions were observed between grapefruit juice and statins that are substrates of P-glycoprotein/CYP3A, but other fruit juices also affect the bioavailability of statins that are not metabolised by CYP. Even if flavonoids could play a role in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia, the question whether there's a helpful or dangerous association between flavonoid-rich foods and statins, due to the interactions between flavonoid-rich foods and statins and the potential associated adverse effects of statins, remain unanswered. Therefore, the anamnesis of patients must include detailed information about their eating habits and the present review suggests monitoring and reporting any possible case of interaction between a prescribed statin and food. PMID:26467069

  12. Transport of trans-tiliroside (kaempferol-3-β-D-(6"-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside) and related flavonoids across Caco-2 cells, as a model of absorption and metabolism in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zijun; Morgan, Michael R A; Day, Andrea J

    2015-01-01

    1. Absorption and metabolism of tiliroside (kaempferol 3-β-D-(6"-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside) and its related compounds kaempferol, kaempferol-3-glucoside and p-coumaric acid were investigated in the small intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Apparent permeation (Papp) was determined as 0.62 × 10(-6) cm/s, 3.1 × 10(-6) cm/s, 0 and 22.8 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively. 2. Mechanistic study showed that the transportation of tiliroside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and p-coumaric acid in Caco-2 model were transporter(s) involved, while transportation of kaempferol was solely by passive diffusion mechanism. 3. Efflux transporters, multi-drug-resistance-associated protein-2 (MRP2), were shown to play a role in limiting the uptake of tiliroside. Inhibitors of MRP2, (MK571 and rifampicin) and co-incubation with kaempferol (10 μM), increased transfer from the apical to the basolateral side by three to five fold. 4. Metabolites of kaempferol-3-glucoside and p-coumaric acid were not detected in the current Caco-2 model, while tiliroside was metabolised to a limited extent, with two tiliroside mono-glucuronides identified; and kaempferol was metabolised to a higher extent, with three mono-glucuronides and two mono-sulfates identified. 5. In conclusion, tiliroside was metabolised and transported across Caco-2 cell membrane to a limited extent. Transportation could be increased by applying MRP2 inhibitors or co-incubation with kaempferol. It is proposed that tiliroside can be absorbed by human; future pharmacokinetics studies are warranted in order to determine the usefulness of tiliroside as a bioactive agent.

  13. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Chalcone Synthase from Freesia hybrid in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase (CHS catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the cDNA (FhCHS1 encoding CHS from Freesia hybrida was successfully isolated and analyzed. Multiple sequence alignments showed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of FhCHS1. Meanwhile, crystallographic analysis revealed that protein structure of FhCHS1 is highly similar to that of alfalfa CHS2, and the biochemical analysis results indicated that it has an enzymatic role in naringenin biosynthesis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transcript levels of FhCHS1 in flowers and different tissues, and patterns of FhCHS1 expression in flowers showed significant correlation to the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin during flower development. To further characterize the functionality of FhCHS1, its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tt4 mutants and Petunia hybrida was performed. The results showed that overexpression of FhCHS1 in tt4 mutants fully restored the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coats, cotyledons and hypocotyls, while transgenic petunia expressing FhCHS1 showed flower color alteration from white to pink. In summary, these results suggest that FhCHS1 plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of flavonoid in Freesia hybrida and may be used to modify the components of flavonoids in other plants.

  14. Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, Biological functions and Biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lorena eFalcone Ferreyra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. The elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways, as well as their regulation by MYB, bHLH and WD40-type transcription factors, has allowed metabolic engineering of plants through the manipulation of the different final products with valuable applications. The present review describes the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as the biological functions of flavonoids in plants, such as in defense against UV-B radiation and pathogen infection, nodulation, pollen fertility. In addition, we discuss different strategies and achievements through the genetic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis with implication in the industry and the combinatorial biosynthesis in microorganisms by the reconstruction of the pathway to obtain high amounts of specific compounds.

  15. A New Flavonoid from Oxytropis kansuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Xi LIU; Xin Yi HUANG; Duo Long DI; Sheng Xiang JIANG

    2006-01-01

    A new flavonoid 1 rhamnocitrin-3-O-(6"-feruloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside-4'-O-β-D-glucospyranoside called kansuensisoside A together with a known flavonoid 2 (rhamnocitrin3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-4'-O-β-D-glucospyranoside) were isolated from the extract of the whole plant of Oxytropis kansuensis Bunge. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) and HR-ESIMS.

  16. Flavonoides e terpenoides de Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milena B. Barreto; Clêrton L. Gomes; João Vito B. de Freitas; Francisco das Chagas L. Pinto; Edilberto R. Silveira; Nilce V. Gramosa; Daniela S. Carneiro Torres

    2013-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Müll. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6α-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated com...

  17. Structure-cytotoxicity relationships for dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of a large series of dietary flavonoids was tested in a non-tumorigenic mouse and two human cancer cell lines, using the neutral red dye exclusion assay. All compounds tested exhibited a concentration-dependent cytotoxic action in the employed cell lines. The relative cytotoxicit......, produced from redox cycling of the catechol structure with molecular oxygen, is responsible in part for the cytotoxicity of this subgroup of flavonoids....

  18. STP10 encodes a high-affinity monosaccharide transporter and is induced under low-glucose conditions in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmann, Theresa; Zierer, Wolfgang; Subert, Christa; Sauer, Norbert; Stadler, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Pollen tubes are fast growing, photosynthetically inactive cells. Their energy demand is covered by specific transport proteins in the plasma membrane that mediate the uptake of sugars. Here we report on the functional characterization of AtSTP10, a previously uncharacterized member of the SUGAR TRANSPORT PROTEIN family. Heterologous expression of STP10 cDNA in yeast revealed that the encoded protein catalyses the high-affinity uptake of glucose, galactose and mannose. The transporter is sensitive to uncouplers of transmembrane proton gradients, indicating that the protein acts as a hexose-H(+)symporter. Analyses of STP10 mRNA and STP10 promoter-reporter gene studies revealed a sink-specific expression pattern of STP10 in primordia of lateral roots and in pollen tubes. This restriction to sink organs is mediated by intragenic regions of STP10 qPCR analyses with cDNA of in vitro grown pollen tubes showed that STP10 expression was down-regulated in the presence of 50mM glucose. However, in pollen tubes of glucose-insensitive plants, which lack the glucose sensor hexokinase1 (HXK1), no glucose-induced down-regulation of STP10 expression was detected. A stp10T-DNA insertion line developed normally, which may point towards functional redundancy. The data presented in this paper indicate that a high-affinity glucose uptake system is induced in growing pollen tubes under low glucose conditions and that this regulation may occur through the hexokinase pathway. PMID:26893494

  19. Flavonoids Affect the Light Reaction of Photosynthesis in Vitro and in Vivo as Well as the Growth of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Olivares-Palomares, Karen Susana; Aguilar-Laurents, María Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, José Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; King-Díaz, Beatriz

    2015-09-23

    Flavonoids retusin (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone) (1) and pachypodol (5,4'-dihydroxy-3,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone) (2) were isolated from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus Ort. Pachypodol acts as a Hill reaction inhibitor with its target on the water splitting enzyme located in PSII. In the search for new herbicides from natural compounds, flavonoids 1 and 2 and flavonoid analogues quercetin (3), apigenin (4), genistein (5), and eupatorin (6) were assessed for their effect in vitro on the photosynthetic electron transport chain and in vivo on the germination and growth of the plants Physalis ixocarpa, Trifolium alexandrinum and Lolium perenne. Flavonoid 3 was the most active inhibitor of the photosynthetic uncoupled electron flow (I50 = 114 μM) with a lower log P value (1.37). Results in vivo suggest that 1, 2, 3, and 5 behave as pre- and postemergent herbicides, with 3 and 5 being more active. PMID:26322527

  20. The Role of Flavonoids as Potential Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations for effective and non toxic compounds with radioprotection capability led to increasing interest in naturally occurring antioxidants since most of known chemical radioprotectors (AET, WR2721, WR 1065, etc.) express toxic side effects that limit their use in medical practice. Among the promissing compounds there are flavonoids, whosentioxidant activity is based on ability of direct free radicals scavenging or stabilizing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by interacting with the reactive compound of the radical. Because of the high reactivity of the hydroxyl substituents of flavonoids, radicals are made inactive. Flavonoids can also increase the function of the endogenous antioxidant enzyme systems: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and gluthation. Antioxidant effects may be also a combined result of radical scavenging and interaction with enzyme functions. Flavonoids induce activities of the immune system as well. Increased hematopoietic activity could account for the improved hematopoietic tolerance to radiotherapy. In this study we evaluated radioprotective effects of selected flavonoids (caffeic acid, chrysin, naringin and quercetin) administered to mice prior to whole-body irradiation with γ-rays (absorbed dose was 9 Gy). The survival analysis and alkaline comet assay on white blood cells were employed both on irradiated and non-irradiated animals. Blood samples were taken 30 min. after irradiation. Appropriate negative and positive control groups (administered chemical radioprotector AET, S-(2-Aminoethyl) isothiouronium bromide hydrobromide, i. p. at a dose of 281 mg kg-1 body weight) were also selected and handled in the same manner. We observed statistically significant difference in surviving time of mice pre-treated with test components and the most effective radioprotector was quercetin. Tested flavonoids were not genotoxic to non-irradiated mice and offered good

  1. ROP3 GTPase contributes to polar auxin transport and auxin responses and is important for embryogenesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-bao; Liu, Huili; Chen, Min; Li, Xiaojuan; Wang, Mingyan; Yang, Yali; Wang, Chunling; Huang, Jiaqing; Liu, Guolan; Liu, Yuting; Xu, Jian; Cheung, Alice Y; Tao, Li-zhen

    2014-09-01

    ROP GTPases are crucial for the establishment of cell polarity and for controlling responses to hormones and environmental signals in plants. In this work, we show that ROP3 plays important roles in embryo development and auxin-dependent plant growth. Loss-of-function and dominant-negative (DN) mutations in ROP3 induced a spectrum of similar defects starting with altered cell division patterning during early embryogenesis to postembryonic auxin-regulated growth and developmental responses. These resulted in distorted embryo development, defective organ formation, retarded root gravitropism, and reduced auxin-dependent hypocotyl elongation. Our results showed that the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS and root master regulators PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2 was reduced in DN-rop3 mutant embryos, accounting for some of the observed patterning defects. ROP3 mutations also altered polar localization of auxin efflux proteins (PINs) at the plasma membrane (PM), thus disrupting auxin maxima in the root. Notably, ROP3 is induced by auxin and prominently detected in root stele cells, an expression pattern similar to those of several stele-enriched PINs. Our results demonstrate that ROP3 is important for maintaining the polarity of PIN proteins at the PM, which in turn ensures polar auxin transport and distribution, thereby controlling plant patterning and auxin-regulated responses.

  2. The Arabidopsis thaliana RNA Editing FactorSLO2, which Affects the Mitochondrial ElectronTransport Chain, Participates in Multiple Stressand Hormone Resoonses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we reported that the novel mitochondrial RNA editing factor SLO2 is essential for mitochondrialelectron transport, and vital for plant growth through regulation of carbon and energy metabolism. Here, we show thatmutation in SL02 causes hypersensitivity to ABA and insensitivity to ethylene, suggesting a link with stress responses.Indeed, slo2 mutants are hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stress during the germination stage, while adult plantsshow increased drought and salt tolerance. Moreover, slo2 mutants are more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection.An increased expression of nuclear-encoded stress-responsive genes, as well as mitochondrial-encoded NAD genes ofcomplex I and genes of the alternative respiratory pathway, was observed in slo2 mutants, further enhanced by ABAtreatment. In addition, H202 accumulation and altered amino acid levels were recorded in slo2 mutants. We conclude thatSLO2 is required for plant sensitivity to ABA, ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress. Although two stress-related RNA editingfactors were reported very recently, this study demonstrates a unique role of SLO2, and further supports a link betweenmitochondrial RNA editing events and stress response.

  3. Persimmon leaf flavonoid promotes brain ischemic tolerance**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsan Miao; Xuexia Zhang; Ming Bai; Linan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Persimmon leaf flavonoid has been shown to enhance brain ischemic tolerance in mice, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded using a micro clip to block blood flow for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes of ischemic preconditioning, 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg persimmon leaf flavonoid or 20 mg/kg ginaton was intragastrical y administered per day for 5 days. At 1 hour after the final administration, ischemia/reperfusion models were estab-lished by blocking the middle cerebral artery for 2 hours. At 24 hours after model establishment, compared with cerebral ischemic rats without ischemic preconditioning or drug intervention, plasma endothelin, thrombomodulin and von Wil ebrand factor levels significantly decreased and intercel-lular adhesion molecule-1 expression markedly reduced in brain tissue from rats with ischemic pre-conditioning. Simultaneously, brain tissue injury reduced. Ischemic preconditioning combined with drug exposure noticeably improved the effects of the above-mentioned indices, and the effects of 200 mg/kg persimmon leaf flavonoid were similar to 20 mg/kg ginaton treatment. These results indicate that ischemic preconditioning produces tolerance to recurrent severe cerebral ischemia. However, persimmon leaf flavonoid can elevate ischemic tolerance by reducing inflammatory reactions and vascular endothelial injury. High-dose persimmon leaf flavonoid showed an identical effect to ginaton.

  4. Gradual shifts in sites of free-auxin production during leaf-primordium development and their role in vascular differentiation and leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Roni; Schwalm, Katja; Langhans, Markus; Ullrich, Cornelia I

    2003-03-01

    The major regulatory shoot signal is auxin, whose synthesis in young leaves has been a mystery. To test the leaf-venation hypothesis [R. Aloni (2001) J Plant Growth Regul 20: 22-34], the patterns of free-auxin production, movement and accumulation in developing leaf primordia of DR5::GUS-transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were visualized. DR5::GUS expression was regarded to reflect sites of free auxin, while immunolocalization with specific monoclonal antibodies indicated total auxin distribution. The mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in the synthesis, conjugate hydrolysis, accumulation and basipetal transport of auxin, namely indole-3-glycerol-phosphate-synthase, nitrilase, IAA-amino acid hydrolase, chalcone synthase and PIN1 as an essential component of the basipetal IAA carrier, was investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Near the shoot apex, stipules were the earliest sites of high free-auxin production. During early stages of primordium development, leaf apical dominance was evident from strong beta-glucuronidase activity in the elongating tip, possibly suppressing the production of free auxin in the leaf tissues below it. Hydathodes, which develop in the tip and later in the lobes, were apparently primary sites of high free-auxin production, the latter supported by auxin-conjugate hydrolysis, auxin retention by the chalcone synthase-dependent action of flavonoids and also by the PIN1-component of the carrier-mediated basipetal transport. Trichomes and mesophyll cells were secondary sites of free-auxin production. During primordium development there are gradual shifts in sites and concentrations of free-auxin production occurring first in the tip of a leaf primordium, then progressing basipetally along the margins, and finally appearing also in the central regions of the lamina. This developmental pattern of free-auxin production is suggested to control the basipetal maturation sequence of leaf development and vascular

  5. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Flavonoids from Dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total flavonoids from dandelion was extracted by supercritical CO2 and the total flavonoids content in the extract was investigated by the sodium nitrite-aluminum nitrate method with Rutin as a standard product. Single-factor experiments were carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, time and entrainer amount on the yield of flavonoids. The orthogonal experiments on the optimum technology parameters demonstrated that the influence of the experimental conditions over the yield from high to low was: (a pressure, (b temperature, (c entrainer amount, (d time. The optimization result showed that under the conditions of 50°C, 35 MPa, 80 min and 4.0 mL/g entrainer amount, the yield of the preparative supercritical fluid extraction was 4.974%.

  6. Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Vezza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness are not devoid of quite important adverse effects that impair their long-term use. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms the health benefits of flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds with low molecular weight that are widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, including in edible plants. They may be of great utility in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms including protection against oxidative stress, and preservation of epithelial barrier function and immunomodulatory properties in the gut. In this review we have revised the main flavonoid classes that have been assessed in different experimental models of colitis as well as the proposed mechanisms that support their beneficial effects.

  7. Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezza, Teresa; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that compromises the patients’ life quality and requires sustained pharmacological and surgical treatments. Since their etiology is not completely understood, non-fully-efficient drugs have been developed and those that have shown effectiveness are not devoid of quite important adverse effects that impair their long-term use. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms the health benefits of flavonoids. Flavonoids are compounds with low molecular weight that are widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, including in edible plants. They may be of great utility in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through different mechanisms including protection against oxidative stress, and preservation of epithelial barrier function and immunomodulatory properties in the gut. In this review we have revised the main flavonoid classes that have been assessed in different experimental models of colitis as well as the proposed mechanisms that support their beneficial effects. PMID:27070642

  8. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  9. Homologous electron transport components fail to increase fatty acid hydroxylation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2a3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Wayne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid (HFA present in castor (Ricinus communis seeds, is an important industrial commodity used in products ranging from inks and paints to polymers and fuels. However, due to the deadly toxin ricin and allergens also present in castor, it would be advantageous to produce ricinoleic acid in a different agricultural crop. Unfortunately, repeated efforts at heterologous expression of the castor fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH12 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have produced only 17-19% HFA in the seed triacylglycerols (TAG, whereas castor seeds accumulate up to 90% ricinoleic acid in the endosperm TAG. RcFAH12 requires an electron supply from NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR1 and cytochrome b5 (Cb5 to synthesize ricinoleic acid. Previously, our laboratory found a mutation in the Arabidopsis CBR1 gene, cbr1-1, that caused an 85% decrease in HFA levels in the RcFAH12 Arabidopsis line. These results raise the possibility that electron supply to the heterologous RcFAH12 may limit the production of HFA. Therefore, we hypothesized that by heterologously expressing RcCb5, the reductant supply to RcFAH12 would be improved and lead to increased HFA accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds. Contrary to this proposal, heterologous expression of the top three RcCb5 candidates did not increase HFA accumulation. Furthermore, coexpression of RcCBR1 and RcCb5 in RcFAH12 Arabidopsis also did not increase in HFA levels compared to the parental lines. These results demonstrate that the Arabidopsis electron transfer system is supplying sufficient reductant to RcFAH12 and that there must be other bottlenecks limiting the accumulation of HFA.

  10. Strains for the production of flavonoids from glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Santos, Christine; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-11-13

    The invention relates to the production of flavonoids and flavonoid precursors in cells through recombinant expression of tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI).

  11. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  12. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    OpenAIRE

    Djalma M. Oliveira; Ezequias P. Siqueira; Yule R. F. Nunes; Betania B Cota

    2013-01-01

    The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin). The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the ...

  13. Flavonoides e terpenoides de Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Müll. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6α-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, ¹H and 13C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and comparison with data from the literature.

  14. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Croton muscicarpa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Milena B.; Gomes, Clerton L.; Freitas, Joao Vito B. de; Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Gramosa, Nilce V., E-mail: nilce@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Torres, Daniela S. Carneiro [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas Jequie, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A new sesquiterpene and twelve known compounds comprising eight flavonoids and four terpenoids, were isolated from the leaves, stems, roots and exudate of Croton muscicarpa Muell.. Arg.. Their structures were identified as the terpenoids 6{alpha}-methoxy-cyperene, dammaradienol, squalene, acetyl aleuritolic acid and spathulenol, and as the flavonoids retusin, 3,7,4'-trimethoxy kaempferol, ombuine, pachipodol, kaempferol, casticin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including 2D analyses (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  15. Los flavonoides en la terapia cardiovascular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O Russo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los flavonoides son compuestos fenólicos de 15 carbonos que se distribuyen en el reino vegetal en más de 2.000 especies de muy diversas familias. Debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes y secuestrantes de radicales libres, se consideran provechosos para la salud humana por su acción protectora en la terapia preventiva de diversas cardiopatías.Flavonoids are 15-carbon phenolic compounds generally distributed throughout the plant kingdom in more than 2.000 species identified. Due to their antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties, these substances are considered helpful in the preventive therapy in heart diseases.

  16. Klonierung und Charakterisierung der Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase und der Flavonoid 3',5'-Hydroxylase

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoide sind eine wichtige Klasse sekundärer Pflanzenstoffe, die in allen höheren Pflanzen vorkommen. Bis heute sind mehr als 6400 verschiedene Verbindungen bekannt. Anthocyane, farbige Flavonoide, stellen die wichtigsten Blütenfarbstoffe dar. Sie verleihen Blüten eine rosa, rote, malvenfarbige und blaue Färbung und locken Bestäuber an. Darüber hinaus besitzen Anthocyane, wie alle anderen Flavonoide, zahlreiche wichtige Eigenschaften für Pflanzen, wie z.B. der Schutz vor UV-B-Strahlung und...

  17. Purification of Flavonoids from Black Currant Juice by Nanodiafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    2009-01-01

      Various compounds of the flavonoid group have been reported to possess therapeutic effects towards cancer [1]. Thus there is a large potential in identifying, purifying and quantifying flavonoids from different natural sources in order to screen the pharmaceutical values of these. The flavonoid...

  18. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Oteiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants, thus protecting the structure and function of membranes.

  19. A new flavonoid from Selaginella tamariscina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Feng Liu; Kang Ping Xu; De Jian Jiang; Fu Shuang Li; Jian Shen; Ying Jun Zhou; Ping Sheng Xu; Bin Tan; Gui Shan Tan

    2009-01-01

    6-(2-Hydroxy-5-acetylphenyl)-apigenin (1),a new flavonoid with a phenyl substituent,was first isolated from Selaginella tamariscina.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as ESI-HR-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  1. Absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    To unravel mechanisms of action of dietary flavonoids in their potential role in disease prevention, it is crucial to know the factors that determine their release from foods, their extent of absorption, and their fate in the organism. Research on absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of flavo

  2. Structure-cytotoxicity relationships for dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    uptake and metabolic capacity among the different cell types. In 3T3 cells fairly consistent structure-cytotoxicity relationships were found. The most cytotoxic structures tested in 3T3 cells were flavonoids with adjacent 3',4' hydroxy groups on the B-ring, such as luteolin, quercetin, myricetin, fisetin...

  3. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  4. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. 'Xiangfen 1,' a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with 'Brazil' serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with 'Brazil,' 'Xiangfen 1' fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and 'Xiangfen 1' banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  5. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  6. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dhianawaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Medical Chemistry laboratory Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in 2005. Flavonoids were extracted continually by 95% ethanol, were isolated with paper chromatography/cellulose TLC and 2% acetic acid, then continued with elucidation reagents: n-butanol–acetic acid–water, chloroform–acetic acid–water, forestall, 5%, 15%, 35% and 50% acetic acids. Flavonoids were identified with diagnostic reagents and ultraviolet light. Isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively gave two spots of flavonoids as flavon, FOAc-1 had Rf=0.69 and FOAc-2 had Rf=0.57. The other elucidation reagents gave one spot of flavonoid. In conclusion, isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively and identification with diagnostic reagent and ultraviolet light is a rapid method for identification of flavonoids content in Ocimum sanctum

  7. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important role in the development of this model, based on interdisciplinary collaborations using genetics as a major tool to investigate aspects of physiology, development, plant-microbe interactions and evol...

  8. Rapid Quantitation of Furanocoumarins and Flavonoids in Grapefruit Juice using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Cech, Nadja B.; Paine, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Grapefruit juice can increase or decrease the systemic exposure of myriad oral medications, leading to untoward effects or reduced efficacy. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been established as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, while flavonoids have been implicated as inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated absorptive uptake in the intestine. The potential for drug interactions with a food product necessitates an understanding of the expected concentrations of a suite of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive compounds. Objective Develop methods for the rapid quantitation of two furanocoumarins (bergamottin and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin) and four flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, narirutin, and hesperidin) in five grapefruit juice products using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Methodology Grapefruit juice products were extracted with ethyl acetate; the concentrated extract was analyzed by UPLC using acetonitrile:water gradients and a C18 column. Analytes were detected using a photodiode array detector, set at 250 nm (furanocoumarins) and 310 nm (flavonoids). Intraday and interday precision and accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation were determined. Results Rapid (0.999. Considerable between-juice variation in the concentrations of these compounds was observed, and the quantities measured were in agreement with the concentrations published in HPLC studies. Conclusion These analytical methods provide an expedient means to quantitate key furanocoumarins and flavonoids in grapefruit juice and other foods used in dietary substance-drug interaction studies. PMID:23780830

  9. Effects of Natural Flavonoids on Photosynthetic Activity and Cell Integrity in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haomin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds produced by many aquatic plants and released in their environments. In this study, the effects of several aquatic flavonoids on cyanobacterial Microcystis aeruginosa, especially in relation to the cell growth, photosynthetic activity, cell morphology, and cell membrane integrity, were investigated. Significant growth inhibition was observed when the cyanobacteria were exposed to three flavonoids, namely, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavone (DHF, apigenin, and luteolin. Luteolin reduced the effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency, and maximal electron transport rate by 70%, 59% and 44%, respectively, whereas 5,4'-DHF and apigenin slightly affected these parameters, which implies that luteolin disrupts the photosynthetic system. Moreover, 5,4'-DHF and apigenin compromised the membrane integrity, and induced membrane depolarization in 52% and 38%, and permeabilization in 30% and 44% of the cells, respectively. The 5,4'-DHF and apigenin showed more pronounced effects on M. aeruginosa morphology and membrane integrity, compared to the luteolin. These results suggest that flavonoids could have significant effects on growth and physiological functions in cyanobacterial species.

  10. Differential expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Woo, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol Ho; Park, Sang Un

    2010-12-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a short-season grain crop that is a source of rutin and other phenolic compounds. In this study, we isolated the cDNAs of 11 F. esculentum enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, namely, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) 1 and 2, chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonol synthase (FLS) 1 and 2, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that these genes were most highly expressed in the stems and roots. However, high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that their flavonoid products, such as rutin and catechin, accumulated in the flowers and leaves. These results suggested that flavonoids may be transported within F. esculentum. In addition, light and dark growth conditions affected the expression levels of the biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in F. esculentum sprouts.

  11. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc. and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. DESIGN: We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st, 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98 and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91 compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02, flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03, anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08 or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the intake of flavonols

  12. In vitro antioxidant profiles of some flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Mine; Gülçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioǧlu, Ö. Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Baicalin ((2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-6-(5,6-dihydroxy-4-oxo-2-phenyl-chromen-7-yl)oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydropyran-2-carboxylic acid) and baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) are a flavone, a type of flavonoid. Baicalin is the glucuronide of baicalein. Phlorizin, or phloridzin is a naturally occurring flavonoid produced in some plants. It belongs to the group of dihydrochalcones. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of baicalin, baicalein and phloridzin using different methods including ferric ion (Fe3+) reducing power, cupric ion (Cu2+) reducing power (CUPRAC method), reduction of Fe3+-TPTZ complex, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals (DPPH.) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radicals (ABTS.+) scavenging activities. Also, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-Tocopherol were used as standard antioxidants.

  13. Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed A. Ahmed; Kamel, Emadeldin M.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′-hydroxy-4′′-acetoxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3,3′,4′-trihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-dihydroxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone (2), along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3), Apigetrin (4), centaureidin...

  14. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents. PMID:27146015

  15. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  16. Advance on the Flavonoid C-glycosides and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Capanoglu, Esra; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Miron, Anca

    2016-07-29

    The dietary flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most vital phytochemicals in diets and are of great general interest due to their diverse bioactivity. Almost all natural flavonoids exist as their O-glycoside or C-glycoside forms in plants. The dietary flavonoid C-glycosides have received less attention than their corresponding O-glycosides. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding flavonoid C-glycosides and their influence on human health. Among the flavonoid C-glycosides, flavone C-glycosides, especially vitexin, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin and their multiglycosides are more frequently mentioned than others. Flavonoid C-monoglycosides are poorly absorbed in human beings with very few metabolites in urine and blood and are deglycosylated and degraded by human intestinal bacteria in colon. However, flavonoid C-multiglycosides are absorbed unchanged in the intestine and distributed to other tissues. Flavonoid C-glycosides showed significant antioxidant activity, anticancer and antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, antiviral activity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and other biological effects. It looks like that the C-glycosylflavonoids in most cases showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetes potential than their corresponding O-glycosylflavonoids and aglycones. However, there is a lack of in vivo data on the biological benefits of flavonoid C-glycosides. It is necessary to investigate more on how flavonoid C-glycosides prevent and handle the diseases.

  17. A new flavonoid glucoside from Cassia angustifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ping Wu; Zhu Ju Wang; Li Ying Tang; Mei Hong Fu; Yan He

    2009-01-01

    A new flavonoid glucoside with a known one was isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. Based on the spectral analysis,including MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1HCOSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOSEY, their chemical structures were determined as kaempferol-3-O-[(6"-O-trans-sinnapoyl)-B-D-glucopyranosyl (1 -6)]-B-D-glucopyranoside 1 and apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside 2.

  18. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luz Lopes; Manoel Andrade Neto; Edilberto Rocha Silveira; Otilia Deusdênia Loiola Pessoa; Raimundo Braz-Filho

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric method...

  19. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  20. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinosde and quercetin-3-glucoside are identified as the important anthocyanins. Litchi flavanols and anthocyanins exhibit good potential antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of procyanidin B2 are greater than those of procyanidin B4 and epicatechin, while epicatechin has the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· scavenging activity. In addition to the antioxidant activity, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancer, which could be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through upregulation and down-regulation of multiple genes. Furthermore, various anticancer activities are observed for epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction of LFP tissue extracts. Procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction show a stronger inhibitory effect on HELF than MCF-7 proliferation, while epicatechin and procyanidin B2 have lower cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 and HELF than paclitaxel. It is therefore suggested that flavonoids from LFP might be potentially useful components for functional foods and/or anti-breast cancer drugs.

  1. Tocopherols and flavonoids of SOS-7 halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Halophyte is an oil seed coded as SOS-7 (Salicomia Oil Seed, 7th year of selection. Tocopherol constituents of SOS-7 halophyte oil were determined directly in the oil by using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detector. It was found that the oil contains 710 ppm total tocopherols. The tocopherol constituents, alpha, beta, gamma and delta, were found at the level of 38.2,1.0, 58.7 and 2.1% respectively. Nine flavonoid glycosides were isolated and identified from the seeds and it was found that they belong to the flavonol class of flavonoids. These flavonol compounds were identified as: quercetin-3, 7-diglucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside-7-galactoside, quercetin-3-sophoroside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3, 7-di-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-diglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside.

    Halofito es una semilla oleaginosa codificada como SOS-7 (semilla oleaginosa Salicomia, séptimo año de selección. Los tocoferoles del aceite de halofito SOS-7 fueron determinados directamente en el aceite usando cromatografía líquida de alta presión acoplada a detector fluorescente. Se encontró que el aceite contenía 710 ppm de tocoferoles totales. Los tocoferoles alfa, beta, gamma y delta, se encontraron a niveles de 38.2,1.0, 58.7 y 2.1%, respectivamente. Nueve glicósidos flavonoides fueron aislados e identificados de las semillas y se encontró que pertenecen a la clase flavonol dentro de los flavonoides. Estos flavonoles fueron identificados como: quercetina-3,7-diglucosido, quercetina-3-glucosido-7-galactosido, quercetina-3-soforosido, quercetina- 3-glucosido, quercetina-3-galactosido, isorannetina-3, 7-di-glucosido, isorannetina-3-glucosido, kampferol-3, 7-diglucosido y kampferol-3-glucosido.

  2. Flavonoids from flower of linum capitatum kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Slavica V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Linum capitatimi Kit (Linacea of Serbian origin yielded five additional known Flavonoids including: kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinosid, genistin (genistein-7-O-glucoside and orientin (luteolin-8-C-glucoside. The characterization of these compounds was achieved by microanalysis, as well as various Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods ( UV/VIS and 1HNMR.

  3. Flavonoid profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Alventosa, J M; Jaramillo, S; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G; Cermeño, P; Espejo, J A; Jiménez-Araujo, A; Guillén-Bejarano, R; Fernández-Bolaños, J; Rodríguez-Arcos, R

    2008-08-27

    The determination of flavonoid profiles from different genotypes of triguero asparagus and their comparison to those from green asparagus commercial hybrids was the main goal of this study. The samples consisted of 32 commercial hybrids and 65 genotypes from the Huetor-Tajar population variety (triguero). The analysis of individual flavonoids by HPLC-DAD-MS has allowed the determination of eight naturally occurring flavonol derivatives in several genotypes of triguero asparagus. Those compounds included mono-, di-, and triglycosides of three flavonols, that is, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol. The detailed analysis of the flavonoid profiles revealed significant differences among the distinct genotypes. These have been classified in three distinct groups as the result of a k-means clustering analysis, two of them containing both commercial hybrids and triguero asparagus and another cluster constituted by 21 genotypes of triguero asparagus, which contain several key flavonol derivatives able to differentiate them. Hence, the triglycosides tentatively identified as quercetin-3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside have been detected only in the genotypes grouped in the above-mentioned cluster. On the other hand, the compound tentatively identified as isorhamnetin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in most genotypes of triguero asparagus, whereas it has not been detected in any of the commercial hybrids.

  4. 生长素极性运输PIN基因在拟南芥和荠菜不同组织表达的定量分析%Quantitative analysis of expression of auxin polar transport PIN genes in different tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and Capsella bursa-pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱占伟; 彭彦; 赵燕; 胡清云; 张学文

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the morphogenesis difference of Arabidopsis thaliana and Capsella bursa-pastoris and elucidate the difference of auxin distribution,fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) method with the β-actin gene as internal reference was used to quantify the expression levels of PIN1,PIN3,PIN7 in the roots,stems,leaves,flowers of the two kinds of plants.The results show that the PIN1 expression in all Arabidopsis thaliana organs is higher than they are in the Capsella organs.The expressions of PIN3 in the stem and flower of Arabidopsis thaliana were 3 and 10 times higher than those in the corresponding organs of Capsella bursa-pastoris.PIN7 expression is also higher in Arabidopsis thaliana than it is in the corresponding organs of Capsella with the expression of PIN7 in the leaf of Aradidopsis thaliana more than 10 times higher than those in the leaf of Capsella bursa-pastoris.PIN3 expression is higher in all tissues of Capsella bursa-pastoris than it is in the Arabidopsis thaliana.The expressions of PIN3 in the stem and flower ofArabidopsis thaliana were 3 and 10 times higher than those in the corresponding organs ofCapsella bursa-pastoris.The differential expression of auxin polar transport protein related genes may be the direct reason causing the morphology difference in the two plants.%为了解拟南芥和荠菜形态差异与其生长素极性分布的关系,采用荧光定量PCR,以β-actin为内参基因,对拟南芥和荠菜的根、茎、叶、花等组织中与生长素极性运输相关的PIN1、PIN3、PIN7基因的表达进行定量分析.结果表明:拟南芥各组织中PIN1的表达量都高于荠菜各组织中PIN1的表达量,拟南芥的茎和花中PIN1的表达量分别比荠菜茎和花中PIN1表达量高3倍和10倍;拟南芥各组织中PIN7的表达量也高于荠菜各组织的PIN7表达量,其叶片中PIN7的表达量比荠菜叶片中PIN7的表达量高10倍以上;荠菜各组织中PIN3的表达都高

  5. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  6. Flavonoid Interaction with a Chitinase from Grape Berry Skin: Protein Identification and Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Filippi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an antibody raised against a peptide sequence of rat bilitranslocase (anti-peptide Ab was tested on microsomal proteins obtained from red grape berry skin. Previously, this antibody had demonstrated to recognize plant membrane proteins associated with flavonoid binding and transport. Immuno-proteomic assays identified a number of proteins reacting with this particular antibody, suggesting that the flavonoid binding and interaction may be extended not only to carriers of these molecules, but also to enzymes with very different functions. One of these proteins is a pathogenesis-related (PR class IV chitinase, whose in vitro chitinolytic activity was modulated by two of the most representative flavonoids of grape, quercetin and catechin, as assessed by both spectrophotometric and fluorimetric assays in grape microsomes and commercial enzyme preparations. The effect of these flavonoids on the catalysis and its kinetic parameters was also evaluated, evidencing that they determine a hormetic dose-dependent response. These results highlight the importance of flavonoids not only as antioxidants or antimicrobial effectors, but also as modulators of plant growth and stress response. Implications of the present suggestion are here discussed in the light of environment and pesticide-reduction concerns.

  7. Different Flavonoids Can Shape Unique Gut Microbiota Profile In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiacheng; Chen, Long; Xue, Bin; Liu, Qianyue; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2016-09-01

    The impact of flavonoids has been discussed on the relative viability of bacterial groups in human microbiota. This study was aimed to compare the modulation of various flavonoids, including quercetin, catechin and puerarin, on gut microbiota culture in vitro, and analyze the interactions between bacterial species using fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as carbon source under the stress of flavonoids. Three plant flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, were added into multispecies culture to ferment for 24 h, respectively. The bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons were sequenced, and the composition of microbiota community was analyzed. The results revealed that the tested flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, presented different activities of regulating gut microbiota; flavonoid aglycones, but not glycosides, may inhibit growth of certain species. Quercetin and catechin shaped unique biological webs. Bifidobacterium spp. was the center of the biological web constructed in this study.

  8. Content and distribution of flavonoids among 91 edible plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ray-Yu; Lin, Shou; Kuo, George

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoid contents as aglycones (for quercetin, kaempherol, isorhamnetin, luteolin and apigenin) were reported for 115 edible plants (91 species). Plant materials mostly originated in tropical zones were grown and harvested from AVRDC, Taiwan. Acid extraction and HPLC were used as analytical methods. Total flavonoid contents ranged from 0 to 254 mg/100g fresh weight. About 75% of samples were found to contain flavonoids > 0.5 mg/100g with the group mean 33 +/- 48 mg/100g. Data for only 30 samples (20 species) in this study are also available (measured as raw vegetables) in the USDA flavonoid database. This study can expand the flavonoid database and contribute to measurement of flavonoid intake, especially for populations consuming tropical and underutilized vegetables. PMID:18296355

  9. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana's roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes. PMID:27399695

  10. Assessment of Flavonoid Release with Different Permeation Enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    Vaisakh M N; Pandey A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different permeation enhancers in the transdermal permeation of flavonoids. A weed plant named Chromolaena odorata have been employed as the flavonoid source. Six different cream formulations have been prepared with the Chromolaena extract using different permeation enhancers such as ethanol, dimethyl sulphoxide, surfactants and occlusive agents. The amount of flavonoids penetrated during a time period of four hours was noted. The highest amo...

  11. Flavonoids - Clinical effects and applications in dentistry: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leena Sankari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids include a huge group of naturally occurring organic compounds. It is found in a large variety of plants including fruits, seeds, grains, tea vegetables, nuts, and wine. Many studies have shown that there is a strong association between flavonoid intake and the long-term effects on mortality. It is widely used in dentistry and it has many clinical effects. This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids to humankind and its clinical applications in dentistry.

  12. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Jones, Peter G; Hopf, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety. PMID:23209535

  13. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian G. Bahrin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety.

  14. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrin, Lucian G.; Jones, Peter G.; Henning Hopf

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety.

  15. New Sesquiterpene and Polymethoxy-Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Yang; WANG, HONGBO; Chen, Jing; Hou, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the polymethoxy-flavonoids, as main components of Artemisia annua, could improve the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin. Here, we described the isolation, elucidation, constituent analysis, flavonoids enrichment of the extracts of A. annua. A total of 20 compounds were isolated including a new sesquiterpene (compound 12) and five (1, 5, 6, 7, 15) afforded for the first time from A. annua. The elucidation of eight flavonoids may be a useful phytochemical data...

  16. Arabidopsis CAPRICE (MYB and GLABRA3 (bHLH control tomato (Solanum lycopersicum anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Wada

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC and the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3 are central regulators of root-hair differentiation and trichome initiation. By transforming the orthologous tomato genes SlTRY (CPC and SlGL3 (GL3 into Arabidopsis, we demonstrated that these genes influence epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, suggesting that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. After transformation into tomato, 35S::CPC inhibited anthocyanin accumulation, whereas GL3::GL3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including Phe-ammonia lyase (PAL, the flavonoid pathway genes chalcone synthase (CHS, dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS were repressed in 35S::CPC tomato. In contrast, the expression levels of PAL, CHS, DFR, and ANS were significantly higher in GL3::GL3 tomato compared with control plants. These results suggest that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin pigment synthesis in tomato.

  17. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.A. van der Kuip (Deirdre); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular disease, but evidence is still conflicting. Tea is the major source of flavonoids in Western populations. OBJECTIVE: The association of tea and flavonoid intake with incident myocardial infarction was exa

  18. Flavonoids from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The flavonoids, kaempferol derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside and quercetin derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum and identified. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a chemical analysis and spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H-, 13C-NMR, ESI-MS). The presence of free aglycones: kaempferol and quercetin was confirmed chromatographically by comparison with standards. PMID:21648195

  19. Two new flavonoid diglycosides from Cephalotaxus sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new acetylated flavonoid diglycosides, scutellarein-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-6-O-acetylglucopyranoside](1), apigenin-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-β-D-3,6-di-O-acetylglucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from the leaves of Cephalotaxus sinensis. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods including HR-FAB-MS,1H-1H COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments.(C) 2007 Yu Hong Yu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Lysionotus pauciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Tu, Yanbei; Du, Hongjian; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-05-01

    Ten flavonoids (1-10), including a new glycoside (nevadensin-7-sambubioside, 7), together with a phenylpropanoid glycoside (11) were isolated from Lysionotus pauciflorus. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods and comparing with literature data. Five compounds (1, 3, 4, 8, and 9) were obtained from the family Gesneriaceae for the first time. The new compound was evaluated in vitro for anticholinesterase activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), but was found to be inactive. PMID:27319133

  1. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data.

  2. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis prevention by flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Belitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of anticancerogenic effects of flavanoids and isocyanates from the plants widely consumed in the midland belt of Russia were reviewed. Data of studies both in vitro and in vivo were analyzed. Special attention was paid to inhibition of targets responsible for carcinogen metabolic activation, carcinogenesis promotion and tumor progression as well as neoangiogenesis. Besides that the antioxidant properties of flavonoids and their effects on cell cycle regulation, apoptosis initiation and cell mobility were considered.

  3. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  4. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, Metwaly; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian;

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defense pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds...... of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defense-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin......, camalexin, and increased expression of defense-related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence. The prominent headspace...

  5. Co-overexpressing a plasma membrane and a vacuolar membrane sodium/proton antiporter significantly improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane bound sodium/proton (Sodium/Hydrogen) antiporter that transports sodium into the vacuole and exports hydrogen into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane bound sodium/hydrogen antiporter that exports sodium to the ex...

  6. Consumer attitudes towards enhanced flavonoid content in fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampila, P.; Lieshout, van M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Lahteenmaki, L.

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoids from fruit and vegetables are currently widely studied as components that have the potential to provide multiple health benefits. In this study consumer perceptions of flavonoids were examined. The data (N = 130) were collected in focus group discussions in Finland, The Netherlands and Fr

  7. FLAVONOID NATURAL SOURCES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN THE HUMAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids as natural bioactive compounds are present in almost every sort of fruits, vegetables and from them derived products. Flavonols may be found mainly in fruits and vegetables, while flavones are abundant in herbs and spices. Rich natural sources of flavanols are tea, cocoa, grape seeds or apple skin. Flavanones are primarily found in a variety of citrus fruits and anthocyanidins in many coloured berries. Soy is rich in isoflavonoids. Average daily intake of flavonoids is approximately in the range of 150 to 300 mg. It strongly depends on individual, country and culture usages. In west countries main dietary sources of flavonoids consist of tea, wine and fruits, while in east countries there is consumed mainly soy with high isoflavonoid content. Many studies have shown, that intake of fruits and vegetables with high flavonoid content is associated with lowered risk of incidence of some diseases such as cardiovascular or cancer. These findings are attributed to experimentally confirmed biological effects of flavonoids - antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anticancer or cardioprotective. The final effect is however depending on their bioavailability, which is in the case of flavonoids not high, because in the nature dominating flavonoid glycosides can poorly penetrate through lipophilic cell membranes. Final effective molecules are flavonoid metabolites, that more or less retain their biological activities. doi: 10.5219/160

  8. Beneficial Effect of the Flavonoid Luteolin on Neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol

    2009-01-01

    Excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators by activated brain microglia plays an important role in abnormal neuronal function and cognitive deficits. Studies have shown that the intake of flavonoids is inversely related to cognitive decline and dementia in people 65 years of age or older. Luteolin, a flavonoid found in high concentrations…

  9. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  10. Methylated Flavonoids from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less, subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA, the methylated flavonoids acacetin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, jaceosidin, 6-methoxykaempferol, and betuletol have been isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Except for acacetin, the same flavonoids were identified in the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. Betuletol was found for the first time in the family of Asteraceae.

  11. Dietary intake of flavonoids and asthma in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, V.; Arts, I.C.W.; Sterne, J.A.C.; Thompson, R.L.; Shaheen, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that a high consumption of apples may protect against asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This effect has been attributed to their high flavonoid content, but few studies have investigated the relationship between flavonoid intake and obstructive

  12. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin, pinocembr

  13. The Reaumuria trigyna leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (RtLDOX) gene complements anthocyanidin synthesis and increases the salt tolerance potential of a transgenic Arabidopsis LDOX mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huirong; Du, Chao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Linlin; Wang, Yingchun

    2016-09-01

    Reaumuria trigyna is a typical, native desert halophyte that grows under extreme conditions in Inner Mongolia. In a previous transcriptomic profiling analysis, flavonoid pathway-related genes in R. trigyna showed significant differences in transcript abundance under salt stress. Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, EC 1.14.11.19) is one of three dioxygenases in the flavonoid pathway that catalyzes the formation of anthocyanidins from leucoanthocyanidins. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of R. trigyna LDOX (RtLDOX), and found RtLDOX recombinant protein was able to replace flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H, EC 1.14.11.9), another dioxygenase in the flavonoid pathway, to convert naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in vitro. R. trigyna LDOX can complement the Arabidopsis LDOX mutant transparent testa11 (tt11-11), which has reduced proanthocyanin (PA) and anthocyanin levels in seeds, to accumulate these two compounds. Thus, RtLDOX acts as a multifunctional dioxygenase to effect the synthesis of PA and anthocyanins and can perform F3H dioxygenase activities in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The RtLDOX promoter harbored many cis-acting elements that might be recognized and bound by transcription factors related to stress response. RtLDOX expression was strongly increased under salt stress, and RtLDOX transgenic Arabidopsis mutant under NaCl stress accumulated the content of flavonoids leading to an increased antioxidant activities and plant biomass. These results suggest that RtLDOX as a multifunctional dioxygenase in flavonoid biosynthesis involves in enhancing plant response to NaCl stress. PMID:27219053

  14. A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Montaño, J M; Burgos-Morón, E; Pérez-Guerrero, C; López-Lázaro, M

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that a diet rich in plant-derived foods has a protective effect on human health. Identifying bioactive dietary constituents is an active area of scientific investigation that may lead to new drug discovery. Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g. tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g. Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Some epidemiological studies have found a positive association between the consumption of foods containing kaempferol and a reduced risk of developing several disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol and some glycosides of kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-osteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergic activities. In this article, the distribution of kaempferol in the plant kingdom and its pharmacological properties are reviewed. The pharmacokinetics (e.g. oral bioavailability, metabolism, plasma levels) and safety of kaempferol are also analyzed. This information may help understand the health benefits of kaempferol-containing plants and may contribute to develop this flavonoid as a possible agent for the prevention and treatment of some diseases. PMID:21428901

  15. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    Most validation studies show that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is rather low in precision and accuracy, and there is an ongoing debate regarding the applicability of such self-reported data with regard to diet-disease relationships. However, no other method has so far been able to repla....... Collection of 24h urine is difficult and time consuming, and therefore morning spot urine may be a more convenient tool than 24h urine for validating the fruit and vegetable consumption in large population studies....... of fruit and vegetable intake (Nielsen et al. 2002). The overall aim of the present Ph.D. thesis was to further develop and validate this potentially new fruit and vegetable biomarker and furthermore use it for the validation of self-reported dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in intervention...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...

  16. Cytotoxic activities of flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sayed A; Kamel, Emadeldin M

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3',4'-dihydroxy-(3'',4''-dihydro-3''-hydroxy-4''-acetoxy)-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano-(5'',6'':7,8)-flavone-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3,3',4'-trihydroxy-(3'',4''-dihydro-3'',4''-dihydroxy)-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano-(5'',6'':7,8)-flavone (2), along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3), Apigetrin (4), centaureidin (5), oroxylin A (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavone (7), atalantoflavone (8), 5-hydroxy-3',4',8-trimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano (5'',6'':6,7)-flavone (9), and 3',4',5,8-tetramethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano (5'',6'':6,7)-flavone (10). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic tools including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human cervical carcinoma HeLa, human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7. Compound 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against HeLa cells with an IC50 0.079  μM. PMID:25114960

  17. [Flavonoids from whole plants of Lagopsis supina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Pang, Dao-ran; Huang, Zheng; Huo, Hui-xia; Li, Yue-ting; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-fang; Tu, Peng-fei; Li, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The flavonoids were investigated from the whole plants of Lagopsis supina. The compounds were isolated and purified by various column chromatography, and their structures were identified by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Two flavones were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of Lagopsis supina extract and identified as genkwanin (1) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (2), respectively. Ten flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the water layer of Lagopsis supina and elucidated as kaempferol-3-O-6" (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl) -β-D-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-6"-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl) -β-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside(5), kaempferol-3-Of3-D-glucoside ( 6), isorhamnetin-3-O-/-D-glycopyranoside (7), apigenin-7-O-6-D-glucoside (8), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (9), chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (10), rutin (11 ), and kaempferol-3-β-(6"-p-coumaroyl) -β-D-glucoside (tiliroside, 12). Compounds 3 and 4 were firstly isolated from Lamiaceae family, and compounds 1-12 were isolated from the plants of Lagopsis genus for the first time.

  18. [Flavonoids from whole plants of Lagopsis supina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Pang, Dao-ran; Huang, Zheng; Huo, Hui-xia; Li, Yue-ting; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-fang; Tu, Peng-fei; Li, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The flavonoids were investigated from the whole plants of Lagopsis supina. The compounds were isolated and purified by various column chromatography, and their structures were identified by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Two flavones were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of Lagopsis supina extract and identified as genkwanin (1) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (2), respectively. Ten flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the water layer of Lagopsis supina and elucidated as kaempferol-3-O-6" (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl) -β-D-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-6"-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl) -β-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside(5), kaempferol-3-Of3-D-glucoside ( 6), isorhamnetin-3-O-/-D-glycopyranoside (7), apigenin-7-O-6-D-glucoside (8), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (9), chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (10), rutin (11 ), and kaempferol-3-β-(6"-p-coumaroyl) -β-D-glucoside (tiliroside, 12). Compounds 3 and 4 were firstly isolated from Lamiaceae family, and compounds 1-12 were isolated from the plants of Lagopsis genus for the first time. PMID:26790297

  19. Flavonoids in the development of functional meat products: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K. Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids or bioflavonoids are unique low molecular weight ubiquitous polyphenolic compounds produced by plants during their metabolic activities as a secondary metabolites and responsible for major organoleptic characteristics and health benefits of plant derived foods. The flavonoids are potent antioxidants agents and protect the cells by scavenging and inhibiting the production and initiation of free radicals, superoxide anions and lipid peroxy radicals. Besides potent antioxidant capacity, flavonoids also shows antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, antithrombosis, antirheumatic, antiatherosclerotic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcers and hepatoprotectives and better termed as neutraceuticals. The antioxidant capacity of meat is very low and this can be increased by adding flavonoids in meat during processing in the form of plant parts rich in flavonoids such as seeds, fruit skin or peel, bark and flower as raw or in extract form without comprising the sensory attributes of meat and meat products. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 573-578

  20. Anti-inflammatory properties of dietary flavonoids Propiedades antiinflamatorias de los flavonoides de la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Gallego

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of natural substances that are located in sources of vegetal origin. More than 4,000 varieties of flavonoids have been identified. All of them are phenyl-benzopyrones of low molecular weight with a basic structure formed by two benzene rings united through a heterocyclic pyrane or pyrone. Besides their relevance in plants, flavonoids are important for human health. Their antioxidant capacity confers a therapeutic potential in cardiovascular diseases, gastric or duodenal ulcers, cancer or hepatic pathologies. Also important are their antiviral and anti-allergic actions, as well as their anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Prostaglandins and nitric oxide biosynthesis is involved in inflammation, and isoforms of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 are responsible for the production of a great amount of these mediators. It has been demonstrated that flavonoids are able to inhibit both enzymes, as well as other mediators of the inflammatory process such as reactive C protein or adhesion molecules. Modulation of the cascade of molecular events leading to the overexpression of those mediators include inhibition of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B and AP-1, through the inhibition of protein kinases involved in signal transduction. Increased antioxidant defenses through activation of the NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 also contribute to the anti-inflammatory capacity of flavonoidsLos flavonoides son un grupo de las sustancias naturales que se encuentran en fuentes de origen vegetal, existiendo más de 4.000 variedades. Todos son fenilbenzopironas de peso molecular bajo con una estructura básica formada por dos anillos heterocíclicos de benceno unidos a través de un pirano o de una pirona. Además de su función en las plantas, los flavonoides son importantes para la salud humana. Su capacidad antioxidante confiere un potencial terapéutico en enfermedades

  1. Protein-Flavonoid Interaction Studies by a Taylor Dispersion Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Technique: A Novel Method to Assess Biomolecular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preejith P. Vachali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are common polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. These pigments have important pharmacological relevance because emerging research suggests possible anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties as well other beneficial health effects. These compounds are relatively hydrophobic molecules, suggesting the role of blood transport proteins in their delivery to tissues. In this study, we assess the binding interactions of four flavonoids (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, and resveratrol with human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in the blood, and with glutathione S-transferase pi isoform-1 (GSTP1, an enzyme with well-characterized hydrophobic binding sites that plays an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics with reduced glutathione, using a novel Taylor dispersion surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique. For the first time, HSA sites revealed a high-affinity binding site for flavonoid interactions. Out of the four flavonoids that we examined, quercetin and kaempferol showed the strongest equilibrium binding affinities (KD of 63 ± 0.03 nM and 37 ± 0.07 nM, respectively. GSTP1 displayed lower affinities in the micromolar range towards all of the flavonoids tested. The interactions of flavonoids with HSA and GSTP1 were studied successfully using this novel SPR assay method. The new method is compatible with both kinetic and equilibrium analyses.

  2. Protein-Flavonoid Interaction Studies by a Taylor Dispersion Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Technique: A Novel Method to Assess Biomolecular Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachali, Preejith P; Li, Binxing; Besch, Brian M; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are common polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. These pigments have important pharmacological relevance because emerging research suggests possible anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties as well other beneficial health effects. These compounds are relatively hydrophobic molecules, suggesting the role of blood transport proteins in their delivery to tissues. In this study, we assess the binding interactions of four flavonoids (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, and resveratrol) with human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in the blood, and with glutathione S-transferase pi isoform-1 (GSTP1), an enzyme with well-characterized hydrophobic binding sites that plays an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics with reduced glutathione, using a novel Taylor dispersion surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. For the first time, HSA sites revealed a high-affinity binding site for flavonoid interactions. Out of the four flavonoids that we examined, quercetin and kaempferol showed the strongest equilibrium binding affinities (K(D)) of 63 ± 0.03 nM and 37 ± 0.07 nM, respectively. GSTP1 displayed lower affinities in the micromolar range towards all of the flavonoids tested. The interactions of flavonoids with HSA and GSTP1 were studied successfully using this novel SPR assay method. The new method is compatible with both kinetic and equilibrium analyses. PMID:26927197

  3. The flavonoid luteolin, but not luteolin-7-O-glucoside, prevents a transthyretin mediated toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Irina; Begum, Afshan; Pokrzywa, Malgorzata; Walfridsson, Malin; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth; Olofsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric plasma protein with amyloidogenic properties that has been linked to the development of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, and senile systemic amyloidosis. The in vivo role of TTR is associated with transport of thyroxine hormone T4 and retinol-binding protein. Loss of the tetrameric integrity of TTR is a rate-limiting step in the process of TTR amyloid formation, and ligands with the ability to bind within the thyroxin binding site (TBS) can stabilize the tetramer, a feature that is currently used as a therapeutic approach for FAP. Several different flavonoids have recently been identified that impair amyloid formation. The flavonoid luteolin shows therapeutic potential with low incidence of unwanted side effects. In this work, we show that luteolin effectively attenuates the cytotoxic response to TTR in cultured neuronal cells and rescues the phenotype of a Drosophila melanogaster model of FAP. The plant-derived luteolin analogue cynaroside has a glucoside group in position 7 of the flavone A-ring and as opposed to luteolin is unable to stabilize TTR tetramers and thus prevents a cytotoxic effect. We generated high-resolution crystal-structures of both TTR wild type and the amyloidogenic mutant V30M in complex with luteolin. The results show that the A-ring of luteolin, in contrast to what was previously suggested, is buried within the TBS, consequently explaining the lack of activity from cynaroside. The flavonoids represent an interesting group of drug candidates for TTR amyloidosis. The present investigation shows the potential of luteolin as a stabilizer of TTR in vivo. We also show an alternative orientation of luteolin within the TBS which could represent a general mode of binding of flavonoids to TTR and is of importance concerning the future design of tetramer stabilizing drugs. PMID:26020516

  4. The flavonoid luteolin, but not luteolin-7-O-glucoside, prevents a transthyretin mediated toxic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Iakovleva

    Full Text Available Transthyretin (TTR is a homotetrameric plasma protein with amyloidogenic properties that has been linked to the development of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP, familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, and senile systemic amyloidosis. The in vivo role of TTR is associated with transport of thyroxine hormone T4 and retinol-binding protein. Loss of the tetrameric integrity of TTR is a rate-limiting step in the process of TTR amyloid formation, and ligands with the ability to bind within the thyroxin binding site (TBS can stabilize the tetramer, a feature that is currently used as a therapeutic approach for FAP. Several different flavonoids have recently been identified that impair amyloid formation. The flavonoid luteolin shows therapeutic potential with low incidence of unwanted side effects. In this work, we show that luteolin effectively attenuates the cytotoxic response to TTR in cultured neuronal cells and rescues the phenotype of a Drosophila melanogaster model of FAP. The plant-derived luteolin analogue cynaroside has a glucoside group in position 7 of the flavone A-ring and as opposed to luteolin is unable to stabilize TTR tetramers and thus prevents a cytotoxic effect. We generated high-resolution crystal-structures of both TTR wild type and the amyloidogenic mutant V30M in complex with luteolin. The results show that the A-ring of luteolin, in contrast to what was previously suggested, is buried within the TBS, consequently explaining the lack of activity from cynaroside. The flavonoids represent an interesting group of drug candidates for TTR amyloidosis. The present investigation shows the potential of luteolin as a stabilizer of TTR in vivo. We also show an alternative orientation of luteolin within the TBS which could represent a general mode of binding of flavonoids to TTR and is of importance concerning the future design of tetramer stabilizing drugs.

  5. Elucidating the Role of Transport Processes in Leaf Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan;

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a strategy to defend its leaves against herbivores is to accumulate glucosinolates along the midrib and at the margin. Although it is generally assumed that glucosinolates are synthesized along the vasculature in an Arabidopsis leaf, thereby suggesting...... that the margin accumulation is established through transport, little is known about these transport processes. Here, we show through leaf apoplastic fluid analysis and glucosinolate feeding experiments that two glucosinolate transporters, GTR1 and GTR2, essential for long-distance transport of glucosinolates...... in Arabidopsis, also play key roles in glucosinolate allocation within a mature leaf by effectively importing apoplastically localized glucosinolates into appropriate cells. Detection of glucosinolates in root xylem sap unambiguously shows that this transport route is involved in root-to-shoot glucosinolate...

  6. Flavonoids from Twigs of Millettia leptobotrya Dunn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Na

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new furanoisoflavone, 2 ' -methoxy-4 ' ,5 ' -methylenedioxy-[2 '' ,3 '' :7,8 ] furanoisoflavone, leptobotryanone ( 1 , and a new natural O-prenylated isoflavone, 4 ' -γ,γ-dimethylallyloxy-5,7-dihydroxyisoflavone ( 2 , were isolated from the twig s of Millettia leptobotrya, together with twelve known flavonoids, 4 ' -γ,γ-dimethylallyloxy-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone ( 3 , 2 ' ,6,7-trimethoxy-4 ' ,5 ' -methylenedioxy- isoflavone (4, 2 ' ,7-dimethoxy-4 ' ,5 ' -methylenedioxyisoflavone (5, maximaisoflavone B (6, medicarpin (7 , maackiain (8, genistein (9, biochanin A (10, prunetin (11, chrysoeriol (12 , kaempferol (13 and desmoxyphyllin A (14 The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation , including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. Th is is the first phytochemical investigation of this plant.

  7. Prenylated flavonoids from maclura tinctoria fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuri de Oliveira Oyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of Maclura tinctoria fruits yielded five flavonoids, including one prenylated flavonol (licoflavonol and four prenylated isoflavones (wighteone, derrone, alpinum isoflavone, and 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl-2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one. The structures of the isolates were established by analyzing their spectroscopic data. Compound 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl-2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one is new and the other isolates are described for the first time in this species.

  8. Cytotoxic prenylated flavonoids from Macaranga indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da-Song; Peng, Wei-Bing; Yang, Yong-Ping; Liu, Ke-Chun; Li, Xiao-Li; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2015-06-01

    Three new prenylated flavonoids, macarindicins A-C (1-3), as well as seven known compounds (4-10) were isolated from the twigs of Macaranga indica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic interpretation. Compounds 2 and 3 enriched the diversity of prenyl moiety in genus Macaranga especially in the aspect of various lengths of prenyl chain. All the known compounds were isolated from M. indica for the first time and this plant was found to contain large number of ellagic acid. Compounds 1-10 were tested for their cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Hep G2, Hela and P388) and showed IC50 values in the range of 2.61-20.35 μg/mL. PMID:25861749

  9. Prenylated flavonoids from maclura tinctoria fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Sayuri de Oliveira; Souza, Luiz Antonio de [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Adriano Antonio, E-mail: aasilva@ufac.br [Departamento de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, AC (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Maclura tinctoria fruits yielded five flavonoids, including one prenylated flavonol (licoflavonol) and four prenylated isoflavones (wighteone, derrone, alpinum isoflavone, and 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl) -2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one). The structures of the isolates were established by analyzing their spectroscopic data. Compound 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl) -2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,3-ihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one is new and the other isolates are described for the first time in this species. (author)

  10. [Studies on the flavonoids from Dendranthema lavandulifolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y X; Quan, L H; Guan, L; Chen, J M

    1997-06-01

    From the whole plant of Dendranthema lavandulifolium, two flavonoides (I, II) and two flavone glycosides (III, IV) were isolated. They were identified as luteolin (I), apigenin (II), 5-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-flavone-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl (acaciin III) and 5-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-flavone-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6) [2-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (IV) by means of IR, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, EI-MS, HRFAB, etc. Among these four compounds, I, II were isolated for the first time from this plant, IV is a new compound. PMID:11596327

  11. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONOIDS FROM IRANIAN SENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R GHANADI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Senna italica Miller or Cassia italica (Miller Sprengel is a native medicinal plant growing in south of Iran and has laxative and cathartic effects. Anthraquinone compounds have been partly associated with the purgative effects of the plant. One of the side effects of anthraquinones is griping and presence of flavonoid compounds in the plant may decrease this effect. Methods. In this study, the plant after being collected, was extracted by a soxhlet method. The isolation of flavonoids was carried out by means of preparative Thin Layer Chromatography of extract of the plant leaves. The structure of flavonoids was determined by the UV-Vis. techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of flavonoids in plant were also performed using an UV-Vis. spectroscopy method. Results and Discussion. Rutin or 5, 7, 3', 4' tetrahydroxy-flavone 3-O-rhamnoglucoside and two flavonoids from aurone group were isolated and identified from the leaves of Senna italica. The percent of flavonoids in Iranian Senna determined 1.5 fold than Cassia angustifolia. These flavonoids may decrease the griping effects of Senna anthraquinones

  12. Flavonoid intake in European adults (18 to 64 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vogiatzoglou

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of phenolic secondary plant metabolites that are ubiquitous in plant-based diets. Data from anthropological, observational and intervention studies have shown that many flavonoids are bioactive. For this reason, there is an increasing interest in investigating the potential health effects of these compounds. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations.The objective of this study is to determine the habitual intake and main sources of anthocyanidins, flavanols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins and thearubigins in the European Union.We use food consumption data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA and the FLAVIOLA Food Composition Database to estimate intake of flavonoids.Mean (±SEM intake of total flavonoids in Europe was 428±49 mg/d, of which 136±14 mg/d were monomeric compounds. Gallated flavan-3-ols (53±12 mg/d were the main contributor. The lowest flavonoid intake was observed in Mediterranean countries (monomeric compounds: 95±11 mg/d. The distribution of intake was skewed in many countries, especially in Germany (monomeric flavonoids; mean intake: 181 mg/d; median intake: 3 mg/d.The habitual intake of flavonoids in Europe is below the amounts found to have a significant health effect.

  13. Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed A. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′-hydroxy-4′′-acetoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8-flavone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and 3,3′,4′-trihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-dihydroxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8-flavone (2, along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3, Apigetrin (4, centaureidin (5, oroxylin A (6, 5,7-dihydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (7, atalantoflavone (8, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,8-trimethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7-flavone (9, and 3′,4′,5,8-tetramethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7-flavone (10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic tools including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human cervical carcinoma HeLa, human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7. Compound 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against HeLa cells with an IC50 0.079 μM.

  14. Dietary Flavonoids and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35–75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI: 0.49 (0.31–0.76, p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids. However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI: 0.62 (0.36–1.09, p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids. Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI: 0.33 (0.15–0.73, p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids but not in men (OR (95% CI: 0.70 (0.39–1.24, p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids. A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ostergaard, L;

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the neutral peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATP N) has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 A and a free R value of 20.5%. ATP N has the expected characteristic fold of the class III peroxidases, with a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. of 0.82 A when compared with horseradish peroxidase C...... (HRP C). HRP C is 54% identical to ATP N in sequence. When the structures of four class III plant peroxidases are superimposed, the regions with structural differences are non-randomly distributed; all are located in one half of the molecule. The architecture of the haem pocket of ATP N is very similar...... to that of HRP C, in agreement with the low small-molecule substrate specificity of all class III peroxidases. The structure of ATP N suggests that the pH dependence of the substrate turnover will differ from that of HRP C owing to differences in polarity of the residues in the substrate-access channel. Since...

  16. Intrinsic bitterness of flavonoids and isoflavonoids and masking of their taste activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roland, W.S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Many flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been associated with beneficial health effects. Therefore, consumption of (iso)flavonoid-rich food products, and enrichment of foods with (iso)flavonoids is becoming increasingly popular. However, several (iso)flavonoids have been reported as bitter. Consequent

  17. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  18. New Sesquiterpene and Polymethoxy-Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wang, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Hou, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study revealed that the polymethoxy-flavonoids, as main components of Artemisia annua, could improve the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin. Here, we described the isolation, elucidation, constituent analysis, flavonoids enrichment of the extracts of A. annua. A total of 20 compounds were isolated including a new sesquiterpene (compound 12) and five (1, 5, 6, 7, 15) afforded for the first time from A. annua. The elucidation of eight flavonoids may be a useful phytochemical data and chemical foundation for further mechanism studies on improving the anti-malarial action of artemisinin. Furthermore, the antitumor activities of the compounds were assayed using four different kinds of human cancer cell lines. PMID:25210306

  19. Inhibition of Copper Corrosion by Flavonoids in Nitric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud A. Al-Qudah

    2011-01-01

    A study has been made to investigate the effect of some substituted flavonoids on copper dissolution in 2.0 M HNO3 for 4.0 hours at different temperatures by the weight loss method. Percentage of inhibition increases as concentration of the flavonoids increases and reaches a maximum value, due to the formation of a monolayer film on the surface of the metal. 92% Inhibition was observed in some of these flavonoids. As temperature increases, percentage of inhibition decreases. Energy of activat...

  20. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... change in dose. The urinary excretion of ten dietary flavonoids was analysed after enzymatic hydrolysis by LC-MS and associated to the risk of ACS in a nested case-control study with 393 case-noncase pairs. The 393 case-noncase pairs were identified in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort comprising...

  1. On the role of a Lipid-Transfer Protein. Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant is compromised in germination and seedling growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Oyarburo, Natalia; Cimmino, Carlos; Pinedo, Marcela L; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Plant Lipid-Transfer Proteins (LTPs) exhibit the ability to reversibly bind/transport lipids in vitro. LTPs have been involved in diverse physiological processes but conclusive evidence on their role has only been presented for a few members, none of them related to seed physiology. Arabidopsis seeds rely on storage oil breakdown to supply carbon skeletons and energy for seedling growth. Here, Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant was analyzed for its ability to germinate and for seedling establishment. Lt...

  2. Application of the Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction in the Synthesis of Flavonoids

    OpenAIRE

    van Heerden, Fanie R; Mamoalosi A. Selepe

    2013-01-01

    The application of the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in the synthesis of flavonoids, an important class of natural products, is reviewed. This reaction has not only been employed to provide access to flavonoid nuclei, but has also been applied to the synthesis of dimeric flavonoids and in the synthesis of libraries of flavonoid derivatives for biological activity studies. The classes of flavonoids that are discussed are the chalcones, flavones, isoflavones, neoflavones, biflavones and derivatives o...

  3. Theoretical elucidation of structure-activity relationship of flavonoid antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红雨

    1999-01-01

    AM1 method was employed to calculate flavonoid antioxidants, and the results obtained are as follows. Firstly, flavonoid hydroxyls at ortho position were more active than the hydroxyls at meta position in scavenging oxygen-free radicals, which resulted from the facts that (ⅰ) the former were stabilized by forming intramolecular hydrogen bond and (ⅱ) ortho benzoquinone formed in the former structures through resonance, which resulted in large percentage of distribution of spin density on ortho oxygen and low internal energy. Secondly, electron-attracting effect of ring C of chromone-flavonoids showed some passive effects on hydroxyls of ring A, making the OH less active. As ring C had little effect on ring B and hydroxyls of ring B in most flavonoids were at ortho position, the rule summarized from experiments showing that hydroxyls of ring B were more active in scavenging oxygen-free radicals was elucidated.

  4. Persimmon leaf flavonoid induces brain ischemic tolerance in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsan Miao; Xuexia Zhang; Linan Wang

    2013-01-01

    The persimmon leaf has been shown to improve cerebral ischemic outcomes; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, mice were subjected to 10 minutes of ischemic preconditioning, and persimmon leaf flavonoid was orally administered for 5 days. Results showed that the persimmon leaf flavonoid significantly improved the content of tissue type plasminogen activator and 6-keto prostaglandin-F1 α in the cerebral cortex, decreased the content of thromboxane B2, and reduced the content of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in mice. Following optical microscopy, persimmon leaf flavonoid was also shown to reduce cell swelling and nuclear hyperchromatism in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. These results suggested that persimmon leaf flavonoid can effectively inhibit brain thrombosis, improve blood supply to the brain, and relieve ischemia-induced pathological damage, resulting in brain ischemic tolerance.

  5. Flavonoids from the genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor M Bratkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus.

  6. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkov, Viktor M; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M; Zdraveva, Petranka K; Krasteva, Ilina N

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  7. Assessment of Flavonoid Release with Different Permeation Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaisakh M N

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different permeation enhancers in the transdermal permeation of flavonoids. A weed plant named Chromolaena odorata have been employed as the flavonoid source. Six different cream formulations have been prepared with the Chromolaena extract using different permeation enhancers such as ethanol, dimethyl sulphoxide, surfactants and occlusive agents. The amount of flavonoids penetrated during a time period of four hours was noted. The highest amount of penetration was obtained with the formulation no 6 which contained a combination of different permeation enhancers. The result suggests that a synergistic combination of different permeation enhancers can be adopted for enhancement of permeation of flavonoids in topical drug delivery systems.

  8. Quantitative variation of flavonoids and related compounds in Cosmos bipinnatus

    OpenAIRE

    Koho Saito

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative variation of nine flavonoid compounds and two related phenolic acids in several parts of three garden varieties of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. were examined by; means of paper chromatography followed by a spectrophotometric procedure.

  9. Tomato Whole Genome Transcriptional Response to Tetranychus urticae Identifies Divergence of Spider Mite-Induced Responses Between Tomato and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Zhurov, Vladimir; Navarro, Marie; Martinez, Manuel; Cazaux, Marc; Auger, Philippe; Migeon, Alain; Santamaria, M Estrella; Wybouw, Nicky; Diaz, Isabel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Navajas, Maria; Grbic, Miodrag; Grbic, Vojislava

    2015-03-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite feeding and compare them with Arabidopsis in order to determine conserved and divergent defense responses to this pest. To refine the involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in mite-induced responses and to improve tomato Gene Ontology annotations, we analyzed transcriptional changes in the tomato JA-signaling mutant defenseless1 (def-1) upon JA treatment and spider mite herbivory. Overlay of differentially expressed genes (DEG) identified in def-1 onto those from the timecourse experiment established that JA controls expression of the majority of genes differentially regulated by herbivory. Comparison of defense responses between tomato and Arabidopsis highlighted 96 orthologous genes (of 2,133 DEG) that were recruited for defense against spider mites in both species. These genes, involved in biosynthesis of JA, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, represent the conserved core of induced defenses. The remaining tomato DEG support the establishment of tomato-specific defenses, indicating profound divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis.

  10. Novel Investigations of Flavonoids as Chemopreventive Agents for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Yi Liao; Ching-Chang Lee; Chi-chang Tsai; Chao-Wen Hsueh; Chih-Chiang Wang; I-Hung Chen; Ming-Kai Tsai; Mei-Yu Liu; An-Tie Hsieh; Kuan-Jen Su; Hau-Ming Wu; Shih-Chung Huang; Yi-Chen Wang; Chien-Yao Wang; Shu-Fang Huang

    2015-01-01

    We would like to highlight the application of natural products to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We will focus on the natural products known as flavonoids, which target this disease at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. In spite of the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in treating HCC, patients with HCC still face poor prognosis because of the nature of multidrug resistance and toxicity derived from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Flavonoids can be found in many vegetables, fruits, ...

  11. Comparison of extraction methods for analysis of flavonoids in onions

    OpenAIRE

    Soeltoft, Malene; Knuthsen, Pia; Nielsen, John

    2008-01-01

    Onions are known to contain high levels of flavonoids and a comparison of the efficiency, reproducibility and detection limits of various extraction methods has been made in order to develop fast and reliable analytical methods for analysis of flavonoids in onions. Conventional and classical methods are time- and solvent-consuming and the presence of light and oxygen during sample preparation facilitate degradation reactions. Thus, classical methods were compared with microwave (irradiatio...

  12. Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Branka Levaj; Verica Dragović-uzelac; Danijela Bursać Kovačević; Nesrete Krasnići

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine) cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin). In addition FRAP...

  13. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5% when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

  14. Synthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and their effects on photosynthesis rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO(2) m(-2)s(-1) in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1) with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Inula helenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inula helenium was a perennial herb belonging to composite family and the roots of I. helenium have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, I. helenium was used as an experimental matrix. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of total flavonoids from I. helenium was studied with dual wavelength UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Effects of various factors including ratio of material to liquid, ultrasonic time, ethanol concentration and extraction times on extraction yield of total flavonoids were evaluated. Then, orthogonal design of four factors at three levels was applied for optimization the extraction yields of flavonoids from the root of I. helenium. Result: The optimal extracting process of the total flavonoids from the root of the I. helenium was 1 g plant sample with 20 ml of 60% ethanol, extracting twice and each time for 20 min. Conclusion: Under these optimal conditions, the yield of total flavonoids was (17.36±0.94 mg/g. UAE was more efficient and time saving for the extraction of flavonoids from plant materials.

  16. Analytical methods for quantitation of prenylated flavonoids from hops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The female flowers of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used as a flavoring agent in the brewing industry. There is growing interest in possible health benefits of hops, particularly as estrogenic and chemopreventive agents. Among the possible active constituents, most of the attention has focused on prenylated flavonoids, which can chemically be classified as prenylated chalcones and prenylated flavanones. Among chalcones, xanthohumol (XN) and desmethylxanthohumol (DMX) have been the most studied, while among flavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) have received the most attention. Because of the interest in medicinal properties of prenylated flavonoids, there is demand for accurate, reproducible and sensitive analytical methods to quantify these compounds in various matrices. Such methods are needed, for example, for quality control and standardization of hop extracts, measurement of the content of prenylated flavonoids in beer, and to determine pharmacokinetic properties of prenylated flavonoids in animals and humans. This review summarizes currently available analytical methods for quantitative analysis of the major prenylated flavonoids, with an emphasis on the LC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods and their recent applications to biomedical research on hops. This review covers all methods in which prenylated flavonoids have been measured, either as the primary analytes or as a part of a larger group of analytes. The review also discusses methodological issues relating to the quantitative analysis of these compounds regardless of the chosen analytical approach. PMID:24077106

  17. Structure-Activity Association of Flavonoids in Lung Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds classified into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins, and chalcones according to their chemical structures. They are abundantly found in Nature and over 8,000 flavonoids have from different sources, mainly plant materials, have been described. Recently reports have shown the valuable effects of flavonoids as antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agents and interest in these compounds has been increasing since they can be helpful to human health. Several mechanisms of action are involved in the biological properties of flavonoids such as free radical scavenging, transition metal ion chelation, activation of survival genes and signaling pathways, regulation of mitochondrial function and modulation of inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids have been described in a number of studies in the literature, but not frequently associated to respiratory disease. Thus, this review aims to discuss the effects of different flavonoids in the control of lung inflammation in some disorders such as asthma, lung emphysema and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the possible mechanisms of action, as well as establish some structure-activity relationships between this biological potential and chemical profile of these compounds.

  18. Flavonoid-surfactant interactions: A detailed physicochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Onkar; Kaur, Rajwinder; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the interactions between flavonoids and surfactants with attention of finding the probable location of flavonoids in micellar media that can be used for controlling their antioxidant behavior. In present study, the micellar and interfacial behavior of twin tailed anionic surfactants viz. sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (NaDEHP) in the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin (QUE) and kaempferol (KFL) have been studied by surface tension measurements. UV-visible, fluorescence and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) measurements have been employed to predict the probable location of flavonoids (QUE/KFL) within surfactant (AOT/NaDEHP) aggregates. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements further confirmed the solubilization of QUE/KFL in AOT/NaDEHP aggregates deduced from increased hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of aggregates in the presence of flavonoids. Both radical scavenging activity (RSA) and degradation rate constant (k) of flavonoids are found to be higher in NaDEHP micelles as compared to AOT micelles. PMID:27419641

  19. Exploiting Natural Variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana . This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  20. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar; J.J.B. Keurentjes

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of g

  1. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth; Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-glucopyranosyl-3{sup -}methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  2. The F130S point mutation in the Arabidopsis high-affinity K+ transporter AtHAK5 increases K+ over Na+ and Cs+ selectivity and confers Na+ and Cs+ tolerance to yeast under heterologous expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eAleman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and high yield production of crops. Members of group I of the KT/HAK/KUP family of transporters, such as HAK5, are key components for K+ acquisition by plant roots at low external K+ concentrations. Certain abiotic stress conditions such as salinity or Cs+-polluted soils may jeopardize plant K+ nutrition because HAK5-mediated K+ transport is inhibited by Na+ and Cs+. Here, by screening in yeast a randomly-mutated collection of AtHAK5 transporters, a new mutation in AtHAK5 sequence is identified that greatly increases Na+ tolerance. The single point mutation F130S, affecting an amino acid residue conserved in HAK5 transporters from several species, confers high salt tolerance, as well as Cs+ tolerance. This mutation increases more than 100-fold the affinity of AtHAK5 for K+ and reduces the Ki values for Na+ and Cs+, suggesting that the F130 residue may contribute to the structure of the pore region involved in K+ binding. In addition, this mutation increases the Vmax for K+. All this changes occur without increasing the amount of the AtHAK5 protein in yeast and support the idea that this residue is contributing to shape the selectivity filter of the AtHAK5 transporter.

  3. Mass spectrometric profiling of flavonoid glycoconjugates possessing isomeric aglycones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrankó, László; Szilvássy, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    In fields such as food and nutrition science or plant physiology, interest in untargeted profiling of flavonoids continues to expand. The group of flavonoids encompasses several thousands of chemically distinguishable compounds, among which are a number of isobaric compounds with the same elemental composition. Thus, the mass spectrometric identification of these compounds is challenging, especially when reference standards are not available to support their identification. Many different types of isomers of flavonoid glycoconjugates are known, i.e. compounds that differ in their glycosylation position, glycan sequence or type of interglycosidic linkage. This work focuses on the mass spectrometric identification of flavonoid glycoconjugate isomers possessing the same glycan mass and differing only in their aglycone core. A non-targeted HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiling method using a triple quadrupole MS is presented herein, which utilizes in-source fragmentation and a pseudo-MS(3) approach for the selective analysis of flavonoid glycoconjugates with isomeric/isobaric aglycones. A selective MRM-based identification of the in-source formed isobaric aglycone fragments was established. Additionally, utilizing the precursor scanning capability of the employed triple quadrupole instrument, the developed method enabled the determination of the molecular weight of the studied intact flavonoid glycoconjugate. The versatility of the method was proven with various types of flavonoid aglycones, i.e. anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, along with their representative glycoconjugates. The developed method was also successfully applied to a commercially available sour cherry sample, in which 16 different glycoconjugates of pelargonidin, genistein, cyanidin, kaempferol and quercetin could be tentatively identified, including a number of compounds containing isomeric/isobaric aglycones. PMID:25601677

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mature Pollen and Germinated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Zou; Lianfen Song; Wenzheng Zhang; Yi Wang; Songlin Ruan; Wei-Hua Wu

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.

  5. Application of the Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction in the Synthesis of Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie R. Van Heerden

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in the synthesis of flavonoids, an important class of natural products, is reviewed. This reaction has not only been employed to provide access to flavonoid nuclei, but has also been applied to the synthesis of dimeric flavonoids and in the synthesis of libraries of flavonoid derivatives for biological activity studies. The classes of flavonoids that are discussed are the chalcones, flavones, isoflavones, neoflavones, biflavones and derivatives of flavonoids obtained by C-C bond formation via the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction.

  6. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Changes during plant growth and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, S. Å. M.; Gertsson, U. E.; Knuthsen, Pia;

    2005-01-01

    The variation in flavonoid concentration and composition was investigated in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cv. Emilia sown on three occasions, each harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 or 10 degrees C. Flavonoids...... total flavonoid content. Total flavonoid content was relatively stable during normal retail storage conditions, although some of the individual flavonoid compounds showed considerable variation. The youngest plants had the highest flavonoid concentration, indicating that by harvesting the baby spinach a...

  7. Factors affecting UV-B-induced changes in Arabidopsis thaliana L. gene expression: The role of development, protective pigments and the chloroplast signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene expression is known to change in response to UV-B radiation. In this paper, we have investigated three factors in Arabidopsis leaves that are likely to influence these changes: development, protective pigments and the 'chloroplast signal'. During late leaf development the major change in pigment composition, after exposure to UV-B radiation, is an increase in UV-absorbing pigments. Chl and Chl a/b ratio do not change substantially. Similarly Chl fluorescence is not altered. In contrast, RNA transcripts of photosynthetic proteins are reduced more in older leaves than in young leaves. To determine the role of flavonoids in UV-B protection, plants of Arabidopsis mutant tt-5, which have reduced flavonoids and sinapic esters, were exposed to UV-B and RNA transcript levels determined. The tt-mutants were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than wild-type. To examine the role of the chloroplast signal in regulating UV-B induced changes in gene expression, Arabidopsis gun mutants (genome uncoupled) have been used. The results show that UV-B-induced down-regulation still takes place in gun mutants and strongly suggests that the chloroplast signal is not required. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates that UV-B-induced changes in gene expression are influenced by both developmental and cellular factors but not chloroplastic factors

  8. Flavonoids Inhibit the Respiratory Burst of Neutrophils in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ciz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils represent the front-line defence cells in protecting organisms against infection and play an irreplaceable role in the proper performance of the immune system. As early as within the first minutes of stimulation, neutrophilic NADPH oxidase is activated, and cells release large quantities of highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. These oxidants can be highly toxic not only for infectious agents but also for neighboring host tissues. Since flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of ROS production. The present paper summarizes contemporary knowledge on the effects of various flavonoids on the respiratory burst of mammalian neutrophils. It can be summarized that the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on the respiratory burst of phagocytes are mediated via inhibition of enzymes involved in cell signaling as well as via modulation of redox status. However, the effects of flavonoids are even more complex, and several sites of action, depending upon the flavonoid structure and way of application, are included.

  9. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna C. F. Teles

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin (1a; 4′-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin (1b; 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin (2a; 4′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine (2b and 3′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin (3b along with the known flavonoids 7,4′-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4, acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4´-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4′-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (1H, 13C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin + apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a + 2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  10. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Yanna C F; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; de Fátima Agra, Maria; Siheri, Weam; Boyd, Marie; Igoli, John O; Gray, Alexander I; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2015-11-09

    Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae) is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin) (1a); 4'-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin) (1b); 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin) (2a); 4'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine) (2b) and 3'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin) (3b) along with the known flavonoids 7,4'-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4), acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4´-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4'-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (¹H, 13C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY) and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin+apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a+2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  11. Phytochemical studies of flavonoids from polygonum glabrum L of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi- aquatic plant, Polygnum glabrum wild of the family polygonaceae was reported in traditional medicine of Sudan as anthelmintic and as a remedy against intestinal colics.The literature reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the bioactive agents as being sequi terpenes. The flavonoids of the Sudanese species were not investigated before. The present work consisted of phyto chemical study of the leaves of Polygonum galbrum wild. Before experimentation, a through authentication of the plant was done to correct previously reported errors. In the first stages a phyto chemical screening was made which confirmed the presence of flavonoid compounds in higher amounts than the other classes of natural products present in the plant. Different chromatographic techniques of isolation were assayed but the fractionation of flavonoids was successfully done with preparative thin layer chromatographic techniques. Yellow crystals, namely (two compounds) were obtained in pure form and identified as being flavonoids. Spectral studies were performed on Infra-Red and Ultra- Violet spectrophotometers. The computerized Ultra- Violet spectrophotometer allowed us to obtain complete data about the studied compounds. Structure elucidation was attempted and the structure of the isolated flavonoids were suggested as being Isorhamnetin and Diosmetin. (Author)

  12. In vivo localization in Arabidopsis protoplasts and root tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung Hui; Lee, Yongjik; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, a large number of proteins are transported to their final destination after translation by a process called intracellular trafficking. Transient gene expression, either in plant protoplasts or in specific plant tissues, is a fast, flexible, and reproducible approach to study the cellular function of proteins, protein subcellular localizations, and protein-protein interactions. Here we describe the general method of protoplast isolation, polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast transformation and immunostaining of protoplast or intact root tissues for studying the localization of protein in Arabidopsis.

  13. Strigolactone acts downstream of auxin to regulate bud outgrowth in pea and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Philip B; Dun, Elizabeth A; Ferguson, Brett J; Rameau, Catherine; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-05-01

    During the last century, two key hypotheses have been proposed to explain apical dominance in plants: auxin promotes the production of a second messenger that moves up into buds to repress their outgrowth, and auxin saturation in the stem inhibits auxin transport from buds, thereby inhibiting bud outgrowth. The recent discovery of strigolactone as the novel shoot-branching inhibitor allowed us to test its mode of action in relation to these hypotheses. We found that exogenously applied strigolactone inhibited bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum) even when auxin was depleted after decapitation. We also found that strigolactone application reduced branching in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin response mutants, suggesting that auxin may act through strigolactones to facilitate apical dominance. Moreover, strigolactone application to tiny buds of mutant or decapitated pea plants rapidly stopped outgrowth, in contrast to applying N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor, which significantly slowed growth only after several days. Whereas strigolactone or NPA applied to growing buds reduced bud length, only NPA blocked auxin transport in the bud. Wild-type and strigolactone biosynthesis mutant pea and Arabidopsis shoots were capable of instantly transporting additional amounts of auxin in excess of endogenous levels, contrary to predictions of auxin transport models. These data suggest that strigolactone does not act primarily by affecting auxin transport from buds. Rather, the primary repressor of bud outgrowth appears to be the auxin-dependent production of strigolactones. PMID:19321710

  14. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhai

    Full Text Available Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome.

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay,; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide impor...

  16. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  17. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (<1%). Black tea was the major flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians. PMID:26571356

  18. Flavonoid profile and antileukemic activity of Coreopsis lanceolata flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardede, Antoni; Mashita, Koharu; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-06-15

    Coreopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. In this study, flavonoid profile and antileukemic potential of yellow flowers of the plant were investigated. The total flavonoid content in EtOAc fraction of the flower methanol extract was found to be 420mg/g and showed the inhibition of cell proliferation and possible induction of apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our phytochemical research led to the isolation of rare flavonoids including a flavanone, chalcones, and aurones; in particular, 4-methoxylanceoletin demonstrated the potent antiproliferative activity. Comparison with other Asteraceaeous flowers by UPLC-MS analysis indicated that the isolates are characteristic constituents of C. lanceolata. PMID:27155901

  19. Geographical variation in the surface flavonoids of Pulicaria dysenterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams; Harborne; Greenham

    2000-08-01

    Four chemical races were detected in Pulicaria dysenterica, when sampled within Europe, on the basis of the surface flavonoids present. One race uniquely contained quercetagetin 3,7-dimethyl ether and another 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,4'-dimethyl ether. A third race was based on plants having 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,7-dimethyl ether together with quercetagetin 3,7,3'-trimethyl ether. The fourth race contained the above two compounds, as well as quercetagetin 3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether and 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether. These lipophilic constituents were variously present on the surfaces of leaf, ray floret, disc floret and fruit. By contrast, the vacuolar flavonoid of all tissues and all races was uniformly quercetin 3-glucuronide. The kaempferol 3-glucoside previously reported in flowers was not detected. Of the lipophilic flavonoids newly reported from this plant, one 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether is new to nature.

  20. Leishmanicidal Activity of Nine Novel Flavonoids from Delphinium staphisagria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ramírez-Macías

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of nine flavonoid derivatives from Delphinium staphisagria against L. infantum and L. braziliensis. Design and Methods. The in vitro activity of compounds 1–9 was assayed on extracellular promastigote and axenic amastigote forms and on intracellular amastigote forms of the parasites. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were carried on J774.2 macrophage cells using Glucantime as the reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed performing metabolite excretion and transmission electronic microscope ultrastructural alteration studies. Results. Nine flavonoids showed leishmanicidal activity against promastigote as well as amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. These compounds were nontoxic to mammalian cells and were effective at similar concentrations up to or lower than that of the reference drug (Glucantime. The results showed that 2″-acetylpetiolaroside (compound 8 was clearly the most active. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that flavonoid derivatives are active against L. infantum and L. braziliensis.

  1. Flavonoid electrochemistry: a review on the electroanalytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Gil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds widespread in vegetal kingdom. They present a C-15 skeleton, which is divided into three units A, B and C. Unit C is an oxygen containing heterocyclic, whose oxidation state and saturation level define major subclasses. Units A and B are aromatic rings, in which four major types of substituents, i. e. hydroxyl, methoxyl, prenyl and glycosides, lead to over 8000 different flavonoids. The great healthy-protecting value of these phytochemical biomarkers has attracted the attention of scientific community. Their main biological actions include anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties, which are strictly linked to antioxidant activities. So that, electroanalysis have been extensively applied on mechanistic studies and also for analytical determinations. This review presents the state of the art regarding the main applications of electroanalysis on the flavonoid research. The approaches on redox behavior characterization leading to a better understanding of structure antioxidant activity relationships are highlighted.

  2. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athira, K V; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy. PMID:26876905

  3. Dirhamnosyl flavonoid and other constituents from Brillantaisia palisatii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrondo, Luciane Fatima; Gabriel, Felipe Teixeira; Fernandes, Sidney Bessa de; Menezes, Fabio de Sousa [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Naturais e Alimentos]. E-mail: fsmenezes@pharma.ufrj.br; Moreira, Davyson de Lima [Universidade de Barra Mansa, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2003-12-01

    A mixture containing sitosterol and stigmasterol; a new triterpene 3-epi-ursolic acid; another triterpene mixture comprising {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin and lupeol; verbascoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside; and lespedin, a glycosyl flavonoid, were isolated. The less polar compounds (steroids and triterpenoids) were isolated from the hexane partition of the crude ethanolic extract while the more polar ones (phenylpropanoid glycoside and glycosyl flavonoid) were isolated from the ethyl acetate partition of the same extract. The structures of all compounds were established using modern spectrometric methods of elucidation. The spectroscopic data of Lespedin, a rare dirhamnosylflavonol with hypotensor activity and of the triterpene, 3-epi-ursolic acid, are also reported. (author)

  4. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV, ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family.

  5. In vitro biotransformation of flavonoids by rat liver microsomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Breinholt, V.; Justesen, U.;

    1998-01-01

    1. Sixteen naturally occurring flavonoids were investigated as substrates for cytochrome P450 in uninduced and Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver microsomes. Naringenin, hesperetin, chrysin, apigenin, tangeretin, kaempferol, galangin and tamarixetin were all metabolized extensively by induced rat liver......-ring seemed to prevent further hydroxylation. The results indicate that demethylation only occurs in the B-ring when the methoxy group is positioned at C-4'-, and not at the C-3'-position. 3. The CYP1A isozymes were found to be the main enzymes involved in flavonoid hydroxylation, whereas other cytochrome P...

  6. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  7. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-11 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288052 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288052 J075151I09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 6e-14 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240911 J065037E05 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-22 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241119 J065094C22 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-13 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243149 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243149 J100032I21 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 7e-12 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-15 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287479 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287479 J043023O14 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 1e-17 ...

  15. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) genetic…

  16. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  17. Flavonoid biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakola, L. (Laura)

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Flavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites in plants that are involved in many important functions. Various flavonoid compounds have also been reported to be beneficial for human health. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is the characteristic field layer species in boreal forests and the fruits of bilberry are rich in anthocyanin pigments, a subclass of flavonoids. In the present work, flavonoid biosynthesis was examined in different tissues of bilberry. The focus was on the ...

  18. Optimization of flavonoid production in cell cultures of Astragalus missouriensis Nutt. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Iliana Ionkova

    2009-01-01

    The use of flavonoids for prevention and cure of human diseases is already widespread. Quercetin shows anti-proliferative effects against various cancer cell lines. These aspects made flavonoids an interesting object for industrial production. This paper describes a plant-cell-culture production approach that provides increased yields of flavonoids. Cell culture of Astragalus missouriensis was established, and flavonoid production was determined and optimized. The chemical investigation of ce...

  19. Flavonoid-membrane interactions: possible consequences for biological effects of some polyphenolic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej B HENDRICH

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids are found ubiquitously in higher plants and constitute an important component of the majority of peoples' daily diets. The biological activities of flavonoids cover a very broad spectrum, from anticancer and antibacterial activities through to inhibition of bone resorption. In the present paper, the interactions between flavonoids and lipid bilayers as well as biological membranes and their components are reviewed, with special emphasis on the structure-activity relationships and mechanisms underlying the biological activity of flavonoids.

  20. Effect of Citrus Flavonoids, Naringin and Naringenin, on Metabolic Syndrome and Their Mechanisms of Action12

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M. Ashraful; Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, M. Mahbubur; Uddin, Shaikh J.; Reza, Hasan M.; Satyajit D. Sarker

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are important natural compounds with diverse biologic activities. Citrus flavonoids constitute an important series of flavonoids. Naringin and its aglycone naringenin belong to this series of flavonoids and were found to display strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several lines of investigation suggest that naringin supplementation is beneficial for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. A number of molecular mechanisms underlying...

  1. Substrate preference of citrus naringenin rhamnosyltransferases and their application to flavonoid glycoside production in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuka; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, which comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolites, have received increased attention in recent years due to their wide range of features beneficial to human health. One of the most abundant flavonoid skeletons in citrus species is the flavanone naringenin, which is accumulated as glycosides containing terminal rhamnose (Rha) after serial glycosylation steps. The linkage type of Rha residues is a determining factor in the bitterness of the citrus fruit. Such Rha residues are attached by either an α1,2- or an α1,6-rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT or 1,6RhaT). Although the genes encoding these RhaTs from pummelo (Citrus maxima) and orange (Citrus sinensis) have been functionally characterized, the details of the biochemical characterization, including the substrate preference, remain elusive due to the lack of availability of the UDP-Rha required as substrate. In this study, an efficient UDP-Rha in vivo production system using the engineered fission yeast expressing Arabidopsis thaliana rhamnose synthase 2 (AtRHM2) gene was constructed. The in vitro RhaT assay using the constructed UDP-Rha revealed that recombinant RhaT proteins (Cm1,2RhaT; Cs1,6RhaT; or Cm1,6RhaT), which were heterologously produced in fission yeast, catalyzed the rhamnosyl transfer to naringenin-7-O-glucoside as an acceptor. The substrate preference analysis showed that Cm1,2RhaT had glycosyl transfer activity toward UDP-xylose as well as UDP-Rha. On the other hand, Cs1,6RhaT and Cm1,6RhaT showed rhamnosyltransfer activity toward quercetin-3-O-glucoside in addition to naringenin-7-O-glucoside, indicating weak specificity toward acceptor substrates. Finally, naringin and narirutin from naringenin-7-O-glucoside were produced using the engineered fission yeast expressing the AtRHM2 and the Cm1,2RhaT or the Cs1,6RhaT genes as a whole-cell-biocatalyst. PMID:26433966

  2. Substrate preference of citrus naringenin rhamnosyltransferases and their application to flavonoid glycoside production in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuka; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, which comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolites, have received increased attention in recent years due to their wide range of features beneficial to human health. One of the most abundant flavonoid skeletons in citrus species is the flavanone naringenin, which is accumulated as glycosides containing terminal rhamnose (Rha) after serial glycosylation steps. The linkage type of Rha residues is a determining factor in the bitterness of the citrus fruit. Such Rha residues are attached by either an α1,2- or an α1,6-rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT or 1,6RhaT). Although the genes encoding these RhaTs from pummelo (Citrus maxima) and orange (Citrus sinensis) have been functionally characterized, the details of the biochemical characterization, including the substrate preference, remain elusive due to the lack of availability of the UDP-Rha required as substrate. In this study, an efficient UDP-Rha in vivo production system using the engineered fission yeast expressing Arabidopsis thaliana rhamnose synthase 2 (AtRHM2) gene was constructed. The in vitro RhaT assay using the constructed UDP-Rha revealed that recombinant RhaT proteins (Cm1,2RhaT; Cs1,6RhaT; or Cm1,6RhaT), which were heterologously produced in fission yeast, catalyzed the rhamnosyl transfer to naringenin-7-O-glucoside as an acceptor. The substrate preference analysis showed that Cm1,2RhaT had glycosyl transfer activity toward UDP-xylose as well as UDP-Rha. On the other hand, Cs1,6RhaT and Cm1,6RhaT showed rhamnosyltransfer activity toward quercetin-3-O-glucoside in addition to naringenin-7-O-glucoside, indicating weak specificity toward acceptor substrates. Finally, naringin and narirutin from naringenin-7-O-glucoside were produced using the engineered fission yeast expressing the AtRHM2 and the Cm1,2RhaT or the Cs1,6RhaT genes as a whole-cell-biocatalyst.

  3. De novo production of the flavonoid naringenin in engineered Saccharomyces erevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.; Beekwilder, J.; Crimi, B.; Houwelingen, van A.; Hall, R.D.; Bosch, H.J.; Maris, van A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolic intermediates that exhibit a wide variety of antioxidant and human health-related properties. Plant production of flavonoids is limited by the low productivity and the complexity of the recovered flavonoids. Thus to overcome

  4. Dynamic feature of flavonoids content in different organs of larch (Larix gmelinii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGWen-jie; LIXue-ying; ZUYuan-gang

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids in plants is very important in its ecological role and economic value. The dynamic features of flavonoids content in different organs of larch (Larix gmelinii) at different light and temperature conditions were investigated in this study. Results showed that the order of flavonoids content in different organs from high to low was 7.78% (stem bark) > 2.79% (leaves) > 1.72% (branches) > 1.19% (stem xylem)and different organs had a great seasonal variation in flavonoids content, but the change of flavonoids content at different temperature was not obvious in different organs., The content of flavonoids in barck had, a positive correlation with temperature (R2=0.75), but that in other organs had slight variation with the change of temperatures. For all the tested organs, the flavonoids content in summer and autumn was approximately 3-4 times higher than in spring and winter. This is attributed to the great stress from environmental physical variables such as UV radiation, high temperature that induce the accumulation of flavonoids. The flavonoid content of sun leaves was evidently higher than that of shade leaves, and leaves at upper part of canopy had a higher flavonoids content compared with that at other parts. This result indicates that sun radiation could improve flavonoids production in leaves (R2=0.76). The flavonoids may actively evolve in plant defenses to environmental stress, protecting larch from the damage of high temperature and radiation, and its main function is different in different organs.

  5. [Progress in study of flavonoids from Annonaceae and biological activities of these compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Jiu-Hong

    2007-05-01

    More than 50 new flavonoids derived from Annonaceae are reported in the last two decades. Many genuses in Annonaceae contain flavonoids having structural novelty and broad pharmacological activities. Due to the pharmacological interest of some of these compounds, chemical investigations on this topic have grown considerably in the decades. Here the biological activities of some of these flavonoids are also briefly discussed.

  6. De novo production of the flavonoid naringenin in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.W.; Beekwilder, J.; Crimi, B.; Van Houwelingen, A.; Hall, R.D.; Bosch, D.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Flavonoids comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolic intermediates that exhibit a wide variety of antioxidant and human health-related properties. Plant production of flavonoids is limited by the low productivity and the complexity of the recovered flavonoids. Thus to overcome

  7. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: By scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuguo, Deng; Xingwang, Fang; Jilan, Wu

    1997-09-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important.

  8. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction : the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Launer, L.J.; Kuip, van der D.A.M.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular disease, but evidence is still conflicting. Tea is the major source of flavonoids in Western populations. Objective: The association of tea and flavonoid intake with incident myocardial infarction was examined in the general Dutch pop

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlan

  10. Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich - a simpler Arabidopsis protoplast isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shu-Hong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplasts isolated from leaves are useful materials in plant research. One application, the transient expression of recombinant genes using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts (TEAMP, is currently commonly used for studies of subcellular protein localization, promoter activity, and in vivo protein-protein interactions. This method requires cutting leaves into very thin slivers to collect mesophyll cell protoplasts, a procedure that often causes cell damage, may yield only a few good protoplasts, and is time consuming. In addition, this protoplast isolation method normally requires a large number of leaves derived from plants grown specifically under low-light conditions, which may be a concern when material availability is limited such as with mutant plants, or in large scale experiments. Results In this report, we present a new procedure that we call the Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich. This is a simple and fast mesophyll protoplast isolation method. Two kinds of tape (Time tape adhered to the upper epidermis and 3 M Magic tape to the lower epidermis are used to make a "Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich". The Time tape supports the top side of the leaf during manipulation, while tearing off the 3 M Magic tape allows easy removal of the lower epidermal layer and exposes mesophyll cells to cell wall digesting enzymes when the leaf is later incubated in an enzyme solution. The protoplasts released into solution are collected and washed for further use. For TEAMP, plasmids carrying a gene expression cassette for a fluorescent protein can be successfully delivered into protoplasts isolated from mature leaves grown under optimal conditions. Alternatively, these protoplasts may be used for bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC to investigate protein-protein interactions in vivo, or for Western blot analysis. A significant advantage of this protocol over the current method is that it allows the generation of protoplasts in less than 1 hr

  11. Two Novel Antibacterial Flavonoids from Myrsine Africana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG,Lu; ZHOU,Jian-Xia; SHEN,Zheng-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Two novel flavonoids, myrsininone A (1), an isoflavone and myrsininone B (2), a flavanone, with very strong antibacterial activities, were isolated from the stems of Myrsine africana L. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The antibacterial activities were determined by modified Resazuric MIC methods.

  12. A new lavandulyl flavonoid from Sorphora flavescens Ait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new lavandulyl flavonoid was isolated from the rhizome of Sorphora flavescens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral methods including 2D NMR. And it showed potent cytotoxic activity against Hela cells with IC50 of 1.1 μmol/L.

  13. Flavonoids as Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to study the relationship between flavonoids and lung cancer, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against lung cancer. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, SciELO Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, in order to establish the effect of flavonoids in the prevention and development of lung cancer. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of flavonoids to act against different types of cancers, especially against lung cancers, the diverse results reported within epidemiological studies, together with the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting making dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with lung cancer. Therefore, the authors of the present study recommend following the dietary health practice guidelines which promotes the consumption of food enriched in flavonoids and reflects the current state of knowledge of an effective and appropriate diet in lung cancer patients.Erratum in: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2013;17(2:91-92Link: http://www.renhyd.org/index.php/renhyd/article/view/6/17

  14. FLAVONOIDS IN THE GRASS OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Khudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents active parts of Tribulus terrestris L. as a perspective sample for study. We have provided an example of flavo-noids determination with high-performance liquid chromatography / MS at the Waters Acquility chromatographer with tandem quad-rupolar MS-detector TQD (Waters.

  15. Flavonoids and alkenylbenzenes: mechanisms of mutagenic action and carcinogenic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Woude, van der H.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Schutte, M.E.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present review focuses on the mechanisms of mutagenic action and the carcinogenic risk of two categories of botanical ingredients, namely the flavonoids with quercetin as an important bioactive representative, and the alkenylbenzenes, namely safrole, methyleugenol and estragole. For quercetin a

  16. Retention Study of Flavonoids Under Different Chromatographic Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentkowska, Aleksandra; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the chromatographic behavior of selected flavonoids from their different subgroups (flavonols, flavanones, flavones and isoflavones) in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Chromatographic measurements were made on two different HILIC columns: cross-linked DIOL (Luna HILIC) and zwitterionic sulfoalkylbetaine (SeQuant ZIC-HILIC). Separation parameters such as the content of acetonitrile and pH of an eluent were studied. On the ZIC column, the retention factors of flavonoids increased with decreasing water content in the mobile phase. The increase in pH of the aqueous component mainly affects the polarity of the analytes. DIOL stationary phase shows more or less apparent dual retention mechanism, HILIC at the acetonitrile (ACN) content ≥75% and reversed phase (RP) with lower content of organic modifier. In the presence of ammonium acetate in the mobile phase, the retention of flavonoids onto the DIOL column increases without change in the selectivity of the separations. The similar effect, but considerably smaller was observed for aglycones on the ZIC column. The retention of studied glycosides (hesperidin, rutin) decreases in the presence of salt in the mobile phase. The significantly higher mass spectrometry sensitivity was observed under HILIC conditions in comparison with the most often used RP LC due to much higher content of ACN in the mobile phase. Finally, under optimal chromatographic conditions, the method was validated and applied for the determination of flavonoids in chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) infusion. PMID:26668302

  17. Effects of flavonoids on anti-carcinogenesis and immunosuppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerenberg PA; Garssen J; Beems RB; Dortant PM; Kranen HJ van; Kreyl CF van; Bueno de Mesquita HB; Gruyl FR de; Vos JG; Loveren H van; LPI; LEO; CCM; AZU/Dermatologie

    1998-01-01

    In this study flavonoid-rich diets and tea extracts were investigated. These diets were studied for their putative protective effect on UV induced skin tumors and tumors in the small intestine and colon. Moreover , the same diets were studied in UV induced immunosuppression. The results show that

  18. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    Full Text Available Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T, and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1 to 13.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r, ranging from 2.8×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 to 65.7×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  19. Main flavonoids in needles of Larix decidu A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, Gerard J.

    1975-01-01

    Present work. Freeze-dried needles were extracted with acetone-water. Ether and butanol fractions were separated by repeated banding on paper. Nine major flavonoids were isolated (in solution) and identified by chromatographic and UV spectral data of both the original and alkaline and/or acid hydrol

  20. Flavonoids Affect Host-Microbiota Crosstalk through TLR Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between host cells and microbes is known as crosstalk. Among other mechanisms, this takes place when certain molecules of the micro-organisms are recognized by the toll-like receptors (TLRs in the body cells, mainly in the intestinal epithelial cells and in the immune cells. TLRs belong to the pattern-recognition receptors and represent the first line of defense against pathogens, playing a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation in the activity of such receptors can lead to the development of chronic and severe inflammation as well as immunological disorders. Among components present in the diet, flavonoids have been suggested as antioxidant dietary factors able to modulate TLR-mediated signaling pathways. This review focuses on the molecular targets involved in the modulatory action of flavonoids on TLR-mediated signaling pathways, providing an overview of the mechanisms involved in such action. Particular flavonoids have been able to modify the composition of the microbiota, to modulate TLR gene and protein expression, and to regulate the downstream signaling molecules involved in the TLR pathway. These synergistic mechanisms suggest the role of some flavonoids in the preventive effect on certain chronic diseases.

  1. Analysis of flavonoids by capillary zone electrophoresis with electrokinetic supercharging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hao; Yao, Qingqiang; Breadmore, Michael C; Li, Yumei; Lu, Yuanqi

    2011-11-01

    On-line concentration via Electrokinetic Supercharging (EKS) was used to enhance the sensitivity of the capillary electrophoretic separation of the four flavonoids naringenin, hesperetin, naringin and hesperidin. Separation conditions, including the background electrolyte pH and concentration, the length and choice of terminator and the electrokinetic injection time were optimized. The optimum conditions were: a background electrolyte of 30 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.5) containing 5% (v/v) of methanol, electrokinetic injection of the sample (130 s, -10 kV) followed by hydrodynamic injecting of 100 mM 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid (CHES) (17 s, 0.5 psi) as terminator, and separation with -20 kV. Under these conditions the four flavonoids could be separated with a sample-to-sample time of 15 min and detection limits from 2.0 to 6.8 ng mL(-1). When compared to a conventional hydrodynamic injection the sensitivity was enhanced between 824 and 1515 times which is 7.6-16 times higher than other CE methods for the on-line concentration of flavonoids. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated by the detection of the four flavonoids in an aqueous extract of Clematis hexapetala pall. PMID:21949941

  2. Recommendations on reporting requirements for flavonoids in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past decade, an increasing number of observational and intervention-based human studies have been published highlighting a beneficial role of flavonoids to human health. Despite these studies, it is not yet possible to make clear dietary recommendations with regard to the types and amounts ...

  3. Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin. In addition FRAP method was used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The results of colorimetric method showed that there was high concentration of flavonoids in all investigated samples, especially in peels (1156 mg/100 g in Satsuma peel and 804 mg/100 g in Clementine peel. Among the flavonone glycosides, hesperidin, was determined in the highest concentration in both investigated pulps. In peels flavanon glycosides were present in decreasing sequence as follow: narirutin>hesperidin>naringin. According to FRAP method, all samples possess an evident antioxidant capacity especially peels. Correlation between total flavonoids, hesperidin, naringin, narirutin and antioxidant capacity was very high with correlation coefficiants between 0.81 and 0.98.

  4. Flavonoids Affect Host-Microbiota Crosstalk through TLR Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Rodríguez-Lagunas, Maria J.; Castell, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between host cells and microbes is known as crosstalk. Among other mechanisms, this takes place when certain molecules of the micro-organisms are recognized by the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the body cells, mainly in the intestinal epithelial cells and in the immune cells. TLRs belong to the pattern-recognition receptors and represent the first line of defense against pathogens, playing a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation in the activity of such receptors can lead to the development of chronic and severe inflammation as well as immunological disorders. Among components present in the diet, flavonoids have been suggested as antioxidant dietary factors able to modulate TLR-mediated signaling pathways. This review focuses on the molecular targets involved in the modulatory action of flavonoids on TLR-mediated signaling pathways, providing an overview of the mechanisms involved in such action. Particular flavonoids have been able to modify the composition of the microbiota, to modulate TLR gene and protein expression, and to regulate the downstream signaling molecules involved in the TLR pathway. These synergistic mechanisms suggest the role of some flavonoids in the preventive effect on certain chronic diseases. PMID:26785232

  5. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  6. Elucidating the Roles of Transport Processes in Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen

    Glucosinolates are plant defense compounds characteristic of the economically important plant family of Brassicaceae, which comprises crops as oilseed rape, cabbage, broccoli and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Recently, two Arabidopsis glucosinolate transporters, GTR1 and GTR2......, were identified. In this thesis, we show that GTR1 and GTR2 are not required for obtaining the strategic margin distribution of glucosinolates in a mature Arabidopsis leaf, and we suggest a model for leaf allocation of glucosinolates. As glucosinolates are defense compounds, we asked if eliminating GTR......1 and GTR2 would influence the ability of the plant to defend itself against attackers. Infecting WT and gtr1gtr2 dKO leaves with the necrotic fungus Botrytis cinerea showed an increased susceptibility of the transporter mutant compared to WT. In a second biotic interaction, we infested WT and gtr1...

  7. Analysis of total flavonoids and phenolics in different species of Cassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Veerachari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia species are medicinally useful and has innumerable traditional therapeutic applications. Natural antioxidants such as dietary plant phenolics and flavonoids are increasingly attracting attention. Cassia is one such most important plant which is a source of antioxidants i.e phenolics and flavonoids. Quantitative determination of phenols and flavonoids in the leaves of 12 species of Cassia was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. Gallic Acid and Quercetin reagents were used as standards for calibaration of phenols and flavonoids respectively. Comparative spectrogram of different Cassia species show that Cassia auriculata has the highest phenolic and Cassia serecea the highest flavonoid content.

  8. Antidepressant-like effects and mechanisms of flavonoids and related analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li-Ping; Liu, Bing-Yu

    2016-10-01

    Flavonoids, possessing a basic phenylbenzopyrone core, are important components of the human diet, and are found in many medicinal plants. Flavonoids include chalcones, flavanones and their derivatives. Synthetic and natural isolated flavonoids display an enormous number of biological activities such as antitumor, antiplatelet, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticonvulsant properties. This review article focuses on the antidepressant-like effect, structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action of total flavonoid extracts isolation from natural sources, flavonoid compounds and their related analogues. PMID:27214511

  9. Natural variation of root exudates in Arabidopsis thaliana-linking metabolomic and genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönchgesang, Susann; Strehmel, Nadine; Schmidt, Stephan; Westphal, Lore; Taruttis, Franziska; Müller, Erik; Herklotz, Siska; Neumann, Steffen; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Many metabolomics studies focus on aboveground parts of the plant, while metabolism within roots and the chemical composition of the rhizosphere, as influenced by exudation, are not deeply investigated. In this study, we analysed exudate metabolic patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and their variation in genetically diverse accessions. For this project, we used the 19 parental accessions of the Arabidopsis MAGIC collection. Plants were grown in a hydroponic system, their exudates were harvested before bolting and subjected to UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. Metabolite profiles were analysed together with the genome sequence information. Our study uncovered distinct metabolite profiles for root exudates of the 19 accessions. Hierarchical clustering revealed similarities in the exudate metabolite profiles, which were partly reflected by the genetic distances. An association of metabolite absence with nonsense mutations was detected for the biosynthetic pathways of an indolic glucosinolate hydrolysis product, a hydroxycinnamic acid amine and a flavonoid triglycoside. Consequently, a direct link between metabolic phenotype and genotype was detected without using segregating populations. Moreover, genomics can help to identify biosynthetic enzymes in metabolomics experiments. Our study elucidates the chemical composition of the rhizosphere and its natural variation in A. thaliana, which is important for the attraction and shaping of microbial communities. PMID:27363486

  10. Probing the Interaction of a Therapeutic Flavonoid, Pinostrobin with Human Serum Albumin: Multiple Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Feroz, Shevin R.; Saharuddin B. Mohamad; Bakri, Zarith S. D.; Sri N A Malek; Tayyab, Saad

    2013-01-01

    Interaction of a pharmacologically important flavonoid, pinostrobin (PS) with the major transport protein of human blood circulation, human serum albumin (HSA) has been examined using a multitude of spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking studies. Analysis of the fluorescence quenching data showed a moderate binding affinity (1.03 × 105 M−1 at 25°C) between PS and HSA with a 1∶1 stoichiometry. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data (ΔS = +44.06 J mol−1 K−1 and ΔH = −15.48 kJ mol−1)...

  11. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    , and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify...

  12. Bacterial species involved in the conversion of dietary flavonoids in the human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Annett; Blaut, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the conversion of dietary flavonoids and thereby affects their health-promoting effects in the human host. The identification of the bacteria involved in intestinal flavonoid conversion has gained increasing interest. This review summarizes available information on the so far identified human intestinal flavonoid-converting bacterial species and strains as well as their enzymes catalyzing the underlying reactions. The majority of described species involved in flavonoid transformation are capable of carrying out the O-deglycosylation of flavonoids. Other bacteria cleave the less common flavonoid-C-glucosides and/or further degrade the aglycones of flavonols, flavanonols, flavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, isoflavones and monomeric flavan-3-ols. To increase the currently limited knowledge in this field, identification of flavonoid-converting bacteria should be continued using culture-dependent screening or isolation procedures and molecular approaches based on sequence information of the involved enzymes. PMID:26963713

  13. Polyploidy in the Arabidopsis genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Madlung, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD), which gives rise to polyploids, is a unique type of mutation that duplicates all the genetic material in a genome. WGD provides an evolutionary opportunity by generating abundant genetic "raw material," and has been implicated in diversification, speciation, adaptive radiation, and invasiveness, and has also played an important role in crop breeding. However, WGD at least initially challenges basic biological functions by increasing cell size, altering relationships between cell volume and DNA content, and doubling the number of homologous chromosome copies that must be sorted during cell division. Newly polyploid lineages often have extensive changes in gene regulation, genome structure, and may suffer meiotic or mitotic chromosome mis-segregation. The abundance of species that persist in nature as polyploids shows that these problems are surmountable and/or that advantages of WGD might outweigh drawbacks. The molecularly especially tractable Arabidopsis genus has several ancient polyploidy events in its history and contains several independent more recent polyploids. This genus can thus provide important insights into molecular aspects of polyploid formation, establishment, and genome evolution. The ability to integrate ecological and evolutionary questions with molecular and genetic understanding makes comparative analyses in this genus particularly attractive and holds promise for advancing our general understanding of polyploid biology. Here, we highlight some of the findings from Arabidopsis that have given us insights into the origin and evolution of polyploids. PMID:24788061

  14. Studies on the interaction between promethazine and human serum albumin in the presence of flavonoids by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Xian-Ping; Yang, Yan-Jie; Gao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence, absorption, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques as well as molecular modeling methods were used to study the binding characterization of promethazine (PMT) to human serum albumin (HSA) and the influence of flavonoids, rutin and baicalin, on their affinity. The results indicated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA by PMT is a static quenching due to the formation of complex. The reaction was spontaneous and mainly mediated by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The binding distance between the tryptophan residue of HSA and PMT is less than 8nm, which indicated that the energy transfer from the tryptophan residue of HSA to PMT occurred. The binding site of PMT on HSA was located in sites I and the presence of PMT can cause the conformational changes of HSA. There was the competitive binding to HSA between PMT and flavonoids because of the overlap of binding sites in HSA. The flavonoids could decrease the association constant and increase the binding distance. In addition, their synergistic effect can further change the conformation of HSA. The decrease in the affinities of PMT binding to HSA in the presence of flavonoids may lead to the increase of free drug in blood, which would affect the transportation or disposition of drug and evoke an adverse or toxic effect. Hence, rationalising dosage and diet regimens should be taken into account in clinical application of PMT. PMID:27315330

  15. Studies on the interaction between promethazine and human serum albumin in the presence of flavonoids by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Xian-Ping; Yang, Yan-Jie; Gao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence, absorption, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques as well as molecular modeling methods were used to study the binding characterization of promethazine (PMT) to human serum albumin (HSA) and the influence of flavonoids, rutin and baicalin, on their affinity. The results indicated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA by PMT is a static quenching due to the formation of complex. The reaction was spontaneous and mainly mediated by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The binding distance between the tryptophan residue of HSA and PMT is less than 8nm, which indicated that the energy transfer from the tryptophan residue of HSA to PMT occurred. The binding site of PMT on HSA was located in sites I and the presence of PMT can cause the conformational changes of HSA. There was the competitive binding to HSA between PMT and flavonoids because of the overlap of binding sites in HSA. The flavonoids could decrease the association constant and increase the binding distance. In addition, their synergistic effect can further change the conformation of HSA. The decrease in the affinities of PMT binding to HSA in the presence of flavonoids may lead to the increase of free drug in blood, which would affect the transportation or disposition of drug and evoke an adverse or toxic effect. Hence, rationalising dosage and diet regimens should be taken into account in clinical application of PMT.

  16. MADS on the move : a study on MADS domain protein function and movement during floral development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the behaviour of fluorescently-tagged MADS domain proteins during floral development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and explored the importance of intercellular transport via plasmodesmata for MADS domain transcription factor functioning. The MADS domain tran

  17. EVIDENCE OF DIFFERENTIAL PH REGULATION OF THE ARABIDOPSIS VACUOLAR CA2+/H+ ANTIPORTERS CAX1 AND CAX2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arabidopsis Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters cation exchanger (CAX) 1 and 2 utilise an electrochemical gradient to transport Ca(2+) into the vacuole to help mediate Ca(2+) homeostasis. Previous whole plant studies indicate that activity of Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters is regulated by pH. However, the pH regul...

  18. Aktivitas antibakteri flavonoid propolis Trigona sp terhadap bakteri Streptococcus mutans (in vitro (In vitro antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardo Sabir

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of investigations have shown a positive correlation between the number of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans in dental plaque and the prevalence of dental caries. Consequently, this microorganism has been the prime target for the prevention of dental caries. Propolis being a substance made by the honeybee, is a potent antibacterial agent. The main chemical class present in propolis is flavonoids. Flavonoids are well-known plant compounds that have antibacterial property. Because S. mutans is accepted to be one of the microorganisms responsible for dental caries and flavonoids in propolis are antibacterial, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against S. mutans as a first step in its possible use as an alternative anticaries agent. Extract flavonoids was purified from ethanol extract of propolis which was obtained from Bulukumba Regency South Sulawesi using thin layer chromatography. The purification of flavonoids was carried-out by UVradiation at λ max 254 nm and λmax 366 nm and treatment with ammonia. Extract flavonoids was diluted in aquadest to 0.05%; 0.075%; 0.1%; 0.25%; 0.5%; 0.75% concentrations. Aquadest and 10% Povidone iodine were also used as control solution. S mutans were grown in medium glucose nutrient agar and incubated with flavonoids for 24 and 48 hours, at 37° C. Antibacterial activity was reflected by the diameter of the inhibition zones around the stainless steel cylinder. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by LSD test with significance level of 5%. The results of this study showed that after being incubated for 24 and 48 hours, all flavonoid concentrations significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited the growth of S mutans. 0.1% flavonoid was the most effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S mutans after 24 hours of incubation and 0.5% flavonoid after 48 hours of incubator.

  19. Systematic analysis of O-methyltransferase gene family and identification of potential members involved in the formation of O-methylated flavonoids in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Luo, Yan; Wu, Hongkun; Xi, Wanpeng; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-10

    The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus.

  20. Systematic analysis of O-methyltransferase gene family and identification of potential members involved in the formation of O-methylated flavonoids in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Luo, Yan; Wu, Hongkun; Xi, Wanpeng; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-10

    The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus. PMID:26407870

  1. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescha Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products. Results Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations. Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol, phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification. Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061395 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061395 006-305-E02 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multip...lication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-125 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104882 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104882 001-044-H04 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multip...lication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-119 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066854 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066854 J013075C10 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multipl...ication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-119 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101318 J033034D12 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multipl...ication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-125 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069960 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-60 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-112 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104764 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK098998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-57 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-100 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  20. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101526 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ucosaminyltransferase, putative similar to N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5139335]; contains AT-AC non-consensus splice sites at intron 13 1e-179 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119708 002-157-E08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060981 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060981 006-202-H08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111576 J013075J23 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120838 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120838 J023022B11 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111921 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111921 001-013-A10 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly i...dentical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profil

  7. Protective Properties of Flavonoid Extract of Coagulated Tofu (Curdled Soy Milk) Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ndatsu Yakubu; Umaru Alhassan Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The total flavonoid contents of the various coagulated tofu and the hepatoprotective potential of all tofu flavonoid extracts were investigated. Tofu was prepared from locally sourced coagulants (steep water, alum, lemon, and lemon peel ash extract). Total flavonoid contents of all coagulated tofu were investigated as established in vitro flavonoid assay. The hepatoprotective activities of tofu flavonoid extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell toxicity in rats was also investigate...

  8. Characterization of xanthophyll pigments, photosynthetic performance, photon energy dissipation, reactive oxygen species generation and carbon isotope discrimination during artemisinin-induced stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iftikhar Hussain

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug, is phytotoxic to many crops and weeds. The effects of artemisinin on stress markers, including fluorescence parameters, photosystem II photochemistry, photon energy dissipation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species generation and carbon isotope discrimination in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col-0 seedlings were grown in perlite and watered with 50% Hoagland nutrient solution. Adult plants of Arabidopsis were treated with artemisinin at 0, 40, 80, 160 μM for one week. Artemisinin, in the range 40-160 μM, decreased the fresh biomass, chl a, b and leaf mineral contents. Photosynthetic efficiency, yield and electron transport rate in Arabidopsis were also reduced following exposure to 80 and 160 μM artemisinin. The ΦNPQ and NPQ were less than control. Artemisinin treatment caused an increase in root oxidizability and lipid peroxidation (MDA contents of Arabidopsis. Calcium and nitrogen contents decreased after 80 and 160 μM artemisinin treatment compared to control. δ13C values were less negative following treatment with artemisinin as compared to the control. Artemisinin also decreased leaf protein contents in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these data suggest that artemisinin inhibits many physiological and biochemical processes in Arabidopsis.

  9. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mech...

  10. Contenido de flavonoides y compuestos fenólicos de mieles chilenas e índice antioxidante Content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in chilean honeys. Orac index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Muñoz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the phenolic content of several Chilean honeys showed great variations in flavonoid concentration among the samples analysed. Higher amounts of phenolics are found in honey from dry climates. The antioxidant effect of extracts, using ORAC analysis, did not correlate with the flavonoid content or with the total phenolic concentration.

  11. Nitric oxide induces the alternative oxidase pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings deprived of inorganic phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Royo, Beatriz; Moran, Jose F.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Gupta, Kapuganti J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate starvation compromises electron flow through the cytochrome pathway of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and plants commonly respond to phosphate deprivation by increasing flow through the alternative oxidase (AOX). To test whether this response is linked to the increase in nitric oxide (NO) production that also increases under phosphate starvation, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown for 15 d on media containing either 0 or 1mM inorganic phosphate. The effects of th...

  12. Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Cellular Physiology of Cysteine Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine is one of the most versatile molecules in biology, taking over such different functions as catalysis, structure, regulation and electron transport during evolution. Research on Arabidopsis has contributed decisively to the understanding of cysteine synthesis and its role in the assimilatory pathways of S, N and C in plants. The multimeric cysteine synthase complex is present in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria and forms the centre of a unique metabolic sensing and signaling sys...

  13. Blocking the Metabolism of Starch Breakdown Products in Arabidopsis Leaves Triggers Chloroplast Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Stettler, Michaela; Eicke, Simona; Mettler, Tabea; Messerli, Gaëlle; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2009-01-01

    In most plants, a large fraction of photo-assimilated carbon is stored in the chloroplasts during the day as starch and remobilized during the subsequent night to support metabolism. Mutations blocking either starch synthesis or starch breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana reduce plant growth. Maltose is the major product of starch breakdown exported from the chloroplast at night. The maltose excess 1 mutant (mex1), which lacks the chloroplast envelope maltose transporter, accumulates high levels...

  14. The role of sugars and sugar metabolism genes (sucrose synthase) in arabidopsis thaliana seed development

    OpenAIRE

    Odunlami, Benjamin Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana, has been studied at several levels. However, little has been done to study the role of sugar metabolism genes in seed pod development in this species. As the fertilized egg progresses to a mature seed, the sugars composition during different stages of the developing changes. These changes are related to metabolic processes in the developing seeds, but also to the activity of sucrose- converting and transporting genes, active at the interphase between ...

  15. Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum a. st.-hil. (Erythroxylaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Holanda de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant.

  16. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Aconitum gymnandrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Li Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aconitum gymnandrum is a Chinese traditional herb used as carminative and analgesic. In this study, A. gymnandrum was used as an experimental matrix. Materials and Methods: Optimized ultrasonic extraction technology of total flavonoids from the A. gymnandrum Maxim was studied by using the methodology of single factor and orthogonal design to study the effects of operation conditions, such as ethanol content, ultrasonic wave power, temperature, ultrasonic wave radiation time, and the ratio of sample weight to solvent volume. Result: Through the orthogonal experiment, the optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: Ultrasonic power 100 W, ultrasonic temperature 45°C, 60% ethyl alcohol, extraction time 30 min, and solid-liquid ratio 1:20. Conclusion: Under the optimum parameters, the extraction ratio of total flavonoids from the A. gymnandrum Maxim is about 1.278%.

  18. Analysis of Flavonoid Aglycons in Rhododendron of Sichuan Liangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxia; DING Mingyu; WU Zhuping

    2001-01-01

    An aqueous solution of the extracts from Rhododendron leaves from Sichuan Liangshan was extracted with solvents of increasing polarity,petroleum ether,ethyl ether,ethyl acetate and butanol.The main flavonoid aglycons extracted into the ethyl ether phase are the subject of this study.The flavonoid aglycons-mycetin,quercetin,kaempferol and farrerol,were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC),high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS).A simple and rapid HPLC method was developed for quantitative determination of quercetin and kaempferol in Rhododendron leaves,ethanol extracts and Jinjuan oral liquid drug (Liquor Jinjuan).The analysis of quercetin is useful for quality control of medicinal materials and Liquor Jinjuan products.

  19. Flavonoid glycosides from Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae) led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant. (author)

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Inula helenium

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Wang; Yong-Ming Zhao; Chun-Yan Guo; Shao-Meng Zhang; Chun-Lei Liu; Dan-Shen Zhang; Xue-Mei Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inula helenium was a perennial herb belonging to composite family and the roots of I. helenium have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, I. helenium was used as an experimental matrix. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of total flavonoids from I. helenium was studied with dual wavelength UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Effects of various factors including ratio of material to liquid, ultrasonic time, ethanol concentration and extract...

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Aconitum gymnandrum

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Li Zheng; Dan Wang; Yuan-Yuan Li; Hong-Yan Peng; Ming-Yong Yuan; Feng Gao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aconitum gymnandrum is a Chinese traditional herb used as carminative and analgesic. In this study, A. gymnandrum was used as an experimental matrix. Materials and Methods: Optimized ultrasonic extraction technology of total flavonoids from the A. gymnandrum Maxim was studied by using the methodology of single factor and orthogonal design to study the effects of operation conditions, such as ethanol content, ultrasonic wave power, temperature, ultrasonic wave radiation time, and t...

  2. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONOIDS FROM IRANIAN SENNA

    OpenAIRE

    A.R GHANADI; N.A GHASEMI DEHKORDI; M.J SOHRABI

    2000-01-01

    Background. Senna italica Miller or Cassia italica (Miller) Sprengel is a native medicinal plant growing in south of Iran and has laxative and cathartic effects. Anthraquinone compounds have been partly associated with the purgative effects of the plant. One of the side effects of anthraquinones is griping and presence of flavonoid compounds in the plant may decrease this effect. Methods. In this study, the plant after being collected, was extracted by a soxhlet method. The isolation of ...

  3. Flavonoid glycosides and pharmacological activity of Amphilophium paniculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I Nassar; El-Sayed A Aboutabl; Eskander, Dina M.; Grace, Mary H.; Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy; Amany A Sleem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nothing is reported on Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) Kunth. This study aimed at investigation of chemical constituents of the leaves of Amphilophium paniculatum, grown in Egypt, in addition to pharmacological evaluation. Materials and Methods: Isolation of a new compound, along with 5 known flavonoids. Pharmacological activities were carried out on different extracts of A. paniculatum leaves. Results: Identification of a new flavone glycoside, acacetin 8-C-β-D- glucopyranosy l-(1→...

  4. Isoprenylated flavonoids and clerodane diterpenoids from Dodonaea viscosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Fang, Yin-Dong; Hai, Ping; Wang, Fei; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dodonaea viscosa led to the isolation of six new compounds including four isoprenylated flavonoids, dodovisones A-D (1–4), and two clerodane diterpenoids, dodovislactones A and B (5 and 6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/s13659-013-0053-4 and is accessible for authorized users.

  5. The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids: a multiplicity of effects

    OpenAIRE

    Vauzour, David; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Rendeiro, Catarina; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids exert a multiplicity of neuroprotective actions within the brain, including a potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning and cognitive function. These effects appear to be underpinned by two common processes. Firstly, they interact with critical protein and lipid kinase signalling cascades in the brain leading to an inhibition of apoptosis triggered by neurotoxic species...

  6. Microbial production of the flavonoids garbanzol, resokaempferol and fisetin

    OpenAIRE

    Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Siedler, Solvej; Neves, Ana Rute; MAURY,, JEROME; Förster, Jochen; Gaspar, Paula; Borodina, Irina; Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica; Strucko, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The invention provides a genetically modified micro-organism comprising one or more transgene for the production of one or more of the flavonoids garbanzol, resokaempferol and fisetin. The micro-organism may be a bacterial or yeast cell engineered to express a metabolic pathway for garbanzol, resokaempferol and/or fisetin biosynthesis. The invention further provides a method for producing garbanzol, resokaempferol and/or fisetin employing the genetically modified micro-organism of the inventi...

  7. Analytical methods for quantitation of prenylated flavonoids from hops

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The female flowers of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used as a flavoring agent in the brewing industry. There is growing interest in possible health benefits of hops, particularly as estrogenic and chemopreventive agents. Among the possible active constituents, most of the attention has focused on prenylated flavonoids, which can chemically be classified as prenylated chalcones and prenylated flavanones. Among chalcones, xanthohumol (XN) and desmethylxanthohumol (DMX) have been the most studie...

  8. Luteolin, a flavonoid with potentials for cancer prevention and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yong; Shi, Ranxin; Wang, Xia; Shen, Han-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Luteolin, 3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, is a common flavonoid that exists in many types of plants including fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Plants rich in luteolin have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as hypertension, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy and anticancer, luteolin functions as either an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant biochemically. The biological effect...

  9. β-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 μg/ml to 513.5 μg/ml at 60˚ C and 28 times from 7.78 μg/ml to 221.46 μg/ml at 50˚ C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without β-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34% and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%, which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates. Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein.

  10. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Vasil Georgiev; Anthony Ananga; Violeta Tsolova

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among ...

  11. Analysis of Flavonoids in Rhamnus davurica and Its Antiproliferative Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnus davurica Pall. (R. davurica has been used as a traditional medicinal herb for many years in China and abroad. It has been well documented as a rich source of flavonoids with diversified structures, which in turn results in far-ranging biological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anticancer, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to further correlate their anticancer potentials with the phytochemical components, the fingerprint profile of R. davurica herb from Dongbei was firstly investigated using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Thirty two peaks were detected and identified, 14 of which were found in R. davurica for the first time in this work. Furthermore, a total of 23 peaks were resolved as flavonoids, which are the major components found in R. davurica. Meanwhile, the antiproliferative activities against human cancer cells of HT-29 and SGC-7901 in vitro exhibited distinct inhibitory effects with IC50 values at 24.96 ± 0.74 and 89.53 ± 4.11 μg/mL, respectively. Finally, the general toxicity against L-O2 cells displayed a much higher IC50 at 229.19 ± 8.52 μg/mL, which suggested very low or no toxicity on hepatic cell viability. The current study revealed for the first time the correlations between the flavonoids of R. davurica with their antiproliferative activities, which indicated that the fingerprint profile of flavonoids and their anticancer activities could provide valuable information on the quality control for herbal medicines and their derived natural remedies from this valuable medicinal plant.

  12. Flavonoids from the flowers of Nymphaea alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Jambor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten flavonoids were obtained from the flowers of Nymphaea alba L. Their structures were determined mainly on the basis of spectral analyses (UV, 'H NMR, MS. The following aglycons were isolated: quercetin, kaempferol, isokaempferide and apigenin as well as the following glycosides: quercetion 4'-β-xyloside, 3-methylquercetin 3'-β-xyloside and a mixture of quercetin 3-galactoside and 3-glucoside. The structures of three compounds obtained in very small amounts were determined in part.

  13. Flavonoids from flowers of Cephalaria pastricensis and their antiradical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN MILOSAVLJEVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Two flavonoid glycosides 1 and 2 having the luteolin structure were isolated from flowers of the endemic plant species Cephalaria pastricensis. They were identified by 1H and 13C NMR, as well as UV/Vis spectroscopy. The structures of 1 and 2 were also confirmed by the spectral data of aglycones and TLC of the sugars obtained after acid hydrolysis. Flavones 1 and 2 showed significant antiradical activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  14. The impact of Quercetin like flavonoid antioxidants on Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Akan, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled consumption of medical plants may lead controversial result over the patients who are receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Especially, flavonoid free radical scavenger including chemical and plants may not be innocent as much as thought. Free radical scavenger antioxidant extracts uses for commonly for two aims; the prevention of cancer and therapy of cancer.In the light of recent developments the impact of antioxidant usage on cancer treatment and prevent...

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID FROM ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA (TEN) STEENIS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Djamil; Wahyudi PS; Wahono S; M. Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    A flavonoid 8-Glucopyranosyl-4’,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, have been isolated from the methanol extract of leaves of Anredera cordifolia (Basellaceae). The structures of these compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidence, including UV, IR, 1HNMR dan13CNMR spectra.Antioxidant activity test by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method from the isolated compounds showed antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging their IC50 values were 68,07μg/mL.

  16. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  17. Brain Protection and Cognitive Function: Cocoa Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia are major public health social problems, suggesting the specific need to provide research into risk factors for cognitive decline as priority topic. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline. Further, cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Alzheimer's disease as well as in vascular dementia seem to be also the consequence of cerebral blood flow decrease and deregulation, also suggesting a putative pathophysiological convergence of mechanisms between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In keeping with this, a growing interest has been addressed to flavonoids as potential nutraceuticals with neuroprotective effects. Of interest, cocoa beans have been described as a fundamental source of anti-oxidant flavonoids with the flavan-3-ols and their derivatives being present in high concentrations. Therefore, recent studies specifically focused on the favorable effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate on cerebrovascular risk factors and cognitive function. Aim of this review is to summarize new findings concerning the cocoa effects on cognitive function, particularly focusing on some putative mechanisms of vascular and antioxidant action involved in preventing dementia.

  18. Flavonoids and coumarins from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typical chromatographic methods were successfully applied to isolate nine flavonoid compounds and two coumarin glycosides from the inflorescences and the herb of Hieracium pilosella L. Repeated column chromatography, occasionally paper chromatography and recrystallization made the separation of three flavonoid aglycones and six glycosides - possible. Coumarin glycosides were isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography. Subsequent UV, NMR and MS analyses have led to identification of the following flavonoid derivatives: known for the species - apigenin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O- ß-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4’-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isoetin 7-O-ß- -glucopyranoside, isoetin 4’-O-ß-glucuronide and new for the species – kaempferol 3-methyl ether and apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside. Third isoetin glycoside contained two different sugar moieties: xylose and glucose, probably attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-4’ or C-4’ and C-2’(or 5’ of an aglycone. Umbelliferone 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (skimmin and new for the genus Hieracium esculetin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (cichoriin were determined by NMR and MS methods.

  19. Brain Protection and Cognitive Function: Cocoa Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia are major public health social problems, suggesting the specific need to provide research into risk factors for cognitive decline as priority topic. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline. Further, cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Alzheimer's disease as well as in vascular dementia seem to be also the consequence of cerebral blood flow decrease and deregulation, also suggesting a putative pathophysiological convergence of mechanisms between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In keeping with this, a growing interest has been addressed to flavonoids as potential nutraceuticals with neuroprotective effects. Of interest, cocoa beans have been described as a fundamental source of anti-oxidant flavonoids with the flavan-3-ols and their derivatives being present in high concentrations. Therefore, recent studies specifically focused on the favorable effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate on cerebrovascular risk factors and cognitive function. Aim of this review is to summarize new findings concerning the cocoa effects on cognitive function, particularly focusing on some putative mechanisms of vascular and antioxidant action involved in preventing dementia. PMID:26561075

  20. Antiproliferative Activity of Flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Pereira dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days, was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1–F5 containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1–F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung, MCF-7 (breast cancer, and U251 (glioma. The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54 higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.. F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung (GI50 1.2 μg/mL, which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05, while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36. It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  1. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J Pena; Lago, João Henrique G; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; de Carvalho, João E; Furlan, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1-F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1-F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  2. Antibacterial activity of flavonoids of Withania somnifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Flavonoids from different parts (leaf, stem, root and fruits of Withania somnifera have been screened for antibacterial activity against Enterobacter aerogens, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella planticola and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Materials and Methods: Disc diffusion assay (DDA was performed for antimicrobial screening. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal (MBC and total activity (TA of extracts found sensitive against test pathogens have also been evaluated. Results and Conclusions: Most susceptible microorganisms in the present study were R. planticola and A. tumefaciens, which had shown susceptibility for almost all the extracts tested. Thereafter sensitive was shown by K. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, E. aerogens. However, highest inhibition zone was observed for E. aerogens (IZ 25.5 mm; AI 1.159 ± 0.023 followed by R. planticola (IZ 22 mm; AI 0.733 ± 0.133. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracts of W. somnifera were carried out to validate the use of traditional medicinal herb and the results of this study tend to give credence to the common use of W. sominfera plant. The study provide platform for further studies in plant, so as to pinpoint specific alkaloids and/or flavonoids responsible for antimicrobial activity and might open new vistas in the therapeutic use of the plant in allopathy medicine too.

  3. Comparative mutagenesis of plant flavonoids in microbial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardigree, A.A.; Epler, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The plant flavonoids quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), morin (3,5,7,2'4'-pentahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,5,7,4'tetrahydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), myricetin (3,5,7,3',4',5'-hexahydroxyflavone), myricitrin (myricetin-3-rhamnoside), hesperetin (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone), quercitrin (quercetin-3-L-rhamnoside), rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside or quercetin-3-rutinoside), and hesperidin (hesperetin-7-rutinoside) have been assayed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsomal activation system. Quercetin, morin, kaempferol, fisetin, myricetin, quercitrin and rutin were mutagenic in the histidine reversion system with the frameshift strain TA98. The flavonols quercetin and myricetin are mutagenic without metabolic activation, although more effective when a rat liver microsomal preparation (S-9) is included; all others require metabolic activation. Flavonoids are common constituents of higher plants, with extensive medical uses. In addition to pure compounds, we have examined crude extracts of tobacco (snuff) and extracts from commonly available nutritional supplements containing rutin. Mutagenic activity can be detected and is correlated with the flavonoid content.

  4. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J Pena; Lago, João Henrique G; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; de Carvalho, João E; Furlan, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1-F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1-F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes. PMID:26075219

  5. Tethering Complexes in the Arabidopsis Endomembrane System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Targeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defense against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model-Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF) mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology. PMID:27243010

  6. Tethering complexes in the Arabidopsis endomembrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja eVukasinovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTargeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defence against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model – Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA. The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology.

  7. Amyloplast movement and gravityperception in Arabidopsis endoderm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, M.; Saito, T.; Morita, M. T.

    Gravitropism of higher plant is a growth response regulating the orientation of organs elongation, which includes four sequential steps, the perception of gravistimulus, transduction of the physical stimulus to chemical signal, transmission of the signal, and differential cell elongation depending on the signal. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these steps, we have isolated a number of Arabidopsis mutants with abnormal shoot gravitropic response. zig (zigzag)/sgr4(shoot gravitropism 4) shows little gravitropism in their shoots. Besides, their inflorescence stems elongate in a zigzag-fashion to bend at each node. ZIG encodes a SNARE, AtVTI11. sgr3 with reduced gravitropic response in inflorescence stems had a missense mutation in other SNARE, AtVAM3. These two SNAREs make a complex in the shoot endoderm cells that are gravity-sensing cells, suggesting that the vesicle transport from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to prevacuolar compartment (PVC) and/or vacuole is involved in gravitropism. Abnormal vesicular/vacuolar structures were observed in several tissues of both mutants. Moreover, SGR2 encodes phospholipase A1-like protein that resides in the vacuolar membrane. Endodermis-specific expression of these genes could complement gravitropism in each mutant. In addition, amyloplasts thought to be statoliths localized abnormally in their endoderm cells. These results strongly suggest that formation and function of vacuole in the endoderm cells are important for amyloplasts sedimentation, which is involved in the early process of shoot gravitropism. To reveal this, we constructed vertical stage microscope system to visualize the behavior of amyloplasts and vacuolar membrane in living endodermal cells. We hope to discuss the mechanism of gravity perception after showing their movements.

  8. Mutations in a new Arabidopsis cyclophilin disrupt its interaction with protein phosphatase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K.; Soll, D.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a component of multiple signaling pathways in eukaryotes. Disruption of PP2A activity in Arabidopsis is known to alter auxin transport and growth response pathways. We demonstrated that the regulatory subunit A of an Arabidopsis PP2A interacts with a novel cyclophilin, ROC7. The gene for this cyclophilin encodes a protein that contains a unique 30-amino acid extension at the N-terminus, which distinguishes the gene product from all previously identified Arabidopsis cyclophilins. Altered forms of ROC7 cyclophilin with mutations in the conserved DENFKL domain did not bind to PP2A. Unlike protein phosphatase 2B, PP2A activity in Arabidopsis extracts was not affected by the presence of the cyclophilin-binding molecule cyclosporin. The ROC7 transcript was expressed to high levels in all tissues tested. Expression of an ROC7 antisense transcript gave rise to increased root growth. These results indicate that cyclophilin may have a role in regulating PP2A activity, by a mechanism that differs from that employed for cyclophilin regulation of PP2B.

  9. Flavonoid glycosides from Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae); Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Camila Holanda de; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Oliveira, Steno Lacerda de; Silva, Taina Souza; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da, E-mail: josean@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Goncalves, Gregorio Fernandes; Pessoa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Biologica Molecular; Agra, Maria de Fatima [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia. Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae) led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant. (author)

  10. Flavonoids promoting HaCaT migration: I. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moonjae; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Mijoo; Kim, Young Hwa; Lim, Yoongho

    2014-03-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in multicellular development and preservation. Because wound healing requires cell migration, compounds promoting cell migration can be used for wound repair therapy. Several plant-derived polyphenols are known to promote cell migration, which improves wound healing. Previous studies of flavonoids on cell lines have focused on their inhibitory effects and not on wound healing. In addition, studies of flavonoids on wound healing have been performed using mixtures. In this study, individual flavonoids were used for cellular migration measurements. Relationships between the cell migration effects of flavonoids and their structural properties have never been reported. Here, we investigated the migration of keratinocytes caused by 100 flavonoids and examined their relationships using hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships. The structural conditions responsible for efficient cell migration on keratinocyte cell lines determined from the current study will facilitate the design of flavonoids with improved activity.

  11. Study on the high flavonoids mutants of tartarian buckwheat by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different varieties of tartarian buckwheat seeds (Chuanqiao 1#, Yu-621 and KP9920) were irradiated with various doses (100∼500 Gy) of 60Co-γ ray and sowed. Ten, eight and six high flavonoid tartary buckwheat mutants were selected from three parent materials respectively. The flavonoid content of three parent materials were 8.33%, 10.18% and 9.80%. The range of flavonoid content of high flavonoids mutants for three parent materials 11.37%∼14.91%, 10.67%∼12.46% and 11.32%∼12.95% respectively. Cluster analysis was also carried out based on the agronomic traits and flavonoid content in the 27 tartary buckwheat materials (24 mutants and 3 parent material) The 27 materials were classified into four clusters by cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits and were classified into 5 groups based on flavonoid content. (authors)

  12. Flavonoids in human urine as biomarkers for intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Salka E.; Freese, R.; Kleemola, P.;

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously found in human diets. We have studied the association between urinary excretion of flavonoids and the intake of fruits and vegetables to evaluate the usefulness of flavonoids as a biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Levels of 12 dietary...... relevant flavonoids were determined by LC-MS in urine samples collected prior to an intervention study, when the subjects were on their habitual diet (n = 94), and after they had participated in an intervention study with diets either high or low in fruits, berries, and vegetables (n = 77). Both flavonoid...... samples. The habitual intake of fruits and vegetables, determined by 3-day dietary records before the intervention study, correlated significantly with the total excretion of urinary flavonoids, with a coefficient of correlation of 0.35, P

  13. Experimental and theoretical advances in functional understanding of flavonoids as anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Bandarugattu V; Konduru, Naveen K; Nakanishi, Waro; Hayashi, Satoko; Ahmed, Naseem; Mitrasinovic, Petar M

    2013-02-01

    The potential of flavonoids to act as anti-tumor agents has been recognized but not fully understood because flavonoids are acting at several stages in cancer progression with distinct structure-function relationships. A whole family of structurally different flavonoids is herein described by reviewing some critical aspects of their pro-oxidant behavior in vitro/vivo and in cell systems by which they may work as antioxidants. Different classes of flavonoids (chalcones, flavones, isoflavones, flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanins) are synthetically mimicked using natural product structure-antioxidant activity relationships that are relevant for their enhanced function against cancer as well as severe inflammation conditions under which an increased oxidative stress is often implicated. In the context of the common mechanisms of flavonoid action, clinical data on benefits of flavonoids in fighting against cancer are discussed. A structural basis needed to improve antioxidant activity of these agents is elaborated in more detail.

  14. Association between flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption and total serum bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Mahoney, Sara E

    2015-03-01

    Emerging work demonstrates that serum bilirubin is a novel biomarker implicated in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, we have a limited understanding of the influence of flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption on bilirubin levels, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey were used (n = 1783; 18-85 years of age), with analyses performed in 2014. Total serum bilirubin was measured from a blood sample. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), a flavonoid index variable was created summing the frequency of consumption of flavonoid-rich foods. After adjustments, greater consumption of flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables was positively associated with bilirubin levels. Our findings suggest an association between flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption and bilirubin levels. If confirmed by prospective and experimental studies, then regular consumption of flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables should be promoted to increase levels of bilirubin.

  15. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  16. 富黄酮洋葱酒中黄酮类化合物稳定性研究%Stability of flavonoids from flavonoid-enriched onion wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于至州; 吴昊; 潘映鸿; 王艺颖; 荆琳; 王成荣

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究不同因素对洋葱酒中总黄酮化合物的影响。方法以富黄酮洋葱为试验材料,分别测定温度、pH、氧化剂、还原剂、常用的食品添加剂及金属离子对洋葱发酵酒的黄酮含量影响。结果低温对洋葱黄酮影响不大,升高温度可能导致黄酮分解; pH 对黄酮影响较大,应尽可能在酸性范围内贮存富黄酮洋葱酒;洋葱黄酮对氧化还原剂较稳定,具有良好的抗氧化能力,但还原剂可能导致黄酮含量减小,应避免接触;在不同浓度的食品添加剂中,黄酮含量较稳定,可以添加常见添加剂调整富黄酮洋葱酒风味;金属离子对其影响较大。结论本研究优化的储藏条件为富黄酮洋葱酒的开发与保存提供了方法与依据。%Objective To investigate the effects of various factors on the total flavonoids compounds of onion wine. Methods Taking flavonoid-enriched onion wine as experimental material, the effects of temperature, pH, oxidant, reductant, commonly used food additives and metal ions on the content of flavonoids in onion wine were researched. Results Low temperature had little effect on onion flavonoids and the raising of extracted temperature might cause flavonoid decomposition. The pH had greater effect on flavonoids, so the flavonoid-enriched onion wine should be stored in acidic conditions. Reductant-oxidant had little effect on onion flavonoids, but reducing agent might cause flavonoid decomposition, so it should avoid exposed to reductant. At different concentrations of food additives, the flavonoids content was relatively stable, so common additives could be added to adjust the flavor of flavonoid-enriched onion wine. Metal ions also had large influence on onion flavonoids. Conclusion The optimization of storage conditions provides method and basis for the development and preservation of flavonoid-enriched onion wine.

  17. Characterization of the intestinal absorption of seven flavonoids from the flowers of Trollius chinensis using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Liu

    Full Text Available The human Caco-2 cell monolayer model was used to investigate the absorption property, mechanism, and structure-property relationship of seven representative flavonoids, namely, orientin, vitexin, 2"-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin, 2"-O-β-L-galactopyranosylvitexin, isoswertisin, isoswertiajaponin, and 2"-O-(2"'-methylbutanoylisoswertisin from the flowers of Trollius chinensis. The results showed that these flavonoids were hardly transported through the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The compounds with 7-OCH3 including isoswertisin, isoswertiajaponin and 2"-O-(2"'-methylbutanoylisoswertisin were absorbed in a passive diffusion manner, and their absorbability was increased in the same order as their polarity. The absorption of the remaining compounds with 7-OH including orientin, vitexin, 2"-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin, and 2"-O-β-L-galactopyranosylvitexin involved transporter mediated efflux in addition to passive diffusion. Among the four compounds with 7-OH, those with a free hydroxyl group at C-2" such as orientin and vitexin were the substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp and that with a free hydroxyl group at C-2' such as 2"-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin was the substrate of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2. The results of this study also implied that the absorbability of the flavonoids should be taken into account when estimating the effective components of T. chinensis.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid in Katu Leaf (Sauropus androgynus (L. Merr

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    Sri Harsodjo Wijono

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available lavonoids in 95% ethanol extract of katu leaf were isolated using Charaux-Paris method. Extract of 95 % ethanol was fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and three times with n-butanol. Flavonoids to be isolated from n-butanol I fraction by chromatography paper preparative method, and identified by spectrophotometer UV (Ultra-Violet and infrared. Six flavonoids were isolated, one of flavonoids identified as rutin, and the other five were flavonol OH-3 conjugated or flavon groups.

  19. Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid in Katu Leaf (Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Harsodjo Wijono

    2003-01-01

    lavonoids in 95% ethanol extract of katu leaf were isolated using Charaux-Paris method. Extract of 95 % ethanol was fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and three times with n-butanol. Flavonoids to be isolated from n-butanol I fraction by chromatography paper preparative method, and identified by spectrophotometer UV (Ultra-Violet) and infrared. Six flavonoids were isolated, one of flavonoids identified as rutin, and the other five were flavonol OH-3 conjugated or flavon groups.

  20. Metabolic engineering of flavonoids in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): the potential for metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Bovy, A.G.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Hall, R D

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids comprise a large and diverse group of polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites. In plants, flavonoids play important roles in many biological processes such as pigmentation of flowers, fruits and vegetables, plant-pathogen interactions, fertility and protection against UV light. Being natural plant compounds, flavonoids are an integral part of the human diet and there is increasing evidence that dietary polyphenols are likely candidates for the observed beneficial effects of a diet...

  1. Quantitative Structure – Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Flavonoid Compounds

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    Károly Héberger

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure – antioxidant activity relationship (QSAR study of 36 flavonoids was performed using the partial least squares projection of latent structures (PLS method. The chemical structures of the flavonoids have been characterized by constitutional descriptors, two-dimensional topological and connectivity indices. Our PLS model gave a proper description and a suitable prediction of the antioxidant activities of a diverse set of flavonoids having clustering tendency.

  2. Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Activity by Flavonoids: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Guerrero; Julián Castillo; Mar Quiñones; Santiago Garcia-Vallvé; Lluis Arola; Gerard Pujadas; Begoña Muguerza

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that certain flavonoids can have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, which plays a key role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. In the present study, 17 flavonoids belonging to five structural subtypes were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit ACE in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. The ACE inhibitory (ACEI) activity of these 17 flavonoids was determined by fluorimetric metho...

  3. Analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids in grass of Desmodium canadense (L) DC

    OpenAIRE

    Kamandulis, Mintautas

    2006-01-01

    Plants have many useful substances – and one of them is flavonoids with other phenolic compounds. This is a very big group of biological active compounds. Flavonoids have been referred to as "nature's biological response modifiers" because of their ability to modify the body's reaction to other compounds such as allergens, viruses, and carcinogens. They show anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. In addition, flavonoids act as powerful antioxidants, providing remarkable p...

  4. Estimation of dietary sources and flavonoid intake in a Spanish adult population (EPIC-Spain).

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M.; Berenguer, Toni; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Sanchez, Maria J.; Navarro, Carmen; Chirlaque, Maria D.; Tormo, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested associations between flavonoid intake and health benefits. Traditional Mediterranean diets consist of a high consumption of plant products rich in flavonoids. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates dietary flavonoid intake and main food sources in a Mediterranean population (Spanish adults). DESIGN: The study included 40,683 subjects aged 35 to 64 years from northern and southern regions of Spain who were included in the European Prospective Investiga...

  5. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important. (author)

  6. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuguo Deng; Xingwang Fang; Jilan Wu [Peking Univ., Technical Physics Dept., Beijing (China)

    1997-09-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important. (author).

  7. Flavonoids and polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica L. extracts from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunschi Svetlana I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine flavonoids and polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of extracts of figs growing in Romania. The content of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds was determined according to the Romanian Phar­macopoeia, the 10th edition, using the standard rutin for flavonoids, catechol for polyphe­nols and HPLC for flavonoids quantification. Determination of antioxidant activity was done by DPPH scavenging method and at cellular level by attenuation of oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. The experimental results reveal that Ficus carica extracts may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  8. Matricaria L. (Anthemideae, Asteraceae in Iran: a chemotaxonomic study based on flavonoids

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    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Matricaria L. belongs to the tribe Anthemideae and the subtribe Matricineae (Asteraceae and comprises 7 species of which 2 species grow wild in Iran. This study was aimed to characterize the Iranian materials of Matricaria using profiles of flavonoid spots and determination of skeletons of major flavonoids in each species. Twelve bulked population samples from Matricaria aurea and M. recutita were examined. Presence -absence data from two dimensional maps (2DM of their flavonoid spots were processed using Cluster and PCA analyses. Differences at species level in flavonoid skeleton properties were investigated and a taxonomic review of close taxa was provided.

  9. Variation in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung Woo; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Park, Semin; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Huh, Moo Ryong; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Yi; Shin, Sung Chul

    2014-04-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Fruit peels infected with C. gloeosporioides and the peels of healthy fruit were analysed for flavonoids, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, to evaluate variations in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. Seventeen flavonoids were characterised from the fruit peels. The flavonoids were validated using structurally related standards and quantified. Among the 17 flavonoids, the concentration of component 3 was the highest and that of component 10 was the lowest. During 8 days after inoculation, the concentration of the seven flavonoids 1-3, 5, 6, 13, and 14 increased gradually up to day 8. Flavonoid 4 was detected from day 7. The seven minor flavonoid components, 8-12, 15, and 16 increased to day 5 and then decreased. However, flavonoids level variations were not significantly different from that of the non-infected fruits during the experimental period. The monitoring suggested that the constitutively formed seven polymethoxyflavones (8-12, 15, and 16) may act as phytoanticipins in the defence mechanism against the fungus, and that hespertin 7-O-glucoside (4), produced de novo on day 6 after infection, may function as a phytoalexin.

  10. Optimization of the extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves was optimized to maximize flavonoids yield in this study. A central composite design of response surface methodology involving extracting time, power, liquid-solid ratio, and concentration was used, and second-order model for Y was employed to generate the response surfaces. The optimum condition for flavonoids yield was determined as follows: extracting time 24.95 min, power 72.05, ethanol concentration 63.35%, liquid-solid ratio 10.04. Under the optimum condition, the flavonoids yield was 76.84 %. (author)

  11. Pathway engineering for healthy phytochemicals leading to the production of novel flavonoids in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijlen, Elio; Ric de Vos, C H; Jonker, Harry; van den Broeck, Hetty; Molthoff, Jos; van Tunen, Arjen; Martens, Stefan; Bovy, Arnaud

    2006-07-01

    Flavonoids are a large family of plant polyphenolic secondary metabolites. Although they are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, some flavonoid classes are specific for only a few plant species. Due to their presumed health benefits there is growing interest in the development of food crops with tailor-made levels and composition of flavonoids, designed to exert an optimal biological effect. In order to explore the possibilities of flavonoid engineering in tomato fruits, we have targeted this pathway towards classes of potentially healthy flavonoids which are novel for tomato. Using structural flavonoid genes (encoding stilbene synthase, chalcone synthase, chalcone reductase, chalcone isomerase and flavone synthase) from different plant sources, we were able to produce transgenic tomatoes accumulating new phytochemicals. Biochemical analysis showed that the fruit peel contained high levels of stilbenes (resveratrol and piceid), deoxychalcones (butein and isoliquiritigenin), flavones (luteolin-7-glucoside and luteolin aglycon) and flavonols (quercetin glycosides and kaempferol glycosides). Using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) antioxidant detection system, we demonstrated that, due to the presence of the novel flavonoids, the transgenic tomato fruits displayed altered antioxidant profiles. In addition, total antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit peel with high levels of flavones and flavonols increased more than threefold. These results on genetic engineering of flavonoids in tomato fruit demonstrate the possibilities to change the levels and composition of health-related polyphenols in a crop plant and provide more insight in the genetic and biochemical regulation of the flavonoid pathway within this worldwide important vegetable. PMID:17177808

  12. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  13. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  14. Mass spectrometric imaging as a high-spatial resolution tool for functional genomics: Tissue-specific gene expression of TT7 inferred from heterogeneous distribution of metabolites in Arabidopsis flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-12-23

    Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was used to acquire chemical images of flavonoid metabolites on the surface of wild-type and mutant (tt7) Arabidopsis thaliana flowers. Flavonoids were localized to the petals and carpels of flowers, with tissue heterogeneity in the petals. Specifically, kaempferol and/or its glycosides were abundant in the distal region of petals and quercetin and its downstream flavonoids were highly enriched in the more proximal region of petals. As a result of a mutation in the TT7 gene which blocks the conversion of dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, the downstream metabolites, quercetin, isohamnetin, and their glycosides, were not observed in the mutant flowers. Instead, the metabolites in an alternative pathway, kaempferol and/or its glycosides, were as highly abundant on the proximal region of the petals as in the distal region. In addition, the combined flavonoid amounts on the proximal region of petals in the wild-type are almost equivalent to the amounts of kaempferol and/or its glycosides in the mutant. This strongly suggests that the expression of the TT7 gene is localized on the proximal part of the petal while the other genes in the upper stream pathway are evenly expressed throughout the petal. Most importantly, this work demonstrates MSI of metabolites can be utilized for the localization of gene expression.

  15. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  16. Elucidating the role of transport processes in leaf glucosinolate distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2014-11-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a strategy to defend its leaves against herbivores is to accumulate glucosinolates along the midrib and at the margin. Although it is generally assumed that glucosinolates are synthesized along the vasculature in an Arabidopsis leaf, thereby suggesting that the margin accumulation is established through transport, little is known about these transport processes. Here, we show through leaf apoplastic fluid analysis and glucosinolate feeding experiments that two glucosinolate transporters, GTR1 and GTR2, essential for long-distance transport of glucosinolates in Arabidopsis, also play key roles in glucosinolate allocation within a mature leaf by effectively importing apoplastically localized glucosinolates into appropriate cells. Detection of glucosinolates in root xylem sap unambiguously shows that this transport route is involved in root-to-shoot glucosinolate allocation. Detailed leaf dissections show that in the absence of GTR1 and GTR2 transport activity, glucosinolates accumulate predominantly in leaf margins and leaf tips. Furthermore, we show that glucosinolates accumulate in the leaf abaxial epidermis in a GTR-independent manner. Based on our results, we propose a model for how glucosinolates accumulate in the leaf margin and epidermis, which includes symplasmic movement through plasmodesmata, coupled with the activity of putative vacuolar glucosinolate importers in these peripheral cell layers. PMID:25209984

  17. [Polymethoxylated flavonoids activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huan-Huan; Fang, Fang; Yu, Bo; Luan, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Hong

    2015-04-25

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent chloride channel, plays key roles in fluid secretion in serous epithelial cells. Previously, we identified two polymethoxylated flavonoids, 3',4',5,5',6,7-hexamethoxyflavone (HMF) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF) which could potentiate CFTR chloride channel activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the potentiation effects of HMF and HTF on CFTR Cl(-) channel activities by using a cell-based fluorescence assay and the short circuit Ussing chamber assay. The results of cell-based fluorescence assay showed that both HMF and HTF could dose-dependently potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities in rapid and reversible ways, and the activations could be reversed by the CFTR blocker CFTRinh-172. Notably, HMF showed the highest affinity (EC50 = 2 μmol/L) to CFTR protein among the flavonoid CFTR activators identified so far. The activation of CFTR by HMF or HTF was forskolin (FSK) dependent. Both compounds showed additive effect with FSK and 3-Isobutyl-1-methylx (IBMX) in the activation of CFTR, while had no additive effect with genistein (GEN). In ex vivo studies, HMF and HTF could stimulate transepithelial Cl(-) secretion in rat colonic mucosa and enhance fluid secretion in mouse trachea submucosal glands. These results suggest that HMF and HTF may potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities through both elevation of cAMP level and binding to CFTR protein pathways. The results provide new clues in elucidating structure and activity relationship of flavonoid CFTR activators. HMF might be developed as a new drug in the therapy of CFTR-related diseases such as bronchiectasis and habitual constipation. PMID:25896054

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of flavonoids of Withania somnifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study antimicrobial activity of Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae has been evaluated against selected pathogens. Free and bound flavonoids of different parts (root, stem, leaf and fruit of W. somnifera have been studied for their antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion assay against three Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 46, Proteus mirabilis MTCC 3310 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1934, one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 3160 and three fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 183, Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 282. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by sub culturing the relevant samples. C. albicans was found to be the most susceptible organism followed by S. aureus, P. mirabilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Out of the tested organisms, A flavus and A. niger were observed to be resistant as none of the tested extracts showed activity against them. Total activity (TA of extracts (ml/g against each sensitive pathogens was also evaluated. Bound flavonoid extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (IZ 30, MIC 0.039, MFC 0.039, respectively. However all the microorganisms were found to be sensitive against the extracts tested. Total activity of bound flavonoid extract of root was found to be same for E.coli, P. mirabilis, S. aureus and C. albicans (153.84 ml/g. Results of the present study reveal that extracts of W. somnifera showing great antimicrobial potential against test microorganisms may be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs.

  19. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  20. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.