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Sample records for arabidopsis enhances heat

  1. The Arabidopsis transcriptional regulator DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hikaru; Todaka, Daisuke; Kudo, Madoka; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Zhao, Yu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of heat stress tolerance in crops is an important challenge for food security to facilitate adaptation to global warming. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transcriptional regulator DNA polymerase II subunit B3-1 (DPB3-1)/nuclear factor Y subunit C10 (NF-YC10) has been reported as a positive regulator of Dehydration-responsive element binding protein 2A (DREB2A), and the overexpression of DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation. Here, we show that DPB3-1 interacts with DREB2A homologues in rice and soya bean. Transactivation analyses with Arabidopsis and rice mesophyll protoplasts indicate that DPB3-1 and its rice homologue OsDPB3-2 function as positive regulators of DREB2A homologues. Overexpression of DPB3-1 did not affect plant growth or yield in rice under nonstress conditions. Moreover, DPB3-1-overexpressing rice showed enhanced heat stress tolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that many heat stress-inducible genes were up-regulated in DPB3-1-overexpressing rice under heat stress conditions. However, the overexpression of DPB3-1 using a constitutive promoter had almost no effect on the expression of these genes under nonstress conditions. This may be because DPB3-1 is a coactivator and thus lacks inherent transcriptional activity. We conclude that DPB3-1, a coactivator that functions specifically under abiotic stress conditions, could be utilized to increase heat stress tolerance in crops without negative effects on vegetative and reproductive growth. PMID:26841113

  2. Overexpression of small heat shock protein LimHSP16.45 in Arabidopsis enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

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    Changjun Mu

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (smHSPs play important and extensive roles in plant defenses against abiotic stresses. We cloned a gene for a smHSP from the David Lily (Lilium davidii (E. H. Wilson Raffill var. Willmottiae, which we named LimHSP16.45 based on its protein molecular weight. Its expression was induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses in both the lily and transgenic plants of Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression enhanced cell viability of the latter under high temperatures, high salt, and oxidative stress, and heat shock granules (HSGs formed under heat or salinity treatment. Assays of enzymes showed that LimHSP16.45 overexpression was related to greater activity by superoxide dismutase and catalase in transgenic lines. Therefore, we conclude that heterologous expression can protect plants against abiotic stresses by preventing irreversible protein aggregation, and by scavenging cellular reactive oxygen species.

  3. Heat stress enhances the accumulation of polyadenylated mitochondrial transcripts in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Alessio Adamo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyadenylation of RNA has a decisive influence on RNA stability. Depending on the organisms or subcellular compartment, it either enhances transcript stability or targets RNAs for degradation. In plant mitochondria, polyadenylation promotes RNA degradation, and polyadenylated mitochondrial transcripts are therefore widely considered to be rare and unstable. We followed up a surprising observation that a large number of mitochondrial transcripts are detectable in microarray experiments that used poly(A-specific RNA probes, and that these transcript levels are significantly enhanced after heat treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the Columbia genome contains a complete set of mitochondrial genes, we had to identify polymorphisms to differentiate between nuclear and mitochondrial copies of a mitochondrial transcript. We found that the affected transcripts were uncapped transcripts of mitochondrial origin, which were polyadenylated at multiple sites within their 3'region. Heat-induced enhancement of these transcripts was quickly restored during a short recovery period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that polyadenylated transcripts of mitochondrial origin are more stable than previously suggested, and that their steady-state levels can even be significantly enhanced under certain conditions. As many microarrays contain mitochondrial probes, due to the frequent transfer of mitochondrial genes into the genome, these effects need to be considered when interpreting microarray data.

  4. AtHsfA2 modulates expression of stress responsive genes and enhances tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunguang; CHEN Qijun; GAO Xinqi; QI Bishu; CHEN Naizhi; XU Shouming; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for considerable interlinking between the responses to heat stress and oxidative stress, and recent researches suggest heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals. In this paper, we present evidence that AtHsfA2 modulated expression of stress responsive genes and enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Using Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of AtHsfA2 was induced by not only HS but also oxidative stress. By functional analysis of AtHsfA2 knockout mutants and AtHsfA2 overexpressing transgenic plants, we also demonstrated that the mutants displayed reduced the basal and acquired thermotolerance as well as oxidative stress tolerance but the overexpression lines displayed increased tolerance to these stress. The phenotypes correlated with the expression of some Hsps and APX1, ion leakage, H2O2 level and degree of oxidative injuries. These results showed that, by modulated expression of stress responsive genes, AtHsfA2 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. So we suggest that AtHsfA2 plays an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals.

  5. A seed preferential heat shock transcription factor from wheat provides abiotic stress tolerance and yield enhancement in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat stress environment.

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    Harsh Chauhan

    Full Text Available Reduction in crop yield and quality due to various abiotic stresses is a worldwide phenomenon. In the present investigation, a heat shock factor (HSF gene expressing preferentially in developing seed tissues of wheat grown under high temperatures was cloned. This newly identified heat shock factor possesses the characteristic domains of class A type plant HSFs and shows high similarity to rice OsHsfA2d, hence named as TaHsfA2d. The transcription factor activity of TaHsfA2d was confirmed through transactivation assay in yeast. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHsfA2d not only possess higher tolerance towards high temperature but also showed considerable tolerance to salinity and drought stresses, they also showed higher yield and biomass accumulation under constant heat stress conditions. Analysis of putative target genes of AtHSFA2 through quantitative RT-PCR showed higher and constitutive expression of several abiotic stress responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing TaHsfA2d. Under stress conditions, TaHsfA2d can also functionally complement the T-DNA insertion mutants of AtHsfA2, although partially. These observations suggest that TaHsfA2d may be useful in molecular breeding of crop plants, especially wheat, to improve yield under abiotic stress conditions.

  6. Universal Stress Protein exhibits a redox-dependent chaperone function in Arabidopsis and enhances plant tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress

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    Jung eYoung Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a wide range of physiological information on Universal Stress Proteins (USPs is available from many organisms, their biochemical and molecular functions remain unidentified. The biochemical function of AtUSP (At3g53990 from Arabidopsis thaliana was therefore investigated. Plants over-expressing AtUSP showed a strong resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress, compared with wild-type and Atusp knock-out plants, confirming the crucial role of AtUSP in stress tolerance. AtUSP was present in a variety of structures including monomers, dimers, trimers, and oligomeric complexes, and switched in response to external stresses from low molecular weight (LMW species to high molecular weight (HMW complexes. AtUSP exhibited a strong chaperone function under stress conditions in particular, and this activity was significantly increased by heat treatment. Chaperone activity of AtUSP was critically regulated by the redox status of cells and accompanied by structural changes to the protein. Over-expression of AtUSP conferred a strong tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress upon Arabidopsis, primarily via its chaperone function.

  7. Overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene of Withania somnifera enhances salt tolerance, heat tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

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    Manoj K Mishra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant's adaptation to abiotic stress. METHODOLOGY: The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses--salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. RESULTS: The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found

  8. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  9. Enhancement of reproductive heat tolerance in plants.

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    John J Burke

    Full Text Available Comparison of average crop yields with reported record yields has shown that major crops exhibit annual average yields three- to seven-fold lower than record yields because of unfavorable environments. The current study investigated the enhancement of pollen heat tolerance through expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein 101 (AtHSP101 that is not normally expressed in pollen but reported to play a crucial role in vegetative thermotolerance. The AtHSP101 construct under the control of the constitutive ocs/mas 'superpromoter' was transformed into cotton Coker 312 and tobacco SRI lines via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Thermotolerance of pollen was evaluated by in vitro pollen germination studies. Comparing with those of wild type and transgenic null lines, pollen from AtHSP101 transgenic tobacco and cotton lines exhibited significantly higher germination rate and much greater pollen tube elongation under elevated temperatures or after a heat exposure. In addition, significant increases in boll set and seed numbers were also observed in transgenic cotton lines exposed to elevated day and night temperatures in both greenhouse and field studies. The results of this study suggest that enhancing heat tolerance of reproductive tissues in plant holds promise in the development of crops with improved yield production and yield sustainability in unfavorable environments.

  10. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  11. Overexpression of Actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Zhang, Ji-Yu; Huang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Gang; Xuan, Ji-Ping; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2016-09-01

    Ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. Here, we cloned a full-length PDC cDNA sequence from kiwifruit, named AdPDC1. We determined the expression of the AdPDC1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the increase of AdPDC1 expression during waterlogging stress was much higher than that during salt, cold, heat and drought stresses. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to waterlogging stress but could not enhance resistance to cold stress at five weeks old seedlings. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis could not enhance resistance to NaCl and mannitol stresses at the stage of seed germination and in early seedlings. These results suggested that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene is required during waterlogging but might not be required during other environmental stresses. Expression of the AdPDC1 gene was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in kiwifruit, and overexpression of the AdPDC1 gene in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and root length under ABA treatment, indicating that ABA might negatively regulate the AdPDC1 gene under waterlogging stress. PMID:27191596

  12. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  13. Enhanced temperature uniformity by tetrahedral laser heating

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Bossuyt, Sven; Rhim, Won-Kyu; Li, Jianzhong; Zhou, Zhenhua; Johnson, William L.

    2004-01-01

    emperature profile on a spherical sample that is heated by laser beams in various geometries while processed in vacuum is analyzed. Sample heating by one or four laser beams was considered. An analytical expression was derived for directional sample heating cases. It suggests an enhanced temperature uniformity over the samples when heated with four diffuse laser beams arranged in a tetrahedral geometry. This was experimentally verified by heating a spherical stainless steel sample by laser be...

  14. Thioredoxin Reductase Type C (NTRC) Orchestrates Enhanced Thermotolerance to Arabidopsis by Its Redox-Dependent Holdase Chaperone Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho Byoung Chae; Jeong Chan Moon; Mi Rim Shin; Yong Hun Chi; Young Jun Jung; Sun Yong Lee; Ganesh M.Nawkar

    2013-01-01

    Genevestigator analysis has indicated heat shock induction of transcripts for NADPH-thioredoxin reductase,type C (NTRC) in the light.Here we show overexpression of NTRC in Arabidopsis (NTRCoE) resulting in enhanced tolerance to heat shock,whereas NTRC knockout mutant plants (ntrcl) exhibit a temperature sensitive phenotype.To investigate the underlying mechanism of this phenotype,we analyzed the protein's biochemical properties and protein structure.NTRC assembles into homopolymeric structures of varying complexity with functions as a disulfide reductase,a foldase chaperone,and as a holdase chaperone.The multiple functions of NTRC are closely correlated with protein structure.Complexes of higher molecular weight (HMW) showed stronger activity as a holdase chaperone,while low molecular weight (LMW) species exhibited weaker holdase chaperone activity but stronger disulfide reductase and foldase chaperone activities.Heat shock converted LMW proteins into HMW complexes.Mutations of the two active site Cys residues of NTRC into Ser (C217/454S-NTRC) led to a complete inactivation of its disulfide reductase and foldase chaperone functions,but conferred only a slight decrease in its holdase chaperone function.The overexpression of the mutated C217/454S-NTRC provided Arabidopsis with a similar degree of thermotolerance compared with that of NTRCoE plants.However,after prolonged incubation under heat shock,NTRCoE plants tolerated the stress to a higher degree than C217/454S-NTRCoE plants.The results suggest that the heat shock-mediated holdase chaperone function of NTRC is responsible for the increased thermotolerance of Arabidopsis and the activity is significantly supported by NADPH.

  15. Flow and heat transfer enhancement in tube heat exchangers

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    Sayed Ahmed, Sayed Ahmed E.; Mesalhy, Osama M.; Abdelatief, Mohamed A.

    2015-11-01

    The performance of heat exchangers can be improved to perform a certain heat-transfer duty by heat transfer enhancement techniques. Enhancement techniques can be divided into two categories: passive and active. Active methods require external power, such as electric or acoustic field, mechanical devices, or surface vibration, whereas passive methods do not require external power but make use of a special surface geometry or fluid additive which cause heat transfer enhancement. The majority of commercially interesting enhancement techniques are passive ones. This paper presents a review of published works on the characteristics of heat transfer and flow in finned tube heat exchangers of the existing patterns. The review considers plain, louvered, slit, wavy, annular, longitudinal, and serrated fins. This review can be indicated by the status of the research in this area which is important. The comparison of finned tubes heat exchangers shows that those with slit, plain, and wavy finned tubes have the highest values of area goodness factor while the heat exchanger with annular fin shows the lowest. A better heat transfer coefficient ha is found for a heat exchanger with louvered finned and thus should be regarded as the most efficient one, at fixed pumping power per heat transfer area. This study points out that although numerous studies have been conducted on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer in round, elliptical, and flat tubes, studies on some types of streamlined-tubes shapes are limited, especially on wing-shaped tubes (Sayed Ahmed et al. in Heat Mass Transf 50: 1091-1102, 2014; in Heat Mass Transf 51: 1001-1016, 2015). It is recommended that further detailed studies via numerical simulations and/or experimental investigations should be carried out, in the future, to put further insight to these fin designs.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of heat shock transcription factor families in rice and Arabidopsis

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    Jingkang Guo; Jian Wu; Qian Ji; Chao Wang; Lei Luo; Yi Yuan; Yonghua Wang; Jian Wang

    2008-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are the major heat shock factors regulating the heat stress response. They participate in regulating the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are critical in the protection against stress damage and many other impor tant biological processes. Study of the HSF gene family is important for understanding the mechanism by which plants respond to stress. The completed genome sequences of rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) constitute a valuable resource for comparative genomic analysis, as they are representatives of the two major evolutionary lineages within the angiosperms: the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. The identification of phylogenetic relationships among HSF proteins in these species is a fundamental step to unravel the functionality of new and yet uncharacterized genes belonging to this family.In this study, the full complement of HSF genes in rice and Arabidopsis has probably been identified through the genome-wide scan. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of three major clusters of orthologous genes that contain members belonging to both species, which must have been represented in their common ancestor before the taxonomic splitting of the angiosperms. Further analysis of the phylogenetic tree reveals a possible dicot specific gene group. We also identified nine pairs of paralogs, as evidence for studies on the evolution history of rice HSF family and rice genome evolution. Expression data analysis indicates that HSF proteins are widely expressed in plants. These results provide a solid base for future functional genomic studies of the HSF gene family in rice and Arabidopsis.

  17. Mass and Heat Transfer Enhancement of Chemical Heat Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-PingLin; Xiu-GanYuan

    1993-01-01

    An inert additive,expanded graphit(EG),has been prepared and used to enhance the heat and mass transfer process of chemical heat pumps.The effects of mixing ratio and mixing method on the chemical reaction time are investigated.

  18. Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C1: Characterisation and its involvement in response to heat stress

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    Zuzana eKrčková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C (NPC protein family is encoded by the genes NPC1 – NPC6. It has been shown that NPC4 and NPC5 possess phospholipase C activity; NPC3 has lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase activity. NPC3, 4 and 5 play roles in the responses to hormones and abiotic stresses. NPC1, 2 and 6 has not been studied functionally yet.We found that Arabidopsis NPC1 expressed in E. coli possesses phospholipase C activity in vitro. This protein was able to hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine to diacylglycerol. NPC1-green fluorescent protein was localized to secretory pathway compartments in Arabidopsis roots. In the knock out T-DNA insertion line NPC1 (npc1 basal thermotolerance was impaired compared with wild-type; npc1 exhibited significant decreases in survival rate and chlorophyll content at the seventh day after heat stress. Conversely, plants overexpressing NPC1 (NPC1-OE were more resistant to heat stress compared with wild-type. These findings suggest that NPC1 is involved in the plant response to heat

  19. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  20. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

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    Jia, Fengjuan, E-mail: jfj.5566@163.com; Qi, Shengdong, E-mail: zisexanwu@163.com; Li, Hui, E-mail: 332453593@qq.com; Liu, Pu, E-mail: banbaokezhan@163.com; Li, Pengcheng, E-mail: lpcsdau@163.com; Wu, Changai, E-mail: cawu@sdau.edu.cn; Zheng, Chengchao, E-mail: cczheng@sdau.edu.cn; Huang, Jinguang, E-mail: jghuang@sdau.edu.cn

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  1. The Protein Elicitor PevD1 Enhances Resistance to Pathogens and Promotes Growth in Arabidopsis.

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    Liu, Mengjie; Khan, Najeeb Ullah; Wang, Ningbo; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor PevD1, isolated from Verticillium dahlia, could enhance resistance to TMV in tobacco and Verticillium wilt in cotton. Here, the pevd1 gene was over-expressed in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, and its biological functions were investigated. Our results showed that the transgenic lines were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 than the WT line was. In transgenic plants, both the germination time and bolting time required were significantly shorter and fresh weights and plant heights were significantly higher than those in the WT line. A transcriptomics study using digital gene expression profiling (DGE) was performed in transgenic and WT Arabidopsis. One hundred and thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified. In transgenic Arabidopsis, three critical regulators of JA biosynthesis were up-regulated and JA levels were slightly increased. Three important repressors of the ABA-responsive pathway were up-regulated, indicating that ABA signal transduction may be suppressed. One CML and two WRKY TFs involved in Ca(2+)-responsive pathways were up-regulated, indicating that this pathway may have been triggered. In conclusion, we show that PevD1 is involved in regulating several plant endogenous signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks to enhance resistance and promote growth and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:27489497

  2. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola.

  3. Enhancement of Thiamin Content in Arabidopsis thaliana by Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Stockwell, Virginia O; Goyer, Aymeric

    2015-12-01

    Thiamin is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Severe thiamin deficiency leads to beriberi, a lethal disease which is common in developing countries. Thiamin biofortification of staple food crops is a possible strategy to alleviate thiamin deficiency-related diseases. In plants, thiamin plays a role in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses, and data from the literature suggest that boosting thiamin content could increase resistance to stresses. Here, we tested an engineering strategy to increase thiamin content in Arabidopsis. Thiamin is composed of a thiazole ring linked to a pyrimidine ring by a methylene bridge. THI1 and THIC are the first committed steps in the synthesis of the thiazole and pyrimidine moieties, respectively. Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a vector containing the THI1-coding sequence under the control of a constitutive promoter. Total thiamin leaf content in THI1 plants was up approximately 2-fold compared with the wild type. THI1-overexpressing lines were then crossed with pre-existing THIC-overexpressing lines. Resulting THI1 × THIC plants accumulated up to 3.4- and 2.6-fold more total thiamin than wild-type plants in leaf and seeds, respectively. After inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae, THI1 × THIC plants had lower populations than the wild-type control. However, THI1 × THIC plants subjected to various abiotic stresses did not show any visible or biochemical changes compared with the wild type. We discuss the impact of engineering thiamin biosynthesis on the nutritional value of plants and their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  4. Growth enhancement and gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana irradiated with active oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Inoue, Asami; Yasuda, Kaori; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of plant growth enhancement effect and the mechanism of the enhancement induced by plasma irradiation are investigated using various active species in plasma. Active oxygen species in oxygen plasma are effective for growth enhancement of plants. DNA microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that the genes coding proteins that counter oxidative stresses by eliminating active oxygen species are expressed at significantly high levels. The size of plant cells increases owing to oxygen plasma irradiation. The increases in gene expression levels and cell size suggest that the increase in the expression level of the expansin protein is essential for plant growth enhancement phenomena.

  5. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, D. L.

    1979-06-01

    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  6. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  7. The RdDM Pathway Is Required for Basal Heat Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga V.Popova; Huy Q.Dinh; Werner Aufsatz; Claudia Jonak

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress affects epigenetic gene silencing in Arabidopsis.To test for a mechanistic involvement of epigenetic regulation in heat-stress responses,we analyzed the heat tolerance of mutants defective in DNA methylation,histone modifications,chromatin-remodeling,or siRNA-based silencing pathways.Plants deficient in NRPD2,the common second-largest subunit of RNA polymerases Ⅳ and V,and in the Rpd3-type histone deacetylase HDA6 were hypersensitive to heat exposure.Microarray analysis demonstrated that NRPD2 and HDA6 have independent roles in transcriptional reprogramming in response to temperature stress.The misexpression of protein-coding genes in nrpd2 mutants recovering from heat correlated with defective epigenetic regulation of adjacent transposon remnants which involved the loss of control of heat-stress-induced read-through transcription.We provide evidence that the transcriptional response to temperature stress,at least partially,relies on the integrity of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway.

  8. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-01

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  9. Overexpression of Nelumbo nucifera metallothioneins 2a and 3 enhances seed germination vigor in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Li, Yin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich and metal-binding proteins which are involved in metal homeostasis and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Although plant MTs have been intensively studied, their roles in seeds remain to be clearly established. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) and their roles in seed germination vigor. The transcripts of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 were highly expressed in developing and germinating sacred lotus seeds, and were dramatically up-regulated in response to high salinity, oxidative stresses and heavy metals. Analysis of transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that NnMT2a-YFP and NnMT3-YFP were localized in cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds overexpressing NnMT2a and NnMT3 displayed improved resistance to accelerated aging (AA) treatment, indicating their significant roles in seed germination vigor. These transgenic seeds also exhibited higher superoxide dismutase activity compared to wild-type seeds after AA treatment. In addition, we showed that NnMT2a and NnMT3 conferred improved germination ability to NaCl and methyl viologen on transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Taken together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of NnMT2a and NnMT3 in Arabidopsis significantly enhances seed germination vigor after AA treatment and under abiotic stresses.

  10. Magnetic Heat Transfer Enhancements on Fin-Tube Heat Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SU; C.T. HSU

    2007-01-01

    通过DNS方法解耦合的三维非稳态流动和固流体能量方程组,本文研究了两平行磁质平板和圆管所组成的肋片式圆管换热器单元与震荡流体间的传热过程.对不同的磁场频率和振幅的三维动态流热场的模拟结果表明增强磁场频率和振幅能很有效地增加周期平均传热强度达到强化传热的目的.%Two narrowly-gapped magnetic parallel plates embedding a circular disk was considered as a unit-cell to represent the fin-tube heat exchanger where heat from a circular tube was dissipated by a series of parallel equally-spaced thin plates in normal to the tube. The unsteady 3-D continuity,Navier-Stokes and energy equations for fluids and solids describing the convective heat transfer for the unit-cell geometry were solved numerically with DNS method. The present study aims on using oscillating flows and magnetic fields to enhance the heat transfer for various amplitudes and frequencies of the magnetic field. Results from cycle-averaged heat fluxes from the cylinder wall show that the increase in magnetic amplitude and frequency will greatly enhance the heat transfer. The effects of the oscillating magnetic field were discussed and the three dimensional flow and temperature fields were also presented.

  11. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. Enhanced transformation of TNT by Arabidopsis plants expressing an old yellow enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT is released in nature from manufacturing or demilitarization facilities, as well as after the firing or detonation of munitions or leakage from explosive remnants of war. Environmental contamination by TNT is associated with human health risks, necessitating the development of cost-effective remediation techniques. The lack of affordable and effective cleanup technologies for explosives contamination requires the development of better processes. In this study, we present a system for TNT phytoremediation by overexpressing the old yellow enzyme (OYE3 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting transgenic Arabidopsis plants demonstrated significantly enhanced TNT tolerances and a strikingly higher capacity to remove TNT from their media. The current work indicates that S. cerevisiae OYE3 overexpression in Arabidopsis is an efficient method for the phytoremoval and degradation of TNT. Our findings have the potential to provide a suitable remediation strategy for sites contaminated by TNT.

  13. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengjuan; Qi, Shengdong; Li, Hui; Liu, Pu; Li, Pengcheng; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao; Huang, Jinguang

    2014-11-28

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis. PMID:25450686

  14. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Fakhreddine Segni; Bennacer, Rachid

    2011-12-01

    Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case.

  15. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennacer Rachid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case.

  16. Analysis of solid-liquid phase change heat transfer enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅平; 王馨

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid phase change processes have two important features: the process is an approximately isothermal process and the heat of fusion of phase change material tends to be much greater than its specific heat. Therefore, if any phase change material adjacent to a hot or cold surface undergoes phase change, the heat transfer rate on the surface will be noticeably enhanced. This paper presents a novel insight into the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement induced by solid-liquid phase change based on the analogy analysis for heat conduction with an internal heat source and solid-liquid phase change heat transfer. Three degrees of surface heat transfer enhancement for different conditions are explored, and corresponding formulae are written to describe them. The factors influencing the degrees of heat transfer enhancement are clarified and their effects quantitatively analyzed. Both the novel insight and the analysis contribute to effective application of phase change heat transfer enhancement technique.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of uncapped mRNAs under heat stress in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Gutierrez-Beltran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we have showed that Tudor Staphylococcal Nuclease (TSN or Tudor-SN proteins (TSN1 and TSN2 are localized in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP complexes called stress granules (SG and processing bodies (PB under heat stress in Arabidopsis. One of the primary functions of these mRNP complexes is mRNA decay, which generates uncapped mRNAs by the action of endonucleases and decapping enzymes (Thomas et al., 2011 [1]. In order to figure out whether TSN proteins could be implicated in mRNA decay, we isolated uncapped and total mRNAs of Wild type (WT; Col and Ler and TSN double knock-out (tsn1tsn2 seedlings grown under heat stress (39 °C for 40 min and control (23 °C conditions. Here, we provide the experimental procedure to reproduce the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE63522 published by Gutierrez-Beltran et al. (2015 in The Plant Cell [2].

  18. Enhanced condensation heat transfer with wettability patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine

    2015-11-01

    Condensation of water vapor on metal surfaces is useful for many engineering applications. A facile and scalable method is proposed for removing condensate from a vertical plate during dropwise condensation (DWC) in the presence of non-condensable gases (NCG). We use wettability-patterned superhydrophilic tracks (filmwise condensing domains) on a mirror-finish (hydrophilic) aluminum surface that promotes DWC. Tapered, horizontal ``collection'' tracks are laid to create a Laplace pressure driven flow, which collects condensate from the mirror-finish domains and sends it to vertical ``drainage tracks'' for gravity-induced shedding. An optimal design is achieved by changing the fractional area of superhydrophilic tracks with respect to the overall plate surface, and augmenting capillary-driven condensate-drainage by adjusting the track spatial layout. The design facilitates pump-less condensate drainage and enhances DWC heat transfer on the mirror-finish regions. The study highlights the relative influences of the promoting and retarding effects of dropwise and filmwise condensation zones on the overall heat transfer improvement on the substrate. The study demonstrated ~ 34% heat transfer improvement on Aluminum surface for the optimized design.

  19. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development.

  20. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development. PMID:26711633

  1. I Using Porous Material for Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchangers: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Delavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy cost and energy consumption has required more effective use of energy. The problem of dissipating high heat fluxes has received much attention due to its importance in applications such as heat exchanger. The heat transfer duty of heat exchangers can be improved by heat transfer enhancement techniques. In recent years, Considerable efforts have been made to increase heat transfer rates in heat exchangers by implementing passive enhancement methods that require no direct consumption of external power. On the basis of a theoretical and experimental analysis the conclusion derived was that the best heat transfer enhancement can be reached by the use of porous material as an inexpensive technique to extend the heat transfer area, improve effective thermal conductivity, and mix fluid flow. This paper presents a brief discussion on the application of using porous media to heat exchangers by means of heat transfer enhancement.

  2. NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; LI, XIN; Yu, Jingquan; Kai SHI

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol−1) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decrea...

  3. Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Evrard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies indicate that HsfA2 protein stability is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, but this mechanism is independent of MPK6. Overall, our data show that heat stress-induced targeting of HsfA2 by MPK6 participates in the complex regulatory mechanism how plants respond to heat stress.

  4. Enhanced Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity by overexpression of cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hung eYeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs such as the bacterial flagellin (or the derived peptide flg22 by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs such as the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2, plants activate the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI response. The L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2 is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs possess two copies of the C-X8-C-X2-C (DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains and are thought to be involved in plant stress resistance, but data about CRK functions are scarce. Here we show that Arabidopsis overexpressing the LecRK-VI.2-responsive CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 demonstrated an enhanced PTI response and were resistant to virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Notably, the flg22-triggered oxidative burst was primed in CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 transgenics and up-regulation of the PTI-responsive gene FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE 1 (FRK1 was potentiated upon flg22 treatment in CRK4 and CRK6 overexpression lines or constitutively increased by CRK36 overexpression. PTI-mediated callose deposition was not affected by overexpression of CRK4 and CRK6, while CRK36 overexpression lines demonstrated constitutive accumulation of callose. In addition, Pst DC3000-mediated stomatal reopening was blocked in CRK4 and CRK36 overexpression lines, while overexpression of CRK6 induced constitutive stomatal closure suggesting a strengthening of stomatal immunity. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested that the plasma membrane localized CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 associate with the PRR FLS2. Association with FLS2 and the observation that overexpression of CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 boosts specific PTI outputs and resistance to bacteria suggest a role for these CRKs in Arabidopsis innate immunity.

  5. Ascorbate peroxidase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Cai, J; Yang, F X; Zhou, B; Zhou, L R

    2015-05-11

    Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a central role in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and is a key enzyme in cellular H2O2 me-tabolism. It includes a family of isoenzymes with different character-istics, which are identified in many higher plants. In the present study, we isolated the APX gene from Jatropha curcas L, which is similar with other previously characterized APXs as revealed by alignment and phylogenetic analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence. Real-time qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of JcAPX transcript significantly increased under NaCl stress. Subsequently, to elucidate the contribution of JcAPX to the protection against salt-induced oxi-dative stress, the expression construct p35S: JcAPX was created and transformed into Arabidopsis and transcribed. Under 150-mM NaCl stress, compared with wild type (WT), the overexpression of JcAPX in Arabidopsis increased the germination rate, the number of leaves, and the rosette area. In addition, the transgenic plants had longer roots, higher total chlorophyll content, higher total APX activity, and lower H2O2 content than the WT under NaCl stress conditions. These results suggested that higher APX activity in transgenic lines increases the salt tolerance by enhancing scavenging capacity for reactive oxygen spe-cies under NaCl stress conditions.

  6. Ascorbate peroxidase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Cai, J; Yang, F X; Zhou, B; Zhou, L R

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a central role in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and is a key enzyme in cellular H2O2 me-tabolism. It includes a family of isoenzymes with different character-istics, which are identified in many higher plants. In the present study, we isolated the APX gene from Jatropha curcas L, which is similar with other previously characterized APXs as revealed by alignment and phylogenetic analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence. Real-time qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of JcAPX transcript significantly increased under NaCl stress. Subsequently, to elucidate the contribution of JcAPX to the protection against salt-induced oxi-dative stress, the expression construct p35S: JcAPX was created and transformed into Arabidopsis and transcribed. Under 150-mM NaCl stress, compared with wild type (WT), the overexpression of JcAPX in Arabidopsis increased the germination rate, the number of leaves, and the rosette area. In addition, the transgenic plants had longer roots, higher total chlorophyll content, higher total APX activity, and lower H2O2 content than the WT under NaCl stress conditions. These results suggested that higher APX activity in transgenic lines increases the salt tolerance by enhancing scavenging capacity for reactive oxygen spe-cies under NaCl stress conditions. PMID:25966262

  7. A Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z B; Zhang, W J; Gong, X D; Zhang, Q; Zhou, L R

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in protecting plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, a novel Cu/Zn-SOD gene (JcCu/Zn-SOD) was cloned from Jatropha curcas L. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that JcCu/Zn-SOD is constitutively expressed in different tissues of J. curcas and induced under NaCl treatment. To characterize the function of this gene with respect to salt tolerance, the construct p35S:JcCu/Zn-SOD was developed and transformed into Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild-type, transgenic plants over-expressing JcCu/Zn-SOD showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress during germination, seedling establishment, and growth in terms of longer root, larger rosette area, and a larger number of leaves in addition to higher SOD activity levels under NaCl stress. In addition, over-expression of JcCu/Zn-SOD resulted in lower monodialdehyde content in transgenic Arabidopsis compared to wild-type plants under the same NaCl stress. Therefore, JcCu/Zn-SOD can increase a plant salt stress tolerance potentially by reducing oxidant injury. PMID:25867355

  8. The Miscanthus NAC transcription factor MlNAC9 enhances abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Pei, Shengqiang; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Qi; Jia, Chunlin; Lu, Ying; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors are known to play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses in plants. Currently, little information regarding the functional roles of NAC genes in stress tolerance is available in Miscanthus lutarioriparius, a promising bioenergy plant for cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we carried out the functional characterization of MlNAC9 in abiotic stresses. MlNAC9 was shown to act as a nuclear localized transcription activator with the activation domain in its C-terminus. The overexpression of MlNAC9 in Arabidopsis conferred hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) at seed germination and root elongation stages. In addition, the overexpression of MlNAC9 led to increased seed germination rate and root growth under salt (NaCl) treatment. Meanwhile, the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MlNAC9 showed enhanced tolerance to drought and cold stresses. The expression of stress-responsive marker genes was significantly increased in MlNAC9 overexpression lines compared to that of WT under ABA, drought, salt, and cold stresses. Correspondingly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower accumulated in MlNAC9 overexpression lines under drought and salt treatments. These results indicated that the overexpression of MlNAC9 improved the tolerance to abiotic stresses via an ABA-dependent pathway, and the enhanced tolerance of transgenic plants was mainly attributed to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes and the enhanced scavenging capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:27085481

  9. β-cyclocitral upregulates salicylic acid signalling to enhance excess light acclimation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Feifei; Zhou, Jun; Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2015-08-01

    β-cyclocitral (β-CC), a volatile oxidized derivative of β-carotene, can upregulate the expression of defence genes to enhance excess light (EL) acclimation. However, the signalling cascades underlying this process remain unclear. In this study, salicylic acid (SA) is involved in alleviating damage to promote β-CC-enhanced EL acclimation. In early stages of EL illumination, β-CC pretreatment induced SA accumulation and impeded reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the chloroplast. A comparative analysis of two SA synthesis pathways in Arabidopsis revealed that SA concentration mainly increased via the isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1)-mediated isochorismate pathway, which depended on essential regulative function of enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Further results showed that, in the process of β-CC-enhanced EL acclimation, nuclear localization of nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) was regulated by SA accumulation and NPR1 induced subsequent transcriptional reprogramming of gluthathione-S-transferase 5 (GST5) and GST13 implicated in detoxification. In summary, β-CC-induced SA synthesis contributes to EL acclimation response by decreasing ROS production in the chloroplast, promoting nuclear localization of NPR1, and upregulating GST transcriptional expression. This process is a possible molecular regulative mechanism of β-CC-enhanced EL acclimation.

  10. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called ‘thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6–HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  11. Heat transfer enhancement using tip and junction vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Mark Cecil

    1998-10-01

    Single-phase convective heat transfer can be enhanced by modifying the heat transfer surface to passively generate streamwise vortices. The swirling flow of the vortices modifies the temperature field, thinning the thermal boundary layer and increasing surface convection. Tip vortices generated by delta wings and junction vortices generated by hemispherical protuberances were studied in laminar flat-plate and developing channel flows. Local and average convective measurements were obtained, and the structure of the vortices was studied using quantitative flow visualization and vortex strength measurements. The pressure drop penalty associated with the heat transfer enhancement was also investigated. Tip vortices generated by delta wings enhanced local convection by as much as 300% over a flat-plate boundary layer flow. Vortex strength increased with Reynolds number based on chord length, wing aspect ratio, and wing angle of attack. As the vortices were advected downstream, they decayed because of viscous interactions. In the developing channel flow, tip vortices produced a significant local heat transfer enhancement on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 55%; it was accompanied by a 100% increase in the pressure drop relative to the same channel flow with no delta-wing vortex generator. Junction vortices created by hemispherical surface protuberances provided local heat transfer enhancements as large as 250%. Vortex strength increased with an increasing ratio of hemisphere radius to local boundary layer thickness on a flat plate. In the developing channel flows, heat transfer enhancements were observed on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 50%; it was accompanied by a 90% pressure drop penalty relative to the same channel flow with no hemispherical vortex generator. This research is important in compact heat exchanger design. Enhancing heat transfer can lead to

  12. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Using Different Types of Inserts

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaeikia, S.; Mohammed, H.A.; Nik-Ghazali, N.; Shahizare, B.

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer enhancement has been always a significantly interesting topic in order to develop high efficient, low cost, light weight, and small heat exchangers. The energy cost and environmental issue are also encouraging researchers to achieve better performance than the existing designs. Two of the most effective ways to achieve higher heat transfer rate in heat exchangers are using different kinds of inserts and modifying the heat exchanger tubes. There are different kinds of inserts emp...

  13. Enhancement of heat and mass transfer by cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. N.; Du, X. Z.; Xian, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a brief summary of effects of cavitation on the heat and mass transfer are given. The fundamental studies of cavitation bubbles, including its nonlinearity, rectified heat and mass diffusion, are initially introduced. Then selected topics of cavitation enhanced heat and mass transfer were discussed in details including whales stranding caused by active sonar activity, pool boiling heat transfer, oscillating heat pipe and high intensity focused ultrasound treatment.

  14. Heat exchanger network retrofit through heat transfer enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yufei

    2012-01-01

    Heat exchanger network retrofit plays an important role in energy saving in process industry. Many design methods for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks have been proposed during the last three decades. Conventional retrofit methods rely heavily on topology modifications which often results in a long retrofit duration and high initial costs. Moreover, the addition of extra surface area to the heat exchanger can prove difficult due to topology, safety and downtime constraints. These probl...

  15. Synthetic phytochelatins complement a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant and enhance the accumulation of heavy metal(loid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Tiwari, Manish; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-05-10

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are naturally occurring thiol-rich peptides containing gamma (γ) peptide bonds and are well known for their metal-binding and detoxification capabilities. Whether synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) can be used as an alternative approach for enhancing the metal-binding capacity of plants has been investigated in this study. The metal-binding potential of ECs has been demonstrated in bacteria; however, no report has investigated the expression of ECs in plants. We have expressed three synthetic genes encoding ECs of different lengths in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis (Col-0 background) and a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant (cad1-3). After exposure to different heavy metals, the transgenic plants were examined for phenotypic changes, and metal accumulation was evaluated. The expression of EC genes rescued the sensitive phenotype of the cad1-3 mutant under heavy metal(loid) stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EC genes accumulated a significantly enhanced level of heavy metal(loid)s in comparison with the WT plant. The mutant complementation and enhanced heavy metal(loid) accumulation in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggest that ECs work in a manner similar to that of PCs in plants and that ECs could be used as an alternative for phytoremediation of heavy metal(loid) exposure.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement by application of nano-powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosavian, M. T. Hamed, E-mail: mosavian@um.ac.ir; Heris, S. Zeinali [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Etemad, S. Gh.; Esfahany, M. Nasr [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    In this investigation, laminar flow heat transfer enhancement in circular tube utilizing different nanofluids including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (20 nm), CuO (50 nm), and Cu (25 nm) nanoparticles in water was studied. Constant wall temperature was used as thermal boundary condition. The results indicate enhancement of heat transfer with increasing nanoparticle concentrations, but an optimum concentration for each nanofluid suspension can be found. Based on the experimental results, metallic nanoparticles show better enhancement of heat transfer coefficient in comparison with oxide particles. The promotions of heat transfer due to utilizing nanoparticles are higher than the theoretical correlation prediction.

  17. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  18. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  19. A review on boiling heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jacqueline; Brutin, David; Tadrist, Lounes

    2011-04-04

    There has been increasing interest of late in nanofluid boiling and its use in heat transfer enhancement. This article covers recent advances in the last decade by researchers in both pool boiling and convective boiling applications, with nanofluids as the working fluid. The available data in the literature is reviewed in terms of enhancements, and degradations in the nucleate boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux. Conflicting data have been presented in the literature on the effect that nanofluids have on the boiling heat-transfer coefficient; however, almost all researchers have noted an enhancement in the critical heat flux during nanofluid boiling. Several researchers have observed nanoparticle deposition at the heater surface, which they have related back to the critical heat flux enhancement.

  20. Wheat chloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter confers heat and abiotic stress inducible expression in transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Khurana

    Full Text Available The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the hloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter in detail, deletion analysis of the promoter is carried out and analysed via transgenics in Arabidopsis. In the present study, complete assessment of the importance of CCAAT-box elements along with Heat shock elements (HSEs in the promoter of sHSP26 was performed. Moreover, the importance of 5' untranslated region (UTR has also been established in the promoter via Arabidopsis transgenics. An intense GUS expression was observed after heat stress in the transgenics harbouring a full-length promoter, confirming the heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Transgenic plants without UTR showed reduced GUS expression when compared to transgenic plants with UTR as was confirmed at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and GUS histochemical assays, thus suggesting the possible involvement of some regulatory elements present in the UTR in heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Promoter activity was also checked under different abiotic stresses and revealed differential expression in different deletion constructs. Promoter analysis based on histochemical assay, real-time qPCR and fluorimetric analysis revealed that HSEs alone could not transcribe GUS gene significantly in sHSP26 promoter and CCAAT box elements contribute synergistically to the transcription. Our results also provide insight into the importance of 5`UTR of sHsp26 promoter thus emphasizing the probable role of imperfect CCAAT-box element or some novel cis-element with respect to heat stress.

  1. HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OF SMALL SCALE HEAT SINKS USING VIBRATING PIN FIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suabsakul Gururatana; Xianchang Li

    2013-01-01

    Heat sinks are widely adopted in electronics cooling together with different technologies to enhance the cooling process. For the small electronics application, the small scale pin fins heat sinks are extensively used to dissipate heat in electronics devices. Due to the limit of space in the small devices, it is impossible to increase heat transfer area. In order to improve the heat transfer performance, the applying the forced vibration is one of challenging method. This study applies the vi...

  2. Heat Shock Factors HsfB 1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdfl.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukesh Kumar; Wolfgang Busch; Hannah Birke; Birgit Kemmerling; Thorsten N(U)rnberger; Friedrich Sch(o)ffl

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfBl/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdfl.2a/b in mutant plants.The Pdfexpression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdfl.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdfgenes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  3. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  4. HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OF SMALL SCALE HEAT SINKS USING VIBRATING PIN FIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suabsakul Gururatana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat sinks are widely adopted in electronics cooling together with different technologies to enhance the cooling process. For the small electronics application, the small scale pin fins heat sinks are extensively used to dissipate heat in electronics devices. Due to the limit of space in the small devices, it is impossible to increase heat transfer area. In order to improve the heat transfer performance, the applying the forced vibration is one of challenging method. This study applies the vibration frequency between 50 to 1,000 Hz to pin fins heat sinks. The results of numerical simulation clearly show satisfied heat transfer augmentation. However, the Pressure drop significantly increases with frequency. This phenomenon affects the heat transfer enhancement performance that it increases with frequency until certain value then it drops rapidly. The results of this study can help designing heat sinks for electronics cooling by employing the concept of vibration.

  5. Arabidopsis LOS5 Gene Enhances Chilling and Salt Stress Tolerance in Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-ying; DUAN Liu-sheng; ZHANG Jia-chang; MI Guo-quan; ZHANG Xiao-lan; ZHANG Zhen-xian; REN Hua-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses that restrict cucumber growth and production, breeding materials with multiple abiotic resistance are in greatly need. Here we investigated the effect of introducing the LOS5 gene, a key regulator of ABA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, under the stress-responsive RD29A promoter into cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. S516). We found that T1 RD29A-LOS5 transgenic lines have enhanced tolerance to cold and salt stresses. Specifically, transgenic lines exhibited dwarf phenotypes with reduced leaf number, shorter internode, decreased length of the biggest leaf, fewer female flowers, shorter fruit neck and lower vitamin C (Vc). The increased cold tolerance can be reflected from the significantly decreased cold index, the reduced electrolyte leakage index and the MDA content upon cold treatment as compared to those in the control. This may result from the accumulation of internal ABA, soluble sugars and proline, and the enhanced activities of protective enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in the transgenic lines. Under salt treatment, the transgenic lines exhibited increased germination index, vigor index, more lateral roots and increased root fresh weight. Moreover, RD29A-LOS5 transgenic plants displayed quicker responses in salt stress than that in low-temperature stress.

  6. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-06-30

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  7. Characterization of Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility mutants that are affected in systemically induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Buchala, Anthony; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r triggers jasmonate (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is effective against different pathogens. Arabidopsis genotypes unable to express rhizobacteria-mediated ISR against the bacterial pat

  8. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA.

  9. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA. PMID:24609499

  10. Enhancement of heat exchange by on-chip engineered heat sink structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yonuk; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2007-03-01

    We report a method for improving heat exchange between cryo- cooled high power consuming devices and coolant. We fabricated a micro-machined monolithic heat sink structure on a high integration density superconducting Josephson device, and studied the effect of the heat sink on cooling of the device in detail. The monolithic heat sink structure showed a significant enhancement of cooling efficiency, which markedly improved the chip operation. The detailed mechanism of the enhancement still needs further modeling and study in order to optimize the design of the heat sink structure.

  11. Development and evaluation of a Gal4-mediated LUC/GFP/GUS enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuke Jon J; Fitzsimmons Karen C; Engineer Cawas B; Dotson Stan B; Kranz Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Gal4 enhancer trap systems driving expression of LacZ and GFP reporters have been characterized and widely used in Drosophila. However, a Gal4 enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis has not been described in the primary literature. In Drosophila, the reporters possess a Gal4 upstream activation sequence (UAS) as five repeats (5XUAS) and lines that express Gal4 from tissue specific enhancers have also been used for the ectopic expression of any transgene (driven by a 5XUAS). W...

  12. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Bennacer Rachid; Oueslati Fakhreddine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account th...

  13. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part II - single phase convective heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Chin, W.M.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Sdn. Bhd., Research and Application Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-08-15

    The study is conducted to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of two new and versatile enhancement configurations in a double tube heat exchanger annulus. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Heat transfer coefficients are determined by the Wilson Plot technique in laminar and turbulent flow and correlations are proposed for Nusselt numbers. Comparisons are then made between heat transfer and flow friction. (orig.)

  14. Numerical Study on Flow and Heat Transfer Performance of Rectangular Heat Sink with Compound Heat Transfer Enhancement Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Di Zhang; Shuai Guo; Zhongyang Shen; Yonghui Xie

    2014-01-01

    Modern gas turbine blade is operating at high temperature which requires abundant cooling. Considering both heat transfer rate and pumping power for internal passages, developing efficient cooling passages is of great importance. Ribbed channel has been proved as effective heat transfer enhancement technology for considerable heat transfer characteristics; however, the pressure loss is impressive. Dimple and protrusion are frequently considered as new heat transfer augmentation tools for thei...

  15. Cytosolic Ca(2+) Signals Enhance the Vacuolar Ion Conductivity of Bulging Arabidopsis Root Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Dindas, Julian; Rienmüller, Florian; Krebs, Melanie; Waadt, Rainer; Schumacher, Karin; Wu, Wei-Hua; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2015-11-01

    Plant cell expansion depends on the uptake of solutes across the plasma membrane and their storage within the vacuole. In contrast to the well-studied plasma membrane, little is known about the regulation of ion transport at the vacuolar membrane. We therefore established an experimental approach to study vacuolar ion transport in intact Arabidopsis root cells, with multi-barreled microelectrodes. The subcellular position of electrodes was detected by imaging current-injected fluorescent dyes. Comparison of measurements with electrodes in the cytosol and vacuole revealed an average vacuolar membrane potential of -31 mV. Voltage clamp recordings of single vacuoles resolved the activity of voltage-independent and slowly deactivating channels. In bulging root hairs that express the Ca(2+) sensor R-GECO1, rapid elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was observed, after impalement with microelectrodes, or injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA. Elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) level stimulated the activity of voltage-independent channels in the vacuolar membrane. Likewise, the vacuolar ion conductance was enhanced during a sudden increase of the cytosolic Ca(2+) level in cells injected with fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator FURA-2. These data thus show that cytosolic Ca(2+) signals can rapidly activate vacuolar ion channels, which may prevent rupture of the vacuolar membrane, when facing mechanical forces. PMID:26232520

  16. Fruit indehiscence caused by enhanced expression of NO TRANSMITTING TRACT in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Jong Seob; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2013-06-01

    In flowering plants, fruit dehiscence enables seed dispersal. Here we report that ntt-3D, an activation tagged allele of NO TRANSMITTING TRACT (NTT), caused a failure of fruit dehiscence in Arabidopsis. We identified ntt-3D, in which the 35S enhancer was inserted adjacent to AT3G-57670, from our activation tagged mutant library. ntt-3D mutants showed serrated leaves, short siliques, and indehiscence phenotypes. NTT-overexpressing plants largely phenocopied the ntt-3D plants. As the proximate cause of the indehiscence, ntt-3D plants exhibited a near absence of valve margin and lignified endocarp b layer in the carpel. In addition, the replum was enlarged in ntt-3D mutants. NTT expression reached a peak in flowers at stage 11 and gradually decreased thereafter and pNTT::GUS expression was mainly observed in the replum, indicating a potential role in fruit patterning. NTT:GFP localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. FRUITFULL (FUL) expression was downregulated in ntt-3D mutants and ntt-3D suppressed upregulation of FUL in replumless mutants. These results indicate that NTT suppresses FUL, indicating a potential role in patterning of the silique. In seed crops, a reduction in pod dehiscence can increase yield by decreasing seed dispersal; therefore, our results may prove useful as a basis to improve crop yield.

  17. Development and evaluation of a Gal4-mediated LUC/GFP/GUS enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmuke Jon J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gal4 enhancer trap systems driving expression of LacZ and GFP reporters have been characterized and widely used in Drosophila. However, a Gal4 enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis has not been described in the primary literature. In Drosophila, the reporters possess a Gal4 upstream activation sequence (UAS as five repeats (5XUAS and lines that express Gal4 from tissue specific enhancers have also been used for the ectopic expression of any transgene (driven by a 5XUAS. While Gal4 transactivation has been demonstrated in Arabidopsis, wide use of a trap has not emerged in part because of the lack of detailed analysis, which is the purpose of the present study. Results A key feature of this study is the use of luciferase (LUC as the primary reporter and rsGFP-GUS as secondary reporters. Reporters driven by a 5XUAS are better suited in Arabidopsis than those containing a 1X or 2X UAS. A 5XUAS-LUC reporter is expressed at high levels in Arabidopsis lines transformed with Gal4 driven by the full, enhanced 35S promoter. In contrast, a minimum 35S (containing the TATA region upstream of Gal4 acts as an enhancer trap system. Luciferase expression in trap lines of the T1, T2, and T3 generations are generally stable but by the T4 generation approximately 25% of the lines are significantly silenced. This silencing is reversed by growing plants on media containing 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Quantitative multiplex RT-PCR on the Gal4 and LUC mRNA indicate that this silencing can occur at the level of Gal4 or LUC transcription. Production of a 10,000 event library and observations on screening, along with the potential for a Gal4 driver system in other plant species are discussed. Conclusion The Gal4 trap system described here uses the 5XUAS-LUC and 5XUAS rsGFP-GUS as reporters and allows for in planta quantitative screening, including the rapid monitoring for silencing. We conclude that in about 75% of the cases silencing is at the level of

  18. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Ali Ahmad; Gualous, Hasna Louahlia; Le Masson, Stephane; Fardoun, Farouk; Besq, Anthony

    2013-03-18

    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 μm hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance.

  19. LTP3 contributes to disease susceptibility in Arabidopsis by enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Wenya; Feng, Wen; Liu, Liang; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Jian; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Hongxia; Tang, Saijun; Hu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Several plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) act positively in plant disease resistance. Here, we show that LTP3 (At5g59320), a pathogen and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene, negatively regulates plant immunity in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of LTP3 (LTP3-OX) led to an enhanced susceptibility to virulent bacteria and compromised resistance to avirulent bacteria. On infection of LTP3-OX plants with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, NCED3 and AAO3, were highly induced, whereas salicylic acid (SA)-related genes, ICS1 and PR1, were down-regulated. Accordingly, in LTP3-OX plants, we observed increased ABA levels and decreased SA levels relative to the wild-type. We also showed that the LTP3 overexpression-mediated enhanced susceptibility was partially dependent on AAO3. Interestingly, loss of function of LTP3 (ltp3-1) did not affect ABA pathways, but resulted in PR1 gene induction and elevated SA levels, suggesting that LTP3 can negatively regulate SA in an ABA-independent manner. However, a double mutant consisting of ltp3-1 and silent LTP4 (ltp3/ltp4) showed reduced susceptibility to Pseudomonas and down-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, suggesting that LTP3 acts in a redundant manner with its closest homologue LTP4 by modulating the ABA pathway. Taken together, our data show that LTP3 is a novel negative regulator of plant immunity which acts through the manipulation of the ABA-SA balance. PMID:26123657

  20. Nuclear-enhanced geothermal heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes the testing of an abandoned drill well for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel rods. The well need not be in a geothermal field, since the downhole assembly takes advantage of only the natural thermal gradient. The water in the immediate vicinity of the fuel will be chemically treated for corrosion resistance. Above this will be a long column of viscous fluid insoluble in water, to act as a fluid barrier. The remainder of the well bore, up to the surface, will be the working fluid for the power turbine at the surface. There will be a low-pressure region in the immediate vicinity of the fuel, encouraging the flashing of steam. Due to the low level of heat emitted by the fuel rods, the radioactive material will be surrounded by a secondary casing that will reduce the water it contacts directly, thus causing it to heat up quickly and to maximize the steam-generating process, and the formation of air nuclides. These will percolate upward through the viscous column where steadily decreasing pressure causes expansion. The nuclear fuel's thermal energy will have been transferred through the high radioactive zone as pressure, then it will flash to steam and heat the water in the top of the wellbore. The drill well, a minimum of 10,000 ft. in depth, will naturally heat any circulating fluid. The fuel is not used as a thermal source, but only to produce a few spontaneous bubbles, sufficient to increase the fluid pressure by expansion as it rises in the wellbore. The additional thermal energy from the nuclear source will superheat the water for use in the power-generation apparatus at the surface. This equipment, operating on very-low radioactive fluid, will be protected by a secondary containment. The typical drill well is ideally suited for the insertion of spent fuel rods, which are smaller than downhole tools and instrumentation regularly installed in production wells

  1. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium tumefacience with an endochitinase gene from Trichoderma, and enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fu-ming; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important pathogen to many crops and is especially damaging to rape in China. As a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (ColO) was transformed by spraying Agrobacterium tumefacience with Trichoderma endochitinase gene ThEn-42 at initial bud stage. Eleven seedlings (corresponding to about 0.22 percent transformation) exhibited resistance to hygromycin. The DNA fragment unique to endochitinase ( ThEn-42 ) was amplified by Arabidopsis leaf-PCR or genomic DNA PCR. Unfertile, dwarf and normal phenotypes appeared in the T1 generation. In addition, an enhanced resistance to S. sclerotiorum was observed. The mortality percentage (7.7% to 33.3%) in transgenic plants was significantly lower than in non-transgenic plants (86. 7%) 10 days after inoculation with the pathogen.

  2. Enhancement of laminar convective heat transfer using microparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiu Yang; Tang, Shiyang; Yi, Pyshar; Baum, Thomas; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the enhancement of convective heat transfer within a sub-millimetre diameter copper tube using Al2O3, Co3O4 and CuO microparticle suspensions. Experiments are conducted at different particle concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 wt% and at various flow rates ranging from 250 to 1000 µl/min. Both experimental measurements and numerical analyses are employed to obtain the convective heat transfer coefficient. The results indicate a significant enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient due to the implementation of microparticle suspensions. For the case of Al2O3 microparticle suspension with 5.0 wt% concentration, a 20.3 % enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained over deionised water. This is comparable to the case of Al2O3 nanofluid at the same concentration. Hence, there is a potential for the microparticle suspensions to be used for cooling of compact integrated systems.

  3. Nuclear-enhanced geothermal heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes the testing of an abandoned drill well for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel rods. The well will have no hydrocarbons subject to contamination at any open hole depth. There is incentive for companies to find some productive use of plugged and abandoned prospects, to recover a part of their investment in the drilling, testing and completion of the wells. Further controls will be in effect to minimize the escape of radiation at the source downhole. The fuel rods will be encased in an epoxy compound that will also improve structural stability while it is being lowered downhole. The water in the immediate vicinity of the fuel will be chemically treated for corrosion resistance. Above this will be a long column of viscous fluid insoluble in water, to act as a fluid and radiation barrier. The remainder of the well bore, up to the surface, will be the working fluid for the power turbine at the surface. There will be a low-pressure region in the immediate vicinity of the fuel, encouraging the flashing of steam. Due to the low level of heat emitted by the fuel rods, the radioactive material will be surrounded by a secondary casing that will reduce the water it contacts directly, thus causing it to heat up quickly and to maximize the steam-generating process, and the formation of air nuclides. These will percolate upward through the viscous column where steadily decreasing pressure causes expansion of the air particles. The nuclear fuel's thermal energy will have been transferred through the high radioactive zone as pressure, then it will flash to steam and heat the water in the top of the wellbore. The drill well, a least 10,000 ft. in depth, will naturally heat any circulating fluid. The thermal energy from the nuclear source will superheat the water for use in the power-generation apparatus at the surface. This equipment, operating on very-low radioactive fluid, will be protected by a secondary containment

  4. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  5. Chloroplast small heat shock protein HSP21 interacts with plastid nucleoid protein pTAC5 and is essential for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Zhou, Wen; Wang, Haijun; Ding, Shunhua; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Peng, Lianwei; Zhang, Lixin; Lu, Congming

    2013-08-01

    Compared with small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in other organisms, those in plants are the most abundant and diverse. However, the molecular mechanisms by which sHSPs are involved in cell protection remain unknown. Here, we characterized the role of HSP21, a plastid nucleoid-localized sHSP, in chloroplast development under heat stress. We show that an Arabidopsis thaliana knockout mutant of HSP21 had an ivory phenotype under heat stress. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR, run-on transcription, RNA gel blot, and polysome association analyses demonstrated that HSP21 is involved in plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP)-dependent transcription. We found that the plastid nucleoid protein pTAC5 was an HSP21 target. pTAC5 has a C4-type zinc finger similar to that of Escherichia coli DnaJ and zinc-dependent disulfide isomerase activity. Reduction of pTAC5 expression by RNA interference led to similar phenotypic effects as observed in hsp21. HSP21 and pTAC5 formed a complex that was associated mainly with the PEP complex. HSP21 and pTAC5 were associated with the PEP complex not only during transcription initiation, but also during elongation and termination. Our results suggest that HSP21 and pTAC5 are required for chloroplast development under heat stress by maintaining PEP function.

  6. Convective heat transfer enhancement of laminar flow of latent functionally thermal fluid in a circular tube with constant heat flux: internal heat source model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yinping; (张寅平); HU; Xianxu; (胡先旭); HAO; Qing; (郝磬); WANG; Xin; (王馨)

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective heat transfer enhancement mechanism of latent heat functionally thermal fluid. By using the proposed internal heat source model, the influence of each factor affecting the heat transfer enhancement of laminar flow in a circular tube with constant heat flux is analyzed. The main influencing factors and the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement are clarified, and the influences of the main factors on the heat transfer enhancement are quantitatively analyzed. A modified Nusselt number for internal flow is introduced to describe more effectively the degree of heat transfer enhancement for latent functionally thermal fluid.

  7. Fluid dynamics at transition regions of enhanced heat transfer channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer C.; Pohlman, Nicholas A.

    2012-11-01

    Helical wire coil inserts are used to enhance heat transfer in high heat flux cooling channels. Past research using temperature probes has sufficiently proven that wire coils increase heat transfer by factors of three to five through the disruption of the boundary layer in the channels. The coils are passive devices that are inexpensive to manufacture and easily integrate into existing heat exchangers given the limited pressure drop they produce. Most of the fluid mechanics research in flow over helical coils has focused on the dynamics and vortex structure in fully developed regions rather than the short transition region where the enhanced heat transfer is often expected. Understanding how the development of the flow occurs over the axial length of the cooling channel will determine minimum dimensions necessary for enhanced heat transfer. Results of particle-shadow velocimetry (PSV) measurements report on the flow velocities and turbulence that occurs in the transition regions at the beginning of wire coil inserts. The ability to relate parameters such as flow rate, wire diameter, coil pitch, and the total tube length will increase fundamental knowledge and will allow for more efficient heat exchanger designs. Funding provided by NIU's Undergraduate Special Opportunities in Artistry & Research grant program.

  8. Enhanced arsenic accumulation by engineered yeast cells expressing Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Lee, Wonkyu; Dasilva, Nancy A; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are naturally occurring peptides with high-binding capabilities for a wide range of heavy metals including arsenic (As). PCs are enzymatically synthesized by phytochelatin synthases and contain a (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n) moiety terminated by a Gly residue that makes them relatively proteolysis resistant. In this study, PCs were introduced by expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochelatin Synthase (AtPCS) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced As accumulation and removal. PCs production in yeast resulted in six times higher As accumulation as compared to the control strain under a wide range of As concentrations. For the high-arsenic concentration, PCs production led to a substantial decrease in levels of PC precursors such as glutathione (GSH) and gamma-glutamyl cysteine (gamma-EC). The levels of As(III) accumulation were found to be similar between AtPCS-expressing wild type strain and AtPCS-expressing acr3Delta strain lacking the arsenic efflux system, suggesting that the arsenic uptake may become limiting. This is further supported by the roughly 1:3 stoichiometric ratio between arsenic and PC2 (n = 2) level (comparing with a theoretical value of 1:2), indicating an excess availability of PCs inside the cells. However, at lower As(III) concentration, PC production became limiting and an additive effect on arsenic accumulation was observed for strain lacking the efflux system. More importantly, even resting cells expressing AtPCS pre-cultured in Zn(2+) enriched media showed PCs production and two times higher arsenic removal than the control strain. These results open up the possibility of using cells expressing AtPCS as an inexpensive sorbent for the removal of toxic arsenic.

  9. Amphetamine enhances endurance by increasing heat dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Ekaterina; Yoo, Yeonjoo; Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Zaretskaia, Maria; Rusyniak, Daniel; Zaretsky, Dmitry; Molkov, Yaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Athletes use amphetamines to improve their performance through largely unknown mechanisms. Considering that body temperature is one of the major determinants of exhaustion during exercise, we investigated the influence of amphetamine on the thermoregulation. To explore this, we measured core body temperature and oxygen consumption of control and amphetamine-trea ted rats running on a treadmill with an incrementally increasing load (both speed and incline). Experimental results showed that rats treated with amphetamine (2 mg/kg) were able to run significantly longer than control rats. Due to a progressively increasing workload, which was matched by oxygen consumption, the control group exhibited a steady increase in the body temperature. The administration of amphetamine slowed down the temperature rise (thus decreasing core body temperature) in the beginning of the run without affecting oxygen consumption. In contrast, a lower dose of amphetamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect on measured parameters. Using a mathematical model describing temperature dynamics in two compartments (the core and the muscles), we were able to infer what physiological parameters were affected by amphetamine. Modeling revealed that amphetamine administration increases heat dissipation in the core. Furthermore, the model predicted that the muscle temperature at the end of the run in the amphetamine-treated group was significantly higher than in the control group. Therefore, we conclude that amphetamine may mask or delay fatigue by slowing down exercise-induced core body temperature growth by increasing heat dissipation. However, this affects the integrity of thermoregulatory system and may result in potentially dangerous overheating of the muscles.

  10. Overexpression of a soybean ariadne-like ubiquitin ligase gene GmARI1 enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolian Zhang

    Full Text Available Ariadne (ARI subfamily of RBR (Ring Between Ring fingers proteins have been found as a group of putative E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains in fruitfly, mouse, human and Arabidopsis. Recent studies showed several RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, but the function of ARI in plants is largely unknown. In this study, an ariadne-like E3 ubiquitin ligase gene was isolated from soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr., and designated as GmARI1. It encodes a predicted protein of 586 amino acids with a RBR supra-domain. Subcellular localization studies using Arabidopsis protoplast cells indicated GmARI protein was located in nucleus. The expression of GmARI1 in soybean roots was induced as early as 2-4 h after simulated stress treatments such as aluminum, which coincided with the fact of aluminum toxicity firstly and mainly acting on plant roots. In vitro ubiquitination assay showed GmARI1 protein has E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of GmARI1 significantly enhanced the aluminum tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that GmARI1 encodes a RBR type E3 ligase, which may play important roles in plant tolerance to aluminum stress.

  11. Constitutive production of nitric oxide leads to enhanced drought stress resistance and extensive transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in plant responses to many environmental stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines that constitutively express rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) were described recently. In this study, it is reported that the nNOS transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed high levels of osmolytes and increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Transcriptomic analysis identified 601 or 510 genes that were differentially expressed as a consequence of drought stress or nNOS transformation, respectively. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis, redox, stress, and phytohormone and secondary metabolism were greatly affected by the nNOS transgene. Several CBF genes and members of zinc finger gene families, which are known to regulate transcription in the stress response, were changed by the nNOS transgene. Genes regulated by both the nNOS transgene and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments were compared and identified, including those for two ABA receptors (AtPYL4 and AtPYL5). Moreover, overexpression of AtPYL4 and AtPYL5 enhanced drought resistance, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte levels. These observations increase our understanding of the role of NO in drought stress response in Arabidopsis. PMID:24868034

  12. Disruption of the Arabidopsis Defense Regulator Genes SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 Confers Enhanced Freezing Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin-Fang; Xu, Le; Tan, Wei-Juan; Chen, Liang; Qi, Hua; Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Liu, Bin-Yi; Yu, Lu-Jun; Yao, Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, three lipase-like regulators, SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4, act downstream of resistance protein-associated defense signaling. Although the roles of SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 in biotic stress have been extensively studied, little is known about their functions in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. With or without cold acclimation, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 single mutants, as well as their double mutants, exhibited similarly enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants showed increased transcript levels of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs and their regulons compared with the wild type. Moreover, freezing-induced cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide were ameliorated in sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants. The sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants had much lower salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents than the wild type, and exogenous application of SA and DAG compromised the freezing tolerance of the mutants. Furthermore, SA suppressed the cold-induced expression of DGATs and DGKs in the wild-type leaves. These findings indicate that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the freezing response in Arabidopsis, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG.

  13. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wencai [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Zhang, Liang [College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Xu, Hangbo; Wang, Lin [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Jiao, Zhen, E-mail: jiaozhen@zzu.edu.cn [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. • The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. • Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. • Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. • Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  14. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy...... trials (ΔT = 0°C) were also included to test for false positive responses. We used signal detection theory model to analyze the data. Our data revealed that blind participants have a higher accuracy than the sighted (d': Blind=2.4 ± 1.0, Sighted=1.8 ± 0.7, p=0.025), regardless of the size...

  15. Azospirillum brasilense ameliorates the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought mainly via enhancement of ABA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ana C; Bottini, Rubén; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico J; Moreno, Daniela; Boccanlandro, Hernán; Travaglia, Claudia N; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2015-01-01

    Production of phytohormones is one of the main mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azospirillum sp. The PGPRs induce plant growth and development, and reduce stress susceptibility. However, little is known regarding the stress-related phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by bacteria. We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245 strain on Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and aba2-1 mutant plants, evaluating the morphophysiological and biochemical responses when watered and in drought. We used an in vitro-grown system to study changes in the root volume and architecture after inoculation with Azospirillum in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and on the mutant aba2-1, during early growth. To examine Arabidopsis development and reproductive success as affected by the bacteria, ABA and drought, a pot experiment using Arabidopsis Col-0 plants was also carried out. Azospirillum brasilense augmented plant biomass, altered root architecture by increasing lateral roots number, stimulated photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments and retarded water loss in correlation with incremented ABA levels. As well, inoculation improved plants seed yield, plants survival, proline levels and relative leaf water content; it also decreased stomatal conductance, malondialdehyde and relative soil water content in plants submitted to drought. Arabidopsis inoculation with A. brasilense improved plants performance, especially in drought.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Investigation for Heat Transfer Enhancement by Dimpled Surface Heat Exchanger in Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Shuai; Yang, Xue; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2016-03-01

    For vehicle thermoelectric exhaust energy recovery, the temperature difference between the heat exchanger and the coolant has a strong influence on the electric power generation, and ribs are often employed to enhance the heat transfer of the heat exchanger. However, the introduction of ribs will result in a large unwanted pressure drop in the exhaust system which is unfavorable for the engine's efficiency. Therefore, how to enhance the heat transfer and control the pressure drop in the exhaust system is quite important for thermoelectric generators (TEG). In the current study, a symmetrical arrangement of dimpled surfaces staggered in the upper and lower surfaces of the heat exchanger was proposed to augment heat transfer rates with minimal pressure drop penalties. The turbulent flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of turbulent flow over the dimpled surface in a flat heat exchanger was investigated by numerical simulation and temperature measurements. The heat transfer capacity in terms of Nusselt number and the pressure loss in terms of Fanning friction factors of the exchanger were compared with those of the flat plate. The pressure loss and heat transfer characteristics of dimples with a depth-to-diameter ratio ( h/D) at 0.2 were investigated. Finally, a quite good heat transfer performance with minimal pressure drop heat exchanger in a vehicle TEG was obtained. And based on the area-averaged surface temperature of the heat exchanger and the Seeback effect, the power generation can be improved by about 15% at Re = 25,000 compared to a heat exchanger with a flat surface.

  17. Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhong; Wu, Jingzhi, E-mail: jzwu@live.nuc.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, Shanxi (China)

    2016-02-15

    Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.

  18. Lipophilic components of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, enhance freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayirath, Prasanth; Benkel, Bernhard; Mark Hodges, D; Allan-Wojtas, Paula; Mackinnon, Shawna; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2009-06-01

    Extracts of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum enhance plant tolerance against environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and frost. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this improved stress tolerance and the nature of the bioactive compounds present in the seaweed extracts that elicits stress tolerance remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of A. nodosum extracts and its organic sub-fractions on freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ascophyllum nodosum extracts and its lipophilic fraction significantly increased tolerance to freezing temperatures in in vitro and in vivo assays. Untreated plants exhibited severe chlorosis, tissue damage, and failed to recover from freezing treatments while the extract-treated plants recovered from freezing temperature of -7.5 degrees C in in vitro and -5.5 degrees C in in vivo assays. Electrolyte leakage measurements revealed that the LT(50) value was lowered by 3 degrees C while cell viability staining demonstrated a 30-40% reduction in area of damaged tissue in extract treated plants as compared to water controls. Moreover, histological observations of leaf sections revealed that extracts have a significant effect on maintaining membrane integrity during freezing stress. Treated plants exhibited 70% less chlorophyll damage during freezing recovery as compared to the controls, and this correlated with reduced expression of the chlorphyllase genes AtCHL1 and AtCHL2. Further, the A. nodosum extract treatment modulated the expression of the cold response genes, COR15A, RD29A, and CBF3, resulting in enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. More than 2.6-fold increase in expression of RD29A, 1.8-fold increase of CBF3 and two-fold increase in the transcript level of COR15A was observed in plants treated with lipophilic fraction of A. nodosum at -2 degrees C. Taken together, the results suggest that chemical components in A. nodosum extracts protect membrane integrity and affect the expression of

  19. Enhanced boiling heat transfer in horizontal test bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewin, R.R.; Jensen, M.K.; Bergles, A.E.

    1994-08-01

    Two-phase flow boiling from bundles of horizontal tubes with smooth and enhanced surfaces has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in pure refrigerant R-113, pure R-11, and mixtures of R-11 and R-113 of approximately 25, 50, and 75% of R-113 by mass. Tests were conducted in two staggered tube bundles consisting of fifteen rows and five columns laid out in equilateral triangular arrays with pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.17 and 1.5. The enhanced surfaces tested included a knurled surface (Wolverine`s Turbo-B) and a porous surface (Linde`s High Flux). Pool boiling tests were conducted for each surface so that reference values of the heat transfer coefficient could be obtained. Boiling heat transfer experiments in the tube bundles were conducted at pressures of 2 and 6 bar, heat flux values from 5 to 80 kW/m{sup 2}s, and qualities from 0% to 80%, Values of the heat transfer coefficients for the enhanced surfaces were significantly larger than for the smooth tubes and were comparable to the values obtained in pool boiling. It was found that the performance of the enhanced tubes could be predicted using the pool boiling results. The degradation in the smooth tube heat transfer coefficients obtained in fluid mixtures was found to depend on the difference between the molar concentration in the liquid and vapor.

  20. Temperature enhancement induced by ionosphere heating in low altitude region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Xu; Jian Wu; Zhensen Wu; Jun Wu; Haiqin Che; Yubo Yan; Kun Xue

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that the electron temperature is approximately equal to the ion temperature is not rational during the high frequency (HF) heating in low ionosphere region. Thus, using the theoretical formula of incoherent scatter spectra with collisional plasma, the incoherent scatter data are analyzed during ionosphere heating at 91.7 km height on August 15th 2006. The enhancements of electron temperature are obtained, and the incremental percent is up to 37% and 46% at the universal time of 10:22 and 10:30, respectively. By using the same initialization value, the ionosphere heating process is simulated by Ohmic theory and the experimental results are basically consistent with the simulation.

  1. COMPLEX HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT BY FLUID INDUCED VIBRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new method of heat transfer enhancement by fluid induced vibration was put forward, and its theoretical analysis and experimental study were performed. Though people always try to prophylaxis fluid induced vibration for regarding it as an accident, the utilization space of fluid induced vibration is still very large. The in-surface and out-surface vibrations which come from the fluid induce elastic tube bundles, can effectively increase the convective heat transfer coefficient, and also decrease the fouling resistance, then increase the heat transfer coefficient remarkably.

  2. A KH Domain-Containing Putative RNA-Binding Protein Is Critical for Heat Stress-Responsive Gene Regulation and Thermotolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingmei Guan; Changlong Wen; Haitao Zeng; Jianhua Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress is a severe environmental factor that significantly reduces plant growth and delays development.Heat stress factors (HSFs) are a class of transcription factors that are synthesized rapidly in response to elevations in temperature and are responsible for the transcription of many heat stress-responsive genes including those encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs).There are 21 HSFs in Arabidopsis,and recent studies have established that the HSFA1 family members are master regulators for the remaining HSFs.However,very little is known about upstream molecular factors that control the expression of HSFA1 genes and other HSF genes under heat stress.Through a forward genetic analysis,we identified RCF3,a K homology (KH) domain-containing nuclear-localized putative RNA-binding protein.RCF3 is a negative regulator of most HSFs,including HSFAla,HSFAlb,and HSFAld.In contrast,RCF3 positively controls the expression of HSFAle,HSFA3,HSFA9,HSFB3,and DREB2C.Consistently with the overall increased accumulation of heat-responsive genes,the rcf3 mutant plants are more tolerant than the wild-type to heat stress.Together,our results suggest that a KH domain-containing putative RNA-binding protein RCF3 is an important upstream regulator for heat stress-responsive gene expression and thermotolerance in Arabidopsis.

  3. Characterization of Arabidopsis sterol glycosyltransferase TTG15/UGT80B1 role during freeze and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K; Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Shalini; Singh, Ruchi; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases regulate the properties of sterols by catalyzing the transfer of carbohydrate molecules to the sterol moiety for the synthesis of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides. We have analyzed the functional role of TTG15/UGT80B1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in freeze/thaw and heat shock stress using T-DNA insertional sgt knockout mutants. Quantitative study of spatial as well as temporal gene expression showed tissue-specific and dynamic expression patterns throughout the growth stages. Comparative responses of Col-0, TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines were analyzed under heat and freeze stress conditions. Heat tolerance was determined by survival of plants at 42°C for 3 h, MDA analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence image (CFI) analysis. Freezing tolerance was determined by survival of the plants at -1°C temperature in non-acclimatized (NA) and cold acclimatized (CA) conditions and also by CFI analysis, which revealed that, p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored plants were more adapted to freeze stress than TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant under CA condition. HPLC analysis of the plants showed reduced sterol glycoside in mutant seedlings as compared to other genotypes. Following CA condition, both β-sitosterol and sitosterol glycoside quantity was more in Col-0 and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines, whereas it was significantly less in TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutants. From these results, it may be concluded that due to low content of free sterols and sterol glycosides, the physiology of mutant plants was more affected during both, the chilling and heat stress. PMID:26382564

  4. NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Xin; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol(-1)) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in all studied plant groups. Enrichment of CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1)) with HS remarkably increased the Fv/Fm value in all plant groups except hsp70-1, indicating that NPR1-dependent SA signaling is not involved in the elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. These results also suggest an essentiality of HSP70-1, but not HSP21 in elevated CO2-induced HS mitigation.

  5. Heat transfer enhancement utilizing chaotic advection in coiled tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study introduced a novel chaotic coil heat exchanger utilizing chaotic advection to enhance heat transfer at low Reynolds numbers. Using Lagrangian tracing of fluid particles and their sensitivity to the initial condition and fluid element calculations, it was shown that mixing was significantly increased due to the chaotic advection. Heat transfer performance in the coil and chaotic configuration was visualized by isotherms contours of temperature in different cross-sections. In order to evaluate the hydraulic-thermal performance of heat exchangers, Nusselt numbers and friction factor were calculated and comparison was made between the two configurations. Numerical calculations revealed that the chaotic coil configuration displayed heat transfer enhancement of 4–26% relative to the fully developed Nusselt numbers in the regular coil with only 5–8% change in the pressure drop. - Highlights: • A novel chaotic coil heat exchanger is introduced in this study. • It is shown that mixing is increased significantly due to the altered chaotic advection mechanism. • By increasing the Reynolds number, results show impressive enhancement in chaotic heat exchanger performance. • Reorientation in chaotic flow leads to higher pressure loss than that in the normal helical coil

  6. Ultrasonic Heat Transfer Enhancement Using a Horn-Type Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Yamamoto, Akira; Murakami, Koichi

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify experimentally the influence of streaming induced by ultrasonic vibration on heat transfer using a horn-type ultrasonic vibrator. A horn tip of 6 mm diameter and 60.7 kHz resonant frequency was used as the ultrasonic transducer. Heat transfer experiments for a downward-facing horizontal heating surface with ultrasonic vibration from below were carried out in a natural convection region. The acoustic jet in the water from the horn tip of the transducer regarded as a nozzle exit was induced by this transducer, and as a result, up to a ten-fold increase in heat transfer coefficient was obtained by application of 20 W in both tap water and degassed water. It was found that the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by ultrasonic vibration in tap water can be classified into four categories. In degassed water, heat transfer enhancement is influenced not by the acoustic jet, but by small-scale perturbations by cavitation microjets.

  7. Spinodal turbulence enhances heat transfer in micro devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisé, Stefano; Poesio, Pietro; Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2012-11-01

    We experimentally prove the possibility of using spinodal mixtures to increase heat transfer in micro devices as a consequence of an evenly distributed micro agitation, which increases the effective diffusivity. Despite the Re -number is as low as 5, turbulence-like mixing can be achieved by mass transfer effects. A mixture of acetone-hexadecane is quenched in a micro heat exchanger to induce spinodal decomposition. The heat transfer rate is enhanced by self-induced convective motion (spinodal turbulence) because the drops of one phase move against each others under the influence of non-equilibrium capillary forces, Korteweg stresses,which are sustained by the free energy liberated during phase separation. The heat transfer is increased up to the 200% and the effect become larger as the bulk Re decreses, while no dramatic increase in the pressure drop is observed. We built two different experimental set-ups: in the first we measure the heat transfer with a feedback method and in the second we measure the pressure drop and we visualize the induced convection. High-speed camera visualization,pressure drop and temperature measurements allow a complete characterization of the phenomenon, with a special attention to the quantification of the heat transfer coefficent enhancement.

  8. Fouling characteristics of compact heat exchangers and enhanced tubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C. B.; Rabas, T. J.

    1999-07-15

    Fouling is a complex phenomenon that (1) encompasses formation and transportation of precursors, and (2) attachment and possible removal of foulants. A basic understanding of fouling mechanisms should guide the development of effective mitigation techniques. The literature on fouling in complex flow passages of compact heat exchangers is limited; however, significant progress has been made with enhanced tubes.

  9. Scalable graphene coatings for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel J; Mafra, Daniela L; Miljkovic, Nenad; Kong, Jing; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-05-13

    Water vapor condensation is commonly observed in nature and routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat with dropwise condensation on nonwetting surfaces exhibiting heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation on wetting surfaces. However, state-of-the-art techniques to promote dropwise condensation rely on functional hydrophobic coatings that either have challenges with chemical stability or are so thick that any potential heat transfer improvement is negated due to the added thermal resistance of the coating. In this work, we show the effectiveness of ultrathin scalable chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene coatings to promote dropwise condensation while offering robust chemical stability and maintaining low thermal resistance. Heat transfer enhancements of 4× were demonstrated compared to filmwise condensation, and the robustness of these CVD coatings was superior to typical hydrophobic monolayer coatings. Our results indicate that graphene is a promising surface coating to promote dropwise condensation of water in industrial conditions with the potential for scalable application via CVD.

  10. Modulation of ethylene and heat-controlled hyponastic leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana by the plant defense hormones jasmonate and salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    van Zanten, Martijn; Ritsema, Tita; Polko, Joanna K.; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Frank F Millenaar; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (heat). Recent studies indicated that the defence-related phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) synthesized by the plant upon biotic infestation repress low light-induced hyponast...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OVER THE DIMPLED SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sachin L. Borse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of years the focus on using concavities or dimples provides enhanced heat transfer has been documented by a number of researchers. Dimples are used on the surface of internal flow passages because they produce substantial heat transfer augmentation. This project work is concerned with experimentalinvestigation of the forced convection heat transfer over the dimpled surface. The objective of the experiment is to find out the heat transfer and air flow distribution on dimpled surfaces and all the results obtained are compared with those from a flat surface. The varying parameters were i Dimple arrangement on the plate i.e.staggered and inline arrangement and ii Heat input iiiDimple density on the plate. Heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number were measured in a channel with one side dimpled surface. Thespherical type dimples were fabricated, and the diameter and the depth of dimple were 6 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Channel height is 25.4mm, two dimple configurations were tested. The Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter was varied from 5000 to 15000.Study shown that thermal performance is increasing with Reynolds number. With the inline and staggered dimple arrangement, the heat transfer coefficients, Nusselt number and the thermal performance factors were higher for the staggered arrangement.

  12. Heat transfer enhancement accompanying Leidenfrost state suppression at ultrahigh temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Arjang; Wurz, Jillian; Bahadur, Vaibhav

    2014-10-14

    The well-known Leidenfrost effect is the formation of a vapor layer between a liquid and an underlying hot surface. This insulating vapor layer severely degrades heat transfer and results in surface dryout. We measure the heat transfer enhancement and dryout prevention benefits accompanying electrostatic suppression of the Leidenfrost state. Interfacial electric fields in the vapor layer can attract liquid toward the surface and promote wetting. This principle can suppress dryout even at ultrahigh temperatures exceeding 500 °C, which is more than 8 times the Leidenfrost superheat for organic solvents. Robust Leidenfrost state suppression is observed for a variety of liquids, ranging from low electrical conductivity organic solvents to electrically conducting salt solutions. Elimination of the vapor layer increases heat dissipation capacity by more than 1 order of magnitude. Heat removal capacities exceeding 500 W/cm(2) are measured, which is 5 times the critical heat flux (CHF) of water on common engineering surfaces. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate can be electrically controlled by the applied voltage. The underlying science is explained via a multiphysics analytical model which captures the coupled electrostatic-fluid-thermal transport phenomena underlying electrostatic Leidenfrost state suppression. Overall, this work uncovers the physics underlying dryout prevention and demonstrates electrically tunable boiling heat transfer with ultralow power consumption.

  13. Gene Expression, Protein Function and Pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana Responding to Silver Nanoparticles in Comparison to Silver Ions, Cold, Salt, Drought, and Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Kohan-Baghkheirati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been widely used in industry due to their unique physical and chemical properties. However, AgNPs have caused environmental concerns. To understand the risks of AgNPs, Arabidopsis microarray data for AgNP, Ag+, cold, salt, heat and drought stresses were analyzed. Up- and down-regulated genes of more than two-fold expression change were compared, while the encoded proteins of shared and unique genes between stresses were subjected to differential enrichment analyses. AgNPs affected the fewest genes (575 in the Arabidopsis genome, followed by Ag+ (1010, heat (1374, drought (1435, salt (4133 and cold (6536. More genes were up-regulated than down-regulated in AgNPs and Ag+ (438 and 780, respectively while cold down-regulated the most genes (4022. Responses to AgNPs were more similar to those of Ag+ (464 shared genes, cold (202, and salt (163 than to drought (50 or heat (30; the genes in the first four stresses were enriched with 32 PFAM domains and 44 InterPro protein classes. Moreover, 111 genes were unique in AgNPs and they were enriched in three biological functions: response to fungal infection, anion transport, and cell wall/plasma membrane related. Despite shared similarity to Ag+, cold and salt stresses, AgNPs are a new stressor to Arabidopsis.

  14. Investigation into flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel with enhanced heating surface

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of flow boiling in a minichannel of 1.0 mm depth. The heating element for the working fluid (FC-72) that flows along the minichannel is a single-sided enhanced alloy foil made from Haynes-230. Microrecesses were formed on the selected area of the heating foil by laser technology. The observations of the flow structure were carried out through a piece of glass. Simultaneously, owing to the liquid crystal layer placed on the opposite side of the enhanced foil surface,...

  15. HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT WITH NANOFLUIDS – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hussein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the studies undertaken on convection heat transfer with nanofluids. Initial studies were directed towards the determination of the properties of nanofluids, especially their thermal conductivity and viscosity. The studies indicate that thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with an increase in the concentration of the nanofluid. Experiments were conducted with different nanofluids, at various concentrations and temperature ranges, for the estimation of the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for water-based nanofluids. All the studies confirmed enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient with an increase in concentration. The experimental ranges of temperature undertaken by the authors were different for different nanofluids. Certain studies with smaller particle sizes indicated an increase in heat transfer enhancements when compared with values obtained when using larger particle sizes. It is observed that the concentration of the nanofluid, the operating temperature, the particle size and shape, together with the material of the nanoparticle dispersed in the base liquid, have significant influence on the heat transfer coefficient. All the studies indicate a nominal increase in pressure drop.

  16. H(2 enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolism of hydrogen gas (H(2 in bacteria and algae has been extensively studied for the interesting of developing H(2-based fuel. Recently, H(2 is recognized as a therapeutic antioxidant and activates several signalling pathways in clinical trials. However, underlying physiological roles and mechanisms of H(2 in plants as well as its signalling cascade remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, histochemical, molecular, immunological and genetic approaches were applied to characterize the participation of H(2 in enhancing Arabidopsis salt tolerance. An increase of endogenous H(2 release was observed 6 hr after exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Arabidopsis pretreated with 50% H(2-saturated liquid medium, mimicking the induction of endogenous H(2 release when subsequently exposed to NaCl, effectively decreased salinity-induced growth inhibition. Further results showed that H(2 pretreatment modulated genes/proteins of zinc-finger transcription factor ZAT10/12 and related antioxidant defence enzymes, thus significantly counteracting the NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, H(2 pretreatment maintained ion homeostasis by regulating the antiporters and H(+ pump responsible for Na(+ exclusion (in particular and compartmentation. Genetic evidence suggested that SOS1 and cAPX1 might be the target genes of H(2 signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that H(2 acts as a novel and cytoprotective regulator in coupling ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the improvement of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.

  17. Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A∷Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S∷Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S∷Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A∷Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance. PMID:25120219

  18. Auxin modulates the enhanced development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under elevated CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Chongwei; Jin, Gulei; Zhou, Qingyan; Lin, Xianyong; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong

    2011-08-01

    Root hairs may play a critical role in nutrient acquisition of plants grown under elevated CO(2) . This study investigated how elevated CO(2) enhanced the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The plants under elevated CO(2) (800 µL L(-1)) had denser and longer root hairs, and more H-positioned cells in root epidermis than those under ambient CO(2) (350 µL L(-1)). The elevated CO(2) increased auxin production in roots. Under elevated CO(2) , application of either 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) blocked the enhanced development of root hairs. The opposite was true when the plants under ambient CO(2) were treated with 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), an auxin analogue. Furthermore, the elevated CO(2) did not enhance the development of root hairs in auxin-response mutants, axr1-3, and auxin-transporter mutants, axr4-1, aux1-7 and pin1-1. Both elevated CO(2) and NAA application increased expressions of caprice, triptychon and rho-related protein from plants 2, and decreased expressions of werewolf, GLABRA2, GLABRA3 and the transparent testa glabra 1, genes related to root-hair development, while 1-NOA and NPA application had an opposite effect. Our study suggests that elevated CO(2) enhanced the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis via the well-characterized auxin signalling and transport that modulate the initiation of root hairs and the expression of its specific genes.

  19. Overexpression of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis leads to enhanced arsenic tolerance and cadmium hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Lee, David; Chen, Alice; Schroeder, Julian I; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2004-12-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins, which are a family of cysteine-rich thiol-reactive peptides believed to play important roles in processing many thiol-reactive toxicants. A modified Arabidopsis thaliana PCS sequence (AtPCS1) was active in Escherichia coli. When AtPCS1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis from a strong constitutive Arabidopsis actin regulatory sequence (A2), the A2::AtPCS1 plants were highly resistant to arsenic, accumulating 20-100 times more biomass on 250 and 300 microM arsenate than wild type (WT); however, they were hypersensitive to Cd(II). After exposure to cadmium and arsenic, the overall accumulation of thiol-peptides increased to 10-fold higher levels in the A2::AtPCS1 plants compared with WT, as determined by fluorescent HPLC. Whereas cadmium induced greater increases in traditional PCs (PC2, PC3, PC4), arsenic exposure resulted in the expression of many unknown thiol products. Unexpectedly, after arsenate or cadmium exposure, levels of the dipeptide substrate for PC synthesis, gamma-glutamyl cysteine (gamma-EC), were also dramatically increased. Despite these high thiol-peptide concentrations, there were no significant increases in concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in above-ground tissues in the AtPCS1 plants relative to WT plants. The potential for AtPCS1 overexpression to be useful in strategies for phytoremediating arsenic and to compound the negative effects of cadmium are discussed.

  20. Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.

  1. Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Mahamudul; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M.

    2016-07-01

    Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.

  2. Natural variants of AtHKT1 enhance Na+ accumulation in two wild populations of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile and therefore have developed mechanisms to adapt to their environment, including the soil mineral nutrient composition. Ionomics is a developing functional genomic strategy designed to rapidly identify the genes and gene networks involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate these mineral nutrients from the soil. Here, we report on the coupling of high-throughput elemental profiling of shoot tissue from various Arabidopsis accessions with DNA microarray-based bulk segregant analysis and reverse genetics, for the rapid identification of genes from wild populations of Arabidopsis that are involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate Na(+ from the soil. Elemental profiling of shoot tissue from 12 different Arabidopsis accessions revealed that two coastal populations of Arabidopsis collected from Tossa del Mar, Spain, and Tsu, Japan (Ts-1 and Tsu-1, respectively, accumulate higher shoot levels of Na(+ than do Col-0 and other accessions. We identify AtHKT1, known to encode a Na(+ transporter, as being the causal locus driving elevated shoot Na(+ in both Ts-1 and Tsu-1. Furthermore, we establish that a deletion in a tandem repeat sequence approximately 5 kb upstream of AtHKT1 is responsible for the reduced root expression of AtHKT1 observed in these accessions. Reciprocal grafting experiments establish that this loss of AtHKT1 expression in roots is responsible for elevated shoot Na(+. Interestingly, and in contrast to the hkt1-1 null mutant, under NaCl stress conditions, this novel AtHKT1 allele not only does not confer NaCl sensitivity but also cosegregates with elevated NaCl tolerance. We also present all our elemental profiling data in a new open access ionomics database, the Purdue Ionomics Information Management System (PiiMS; http://www.purdue.edu/dp/ionomics. Using DNA microarray-based genotyping has allowed us to rapidly identify AtHKT1 as the casual locus driving the natural variation in shoot Na

  3. An emphasis of hydrogen sulfide-cysteine cycle on enhancing the tolerance to chromium stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huihui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Zhuping; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Danmei; Pei, Yanxi

    2016-06-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on the health of vegetables and grains grown in the contaminated agricultural soil, it is thus meaningful to find ways to reduce the heavy metals (HMs) accumulation in plants. As sulfur is considered to be an essential macronutrient for plant stress defenses, the important role of sulfur assimilation in plants responding to HMs stress has been followed. However, the potential mechanism of the only sulfur-containing gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its main endogenously generated substrate, cysteine (Cys), in plant defense is poorly understood. The physiological and biochemical methods together with qRT-PCR were used to explore the response pattern of H2S-Cys cycle in plants resisting to chromium (Cr(6+)) stress. Our results suggested that Cr(6+) stress inhibited Arabidopsis root elongation, increased the H2S and Cys contents time-dependently, and H2S production was activated earlier than Cys. Furthermore, H2S increased Cys accumulation more quickly than Cr(6+) stress. The qRT-PCR results revealed that H2S up-regulated the Cys generation-related genes OASTLa, SAT1 and SAT5 expression levels, and that SAT1 and SAT5 expression was elevated for a longer duration. Data suggested that H2S might regulate Cys metabolism-related genes expression to participate in Cr(6+)-mediated Cys accumulation. H2S and Cys relieved the root elongation inhibition caused by Cr(6+) in Arabidopsis. Both H2S and Cys enhanced glutathione generation and activated phytochelatins (PCs) synthesis by up-regulating PCS1 and PCS2 expression levels to fight against Cr(6+) stress. Besides regulating the expression of PCs synthase encoding genes, H2S might promote metallothioneins accumulation by significantly increasing the MT2A gene expression. Overall, H2S and H2S-induced Cys accumulation (H2S-Cys system) was critical in imparting Cr(6+) tolerance in Arabidopsis. This paper is the first to indicate that gasotransmitter H2S induced Cys accumulation in

  4. Cell Wall Targeted in planta Iron Accumulation Enhances Biomass Conversion and Seed Iron Concentration in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing; Wei, Hui; Ma, Guojie; Antunes, Mauricio S.; Vogt, Stefan; Cox, Joseph; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiping; Bu, Lintao; Gleber, S. Charlotte; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Makowski, Lee; Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McCann, Maureen C.; Murphy, Angus S.; Peer, Wendy A.

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  5. Enhancing heat capacity of colloidal suspension using nanoscale encapsulated phase-change materials for heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Wu, Wei; Hu, Jianjun; Voevodin, Andrey A; Gschwender, Lois; Snyder, Ed; Chow, Louis; Su, Ming

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new method to enhance the heat-transfer property of a single-phase liquid by adding encapsulated phase-change nanoparticles (nano-PCMs), which absorb thermal energy during solid-liquid phase changes. Silica-encapsulated indium nanoparticles and polymer-encapsulated paraffin (wax) nanoparticles have been made using colloid method, and suspended into poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and water for potential high- and low-temperature applications, respectively. The shells prevent leakage and agglomeration of molten phase-change materials, and enhance the dielectric properties of indium nanoparticles. The heat-transfer coefficients of PAO containing indium nanoparticles (30% by mass) and water containing paraffin nanoparticles (10% by mass) are 1.6 and 1.75 times higher than those of corresponding single-phase fluids. The structural integrity of encapsulation allows repeated use of such nanoparticles for many cycles in high heat generating devices.

  6. Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Composite Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The method of composite porous media with mini-longitudinal channels at the surface and with beads packing between plates was put foward to improve the integated performance of flow and heat transfer in porous media. The experimental results in the corresponding porous media were reported and analyzed. The experiments indicate that with proper matching of the particle diameter dp, the mini-channel width w, the channel depth d and the distance between plates δr the heat transfer in the composite porois media is enhanced and flow resistence reduced compared with those of no mini-longitudinal channels at the surface. So this is an effective method to improve the integrated performance of flow and heat transfer in porous media.

  7. Heat-Transfer Enhancement by Artificially Generated Streamwise Vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Akram; Habchi, Charbel; Lemenand, Thierry; Della Valle, Dominique; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2012-11-01

    Vortex-induced heat transfer enhancement exploits longitudinal and transverse pressure-driven vortices through the deliberate artificial generation of large-scale vortical flow structures. Thermal-hydraulic performance, Nusselt number and friction factor are experimentally investigated in a HEV (high-efficiency vortex) mixer, which is a tubular heat exchanger and static mixer equipped with trapezoidal vortex generators. Pressure gradients are generated on the trapezoidal tab initiating a streamwise swirling motion in the form of two longitudinal counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVP). Due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the shear layer generated at the tab edges, which is a production site of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), becomes unstable further downstream from the tabs and gives rise to periodic hairpin vortices. The aim of the study is to quantify the effects of hydrodynamics on the heat- and masstransfer phenomena accompanying such flows for comparison with the results of numerical studies and validate the high efficiency of the intensification process implementing such vortex generators. The experimental results reflect the enhancement expected from the numerical studies and confirm the high status of the HEV heat exchanger and static mixer.

  8. In vivo packaging of triacylglycerols enhances Arabidopsis leaf biomass and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winichayakul, Somrutai; Scott, Richard William; Roldan, Marissa; Hatier, Jean-Hugues Bertrand; Livingston, Sam; Cookson, Ruth; Curran, Amy Christina; Roberts, Nicholas John

    2013-06-01

    Our dependency on reduced carbon for energy has led to a rapid increase in the search for sustainable alternatives and a call to focus on energy densification and increasing biomass yields. In this study, we generated a uniquely stabilized plant structural protein (cysteine [Cys]-oleosin) that encapsulates triacylglycerol (TAG). When coexpressed with diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we observed a 24% increase in the carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation rate per unit of leaf area and a 50% increase in leaf biomass as well as approximately 2-, 3-, and 5-fold increases in the fatty acid content of the mature leaves, senescing leaves, and roots, respectively. We propose that the coexpression led to the formation of enduring lipid droplets that prevented the futile cycle of TAG biosynthesis/lipolysis and instead created a sustained demand for de novo lipid biosynthesis, which in turn elevated CO2 recycling in the chloroplast. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated that the formation of TAG involved acyl cycling in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. We also demonstrate that the combination of Cys-oleosin and DGAT1 resulted in the highest accumulation of fatty acids in the model single-cell eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results support the notion that the prevention of lipolysis is vital to enabling TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues and confirm the earlier speculation that elevating fatty acid biosynthesis in the leaf would lead to an increase in CO2 assimilation. The Cys-oleosins have applications in biofuels, animal feed, and human nutrition as well as in providing a tool for investigating fatty acid biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:23616604

  9. On the specific heat capacity enhancement in nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2016-12-01

    Molten salts are used as heat transfer fluids and for short-term heat energy storage in solar power plants. Experiments show that the specific heat capacity of the base salt may be significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of certain nanoparticles. This effect, which is technically interesting and economically important, is not yet understood. This paper presents a critical discussion of the existing attendant experimental literature and the phenomenological models put forward thus far. A common assumption, the existence of nanolayers surrounding the nanoparticles, which are thought to be the source of, in some cases, the large increase of a nanofluid's specific heat capacity is criticized and a different model is proposed. The model assumes that the influence of the nanoparticles in the surrounding liquid is of long range. The attendant long-range interfacial layers may interact with each other upon increase of nanoparticle concentration. This can explain the specific heat maximum observed by different groups, for which no other theoretical explanation appears to exist. PMID:26873263

  10. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana Histone Gene AtHTA1 Enhances Rice Transformation Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zheng; Xiao-Wei He; Ying-Hui Ying; Jiang-Feng Lu; Stanton B.Gelvin; Hui-Xia Shou

    2009-01-01

    We expressed the Arabidopsis thaliana histone AtHTA1 in rice under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter.Transformation efficiencies of rice plants that constitutively expressed AtHTA1 were 28-44% higher than calli conraining an empty vector control.Furthermore,co-infection of rice calli with a vector containing AtHTA 1 and another vector with the target gene increased transformation by 27-50%.Thus,expression of AtHTA1 either transiently or in stably transformed cells improved rice transformation efficiency.

  11. Investigation into flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel with enhanced heating surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of flow boiling in a minichannel of 1.0 mm depth. The heating element for the working fluid (FC-72 that flows along the minichannel is a single-sided enhanced alloy foil made from Haynes-230. Microrecesses were formed on the selected area of the heating foil by laser technology. The observations of the flow structure were carried out through a piece of glass. Simultaneously, owing to the liquid crystal layer placed on the opposite side of the enhanced foil surface, it was possible to measure temperature distribution on the heating wall through another piece of glass. The experimental research has been focused on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e. the zone of boiling incipience and further development of boiling. The objective of the paper is determining of the void fraction for some cross-sections of selected images for increasing heat fluxes supplied to the heating surface. The flow structure photos were processed in Corel graphics software and binarized. The analysis of phase volumes was developed in Techystem Globe software.

  12. Investigation into flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel with enhanced heating surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents results of flow boiling in a minichannel of 1.0 mm depth. The heating element for the working fluid (FC-72) that flows along the minichannel is a single-sided enhanced alloy foil made from Haynes-230. Microrecesses were formed on the selected area of the heating foil by laser technology. The observations of the flow structure were carried out through a piece of glass. Simultaneously, owing to the liquid crystal layer placed on the opposite side of the enhanced foil surface, it was possible to measure temperature distribution on the heating wall through another piece of glass. The experimental research has been focused on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e. the zone of boiling incipience and further development of boiling. The objective of the paper is determining of the void fraction for some cross-sections of selected images for increasing heat fluxes supplied to the heating surface. The flow structure photos were processed in Corel graphics software and binarized. The analysis of phase volumes was developed in Techystem Globe software.

  13. Graphene nanoplatelets–silver hybrid nanofluids for enhanced heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Highly dispersed GNP–Ag nanofluid is prepared with the functionalization method. • Thermophysical properties of hybrid nanofluid is highly improved. • A significant enhancement of heat transfer performance is observed. • Cluster of empirical correlation introduced for Nusselt number and friction factor. - Abstract: In the present experimental work, a new synthesis method is introduced for decoration of silver on the functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP–Ag) and preparation of nanofluids is reported. The thermo-physical properties, heat transfer performance and friction factor for fully developed turbulent flow of GNP–Ag/water nanofluids flowing through a circular tube at a constant heat flux were investigated. GNP–Ag uniform nanocomposite was produced from a simple chemical reaction procedure, which includes acid treatment for functionalization of GNP. The surface characterization was performed by various techniques such as XRD, FESEM, TEM and Raman. The GNP–Ag nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the nanocomposite in distilled water without the assistance of a surfactant and/or ultrasonication. The prepared nanofluids were found to be stable and no sedimentation was observed for a long time. The experimental data for GNP–Ag nanofluids were shown improvements of effective thermal conductivity and heat transfer efficiency in comparison with the corresponding to the base-fluid. The amount of enhancement was a function of temperature and weight concentration of nanoparticles. Maximum enhancement of Nusselt number was 32.7% with a penalty of 1.08 times increase in the friction factor for the weight concentration of 0.1% at a Reynolds number of 17,500 compared to distilled water. Improved empirical correlations were proposed based on the experimental data for evaluation of Nusselt number and friction factor

  14. Novel NAC transcription factor TaNAC67 confers enhanced multi-abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Mao

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+ efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.

  15. Enhanced flux through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Cairó, Albert; Botella-Pavía, Patricia; Besumbes, Oscar; Campos, Narciso; Boronat, Albert; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2006-11-01

    The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway synthesizes the precursors for an astonishing diversity of plastid isoprenoids, including the major photosynthetic pigments chlorophylls and carotenoids. Since the identification of the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phoshate (DXP) synthase (DXS) and DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), they both were proposed as potential control points. Increased DXS activity has been shown to up-regulate the production of plastid isoprenoids in all systems tested, but the relative contribution of DXR to the supply of isoprenoid precursors is less clear. In this work, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with altered DXS and DXR enzyme levels, as estimated from their resistance to clomazone and fosmidomycin, respectively. The down-regulation of DXR resulted in variegation, reduced pigmentation and defects in chloroplast development, whereas DXR-overexpressing lines showed an increased accumulation of MEP- derived plastid isoprenoids such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, and taxadiene in transgenic plants engineered to produce this non-native isoprenoid. Changes in DXR levels in transgenic plants did not result in changes in DXS gene expression or enzyme accumulation, confirming that the observed effects on plastid isoprenoid levels in DXR-overexpressing lines were not an indirect consequence of altering DXS levels. The results indicate that the biosynthesis of MEP (the first committed intermediate of the pathway) limits the production of downstream isoprenoids in Arabidopsis chloroplasts, supporting a role for DXR in the control of the metabolic flux through the MEP pathway.

  16. Review On Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques in Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kanimozhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer enhancements of both experimental and analytical studies have been reported in view of their industrial and domestic significances. This review is confined to the enhancement of heat transfer in solidification processes and latent heat thermal storage system due to low heat thermal conductivity of the PCM. The review covers different methods of heat transfer enhancement techniques, encapsulation of phase change materials in Thermal Energy Storage System and solar system.

  17. Review On Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques in Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    B. Kanimozhi; Prabhu, A

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer enhancements of both experimental and analytical studies have been reported in view of their industrial and domestic significances. This review is confined to the enhancement of heat transfer in solidification processes and latent heat thermal storage system due to low heat thermal conductivity of the PCM. The review covers different methods of heat transfer enhancement techniques, encapsulation of phase change materials in Thermal Energy Storage System and solar...

  18. Flow mechanism and heat transfer enhancement in longitudinal-flow tube bundle of shell-and-tube heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The flow disturbance and heat transfer mechanism in the tube bundle of rod baffle shell-and-tube heat exchanger were analyzed, on the basis of which and combined with the concept of heat transfer enhancement in the core flow, a new type of shell-and-tube heat exchanger with combination of rod and van type spoiler was designed. Corresponding mathematical and physical models on the shell side about the new type heat exchanger were established, and fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics were numerically analyzed. The simulation results showed that heat transfer coefficient of the new type of heat exchanger approximated to that of rod baffle heat exchanger, but flow pressure drop was much less than the latter, indicating that comprehensive performance of the former is superior to that of the latter. Compared with rod baffle heat exchanger, heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger under investigation is higher under same pressure drop, especially under the high Reynolds numbers.

  19. A Review Paper on Heat Transfer Rate Enhancements by Wire Coil Inserts in the Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar Ray*1,; Dr Pradeep Kumar Jhinge2

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing heat transfer surface are used in many engineering applications such as heat exchanger, air conditioning, chemical reactor and refrigeration systems etc, hence many techniques have been investigated on enhancement of heat transfer rate and decrease the size and cost of the involving equipment especially in heat exchangers .One of the most important techniques used are passive heat transfer technique. These techniques when adopted in Heat exchanger proved that the ove...

  20. Evidence of convective heat transfer enhancement induced by spinodal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poesio, P; Lezzi, A M; Beretta, G P

    2007-06-01

    Spinodal decomposition can be driven by either diffusion or self-induced convection; the importance of convection relative to diffusion depends on the Péclet number, defined as the ratio between convective and diffusive mass fluxes. Diffusion is the dominating mechanism of phase segregation when the Péclet number is small - i.e., when viscosity and diffusivity are large - or when the domain characteristic size is small. For low-viscosity mixtures, convection is the dominating process and the segregation is very rapid as it takes a few seconds compared to the hours needed in the case of pure diffusion. In such cases, strong convective motion of the phase segregating domains is generated even in small-size systems and is almost independent of the temperature difference as long as it is below the transition value. We study experimentally the enhancement of heat transfer in a 1-mm -thick cell. A water-acetonitrile-toulene mixture is quenched into a two-phase region so as to induce convection-driven spinodal decomposition. The heat transfer rate is measured and compared to that obtained in the absence of convective motion. A substantial reduction in the cooling time obtains in the case of spinodal decomposition. The heat transfer enhancement induced by this self-induced, disordered but effectively convective effect may be exploited in the cooling or heating of small-scale systems whereby forced convection cannot be achieved because of the small sizes involved. A scaling analysis of the data based on the diffuse interface H model for a symmetric mixture near the equilibrium point yields very encouraging agreement and insights. PMID:17677356

  1. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  2. Trichoderma spp. Improve growth of Arabidopsis seedlings under salt stress through enhanced root development, osmolite production, and Na⁺ elimination through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; López-Bucio, José

    2014-06-01

    Salt stress is an important constraint to world agriculture. Here, we report on the potential of Trichoderma virens and T. atroviride to induce tolerance to salt in Arabidopsis seedlings. We first characterized the effect of several salt concentrations on shoot biomass production and root architecture of Arabidopsis seedlings. We found that salt repressed plant growth and root development in a dose-dependent manner by blocking auxin signaling. Analysis of the wild type and eir1, aux1-7, arf7arf19, and tir1abf2abf19 auxin-related mutants revealed a key role for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling in mediating salt tolerance. We also found that T. virens (Tv29.8) and T. atroviride (IMI 206040) promoted plant growth in both normal and saline conditions, which was related to the induction of lateral roots and root hairs through auxin signaling. Arabidopsis seedlings grown under saline conditions inoculated with Trichoderma spp. showed increased levels of abscissic acid, L-proline, and ascorbic acid, and enhanced elimination of Na⁺ through root exudates. Our data show the critical role of auxin signaling and root architecture to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and suggest that these fungi may enhance the plant IAA level as well as the antioxidant and osmoprotective status of plants under salt stress. PMID:24502519

  3. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-11-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation.

  4. Enhanced heat transfer is dependent on thickness of graphene films: the heat dissipation during boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Jin Man; Kim, Taejoo; Park, Su Cheong; Kim, Ji Min; Park, Youngjae; Yu, Dong In; Hwang, Kyoung Won; Jo, Hangjin; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Boiling heat transfer (BHT) is a particularly efficient heat transport method because of the latent heat associated with the process. However, the efficiency of BHT decreases significantly with increasing wall temperature when the critical heat flux (CHF) is reached. Graphene has received much recent research attention for applications in thermal engineering due to its large thermal conductivity. In this study, graphene films of various thicknesses were deposited on a heated surface, and enhancements of BHT and CHF were investigated via pool-boiling experiments. In contrast to the well-known surface effects, including improved wettability and liquid spreading due to micron- and nanometer-scale structures, nanometer-scale folded edges of graphene films provided a clue of BHT improvement and only the thermal conductivity of the graphene layer could explain the dependence of the CHF on the thickness. The large thermal conductivity of the graphene films inhibited the formation of hot spots, thereby increasing the CHF. Finally, the provided empirical model could be suitable for prediction of CHF.

  5. Involvement of DEG5 and DEG8 proteases in the turnover of the photosystem II reaction center D1 protein under heat stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN XuWu; WANG LiYuan; ZHANG LiXin

    2007-01-01

    Deg5,deg8 and the double mutant,deg5deg8 of Arabidopsis thaliana were used to study the physiological role of the DEG proteases in the repair cycle of photosystem II (PSII) under heat stress. PSII activity in deg mutants showed increased sensitivity to heat stress,and the extent of this effect was greater in the double mutant,deg5deg8,than in the single mutants,deg5 and deg8. Degradation of the D1 protein was slower in the mutants than in the WT plants. Furthermore,the levels of other PSII reaction center proteins tested remained relatively stable in the mutant and WT plants following high-temperature treatment. Thus,our results indicate that DEG5 and DEG8 may have synergistic function in degradation of D1 protein under heat stress.

  6. Physical quantity synergy in laminar flow field of convective heat transfer and analysis of heat transfer enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LIU ZhiChun; GUO ZengYuan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the principle of field synergy for heat transfer enhancement, the concept of physical quantity synergy in the laminar flow field is proposed in the present study according to the physical mechanism of convective heat transfer between fluid and tube wall. The synergy regulation among physical quantities of fluid particle is revealed by establishing formulas reflecting the relation between synergy angles and heat transfer enhancement. The physical nature of enhancing heat transfer and reducing flow resistance, which is directly associated with synergy angles α,βγ,φ, θ and ψ, is also explained. Be-sides, the principle of synergy among physical quantities is numerically verified by the calculation of heat transfer and flow in a thin cylinder-interpolated tube, which may guide the optimum design for better heat transfer unit and high-efficiency heat exchanger.

  7. Enhancement of heat transfer in red cell suspensions in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R T; Tiruvaloor, N R

    1989-05-01

    New data on laminar heat convection with red cell suspensions have been gathered for both heating and cooling. When compared to data for the suspending medium alone, it is apparent that the red cells enhance laminar heat transfer when Pe greater than 4. This is probably due to particle movements. These new data disagree with earlier studies which indicated no enhancement of heat transfer for blood cell suspensions. The data do agree with previous correlations for enhanced thermal transport in sheared suspensions.

  8. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Fluidized Solid Particles in Gas Carrying Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics are studied for gas carrying evaporation with fluidized solid particles in a vertical rectangular conduit. Experimental results show that heat transfer of gas carrying evaporation is enhanced and the superheat of liquid in contact with heating surface lowers remarkably by introducing solid particles. Nucleate boiling on the heating surface is suppressed to a considerable degree. The mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by fluidized solid particles is analyzed with the consideration of collisions of solid particles with the boiling vapor bubbles.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER BY FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATION OF ELASTIC TUBE BUNDLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new concept of heat transfer enhancement by flow-induced vibration was put forward, and a novel heat transfer element called elastic tube bundles was designed. The experimental investigation was performed on its characteristics of flow-induced virbration in out-tube or in-tube flow. Under the conditions of fixed heat flux and steam-water heat transfer, the regularity of heat transfer enhancement by flow-induced vibration was examined.

  10. Over-expression of histone H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15 enhances salt tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eShen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in stress-responsive gene expression and gene priming in plants. However, the role of H3K4me3 resetting in the processes is not clear. In this work we studied the expression and function of Arabidopsis H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15. We show that the expression of JMJ15 was relatively low and was limited to a number of tissues during vegetative growth but was higher in young floral organs. Over-expression of the gene in gain-of-function mutants reduced the plant height with accumulation of lignin in stems, while the loss-of-function mutation did not produce any visible phenotype. The gain-of-function mutants showed enhanced salt tolerance, whereas the loss-of-function mutant was more sensitive to salt compared to the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that over-expression of JMJ15 down-regulated many genes which are preferentially marked by H3K4me3 and H3K4me2. Many of the down-regulated genes encode transcription regulators involved in stress responses. The data suggest that increased JMJ15 levels may regulate the gene expression program that enhances stress tolerance.

  11. Over-expression of an Arabidopsis δ-OAT gene enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liangqi; FAN Zhanmin; GUO Lei; LI Yongqing; ZHANG Wenjing; QU Li-Jia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    δ-OAT, ornithine-δ-aminotransferase, is the key enzyme involved in proline biosynthesis. In this study the Arabidopsisδ-OAT gene was transferred into rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica cv. Zhongzuo 321), whose successful integration was demonstrated by PCR and Southern blot analysis. The over-expression of the gene in transgenic rice was also confirmed. Biochemical analysis showed that, under salt or drought stress conditions, proline contents in the leaves and roots in transgenic rice plants were 5- to 15-fold of those in non-transgenic controls. Under stress conditions, germinating rate of transgenic lines is higher than that of controls. Although the growth of rice plants tested were more and more retarded with the increasing of NaCl concentration, the transgenic plants grow faster compared to the controls under the same stress condition. Meanwhile, the resistance to KCl and MgSO4 stresses was also found enhanced in transgenic rice. Furthermore, the over-expression ofδ-OAT also improved the yield of transgenic plants under stress conditions. The average yield per plant of transgenic lines increases about 12%-41% more than that of control lines under 0.1 mol/L NaCl stress. These data indicated that the over-expression of δ-OAT, with the accumulation of proline, resulted in the enhancement of salt and drought tolerance and an increase of rice yield, which is of significance in agriculture.

  12. Wounding of Arabidopsis halleri leaves enhances cadmium accumulation that acts as a defense against herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Sonia; Weber, Johann; Pajonk, Simone; Thomas, Jérôme; Talke, Ina N; Schellenberg, Maja; Pradervand, Sylvain; Burla, Bo; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico; Krämer, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 0.2% of all angiosperms are classified as metal hyperaccumulators based on their extraordinarily high leaf metal contents, for example >1% zinc, >0.1% nickel or >0.01% cadmium (Cd) in dry biomass. So far, metal hyperaccumulation has been considered to be a taxon-wide, constitutively expressed trait, the extent of which depends solely on available metal concentrations in the soil. Here we show that in the facultative metallophyte Arabidopsis halleri, both insect herbivory and mechanical wounding of leaves trigger an increase specifically in leaf Cd accumulation. Moreover, the Cd concentrations accumulated in leaves can serve as an elemental defense against herbivory by larvae of the Brassicaceae specialist small white (Pieris rapae), thus allowing the plant to take advantage of this non-essential trace element and toxin. Metal homeostasis genes are overrepresented in the systemic transcriptional response of roots to the wounding of leaves in A. halleri, supporting that leaf Cd accumulation is preceded by systemic signaling events. A similar, but quantitatively less pronounced transcriptional response was observed in A. thaliana, suggesting that the systemically regulated modulation of metal homeostasis in response to leaf wounding also occurs in non-hyperaccumulator plants. This is the first report of an environmental stimulus influencing metal hyperaccumulation. PMID:25753945

  13. Electrostatic enhancement of heat transfer in gas-to-gas heat exchangers. Final report, June 1987-March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohadi, M.M.

    1991-06-01

    Basic study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) enhancement of heat transfer in heat exchangers has been the subject of an experimental investigation in the project. The authors efforts over the three-year project time period can be categorized into three consecutive phases. In phase I, EHD heat transfer enhancements and pressure drop characteristics for conventional pipe flows as a function of electric field potential, field polarity and number of electrodes (single or double configurations), and flow regime (Reynolds number ranging from fully laminar to fully turbulent conditions) were studied. Study of heat transfer enhancements and pressure drop characteristics in a shell-and-tube, gas-to-gas heat exchanger were performed in Phase II of the project. To address the applicability of EHD technique under operating conditions of gas-fired equipment, the role of various working fluid properties were studied in Phase III of the project. Specifically, effects of working fluid humidity, temperature, pressure, and impurity level on magnitude and nature of the EHD heat transfer enhancements were studied. A maximum of 322% heat transfer enhancement with only 112% increase in pressure drops was achieved under simultaneous excitation of the tube and shell sides of the heat exchanger in the study. With optimized electric and flow field parameters much higher enhancements can be expected.

  14. F region ion temperature enhancements resulting from Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M. J.; Wand, R. H.

    1983-05-01

    The present investigation has the objective to describe F region ion temperature results obtained near summer solstice by the Chatanika and Millstone Hill radars. The experimental mode was Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Radar Studies (MITHRAS) 1, i.e., a wide latitudinal coverage experiment. Simultaneous Chatanika and Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar measurements for two summer 24-hour periods show significantly greater Joule heating enhancements of ion temperatures in the morning sector for similar magnitudes of ion velocity. The morning/evening auroral zone temperature asymmetry is interpreted to be a consequence of different neutral wind behaviors in the morning and evening. It is inferred that the neutral wind is consistent with global thermospheric models and with more direct wind measurements. In the evening, the neutral wind is nearly aligned with the ion flow because of ion drag. In the morning, the neutral wind is predominantly equatorward.

  15. Urban Heat Islands in China Enhanced by Haze Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C.; Lee, X.; Liu, S.; Oleson, K. W.; Schultz, N. M.; Xiao, W.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land conversion from natural surfaces to artificial urban structures has led to the phenomenon of urban heat island (UHI). The intensity of UHI is thought to be controlled primarily by biophysical factors such as changes in albedo, aerodynamic resistance and evapotranspiration, while influences of biogeochemical factors such as aerosol pollution have long been ignored. We hypothesize that increased downward longwave radiation associated with anthropogenic aerosols in urban air will exacerbate nighttime UHI intensity. Here we tested this hypothesis by using the MODIS satellite land surface temperature product and the Community Land Model (CLM) for 39 cities in China. Our results showed that in contrast to observations in North America and elsewhere, nighttime surface UHI of these Chinese cities (3.34 K) was greater than daytime UHI (2.06 K). Variations in the nighttime UHI among the cities were positively correlated with difference in the aerosol optical depth between urban and the adjacent rural area (confidence level p < 0.01). The CLM was able to reproduce the MODIS UHI intensity in the daytime but underestimated the observed UHI intensity at night. The model performance was improved by including an aerosol-enhanced downward longwave radiation in urban land and a more realistic anthropogenic heat flux. Our study illustrates that although climate background largely determine spatial differences in the daytime UHI, in countries like China with serious air quality problems, aerosol-induced pollution plays an important role in the night-time UHI formation. Mitigation of particulate pollution therefore has the added co-benefit by reducing UHI-related heat stress on urban residents.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement in nanofluids. A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariñas Alvariño, P.; Sáiz Jabardo, J. M.; Arce, A.; Lamas Galdo, M. I.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the reported investigation is to asses the effect of brownian and thermophoretic diffusion in nanofluids convective heat transfer. In order to capture these effects, a new equation for particles distribution had to be consider. Momentum and energy equations have been reformulated in order to include brownian and thermophretic diffusion. These modes of diffusion have been suggested extensively in the literature but their effect on momentum and energy transport has not yet been numerically analyzed. In order to obtain a solution for the modified set of governing equations, a new CFD solver had to be devised. The new solver has been applied to a case study involving hydrodynamic and thermally developing laminar flow regime in a pipe. Pure base fluid solutions have been used to asses the accuracy of the model. Numerical nanofluid solutions compare reasonably well with both experimental results obtained elsewhere and the Churchill and Ozoe correlation. The observed heat transfer enhancement by the nanofluid has been attributed to its transport properties rather than to another transport mechanism.

  17. Decreased abundance of type III secretion system-inducing signals in Arabidopsis mkp1 enhances resistance against Pseudomonas syringae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Wan, Ying; Kim, Young-Mo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Peck, Scott C.

    2014-04-21

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject defense-suppressing effector proteins into host cells. Genes encoding the T3SS are induced at the start of infection, yet host signals that initiate T3SS gene expression are poorly understood. Here we identify several plant-derived metabolites that induce the T3SS in the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. In addition, we report that mkp1 (mapk phosphatase 1), an Arabidopsis mutant that is more resistant to bacterial infection, produces decreased levels of these T3SS-inducing metabolites. Consistent with the observed decrease in these metabolites, T3SS effector delivery by DC3000 was impaired in mkp1. Addition of the bioactive metabolites to the mkp1-DC3000 interaction fully restored T3SS effector delivery and suppressed enhanced resistance in mkp1. Together, these results demonstrate that DC3000 perceives multiple signals derived from plants to initiate their virulence program, and reveal a new layer of molecular communication between plants and these pathogenic bacteria.

  18. WEREWOLF and ENHANCER of GLABRA3 are interdependent regulators of the spatial expression pattern of GLABRA2 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Kee; Kwak, Su-Hwan; Chang, Soo Chul; Schiefelbein, John; Lee, Myeong Min

    2015-11-01

    In multicellular organisms, cell fates are specified through differential regulation of transcription. Epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis thaliana root are precisely specified by several transcription factors, with the GLABRA2 (GL2) homeodomain protein acting at the farthest downstream in this process. To better understand the regulation of GL2 expression, we ectopically expressed WEREWOLF (WER) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) in various tissues and examined GL2 expression. Here we show that WER expressed ubiquitously in the root induced GL2 expression only in the root epidermis, whereas co-expression of WER and EGL3 induced GL2 expression in the corresponding tissues. We also found that GL3 accumulated in the nucleus at the early meristematic region and EGL3 accumulated later in the nucleus of epidermal cells. We further found that ectopic expression of WER and EGL3 in ground tissues inhibited GL2 expression in the epidermis. Our results suggest that the co-expression of WER and EGL3 is sufficient for driving GL2 and CPC expression.

  19. Arabidopsis SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 stabilizes and signals within an ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 complex in plant innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Bart J; Wiermer, Marcel; Bhat, Riyaz A; Moisan, Lisa J; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Neu, Christina; Cabral, Adriana; Parker, Jane E

    2005-09-01

    Plant innate immunity against invasive biotrophic pathogens depends on the intracellular defense regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). We show here that Arabidopsis thaliana EDS1 interacts in vivo with another protein, SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), discovered through a proteomic approach to identify new EDS1 pathway components. Together with PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), a known EDS1 interactor, SAG101 contributes intrinsic and indispensable signaling activity to EDS1-dependent resistance. The combined activities of SAG101 and PAD4 are necessary for programmed cell death triggered by the Toll-Interleukin-1 Receptor type of nucleotide binding/leucine-rich repeat immune receptor in response to avirulent pathogen isolates and in restricting the growth of normally virulent pathogens. We further demonstrate by a combination of cell fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments the existence of an EDS1-SAG101 complex inside the nucleus that is molecularly and spatially distinct from EDS1-PAD4 associations in the nucleus and cytoplasm. By contrast, EDS1 homomeric interactions were detected in the cytoplasm but not inside the nucleus. These data, combined with evidence for coregulation between individual EDS1 complexes, suggest that dynamic interactions of EDS1 and its signaling partners in multiple cell compartments are important for plant defense signal relay.

  20. Advances and Outlooks of Heat Transfer Enhancement by Longitudinal Vortex Generators

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In the last several decades, heat transfer enhancements using extended surface (fins) has received considerable attentions. A new heat transfer enhancement technique, longitudinal vortex generators (LVG), has received significant attention since the 1990s. It is activated by a special type of extended surface that can generate vortices with axes parallel to the main flow direction. The vortices result from strong swirling secondary flow caused by flow separation and friction. The state-of-the-art on research and applications of LVG are described here. The topical coverage includes heat transfer enhancement in straight channels and in heat exchangers. Among the latter are plate and wavy fin-and-tube heat exchangers, fin-and-oval-tube heat exchangers, and fin-and-tube heat exchangers with multiple rows of tubes. The trends and future directions of heat transfer enhancement by means of LVG are discussed.

  1. Enhancement of critical heat flux in tubes using staged tangential flow injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, V. K.

    Experimental studies of the enhancement in single and two phase heat transfer from tubes subjected to tangential flow injection have been continuing. Investigations using water as the test liquid have been focused on: single phase heat transfer coefficients; two phase heat transfer coefficients under subcooled boiling conditions; subcooled critical heat fluxes; and modeling of the enhancement under swirl flow conditions. With tangential injection up to four fold increase in the average heat transfer coefficient has been observed. During subcooled boiling the enhancement is relatively small. However swirl induced centripetal force increases vapor escape velocity and as a result higher critical heat fluxes can be accommodated. In the range of flow parameters studied up to 40% enhancement in critical heat flux has been observed with single stage injection. This enhancement is slightly less than that obtained with Freon-113. The mechanistic reasons for this observation are currently being investigated.

  2. Transport enhancement and efficiency optimization in two heat reservoir ratchets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Chun-Hua; Wang Hua

    2012-01-01

    We study a Brownian motor moving in a sawtooth potential in the presence of an external driving force and two heat reservoirs.Based on the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation,the analytical expressions of the current and efficiency in the quasi-steady-state limit are obtained.The effects of temperature difference and the amplitude of the external driving force on the current and efficiency are discussed,respectively.The following is our findings.(i)The current increases with both δ and A.In other words,δ and A enhance the transport of the Brownian motor.(ii)The competition between the temperature difference and the amplitude of the external driving force can lead to efficiency optimization.The efficiency is a peaked function of temperature,i.e.,δ > 0 and a lower amplitude value of the external driving force is necessary for efficiency optimization.(iii)The efficiency increases with δ,and decreases with A.δ and A play opposite roles with respect to the efficiency,which indicates that δ enhances the efficiency of energy transformation while A weakens it.

  3. Transport enhancement and efficiency optimization in two heat reservoir ratchets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a Brownian motor moving in a sawtooth potential in the presence of an external driving force and two heat reservoirs. Based on the corresponding Fokker—Planck equation, the analytical expressions of the current and efficiency in the quasi-steady-state limit are obtained. The effects of temperature difference and the amplitude of the external driving force on the current and efficiency are discussed, respectively. The following is our findings. (i) The current increases with both δ and A. In other words, δ and A enhance the transport of the Brownian motor. (ii) The competition between the temperature difference and the amplitude of the external driving force can lead to efficiency optimization. The efficiency is a peaked function of temperature, i.e., δ > 0 and a lower amplitude value of the external driving force is necessary for efficiency optimization. (iii) The efficiency increases with δ, and decreases with A. δ and A play opposite roles with respect to the efficiency, which indicates that δ enhances the efficiency of energy transformation while A weakens it. (general)

  4. Experimental Study of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement with R123 under Non Uniform Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations are carried out to study the effect of a non uniform electric field on the boiling heat transfer. The study has found that the heat transfer coefficient increases as the electric field strength increases. Enhanced coefficient decreases with heat flux increases and finally reaches a steady value. When the heat flux is small, high voltage has a better enhancement effect. The Onset of Nucleate Boiling (ONB undergoes a larger increase by applying a high voltage.

  5. Heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop penalty in porous solar heat exchangers: A sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Nusselt number decreases by increasing porous substrate thickness for Da = 10−6. • The minimum pressure drop ratio occurs for low level of porous substrate thickness. • The pressure drop is more sensitive to Reynolds number rather than Nusselt number. • The maximum error between the RSM and CFD results is 3% for Nusselt number. • The maximum error between the RSM and CFD results is 1.37% for pressure drop. - Abstract: Porous materials have a positive effect upon the heat transfer enhancement and a negative impact on pressure drop. Combined convection–radiation heat transfer inside a porous solar heat exchanger with a sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate the effects of porous material on the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop. Reynolds and Darcy numbers and porous substrate thicknesses are selected as the influence parameters. The analysis is carried out by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Also, the input parameters for optimization process are obtained by numerical methods. The computational simulations are done for different Reynolds numbers (1 ⩽ Re ⩽ 100), Darcy number (10−6 ⩽ Da ⩽ 10−2) and dimensionless porous substrate thickness (1/3 ⩽ δ ⩽ 1). It is found that the reductions in pressure drop ratio with increasing Darcy number are in the vicinity of 58% and 23% for δ = 1/3 and 1, respectively and Da = 10−6–10−2. Note that above values are obtained at Re = 100. However, the augmentation in Nusselt number with increasing the porous substrate thicknesses is in the vicinity of 96% for δ = 1/3–1 and Da = 10−2. Also, the maximum errors between the RSM and CFD results are in the vicinity of 3% and 1.37% for the Nusselt number and pressure drop ratio, respectively

  6. The Combined Action of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1, PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4, and SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED101 Promotes Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses to Limit Fusarium graminearum Infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makandar, Ragiba; Nalam, Vamsi J; Chowdhury, Zulkarnain; Sarowar, Sujon; Klossner, Guy; Lee, Hyeonju; Burdan, Dehlia; Trick, Harold N; Gobbato, Enrico; Parker, Jane E; Shah, Jyoti

    2015-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in wheat and other cereals. F. graminearum also causes disease in Arabidopsis thaliana. In both Arabidopsis and wheat, F. graminearum infection is limited by salicylic acid (SA) signaling. Here, we show that, in Arabidopsis, the defense regulator EDS1 (ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1) and its interacting partners, PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) and SAG101 (SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101), promote SA accumulation to curtail F. graminearum infection. Characterization of plants expressing the PAD4 noninteracting eds1(L262P) indicated that interaction between EDS1 and PAD4 is critical for limiting F. graminearum infection. A conserved serine in the predicted acyl hydrolase catalytic triad of PAD4, which is not required for defense against bacterial and oomycete pathogens, is necessary for limiting F. graminearum infection. These results suggest a molecular configuration of PAD4 in Arabidopsis defense against F. graminearum that is different from its defense contribution against other pathogens. We further show that constitutive expression of Arabidopsis PAD4 can enhance FHB resistance in Arabidopsis and wheat. Taken together with previous studies of wheat and Arabidopsis expressing salicylate hydroxylase or the SA-response regulator NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSER OF PR GENES1), our results show that exploring fundamental processes in a model plant provides important leads to manipulating crops for improved disease resistance.

  7. Numerical Heat Transfer Studies of a Latent Heat Storage System Containing Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Hosseinizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer enhancement in the latent heat thermal energy storage system through dispersion of nanoparticle is reported. The resulting nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCM exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity in comparison to the base material. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and some other parameters such as natural convection are studied in terms of solid fraction and the shape of the solid-liquid phase front. It has been found that higher nanoparticle volume fraction result in a larger solid fraction. The present results illustrate that the suspended nanoparticles substantially increase the heat transfer rate and also the nanofluid heat transfer rate increases with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction. The increase of the heat release rate of the NEPCM shows its great potential for diverse thermal energy storage application.

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR and BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 are low-temperature regulators of flavonoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Antonios; Döll, Stefanie; Nichelmann, Lars; Bilger, Wolfgang; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoid synthesis is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level through the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 (MBW) (MYB: transcription factor of the myeloblastosis protein family, WD40: tanscription factor with a short structural motif of 40 amino acids which terminates in an aspartic acid-tryptophan dipeptide) complex, and responds to both environmental and developmental stimuli. Although the developmental regulation of flavonoid accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been examined in great detail, the response of the flavonoid synthesis pathway to abiotic stress (particularly low temperature) remains unclear. A screen of a Dissociation element (Ds) transposon-induced mutation collection identified two lines which exhibited an altered profile of phenylpropanoid accumulation following exposure to low-temperature stress. One of the mutated genes (BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 (BEE1)) encoded a brassinosteroid enhanced expression transcription factor, while the other (G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR (GFR)) encoded a G2-like flavonoid regulator. Phenylpropanoid-targeted analysis was performed using high-performance LC-MS, and gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In both mutants, the accumulation of quercetins and scopolin was reduced under low-temperature growing conditions, whereas that of anthocyanin was increased. BEE1 and GFR were both shown to negatively regulate anthocyanin accumulation by inhibiting anthocyanin synthesis genes via the suppression of the bHLH (TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) and GLABROUS3 (GL3)) and/or the MYB (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS2 (PAP2)) components of the MBW complex. Our results provide new insight into the regulatory control of phenylpropanoid metabolism at low temperatures, and reveal that BEE1 and GFR act as important components of the signal transduction chain. PMID:27125220

  9. The role of EDS1 (enhanced disease susceptibility) during singlet oxygen-mediated stress responses of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenbein, Christian; Przybyla, Dominika; Danon, Antoine; Landgraf, Frank; Göbel, Cornelia; Imboden, André; Feussner, Ivo; Apel, Klaus

    2006-08-01

    Upon a dark/light shift the conditional flu mutant of Arabidopsis starts to generate singlet oxygen (1O2) that is restricted to the plastid compartment. Distinct sets of genes are activated that are different from those induced by hydrogen peroxide/superoxide. One of the genes that is rapidly upregulated is EDS1 (enhanced disease susceptibility). The EDS1 protein has been shown to be required for the resistance to biotrophic pathogens and the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) that enhances the defenses of a plant by inducing the synthesis of pathogen-related (PR) proteins. Because of the similarity of its N-terminal portion to the catalytic site of lipases, EDS1 has also been implicated with the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the subsequent formation of various oxylipins. The release of singlet oxygen in the flu mutant triggers a drastic increase in the concentration of free SA and activates the expression of PR1 and PR5 genes. These changes depend on the activity of EDS1 and are suppressed in flu/eds1 double mutants. Soon after the beginning of singlet oxygen production, the synthesis of oxylipins such as jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) also start and plants stop growing and induce a cell-death response. The inactivation of EDS1 does not affect oxylipin synthesis, growth inhibition and the initiation of cell death, but it does allow plants to recover much faster from singlet oxygen-mediated growth inhibition and it also suppresses the spread of necrotic lesions in leaves. Hence, singlet oxygen activates a complex stress-response program with EDS1 playing a key role in initiating and modulating several steps of it. This program includes not only responses to oxidative stress, but also responses known to be activated during plant-pathogen interactions and wounding.

  10. Identification of Coilin Mutants in a Screen for Enhanced Expression of an Alternatively Spliced GFP Reporter Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Lin, Wen-Dar; Fu, Jason L.; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Yang, Ho-Wen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Matzke, Antonius J. M.; Matzke, Marjori

    2016-01-01

    Coilin is a marker protein for subnuclear organelles known as Cajal bodies, which are sites of various RNA metabolic processes including the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Through self-associations and interactions with other proteins and RNA, coilin provides a structural scaffold for Cajal body formation. However, despite a conspicuous presence in Cajal bodies, most coilin is dispersed in the nucleoplasm and expressed in cell types that lack these organelles. The molecular function of coilin, particularly of the substantial nucleoplasmic fraction, remains uncertain. We identified coilin loss-of-function mutations in a genetic screen for mutants showing either reduced or enhanced expression of an alternatively spliced GFP reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. The coilin mutants feature enhanced GFP fluorescence and diminished Cajal bodies compared with wild-type plants. The amount of GFP protein is several-fold higher in the coilin mutants owing to elevated GFP transcript levels and more efficient splicing to produce a translatable GFP mRNA. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing data from two distinct coilin mutants revealed a small, shared subset of differentially expressed genes, many encoding stress-related proteins, and, unexpectedly, a trend toward increased splicing efficiency. These results suggest that coilin attenuates splicing and modulates transcription of a select group of genes. The transcriptional and splicing changes observed in coilin mutants are not accompanied by gross phenotypic abnormalities or dramatically altered stress responses, supporting a role for coilin in fine tuning gene expression. Our GFP reporter gene provides a sensitive monitor of coilin activity that will facilitate further investigations into the functions of this enigmatic protein. PMID:27317682

  11. Numerical evaluation of laminar heat transfer enhancement in nanofluid flow in coiled square tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasmito Agus; Kurnia Jundika; Mujumdar Arun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Convective heat transfer can be enhanced by changing flow geometry and/or by enhancing thermal conductivity of the fluid. This study proposes simultaneous passive heat transfer enhancement by combining the geometry effect utilizing nanofluids inflow in coils. The two nanofluid suspensions examined in this study are: water-Al2O3 and water-CuO. The flow behavior and heat transfer performance of these nanofluid suspensions in various configurations of coiled square tubes, e.g., conical ...

  12. Enhanced Expression and Activation of the Alternative Oxidase during Infection of Arabidopsis with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Bert H.; Millenaar, F.F.; Mulder, Lonneke; Loon, L.C. van; Lambers, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Cyanide-resistant ("alternative") respiration was studied in Arabidopsis during incompatible and compatible infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Total leaf respiration increased as the leaves became necrotic, as did the cyanideresistant component that was sensitive to salicylhydroxa

  13. NnHSP17.5, a cytosolic class II small heat shock protein gene from Nelumbo nucifera, contributes to seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Li, Yin; Tan, Bin; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-02-01

    In plants, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are unusually abundant and diverse proteins involved in various abiotic stresses, but their functions in seed vigor remain to be fully explored. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a sHSP gene, NnHSP17.5, from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that NnHSP17.5 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of the NnHSP17.5-YFP fusion protein. NnHSP17.5 was specifically expressed in seeds under normal conditions, and was strongly up-regulated in germinating seeds upon heat and oxidative stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopically expressing NnHSP17.5 displayed enhanced seed germination vigor and exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity after accelerated aging treatment. In addition, improved basal thermotolerance was also observed in the transgenic seedlings. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of a plant cytosolic class II sHSP both in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance.

  14. A unique HEAT repeat-containing protein SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 is involved in vacuolar membrane dynamics in gravity-sensing cells of Arabidopsis inflorescence stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Yano, Daisuke; Nagafusa, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takehide; Saito, Chieko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Tasaka, Masao; Terao Morita, Miyo

    2014-04-01

    Plant vacuoles play critical roles in development, growth and stress responses. In mature cells, vacuolar membranes (VMs) display several types of structures, which are formed by invagination and folding of VMs into the lumenal side and can gradually move and change shape. Although such VM structures are observed in a broad range of tissue types and plant species, the molecular mechanism underlying their formation and maintenance remains unclear. Here, we report that a novel HEAT-repeat protein, SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 (SGR6), of Arabidopsis is involved in the control of morphological changes and dynamics of VM structures in endodermal cells, which are the gravity-sensing cells in shoots. SGR6 is a membrane-associated protein that is mainly localized to the VM in stem endodermal cells. The sgr6 mutant stem exhibits a reduced gravitropic response. Higher plants utilize amyloplast sedimentation as a means to sense gravity direction. Amyloplasts are surrounded by VMs in Arabidopsis endodermal cells, and the flexible and dynamic structure of VMs is important for amyloplast sedimentation. We demonstrated that such dynamic features of VMs are gradually lost in sgr6 endodermal cells during a 30 min observation period. Histological analysis revealed that amyloplast sedimentation was impaired in sgr6. Detailed live-cell imaging analyses revealed that the VM structures in sgr6 had severe defects in morphological changes and dynamics. Our results suggest that SGR6 is a novel protein involved in the formation and/or maintenance of invaginated VM structures in gravity-sensing cells.

  15. Arabidopsis HIT4, a regulator involved in heat-triggered reorganization of chromatin and release of transcriptional gene silencing, relocates from chromocenters to the nucleolus in response to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Chin; Wu, Jia-Rong; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Wu, Shaw-Jye

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis HIT4 is known to mediate heat-induced decondensation of chromocenters and release from transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) with no change in the level of DNA methylation. It is unclear whether HIT4 and MOM1, a well-known DNA methylation-independent transcriptional silencer, have overlapping regulatory functions. A hit4-1/mom1 double mutant strain was generated. Its nuclear morphology and TGS state were compared with those of wild-type, hit4-1, and mom1 plants. Fluorescent protein tagging was employed to track the fates of HIT4, hit4-1 and MOM1 in vivo under heat stress. HIT4- and MOM1-mediated TGS were distinguishable. Both HIT4 and MOM1 were localized normally to chromocenters. Under heat stress, HIT4 relocated to the nucleolus, whereas MOM1 dispersed with the chromocenters. hit4-1 was able to relocate to the nucleolus under heat stress, but its relocation was insufficient to trigger the decompaction of chromocenters. The hypersensitivity to heat associated with the impaired reactivation of TGS in hit4-1 was not alleviated by mom1-induced release from TGS. HIT4 delineates a novel and MOM1-independent TGS regulation pathway. The involvement of a currently unidentified component that links HIT4 relocation and the large-scale reorganization of chromatin, and which is essential for heat tolerance in plants is hypothesized.

  16. A study on heat transfer enhancement using straight and twisted internal fin inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijing, Leonard D.; Pak, Bock Choon; Baek, Byung Joon [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeongju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young I. [Drexel Univ., Pennsylvania (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of internal aluminum fins with a star shape cross section on the heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop in a counterflow heat exchanger. A concentric tube heat exchanger was used with water as the working fluid. The heat transfer rate increased by 12-51% over the plain tube value, depending on the internal fin configuration used. However, the pressure drop also increased substantially by an average of 286-338%. The results showed that a straight fin configuration is good enough to produce a heat transfer increase in a counterflow heat exchanger. Twisted fin configurations did not further increase the heat transfer rate.

  17. In planta analysis of a cis-regulatory cytokinin response motif in Arabidopsis and identification of a novel enhancer sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Brenner, Wolfram G; Pfeifer, Andreas; Heyl, Alexander; Schmülling, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The phytohormone cytokinin plays a key role in regulating plant growth and development, and is involved in numerous physiological responses to environmental changes. The type-B response regulators, which regulate the transcription of cytokinin response genes, are a part of the cytokinin signaling system. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 11 type-B response regulators (type-B ARRs), and some of them were shown to bind in vitro to the core cytokinin response motif (CRM) 5'-(A/G)GAT(T/C)-3' or, in the case of ARR1, to an extended motif (ECRM), 5'-AAGAT(T/C)TT-3'. Here we obtained in planta proof for the functionality of the latter motif. Promoter deletion analysis of the primary cytokinin response gene ARR6 showed that a combination of two extended motifs within the promoter is required to mediate the full transcriptional activation by ARR1 and other type-B ARRs. CRMs were found to be over-represented in the vicinity of ECRMs in the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, suggesting their functional relevance. Moreover, an evolutionarily conserved 27 bp long T-rich region between -220 and -193 bp was identified and shown to be required for the full activation by type-B ARRs and the response to cytokinin. This novel enhancer is not bound by the DNA-binding domain of ARR1, indicating that additional proteins might be involved in mediating the transcriptional cytokinin response. Furthermore, genome-wide expression profiling identified genes, among them ARR16, whose induction by cytokinin depends on both ARR1 and other specific type-B ARRs. This together with the ECRM/CRM sequence clustering indicates cooperative action of different type-B ARRs for the activation of particular target genes. PMID:23620480

  18. A synthetic antimicrobial peptide BTD-S expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana confers enhanced resistance to Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Shen, Hao; Wang, Ming; Fan, Kai; Bibi, Noreen; Ni, Mi; Yuan, Shuna; Wang, Xuede

    2016-08-01

    BTD-S is a synthetic non-cyclic θ-defensin derivative which was previously designed in our laboratory based on baboon θ-defensins (BTDs). It shows robust antimicrobial activity against economically important phytopathogen, Verticillium dahliae. Here, we deduced the coding nucleotide sequence of BTD-S and introduced the gene into wild-type (ecotype Columbia-0) Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Results demonstrated that BTD-S-transgenic lines displayed in bioassays inhibitory effects on the growth of V. dahliae in vivo and in vitro. Based on symptom severity, enhanced resistance was found in a survey of BTD-S-transgenic lines. Besides, crude protein extracts from root tissues of BTD-S-transformed plants significantly restricted the growth of fungal hyphae and the germination of conidia. Also, fungal biomass over time determined by real-time PCR demonstrated the overgrowth of V. dahliae in wild-type plants 2-3 weeks after inoculation, while almost no fungal DNA was detected in aerial tissues of their transgenic progenitors. The result suggested that fungus failed to invade and progress acropetally up to establish a systemic infection in BTD-S-transgenic plants. Moreover, the assessment of basal defense responses was performed in the leaves of WT and BTD-S-transgenic plants. The mitigated oxidative stress and low antioxidase level in BTD-S-transgenic plants revealed that BTD-S acts via permeabilizing target microbial membranes, which is in a category different from hypersensitive response-dependent defense. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BTD-S is a promising gene to be explored for transgenic engineering for plant protection against Verticillium wilt.

  19. Electrostatic enhancement of heat transfer in a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. Final report, July 1991-June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohadi, M.M.; Ansari, A.I.

    1992-07-01

    This is the final report on the last phase of a four-year GRI-sponsored experimental effort on heat transfer enhancement in gas-to-gas heat exchangers utilizing the electrostatic (or electrohydrodynamic, EHD) technique. The feasibility of the technique and the role of various controlling parameters for basic pipe flows and in a double-pipe heat exchanger were addressed in the first three phases of the project. In the current, and last, phase the feasibility of the electrostatic technique as a compound heat transfer augmentation methodology and its use in multi-tube heat exchangers was investigated. The compound enhancement experiments were performed on a commercially available finned tube by performing experiments on a micro-finned tube in the presence of electric field. Next, to address some of the practical problems that may be associated with the EHD technique, a multi-tube shell-and-tube heat exchanger was designed, fabricated, and experimentally tested. It is demonstrated that the EHD effect when used in conjunction with a low-fin or enhanced tube can yield additional enhancements to the already enhanced configuration as much as 80% in the present experiments technique.

  20. Different roles of Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1 (EDS1) bound to and dissociated from Phytoalexin Deficient4 (PAD4) in Arabidopsis immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Steffen; Stamm, Anika; Malonek, Stefan; Wagner, Stephan; Becker, Dieter; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Vlot, A Corina; Feys, Bart J; Niefind, Karsten; Parker, Jane E

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1 (EDS1) is an important regulator of plant basal and receptor-triggered immunity. Arabidopsis EDS1 interacts with two related proteins, Phytoalexin Deficient4 (PAD4) and Senescence Associated Gene101 (SAG101), whose combined activities are essential for defense signaling. The different sizes and intracellular distributions of EDS1-PAD4 and EDS1-SAG101 complexes in Arabidopsis leaf tissues suggest that they perform nonredundant functions. • The nature and biological relevance of EDS1 interactions with PAD4 and SAG101 were explored using yeast three-hybrid assays, in vitro analysis of recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli, and characterization of Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing an eds1 mutant (eds1(L262P) ) protein which no longer binds PAD4 but retains interaction with SAG101. • EDS1 forms molecularly distinct complexes with PAD4 or SAG101 without additional plant factors. Loss of interaction with EDS1 reduces PAD4 post-transcriptional accumulation, consistent with the EDS1 physical association stabilizing PAD4. The dissociated forms of EDS1 and PAD4 are fully competent in signaling receptor-triggered localized cell death at infection foci. By contrast, an EDS1-PAD4 complex is necessary for basal resistance involving transcriptional up-regulation of PAD4 itself and mobilization of salicylic acid defenses. • Different EDS1 and PAD4 molecular configurations have distinct and separable functions in the plant innate immune response.

  1. Salicylic acid-independent ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 signaling in Arabidopsis immunity and cell death is regulated by the monooxygenase FMO1 and the Nudix hydrolase NUDT7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michael; Gobbato, Enrico; Bednarek, Pawel; Debey, Svenja; Schultze, Joachim L; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E

    2006-04-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) controls defense activation and programmed cell death conditioned by intracellular Toll-related immune receptors that recognize specific pathogen effectors. EDS1 is also needed for basal resistance to invasive pathogens by restricting the progression of disease. In both responses, EDS1, assisted by its interacting partner, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), regulates accumulation of the phenolic defense molecule salicylic acid (SA) and other as yet unidentified signal intermediates. An Arabidopsis whole genome microarray experiment was designed to identify genes whose expression depends on EDS1 and PAD4, irrespective of local SA accumulation, and potential candidates of an SA-independent branch of EDS1 defense were found. We define two new immune regulators through analysis of corresponding Arabidopsis loss-of-function insertion mutants. FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1) positively regulates the EDS1 pathway, and one member (NUDT7) of a family of cytosolic Nudix hydrolases exerts negative control of EDS1 signaling. Analysis of fmo1 and nudt7 mutants alone or in combination with sid2-1, a mutation that severely depletes pathogen-induced SA production, points to SA-independent functions of FMO1 and NUDT7 in EDS1-conditioned disease resistance and cell death. We find instead that SA antagonizes initiation of cell death and stunting of growth in nudt7 mutants.

  2. Two phases of response to long-term moderate heat: Variation in thermotolerance between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Liu, Peile; Zheng, Guowei; Li, Weiqi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term moderate heat is often experienced by plants and will become even more common in the future due to global warming. However, the responses of plants to this stress have not been characterised. In the present study, growth between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata upon long-term exposure to moderate heat was compared. It was found that the latter was more tolerant than the former, and the patterns of physiological and biochemical responses of both plants presented two phases. The early phase involved no significant visible morphological and physiological changes. It occurred during the first third of the heat treatment and was extended when the stress was attenuated. During the later phase, the plants died or were damaged. Heat shock proteins were dramatically induced at the early phase and gradually decreased at the later phase in A. thaliana. By contrast, the levels were induced and maintained in A. paniculata. Profiling of membrane lipids found that the two plants exhibited opposite patterns of lipid remodelling at the early phase: A. paniculata synthesised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol and showed a rapid decrease in the degree of lipid unsaturation, while A. thaliana degraded its lipids at the early phase and showed an accelerated degradation at the later phase. These biochemical adjustments during the early phase could favor the thermotolerance of A. paniculata. These results suggest that this species could thus be a model for the study of resistance to long-term moderate heat, through a strategy by which plants can adapt to long-term moderate heat. PMID:26782026

  3. Ectopically expressed sweet pepper ferredoxin PFLP enhances disease resistance to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum affected by harpin and protease-mediated hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, Mang-Jye; Louh, Guan-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Feng, Teng-Yung; Huang, Hsiang-En

    2014-12-01

    Plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) is a photosynthesis-type ferredoxin (Fd) found in sweet pepper. It contains an iron-sulphur cluster that receives and delivers electrons between enzymes involved in many fundamental metabolic processes. It has been demonstrated that transgenic plants overexpressing PFLP show a high resistance to many bacterial pathogens, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this investigation, the PFLP gene was transferred into Arabidopsis and its defective derivatives, such as npr1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1) and eds1 (enhanced disease susceptibility 1) mutants and NAHG-transgenic plants. These transgenic plants were then infected with the soft-rot bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora, ECC) to investigate the mechanism behind PFLP-mediated resistance. The results revealed that, instead of showing soft-rot symptoms, ECC activated hypersensitive response (HR)-associated events, such as the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), electrical conductivity leakage and expression of the HR marker genes (ATHSR2 and ATHSR3) in PFLP-transgenic Arabidopsis. This PFLP-mediated resistance could be abolished by inhibitors, such as diphenylene iodonium (DPI), 1-l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)-butane (E64) and benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), but not by myriocin and fumonisin. The PFLP-transgenic plants were resistant to ECC, but not to its harpin mutant strain ECCAC5082. In the npr1 mutant and NAHG-transgenic Arabidopsis, but not in the eds1 mutant, overexpression of the PFLP gene increased resistance to ECC. Based on these results, we suggest that transgenic Arabidopsis contains high levels of ectopic PFLP; this may lead to the recognition of the harpin and to the activation of the HR and other resistance mechanisms, and is dependent on the protease-mediated pathway.

  4. Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of Heat Shock Factor HSF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana%拟南芥热激因子HSF1的表达与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽红; 王定康; 袁燕; 刘开庆; 陈雪; 陈善娜

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to express and purify Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock factor HSF1. [Method] Using Escherichia coli M15 harboring HSF1 (pQE32/His6-HSF1, pREP4) as experimental materials, HSF1 was induced to express with isopropy1-β-D-galactoside (IPTG); then the expression product was purified using Ni-NTA-agarose affinity chromatography and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. [Result] HSF1 of Arabidopsis thaliana was successfully expressed and purified. [Conclusion] This study provides materials for understanding the blinding site of HSF1 on Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome, further laying a good foundation for revealing the regulatory mechanism and physiological function of HSF1.

  5. Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement by Liquid Film on the Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunlinXia

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by liquid film on the channel walls has been investigated in laminar mixed convective flow.The temperature distribution,velocity and mass fraction distributions,and the effects of the wetted wall temperatures and the Reynolds number on the momentum,heat and mass transfer were examined in details.Results show that the liquid film can enhance heat transfer along the wetted walls by 5-10 times.

  6. Ribosomal P3 protein AtP3B of Arabidopsis acts as both protein and RNA chaperone to increase tolerance of heat and cold stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Joung Hun; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Oh, Hun Taek; Kim, Min Gab; Lee, Soo In; Kim, Woe Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-07-01

    The P3 proteins are plant-specific ribosomal P-proteins; however, their molecular functions have not been characterized. In a screen for components of heat-stable high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes, we isolated the P3 protein AtP3B from heat-treated Arabidopsis suspension cultures. By size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), SDS-PAGE and native PAGE followed by immunoblotting with anti-AtP3B antibody, we showed that AtP3B was stably retained in HMW complexes following heat shock. The level of AtP3B mRNA increased in response to both high- and low-temperature stresses. Bacterially expressed recombinant AtP3B protein exhibited both protein and RNA chaperone activities. Knockdown of AtP3B by RNAi made plants sensitive to both high- and low-temperature stresses, whereas overexpression of AtP3B increased tolerance of both conditions. Together, our results suggest that AtP3B protects cells against both high- and low-temperature stresses. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular functions and in vivo roles of acidic ribosomal P-proteins, thereby expanding our knowledge of the protein production machinery. PMID:27004478

  7. Heat transfer enhancement with mixing vane spacers using the field synergy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixin; Zhou, Mengjun; Tian, Zihao

    2016-08-01

    The single-phase heat transfer characteristics in a PWR fuel assembly are important. Many investigations attempt to obtain the heat transfer characteristics by studying the flow features in a 5´5 rod bundle with a spacer grid. The field synergy principle is used to discuss the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement using mixing vanes according to computational fluid dynamics results, including a spacer grid without mixing vanes, one with a split mixing vane, and one with a separate mixing vane. The results show that the field synergy principle is feasible to explain the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement in a fuel assembly. The enhancement in subchannels is more effective than on the rod's surface. If the pressure loss is ignored, the performance of the split mixing vane is superior to the separate mixing vane based on the enhanced heat transfer. Increasing the blending angle of the split mixing vane improves heat transfer enhancement, the maximum of which is 7.1%. Increasing the blending angle of the separate mixing vane did not significantly enhance heat transfer in the rod bundle, and even prevented heat transfer at a blending angle of 50°. This finding testifies to the feasibility of predicting heat transfer in a rod bundle with a spacer grid by field synergy, and upon comparison with analyzed flow features only, the field synergy method may provide more accurate guidance for optimizing the use of mixing vanes.

  8. Possibility to enhance teraherz emission from intrinsic Josephson junction by external local heating

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Hidehiro; Kawabata, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically propose a practical method for realizing intense terahertz (THz) emission from intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) using an external heat source. An artificial inhomogeneous temperature distribution by the local heating strongly excites the Josephson plasma wave inside IJJs and enhances THz emission power. We show optimum heating conditions for achieving high power THz emission. Our result indicates that local heat control is a powerful method to realize practical solid-stat...

  9. Analysis of an Arabidopsis heat-sensitive mutant reveals that chlorophyll synthase is involved in reutilization of chlorophyllide during chlorophyll turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Pin; Lee, Tsung-yuan; Tanaka, Ayumi; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-10-01

    Chlorophylls, the most abundant pigments in the photosynthetic apparatus, are constantly turned over as a result of the degradation and replacement of the damage-prone reaction center D1 protein of photosystem II. Results from isotope labeling experiments suggest that chlorophylls are recycled by reutilization of chlorophyllide and phytol, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, by characterization of a heat-sensitive Arabidopsis mutant we provide evidence of a salvage pathway for chlorophyllide a. A missense mutation in CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLG) was identified and confirmed to be responsible for a light-dependent, heat-induced cotyledon bleaching phenotype. Following heat treatment, mutant (chlg-1) but not wild-type seedlings accumulated a substantial level of chlorophyllide a, which resulted in a surge of phototoxic singlet oxygen. Immunoblot analysis suggested that the mutation destabilized the chlorophyll synthase proteins and caused a conditional blockage of esterification of chlorophyllide a after heat stress. Accumulation of chlorophyllide a after heat treatment occurred during recovery in the dark in the light-grown but not the etiolated seedlings, suggesting that the accumulated chlorophyllides were not derived from de novo biosynthesis but from de-esterification of the existing chlorophylls. Further analysis of the triple mutant harboring the CHLG mutant allele and null mutations of CHLOROPHYLLASE1 (CLH1) and CLH2 indicated that the known chlorophyllases are not responsible for the accumulation of chlorophyllide a in chlg-1. Taken together, our results show that chlorophyll synthase acts in a salvage pathway for chlorophyll biosynthesis by re-esterifying the chlorophyllide a produced during chlorophyll turnover.

  10. Environmental History Modulates Arabidopsis Pattern-Triggered Immunity in a HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Yekondi, Shweta; Chen, Po-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Yu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Keqiang; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2014-06-24

    In nature, plants are exposed to a fluctuating environment, and individuals exposed to contrasting environmental factors develop different environmental histories. Whether different environmental histories alter plant responses to a current stress remains elusive. Here, we show that environmental history modulates the plant response to microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to repetitive heat, cold, or salt stress were more resistant to virulent bacteria than Arabidopsis grown in a more stable environment. By contrast, long-term exposure to heat, cold, or exposure to high concentrations of NaCl did not provide enhanced protection against bacteria. Enhanced resistance occurred with priming of Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes and the potentiation of PTI-mediated callose deposition. In repetitively stress-challenged Arabidopsis, PTI-responsive genes showed enrichment for epigenetic marks associated with transcriptional activation. Upon bacterial infection, enrichment of RNA polymerase II at primed PTI marker genes was observed in environmentally challenged Arabidopsis. Finally, repetitively stress-challenged histone acetyltransferase1-1 (hac1-1) mutants failed to demonstrate enhanced resistance to bacteria, priming of PTI, and increased open chromatin states. These findings reveal that environmental history shapes the plant response to bacteria through the development of a HAC1-dependent epigenetic mark characteristic of a primed PTI response, demonstrating a mechanistic link between the primed state in plants and epigenetics.

  11. Enhancing heat tolerance of the little dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with introduction of a superoxide reductase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin eGeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  12. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  13. New Sensor Concepts for Enhancing Heat Treatment Processes and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay I. Frankel

    2004-01-01

    The need for developing accurate quenching models requires an extensive experimental database that includes surface heat flux characterization. Quantification of the quenching process permits i) the development of high-quality heat treated products, ii) the evaluation of new quenchants and quenchant systems, and iii) the evaluation of quenchant quality over usage time. The surface heat transfer coefficient (or heat flux) is rarely measured, calculated or modeled in sufficient detail for real scientific use. Many single-thermocouple based probes are designed for the purpose of measuring the cooling power of a liquid quenchant or for monitoring quenchant quality. Lumped based probes are sufficient for these types of applications. However, the lack of sufficient distributed detail impedes the development of future high-quality heat-treated products. Frankel and his coworkers are developing a new family of transient thermal-rate sensors that will improve both diagnostic and real-time analyzes in heat transfer studies. Analyzes have been performed indicating that there exists a novel,thermal-rate sensor hierarchy that stabilizes predictions when used with analysis. This concept can be used for investigating both (i) direct surface heat transfer effects, and (ii) projective surface analysis based on embedded sensors. This new sensor family includes the ability to measure temperature, T; heat flux, q"; and their temporal derivatives, i.e., dT/dt, d2T/dt2 and dq"/dt.

  14. Heat transfer enhancement for single phase forced convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Martin

    Goals for heat exchanger design are outlined and performance evaluation criteria are discussed. The flow geometries in heat exchangers, which can be classified as channel or tube flow, are described. The use of finned plates or tubes for channel flow and internally finned tubes or wire coil and twisted tape inserts for tube flow are considered.

  15. Enhanced heat flow in the hydrodynamic collisionless regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, R; van Rooij, R.; Vogels, J.M.; van der Straten, P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the heat conduction of a cold, thermal cloud in a highly asymmetric trap. The cloud is axially hydrodynamic, but due to the asymmetric trap radially collisionless. By locally heating the cloud we excite a thermal dipole mode and measure its oscillation frequency and damping rate. We find an

  16. Heat transfer between immiscible liquids enhanced by gas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, G. A.; Schwarz, C. E.; Klages, J.; Klein, J.

    1982-08-01

    The phenomena of core-concrete interactions impact upon containment integrity of light water reactors (LWR) following postulated complete meltdown of the core by containment pressurization, production of combustible gases, and basemat penetration. Experiments were performed with nonreactor materials to investigate one aspect of this problem, heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquids whose interface is disturbed by a transverse non-condensable gas flux emanating from below. Hydrodynamic studies were performed to test a criterion for onset of entrainment due to bubbling through the interface and subsequent heat transfer studies were performed to assess the effect of bubbling on interfacial heat transfer rates, both with and without bubble induced entrainment. Non entraining interfacial heat transfer data with mercury-water/oil fluid pairs were observed to be bounded from below within a factor of two to three by the Szekeley surface renewal heat transfer model.

  17. Downregulation of CSD2 by a heat-inducible miR398 is required for thermotolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Guan, Qingmei; Zhu, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant growth and development and abiotic stress responses. We report here that heat stress rapidly induces miR398 and reduces transcript of its target gene CSD2. Transgenic plants overexpressing the miR398-resistant form of CSD2 are more sensitive to heat stress than transgenic plants overexpressing normal coding sequence of CSD2. Expression of heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) is reduced in the heat-sensitive tr...

  18. HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT USING LOW VOLUME CONCENTRATIONS OF Fe3O4 NANOFLUID IN CIRCULAR PIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHRAMARA PANITAPU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are emerging as one of the effective means of enhancing the heat transfer compared to the conventional heat transfer fluids due enhancement of thermophysical properties of base fluids due to addition of nanosized particles. Numerical experiments were conducted for heat transfer inside a circular pipe subjected to constant heat flux with water as base fluid. Heat transfer enhancement was studied by adding low volume concentrations, viz., 0.1 to 0.6 % of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles of particle size 36 nm in water. The numerical analysis of nanofluid was performed using the single phase approach for the Reynold Number of the flow ranging from 2500 – 22000. The results show that better enhancement was observed at higher Re and at higher volume fractions. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data available in the literature.

  19. Heat stress enhances LTM formation in Lymnaea: role of HSPs and DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Riaz, Hamza; de Freitas, Emily; Lukowiak, Kai; Swinton, Cayley; Swinton, Erin; Protheroe, Amy; Shymansky, Tamila; Komatsuzaki, Yoshimasa; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-05-01

    Environmentally relevant stressors alter the memory-forming process in Lymnaea following operant conditioning of aerial respiration. One such stressor is heat. Previously, we found that following a 1 h heat shock, long-term memory (LTM) formation was enhanced. We also had shown that the heat stressor activates at least two heat shock proteins (HSPs): HSP40 and HSP70. Here, we tested two hypotheses: (1) the production of HSPs is necessary for enhanced LTM formation; and (2) blocking DNA methylation prevents the heat stressor-induced enhancement of LTM formation. We show here that the enhancing effect of the heat stressor on LTM formation occurs even if snails experienced the stressor 3 days previously. We further show that a flavonoid, quercetin, which inhibits HSP activation, blocks the enhancing effect of the heat stressor on LTM formation. Finally, we show that injection of a DNA methylation blocker, 5-AZA, before snails experience the heat stressor prevents enhancement of memory formation. PMID:27208033

  20. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Heated Tube Caused by Wire-Coil and Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Vahidifar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates heat transfer characteristics and the pressure drop of a horizontal double pipe heat exchanger with wire coil inserts. The amplification of convection heat transfer coefficient in the heat exchanger reduces the weight, size and cost of heat exchanger. One way of augmenting the heat transfer is to disturb the boundary layer. When an object is placed in a boundary layer, it affects the flow structure and alters the velocity and thermal profiles. The change is affected by the formation of jets and wakes in the boundary layer as it alters modifies transfer and friction coefficients on the wall. This paper studies the characteristics of the heat transfer and the pressure drop of a double pipe horizontal tube heat exchanger with an inserted wire coil and rings. Wire coil acts as a swirl flow, which increases turbulence and roughness whereas rings increase heat transfer as a promoter of turbulence and roughness. The experimental data sets were extracted from wire coils and rings tested within a geometrical range with a pitch of (P/D=1, 2, 4 and wire diameter of (d/D=0.05, 0.07, 0.11. For wire coil with d/D=0.11, P/D =1 and Reynolds number of 10000, the overall enhancement efficiency amounted to 128%.

  1. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. J.; Thakur, D. B.; Van der Meer, T. H.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon nano structures is achieved using thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition process (TCCVD) on a 50 μm pure nickel (Ni270) wire. The micro wire samples covered with CNF layers were subjected to a uniform flow from a nozzle. Heat transfer measurement was achieved by a controlled heat dissipation through the micro wire to attain a constant temperature during the flow. This measurement technique is adopted from hot wire anemometry calibration method. Synthesis of carbon nano structures, heat transfer surface characterization and measurement technique are evaluated. Preliminary results indicate that an average enhancement in Nusselt Number of 17% is achieved.

  2. Effect of the magnetic field direction on forced convection heat transfer enhancements in ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherief, Wahid; Avenas, Yvan; Ferrouillat, Sébastien; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Jossic, Laurent; Berard, Jean; Petit, Mickael

    2015-07-01

    Applying a magnetic field on a ferrofluid flow induces a large increase of the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper, the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of two commercial ferrofluids are compared. The variations of both the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficient due to the magnetic field are measured in the following conditions: square duct, laminar flow and uniform wall heat flux. The square section with two insulated walls allows for the characterization of the effect of the magnetic field direction. The experimental results show that the heat transfer is better enhanced when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the heat flux. In the best case, the local heat transfer coefficient increase is about 75%. On the contrary, another experimental setup shows no enhancement of thermal conductivity when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the heat flux. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  3. Investigation of Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer from Porous Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinZhiping; MaTongze; 等

    1994-01-01

    Experimental investigations of boiling heat transfer from porous surfaces at atmospheric pressure were performne.The porous surfaces are plain tubes coverd with metal screens.V-shaped groove tubes covered with screens,plain tubes sintered with screens.and V-shaped groove tubes sintered with screens,The experimental results show that sintering metal screens around spiral V-shaped groove tubes can greatly improve the boiling heat transfer,The boiling hystesis was observed in the experiment.This paper discusses the mechanism of the boiling heat transfer from those kinds of porous surfaces stated above.

  4. Overexpression of GmHsp90s, a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 gene family cloning from soybean, decrease damage of abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Xu

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is one of the most conserved and abundant molecular chaperones and is an essential component of the protective stress response; however, its roles in abiotic stress responses in soybean (Glycine max remain obscure. Here, 12 GmHsp90 genes from soybean were identified and found to be expressed and to function differentially under abiotic stresses. The 12 GmHsp90 genes were isolated and named GmHsp90A1-GmHsp90A6, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90B2, GmHsp90C1.1, GmHsp90C1.2, GmHsp90C2.1 and GmHsp90C2.2 based on their characteristics and high homology to other Hsp90s according to a new nomenclature system. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that all the genes exhibited higher transcript levels in leaves and could be strongly induced under heat, osmotic and salt stress but not cold stress. Overexpression of five typical genes (GmHsp90A2, GmHsp90A4, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90C1.1 and GmHsp90C2.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana provided useful evidences that GmHsp90 genes can decrease damage of abiotic stresses. In addition, an abnormal accumulation of proline was detected in some transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggested overexpressing GmHsp90s may affect the synthesis and response system of proline. Our work represents a systematic determination of soybean genes encoding Hsp90s, and provides useful evidence that GmHsp90 genes function differently in response to abiotic stresses and may affect the synthesis and response system of proline.

  5. Antagonistic regulation of growth and immunity by the Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor homolog of brassinosteroid enhanced expression2 interacting with increased leaf inclination1 binding bHLH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Batoux, Martine; Schwessinger, Benjamin;

    2014-01-01

    mechanisms is needed. Here, we identify the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor homolog of brassinosteroid enhanced expression2 interacting with IBH1 (HBI1) as a negative regulator of PTI signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). HBI1 expression is down-regulated in response...... to different PAMPs. HBI1 overexpression leads to reduced PAMP-triggered responses. This inhibition correlates with reduced steady-state expression of immune marker genes, leading to increased susceptibility to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. Overexpression of the HBI1-related bHLHs brassinosteroid enhanced...

  6. Enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes by acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chensha Li; Baoyou Zhang; Xingjuan Chen; Xiaoqing Hu; Ji Liang

    2005-01-01

    Three approaches of treating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment at high temperature were studied to enhance the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. High temperature heat-treatment elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. Acid treatment removes parts of amorphous carbonaceous matter through its oxidization effect.Air oxidization disperses carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbonaceous matter. The treatment of combining acid treatment with heat-treatment further elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes comparing with acid treatment or heat-treatment. The combination of the three treatments creates the thorough effects of enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes.

  7. BROWNIAN HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN THE TURBULENT REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandrasekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents convection heat transfer of a turbulent flow Al2O3/water nanofluid in a circular duct. The duct is a under constant and uniform heat flux. The paper computationally investigates the system’s thermal behavior in a wide range of Reynolds number and also volume concentration up to 6%. To obtain the nanofluid thermophysical properties, the Hamilton-Crosser model along with the Brownian motion effect are utilized. Then the thermal performance of the system with the nanofluid is compared to the conventional systems which use water as the working fluid. The results indicate that the use of nanofluid of 6% improves the heat transfer rate up to 36.8% with respect to pure water. Therefore, using the Al2O3/water nanofluid instead of water can be a great choice when better heat transfer is needed.

  8. Molecular characterization of the cold- and heat-induced Arabidopsis PXL1 gene and its potential role in transduction pathways under temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Gyo; Hwang, Sun-Goo; Park, Yong Chan; Park, Hyeon Mi; Kim, Dong Sub; Park, Duck Hwan; Jang, Cheol Seong

    2015-03-15

    LRR-RLK (Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase) proteins are believed to play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication during various cellular processes including development, hormone perception, and abiotic stress responses. We isolated an LRR-RLK gene previously named Arabidopsis PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM-LIKE 1 (AtPXL1) and examined its expression patterns. AtPXL1 was highly induced by cold and heat stress, but not by drought. The fluorescence signal of 35S::AtPXL1-EGFP was closely localized to the plasma membrane. A yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay exhibited that AtPXL1 interacts with both proteins, A. thaliana histidine-rich dehydrin1 (AtHIRD1) and A. thaliana light-harvesting protein complex I (AtLHCA1). We found that AtPXL1 possesses autophosphorylation activity and phosphorylates AtHIRD1 and AtLHCA1 in an in vitro assay. Subsequently, we found that the knockout line (atpxl1) showed hypersensitive phenotypes when subjected to cold and heat during the germination stage, while the AtPXL1 overexpressing line as well as wild type plants showed high germination rates compared to the knockout plants. These results provide an insight into the molecular function of AtPXL1 in the regulation of signal transduction pathways under temperature fluctuations.

  9. An innovative plate heat exchanger of enhanced compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of CEA R&D program to develop the Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID), the present work aims to demonstrate the industrial interest of an innovative compact heat exchanger technology. In fact, one of the main innovations of the ASTRID reactor could be the use of a Brayton Gas-power conversion system, in order to avoid the energetic sodium–water interaction that might occur if a traditional Rankine cycle was used. The present work aims to study the thermal-hydraulic performance of the innovative compact heat exchanger concept. Hence, thanks to a trustful numerical model, friction factor and heat transfer correlations are obtained. Then, a global compactness comparison strategy is proposed, taking into account design constraints. Finally, it is demonstrated that the innovative heat exchanger concept is more compact then other already industrial technologies of interest, showing that is can be considered to warrant serious consideration for future ASTRID design as well as for any industrial application that needs very compact heat exchanger technologies. - Highlights: • We propose a new innovative compact heat exchanger technology. • We provide thermal-hydraulic correlations for designers. • We provide a comparison strategy with existing technologies. • We demonstrate the industrial interest of the innovative concept

  10. A general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG SongPing; CHEN QingLin; ZHANG BingJian; HUA Ben

    2009-01-01

    The main methods of single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement are analyzed in this paper,and the unity of contradiction between heat transfer enhancement and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)is expounded.The thermodynamic relationship between heat(or exergy)transfer efficiency and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)as well as driving forces is established,and a general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement is further obtained.The principle shows that temperature gradient field distribution and velocity field distribution constrain each other,and that the optimum heat transfer efficiency can be obtained when they are synergetic.If the level of the synergy of temperature gradient field distribution with velocity field distribution is determined,the relative uniform temperature gradient is required,and vice versa.The principle also shows the relationship of relative temperature gradient with specific heat and coefficient of heat conductivity.The deduced results can be used as a theoretical guidance for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement and optimum design of heat exchangers.

  11. A general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The main methods of single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement are analyzed in this paper, and the unity of contradiction between heat transfer enhancement and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)is expounded.The thermodynamic relationship between heat(or exergy)transfer efficiency and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)as well as driving forces is established,and a general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement is further obtained. The principle shows that temperature gradient field distribution and velocity field distribution constrain each other,and that the optimum heat transfer efficiency can be obtained when they are synergetic.If the level of the synergy of temperature gradient field distribution with velocity field distribution is determined,the relative uniform temperature gradient is required,and vice versa.The principle also shows the relationship of relative temperature gradient with specific heat and coefficient of heat conductivity.The deduced results can be used as a theoretical guidance for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement and optimum design of heat exchangers.

  12. Titania doped triaxial porcelain: Enhancement of strength by controlled heat treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunipa Bhattacharyya; Swapan Kumar Das; Kausik Dana; Nirendra Krishna Mitra

    2007-06-01

    Titania doped vitrified triaxial porcelain samples were subjected to controlled heat treatment at different temperatures of 600, 800 and 1000°C with a specific heating schedule. The results revealed that flexural strength of 800°C heat treated sample was significantly enhanced to 60 MPa from its original value of 40 MPa. XRD pattern revealed the formation of mullite in the system both before and after heat treatment and the differences in their growth was ascertained through SEM analysis. The present heat treatment process may be useful to produce high strength porcelain body from a common triaxial system.

  13. New ceramic heat exchangers with enhanced heat transfer properties for recuperative gas burners

    OpenAIRE

    Fino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Heat recovery from waste gas is a major key process for increasing efficiency of thermal processes. The aim of the present work is to increase heat transfer coeffi cients of ceramic heat exchangers of recuperative burners using highly structured surface elements created from a textile precursor. The paper describes the chosen geometries and their thermal behavior, the ceramization process and the preliminary design of the new recuperative burners

  14. A maize calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, ZmCPK4, positively regulated abscisic acid signaling and enhanced drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Kong, Xiangpei; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dequan

    2013-10-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play essential roles in calcium-mediated signal transductions in plant response to abiotic stress. Several members have been identified to be regulators for plants response to abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we isolated a subgroup I CDPK gene, ZmCPK4, from maize. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the ZmCPK4 transcripts were induced by various stresses and signal molecules. Transient and stable expression of the ZmCPK4-GFP fusion proteins revealed ZmCPK4 localized to the membrane. Moreover, overexpression of ZmCPK4 in the transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced ABA sensitivity in seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal movement. The transgenic plants also enhanced drought stress tolerance. Taken together, the results suggest that ZmCPK4 might be involved in ABA-mediated regulation of stomatal closure in response to drought stress. PMID:23911729

  15. Mild heat stress enhances differentiation and proliferation of Japanese quail myoblasts and enhances slow muscle fiber characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y M; Chen, P R; Shin, S; Zhang, J; Hwang, S; Lee, K

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mild heat stress on muscle fiber hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in quail primary myogenic cells to better understand the mechanisms leading to increased skeletal muscle development in avian embryos incubated at a higher temperature. Compared to control cultures maintained at 37°C, incubation at 39°C enhanced myotube length (P fusion index (56.7 vs. 46.2%, P heat stress compared to the control cells. On the other hand, mild heat stress enhanced protein levels of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (P heat stress plays a significant role in myogenic mechanisms related to muscle mass and development.

  16. Lesion simulating disease1, enhanced disease susceptibility1, and phytoalexin deficient4 conditionally regulate cellular signaling homeostasis, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and seed yield in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wituszynska, Weronika; Slesak, Ireneusz; Vanderauwera, Sandy; Szechynska-Hebda, Magdalena; Kornas, Andrzej; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Mühlenbock, Per; Karpinska, Barbara; Mackowski, Sebastian; Van Breusegem, Frank; Karpinski, Stanislaw

    2013-04-01

    There is growing evidence that for a comprehensive insight into the function of plant genes, it is crucial to assess their functionalities under a wide range of conditions. In this study, we examined the role of lesion simulating disease1 (LSD1), enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1), and phytoalexin deficient4 (PAD4) in the regulation of photosynthesis, water use efficiency, reactive oxygen species/hormonal homeostasis, and seed yield in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) grown in the laboratory and in the field. We demonstrate that the LSD1 null mutant (lsd1), which is known to exhibit a runaway cell death in nonpermissive conditions, proves to be more tolerant to combined drought and high-light stress than the wild type. Moreover, depending on growing conditions, it shows variations in water use efficiency, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, photosystem II maximum efficiency, and transcription profiles. However, despite these changes, lsd1 demonstrates similar seed yield under all tested conditions. All of these traits depend on EDS1 and PAD4. The differences in the pathways prevailing in the lsd1 in various growing environments are manifested by the significantly smaller number of transcripts deregulated in the field compared with the laboratory, with only 43 commonly regulated genes. Our data indicate that LSD1, EDS1, and PAD4 participate in the regulation of various molecular and physiological processes that influence Arabidopsis fitness. On the basis of these results, we emphasize that the function of such important regulators as LSD1, EDS1, and PAD4 should be studied not only under stable laboratory conditions, but also in the environment abounding in multiple stresses.

  17. Water Deficit Enhances C Export to the Roots in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Contribution of Sucrose Transporters in Both Shoot and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Mickaël; Porcheron, Benoît; Hennion, Nils; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Root high plasticity is an adaptation to its changing environment. Water deficit impairs growth, leading to sugar accumulation in leaves, part of which could be available to roots via sucrose (Suc) phloem transport. Phloem loading is widely described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while unloading in roots is less understood. To gain information on leaf-to-root transport, a soil-based culture system was developed to monitor root system architecture in two dimensions. Under water deficit (50% of soil water-holding capacity), total root length was strongly reduced but the depth of root foraging and the shape of the root system were less affected, likely to improve water uptake. (14)CO2 pulse-chase experiments confirmed that water deficit enhanced carbon (C) export to the roots, as suggested by the increased root-to-shoot ratio. The transcript levels of AtSWEET11 (for sugar will eventually be exported transporter), AtSWEET12, and AtSUC2 (for Suc carrier) genes, all three involved in Suc phloem loading, were significantly up-regulated in leaves of water deficit plants, in accordance with the increase in C export from the leaves to the roots. Interestingly, the transcript levels of AtSUC2 and AtSWEET11 to AtSWEET15 were also significantly higher in stressed roots, underlying the importance of Suc apoplastic unloading in Arabidopsis roots and a putative role for these Suc transporters in Suc unloading. These data demonstrate that, during water deficit, plants respond to growth limitation by allocating relatively more C to the roots to maintain an efficient root system and that a subset of Suc transporters is potentially involved in the flux of C to and in the roots. PMID:26802041

  18. Enhanced Heat Exchanger with Offset Spine Fin Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kempiak, Michael; Junge, Brent

    2014-01-01

    An Offset Spine Fin Spine (segmented) fin coils have been used in certain applications as a result of their effective use of coil material. One can improve coil heat transfer performance by adding more fins per inch (FPI). This comes at the expense of air side pressure drop, which requires more fan energy to achieve the same air flow. When this type of fin is used in an evaporator, there is a secondary penalty associated with the fan heat that must be removed by the refrigeration system. Also...

  19. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E.

    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re=200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re=1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re=350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties also

  20. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re = 200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36 m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re = 350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties

  1. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part 3 - convective condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Chin, W.M.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Sdn. Bhd., Research and Application Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-08-15

    Two novel enhanced tubes, viz. Turbo-C with three dimensional surface corrugations and EXTEK with helical flutes, are evaluated in the present work. They are chosen for study because of their versatility for use in condensation as well as evaporation in a double tube heat exchanger assembly, typically as used in water source heat pumps. Average and local values of heat transfer coefficient and two-phase pressure drop are reported. (orig.)

  2. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer in Adsorbent Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuZhenyan; FuZhumantffu

    1994-01-01

    Some interrelated parameters of heat and mass transfer in two phases of pressure rise and constant pressure are obtained by studying the desorption processes of two kinds of cylindrical adsorbent beds.with fins and without fins.Moreover,the effects of equivalent thermal conductivity of adsorbent beds,contact thermal transfer coefficient,heat transfer of fins,condensation temperature,uncondensable gas in the adsorber are analyzed.finally,enhancement of heat and mass transfer has been attained.

  3. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENHANCED TUBES IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the heat transfer performance of pure hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea for high performance enhanced tubes which had not been previously used in Navy shipboard chillers. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient data are presented for condensa...

  4. Enhancement of heat transfer coefficient multi-metallic nanofluid with ANFIS modeling for thermophysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balla Hyder H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu and Zn-water nanofluid is a suspension of the Cu and Zn nanoparticles with the size 50 nm in the water base fluid for different volume fractions to enhance its Thermophysical properties. The determination and measuring the enhancement of Thermophysical properties depends on many limitations. Nanoparticles were suspended in a base fluid to prepare a nanofluid. A coated transient hot wire apparatus was calibrated after the building of the all systems. The vibro-viscometer was used to measure the dynamic viscosity. The measured dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity with all parameters affected on the measurements such as base fluids thermal conductivity, volume factions, and the temperatures of the base fluid were used as input to the Artificial Neural Fuzzy inference system to modeling both dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. Then, the ANFIS modeling equations were used to calculate the enhancement in heat transfer coefficient using CFD software. The heat transfer coefficient was determined for flowing flow in a circular pipe at constant heat flux. It was found that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid was highly affected by the volume fraction of nanoparticles. A comparison of the thermal conductivity ratio for different volume fractions was undertaken. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid was found to be higher than its base fluid. Comparisons of convective heat transfer coefficients for Cu and Zn nanofluids with the other correlation for the nanofluids heat transfer enhancement are presented. Moreover, the flow demonstrates anomalous enhancement in heat transfer nanofluids.

  5. Enhancing heat transfer and crud mitigation in PWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses three methods for increasing single phase heat transfer in PWR fuel. The primary effect of increasing heat transfer is a reduction in the steaming rate from the fuel rods, which in turn reduces the likelihood of crud formation on the fuel rods and the potential for adsorption of boron into the crud. The advantage of lowering boron mass on the fuel is reduced risk of Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA). Another benefit of reduced crud formation is a lower risk of localized corrosion, a known contributor to rod cladding failures. Thinner crud leads to locally lower rod operating temperatures (lower corrosion rate) since crud acts as a thermal insulator between the rod and the coolant. The first method of increasing heat transfer involves addition of more than one Intermediate Flow Mixing vane grid (IFM) in the span between two neighboring structural spacing grids. The second method includes optimization of the mixing vane according to axial position. The third method involves variation of the IFMs axial position to optimize axial distribution of rod heat transfer. (authors)

  6. The development of the Hong Kong Heat Index for enhancing the heat stress information service of the Hong Kong Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. L.; Chan, Y. H.; Lee, T. C.; Goggins, William B.; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a heat index, for use in hot and humid sub-tropical climate in Hong Kong. The study made use of hospitalization data and heat stress measurement data in Hong Kong from 2007 to 2011. The heat index, which is called Hong Kong Heat Index (HKHI), is calculated from the natural wet bulb temperature, the globe temperature, and the dry bulb temperature together with a set of coefficients applicable to the high humidity condition in the summer of Hong Kong. Analysis of the response of hospitalization rate to variation in HKHI and two other heat indices, namely Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Net Effective Temperature (NET), revealed that HKHI performed generally better than WBGT and NET in reflecting the heat stress impact on excess hospitalization ratio in Hong Kong. Based on the study results, two reference criteria of HKHI were identified to establish a two-tier approach for the enhancement of the heat stress information service in Hong Kong.

  7. Over-expression of the Arabidopsis proton-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances transplant survival, root mass, and fruit development under limiting phosphorus conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibing; Zhang, Xiao; Gaxiola, Roberto A; Xu, Guohua; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P), an element required for plant growth, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening, can be deficient or unavailable in agricultural soils. Previously, it was shown that over-expression of a proton-pyrophosphatase gene AVP1/AVP1D (AVP1DOX) in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato resulted in the enhancement of root branching and overall mass with the result of increased mineral P acquisition. However, although AVP1 over-expression also increased shoot biomass in Arabidopsis, this effect was not observed in tomato under phosphate-sufficient conditions. AVP1DOX tomato plants exhibited increased rootward auxin transport and root acidification compared with control plants. AVP1DOX tomato plants were analysed in detail under limiting P conditions in greenhouse and field trials. AVP1DOX plants produced 25% (P=0.001) more marketable ripened fruit per plant under P-deficient conditions compared with the controls. Further, under low phosphate conditions, AVP1DOX plants displayed increased phosphate transport from leaf (source) to fruit (sink) compared to controls. AVP1DOX plants also showed an 11% increase in transplant survival (Ptomato cultivars for increased proton pyrophosphatase gene expression could be useful when selecting for cultivars to be grown on marginal soils.

  8. Positional signaling and expression of ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 are tuned to increase root hair density in response to phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Natasha; Yang, Thomas J W; Chen, Chung Ying; Lin, Kai-Lan; Monk, Nicholas A M; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency induces a multitude of responses aimed at improving the acquisition of Pi, including an increased density of root hairs. To understand the mechanisms involved in Pi deficiency-induced alterations of the root hair phenotype in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we analyzed the patterning and length of root epidermal cells under control and Pi-deficient conditions in wild-type plants and in four mutants defective in the expression of master regulators of cell fate, CAPRICE (CPC), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1 (ETC1), WEREWOLF (WER) and SCRAMBLED (SCM). From this analysis we deduced that the longitudinal cell length of root epidermal cells is dependent on the correct perception of a positional signal ('cortical bias') in both control and Pi-deficient plants; mutants defective in the receptor of the signal, SCM, produced short cells characteristic of root hair-forming cells (trichoblasts). Simulating the effect of cortical bias on the time-evolving probability of cell fate supports a scenario in which a compromised positional signal delays the time point at which non-hair cells opt out the default trichoblast pathway, resulting in short, trichoblast-like non-hair cells. Collectively, our data show that Pi-deficient plants increase root hair density by the formation of shorter cells, resulting in a higher frequency of hairs per unit root length, and additional trichoblast cell fate assignment via increased expression of ETC1.

  9. Positional signaling and expression of ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 are tuned to increase root hair density in response to phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Savage

    Full Text Available Phosphate (Pi deficiency induces a multitude of responses aimed at improving the acquisition of Pi, including an increased density of root hairs. To understand the mechanisms involved in Pi deficiency-induced alterations of the root hair phenotype in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, we analyzed the patterning and length of root epidermal cells under control and Pi-deficient conditions in wild-type plants and in four mutants defective in the expression of master regulators of cell fate, CAPRICE (CPC, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1 (ETC1, WEREWOLF (WER and SCRAMBLED (SCM. From this analysis we deduced that the longitudinal cell length of root epidermal cells is dependent on the correct perception of a positional signal ('cortical bias' in both control and Pi-deficient plants; mutants defective in the receptor of the signal, SCM, produced short cells characteristic of root hair-forming cells (trichoblasts. Simulating the effect of cortical bias on the time-evolving probability of cell fate supports a scenario in which a compromised positional signal delays the time point at which non-hair cells opt out the default trichoblast pathway, resulting in short, trichoblast-like non-hair cells. Collectively, our data show that Pi-deficient plants increase root hair density by the formation of shorter cells, resulting in a higher frequency of hairs per unit root length, and additional trichoblast cell fate assignment via increased expression of ETC1.

  10. Lesion simulating disease 1 and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 differentially regulate UV-C-induced photooxidative stress signalling and programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wituszyńska, Weronika; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Sobczak, Mirosław; Rusaczonek, Anna; Kozłowska-Makulska, Anna; Witoń, Damian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-02-01

    As obligate photoautotrophs, plants are inevitably exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Because of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV has become more and more dangerous to the biosphere. Therefore, it is important to understand UV perception and signal transduction in plants. In the present study, we show that lesion simulating disease 1 (LSD1) and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) are antagonistic regulators of UV-C-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in Arabidopsis thaliana. This regulatory dependence is manifested by a complex deregulation of photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, antioxidative enzyme activity and UV-responsive genes expression. We also prove that a UV-C radiation episode triggers apoptotic-like morphological changes within the mesophyll cells. Interestingly, chloroplasts are the first organelles that show features of UV-C-induced damage, which may indicate their primary role in PCD development. Moreover, we show that Arabidopsis Bax inhibitor 1 (AtBI1), which has been described as a negative regulator of plant PCD, is involved in LSD1-dependent cell death in response to UV-C. Our results imply that LSD1 and EDS1 regulate processes extinguishing excessive energy, reactive oxygen species formation and subsequent PCD in response to different stresses related to impaired electron transport.

  11. Constitutive over-expression of rice ClpD1 protein enhances tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Richa; Grover, Anil

    2016-09-01

    Caseinolytic proteases (Clps) perform the important role of removing protein aggregates from cells, which can otherwise prove to be highly toxic. ClpD system is a two-component protease complex composed of a regulatory ATPase module ClpD and a proteolytic component ClpP. Under desiccation stress condition, rice ClpD1 (OsClpD1) gene encoding for the regulatory subunit, was represented by four variant transcripts differing mainly in the expanse of their N-terminal amino acids. These transcripts were expressed in a differential manner in response to salt, mannitol and polyethylene glycol stresses in rice. Purified OsClpD1.3 protein exhibited intrinsic chaperone activity, shown using citrate synthase as substrate. Arabidopsis (Col-0) plants over-expressing OsClpD1.3 open reading frame downstream to CaMV35S promoter (ClpD1.3 plants) showed higher tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses as compared to wild type plants. ClpD1.3 seedlings also showed enhanced growth during the early stages of seed germination under unstressed, control conditions. The free proline levels and starch breakdown activities were higher in the ClpD1.3 seedlings as compared to the wild type Arabidopsis seedlings. It thus emerges that increasing the potential of ClpD1 chaperoning activity may be of advantage in protection against abiotic stresses. PMID:27457985

  12. Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong; Schultz, Natalie; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-08-01

    The urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban land than the surrounding rural land, is commonly attributed to changes in biophysical properties of the land surface associated with urbanization. Here we provide evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the biogeochemical effect of urban aerosol or haze pollution is also a contributor to the UHI. Our results are based on satellite observations and urban climate model calculations. We find that a significant factor controlling the nighttime surface UHI across China is the urban-rural difference in the haze pollution level. The average haze contribution to the nighttime surface UHI is 0.7+/-0.3 K (mean+/-1 s.e.) for semi-arid cities, which is stronger than that in the humid climate due to a stronger longwave radiative forcing of coarser aerosols. Mitigation of haze pollution therefore provides a co-benefit of reducing heat stress on urban residents.

  13. Overexpression of SpCBL6, a calcineurin B-like protein of Stipa purpurea, enhanced cold tolerance and reduced drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Supriyo, Basak; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize SpCBL6 (GenBank accession number: KT780442) from Stipa purpurea and elucidate the function of this protein in abiotic stress. The full-length cDNA of SpCBL6 was isolated from S. purpurea by rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Laser confocal microscopy was used to analyze the subcellular localization of SpCBL6. The constructs of 35S:GFP-SpCBL6 was used to transform wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants (ecotype Columbia-0) with the floral dip method. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and ion leakage was performed to investigate the role of SpCBL6 in abiotic stress. The open reading frame of SpCBL6 contains 681 bp nucleotides and encodes a 227-amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SpCBL6 showed the highest similarity with rice OsCBL6. SpCBL6 transcripts were induced by freezing and drought treatments. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SpCBL6 was located in membrane of protoplast. Overexpression of SpCBL6 in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that the transgenic plants were more tolerant to cold treatment, but less tolerant to drought, compared with the plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the drought stress marker genes were inhibited in transgenic plants, whereas the cold stress marker genes were enhanced. Further analysis showed that SpCBL6-overexpressing plants showed enhanced water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and reduced ion leakage compared with the wild-type after cold treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that SpCBL6, a new member of the CBL gene family isolated from S. purpurea, enhances cold tolerance and reduces drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27393148

  14. Vibration-induced coherence enhances the performance of a biological quantum heat engine

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis has been the long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also inspire attention from thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results suggest new insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation and Prediction of Enhancement of Boiling Heat Transfer with Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model of evaluation and prediction of enhancement of boiling heat transfer with additives has been propoeed according to fuzzy fundamentals. Correlative appraisement of boiling heat transfer augmentation was done with the model based on 39 additives which were tested by the authors and other researchers. The results show that the evaluation of 35 additives is consistent with experiments, which means that the accuracy of the model is 89.7 percent. In addition, the prediction of the ability of boiling heat transfer enhancement with sodium oleate,polyethylene glycol and Tween-40 is also in good agreement with correspondent experiments.

  16. Geothermal heating enhances atmospheric asymmetries on synchronously rotating planets

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Earth-like planets within the liquid water habitable zone of M type stars may evolve into synchronous rotators. On these planets, the sub-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual daylight while the opposing anti-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual darkness. Because the night-side hemisphere has no direct source of energy, the air over this side of the planet is prone to freeze out and deposit on the surface, which could result in atmospheric collapse. However, general circulation models (GCMs) have shown that atmospheric dynamics can counteract this problem and provide sufficient energy transport to the anti-stellar side. Here we use an idealized GCM to consider the impact of geothermal heating on the habitability of synchronously rotating planets. Geothermal heating may be expected due to tidal interactions with the host star, and the effects of geothermal heating provide additional habitable surface area and may help to induce melting of ice on the anti-stellar hemisphere. We also explore the persisten...

  17. Combination of the ALCR/alcA ethanol switch and GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap system enables spatial and temporal control of transgene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongge; Van Loock, Bram; Liao, Mingjun; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2007-07-01

    The experimental control of gene expression in specific tissues or cells at defined time points is a useful tool for the analysis of gene function. GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap lines can be used to selectively express genes in specific tissues or cells, and an ethanol-inducible system can help to control the time of expression. In this study, the combination of the two methods allowed the successful regulation of gene expression in both time and space. For this purpose, a binary vector, 962-UAS::GUS, was constructed in which the ALCR activator and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were placed under the control of upstream activator sequence (UAS) elements and the alcA response element, respectively. Three different GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap lines of Arabidopsis were transformed, resulting in transgenic plants in which GUS activity was detected only on ethanol induction and exclusively in the predicted tissues of the enhancer trap lines. As a library of different enhancer trap lines with distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP) patterns exist, transformation with a similar vector, in which GUS is replaced by another gene, would enable the control of the time and place of transgene expression. We have constructed two vectors for easy cloning of the gene of interest, one with a polylinker site and one that is compatible with the GATEWAY vector conversion system. The method can be extended to other species when enhancer trap lines become available.

  18. Heating Unsaturated Sediments Using Solar Energy to Enhance Passive Sediment Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sediment heating has been shown to enhance passive sediment remediation technologies such as bioremediation and barometric pumping (passive soil venting). Sediment heating raises the slow remediation rates that often limit the widespread use of these technologies. In bioremediation applications, a 10 degree C increase in subsurface temperature is expected to double the microbial activity, and thus the remediation rate. The removal rate of tetracholorethylene (PCE - a common subsurface contaminant) by passive soil vapor extraction is expected to nearly double in low-permeable sediments when the subsurface is heated 10 degree C from ambient temperatures due to an increased vapor pressure in the PCE. When the sediment is heated using renewable energy sources, these thermally enhanced remediation technologies can be environmentally benign alternatives to conventional remediation techniques that rely on large external energy inputs. The thermally enhanced passive technologies may be particularly useful for remediating unsaturated, low-permeable lenses that are troublesome to most conventional remediation technologies such as conventional soil vapor extraction and co-solvent flushes. The main objective of this work was to quantify subsurface sediment heating using a solar powered heat injection well. To do this, a pilot sediment heating system was installed in Vermont and high resolution meteorological and sediment temperature data were collected using a stand-alone data acquisition system. Unsaturated, silty sediments were heated in-situ by converting the direct and indirect solar energy available at the surface to heat energy in the subsurface using stand-alone renewable energy sources and a resistive element heat injection well. The heat injection well was powered by a 600-W passively tracking photovoltaic (PV) array and a small 1.2-m swept area wind turbine. It is envisioned that the heat injection well would be placed directly into an area of high subsurface

  19. Experimental investigation of enhanced heat transfer for fined circular tube heat exchanger with rectangular fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-xing; YANG Dong; CHEN Ting-kuan

    2006-01-01

    Presents a set of data for flow and heat transfer of finned-tube bundle under the condition of high air flow velocity. Air flow and heat transfer over a 4 ×4 ( columns × rows) finned-tube heat exchanger with rectangular fins was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel with constant wall temperatures condition. The air flow velocity based on the minimum flow cross-section area over flow channel ranged from 13.8 to 50. 2 m/s,the heat transfer rate ranged from 21.8 to 47. 1 kW, and the air temperatures increase ranged from 10. 9 to 19. 8°C. The present results were compared with results calculated from correlations proposed by CSPE. For air flow velocity less than 25 m/s, these two results of heat transfer agreed well with each other, whereas for larger velocity, our test data disagreed with the CSPE correlations. For the friction factor, present data are much higher than the predicted results in the whole range. Finally, correlations for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients are proposed based on the experimental results.

  20. Heat Transfer Enhancement Due to Marangoni Flow Around Moving Bubbles During Nucleate Boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David M. Christopher; WANG Hao; PENG Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Nucleate boiling is a very efficient method for generating high heat transfer rates from solid surfaces; however, the fundamental physical mechanisms governing nucleate boiling heat transfer are not well understood. The heat transfer mechanisms around stationary and moving bubbles on very thin microwires were analyzed numerically to evaluate the effect of the bubble motion on the heat transfer from the wire surface. The numerical analysis accurately models the experimentally observed bubble movement and fluid velocities. The analytical model includes the effects of the Marangoni flow around the bubble and the evaporation and condensation within the bubble. The analysis shows that the heat transfer was significantly enhanced by the Marangoni flow around the outside of the bubble which transfers at least twice as much energy from the wire as the heat transfer directly from the wire to the bubble. The enhanced heat transfer due to the Marangoni flow was evident for both stationary and moving bubbles. The moving bubbles also created a wake that further enhanced the heat transfer from the wire. Since the Marangoni number for water is greater than for ethanol for the same conditions, the Marangoni flow and, hence, the bubble velocities are predicted to be greater in water than in ethanol.

  1. Enhancement of Heat Transfer of Backward-Facing Step by Mist flow

    OpenAIRE

    Miyafuji, yoshsitaka; Senaha, Izuru; Oyakawa, Kenyu; Nakashima, Wataru; HIWADA, Munehiko; 宮藤, 義孝; Department of Technical Support Section, Okinawa National College of Technology; Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, University of the Ryukyus; Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Gifu University; 沖縄工業高等専門学校技術支援室; 琉球大学工学部; 岐阜大学工学部

    2010-01-01

    A mist flow which is an air flow with water-drop mixed may be suitable for rapid cooling. This paper shows how heat transfer was enhanced due to that the small quantity water-drop was vaporizing immediately near the heated wall, when the mist flow was spouted from entrance section of the channel.In the measurement of local heat transfer coefficients on a heating surface, the detailed temperature distribution was measured by using an infrared camera from an observation window. In the measureme...

  2. Hsp27 enhances recovery of splicing as well as rephosphorylation of SRp38 after heat shock

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Vinader, L.; Shin, C.; Onnekink, C; Manley, J L; Lubsen, N H

    2005-01-01

    A heat stress causes a rapid inhibition of splicing. Exogenous expression of Hsp27 did not prevent that inhibition but enhanced the recovery of splicing afterward. Another small heat shock protein, αB-crystallin, had no effect. Hsp27, but not αB-crystallin, also hastened rephosphorylation of SRp38—dephosphorylated a potent inhibitor of splicing—after a heat shock, although it did not prevent dephosphorylation by a heat shock. The effect of Hsp27 on rephosphorylation of SRp38 required phosphor...

  3. Enhanced near-field heat flow of a monolayer dielectric island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbes, Ludwig; Hellmann, David; Kittel, Achim

    2013-03-29

    We have investigated the influence of thin films of a dielectric material on the near-field mediated heat transfer at the fundamental limit of single monolayer islands on a metallic substrate. We present spatially resolved measurements by near-field scanning thermal microscopy showing a distinct enhancement in heat transfer above NaCl islands compared to the bare Au(111) film. Experiments at this subnanometer scale call for a microscopic theory beyond the macroscopic fluctuational electrodynamics used to describe near-field heat transfer today. The method facilitates the possibility of developing designs of nanostructured surfaces with respect to specific requirements in heat transfer down to a single atomic layer.

  4. Moss Pathogenesis-Related-10 Protein Enhances Resistance to Pythium irregulare in Physcomitrella patens and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Alexandra; Vidal, Sabina; Ponce de León, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogen infection by activating signaling pathways leading to the accumulation of proteins with diverse roles in defense. Here, we addressed the functional role of PpPR-10, a pathogenesis-related (PR)-10 gene, of the moss Physcomitrella patens, in response to biotic stress. PpPR-10 belongs to a multigene family and encodes a protein twice the usual size of PR-10 proteins due to the presence of two Bet v1 domains. Moss PR-10 genes are differentially regulated during development and inoculation with the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Specifically, PpPR-10 transcript levels increase significantly by treatments with elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, spores of B. cinerea, and the defense hormone salicylic acid. To characterize the role of PpPR-10 in plant defense against pathogens, we conducted overexpression analysis in P. patens and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of PpPR-10 in moss tissues increased resistance against the oomycete Pythium irregulare. PpPR-10 overexpressing moss plants developed less symptoms and decreased mycelium growth than wild type plants. In addition, PpPR-10 overexpressing plants constitutively produced cell wall depositions in protonemal tissue. Ectopic expression of PpPR-10 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased resistance against P. irregulare as well, evidenced by smaller lesions and less cellular damage compared to wild type plants. These results indicate that PpPR-10 is functionally active in the defense against the pathogen P. irregulare, in both P. patens and Arabidopsis, two evolutionary distant plants. Thus, P. patens can serve as an interesting source of genes to improve resistance against pathogen infection in flowering plants.

  5. Moss Pathogenesis-Related-10 protein enhances resistance to Pythium irregulare in Physcomitrella patens and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eCastro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to pathogen infection by activating signaling pathways leading to the accumulation of proteins with diverse roles in defense. Here, we addressed the functional role of PpPR-10, a pathogenesis-related (PR-10 gene, of the moss Physcomitrella patens, in response to biotic stress. PpPR-10 belongs to a multigene family and encodes a protein twice the usual size of PR-10 proteins due to the presence of two Bet v1 domains. Moss PR-10 genes are differentially regulated during development and inoculation with the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Specifically, PpPR-10 transcript levels increase significantly by treatments with elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, spores of B. cinerea, and the defense hormone salicylic acid. To characterize the role of PpPR-10 in plant defense against pathogens, we conducted overexpression analysis in P. patens and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of PpPR-10 in moss tissues increased resistance against the oomycete Pythium irregulare. PpPR-10 overexpressing moss plants developed less symptoms and decreased mycelium growth than wild type plants. In addition, PpPR-10 overexpressing plants constitutively produced cell wall depositions in protonemal tissue. Ectopic expression of PpPR-10 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased resistance against P. irregulare as well, evidenced by smaller lesions and less cellular damage compared to wild type plants. These results indicate that PpPR-10 is functionally active in the defense against the pathogen P. irregulare, in both P. patens and Arabidopsis, two evolutionary distant plants. Thus, P. patens can serve as an interesting source of genes to improve resistance against pathogen infection in flowering plants.

  6. Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong; Schultz, Natalie; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban land than the surrounding rural land, is commonly attributed to changes in biophysical properties of the land surface associated with urbanization. Here we provide evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the biogeochemical effect of urban aerosol or haze pollution is also a contributor to the UHI. Our results are based on satellite observations and urban climate model calculations. We find that a significant factor controlling the nighttime surface UHI across China is the urban-rural difference in the haze pollution level. The average haze contribution to the nighttime surface UHI is 0.7±0.3 K (mean±1 s.e.) for semi-arid cities, which is stronger than that in the humid climate due to a stronger longwave radiative forcing of coarser aerosols. Mitigation of haze pollution therefore provides a co-benefit of reducing heat stress on urban residents. PMID:27551987

  7. Heat Transfers Enhancement with Different Square Jagged Twisted Tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. A.V.Gawandare

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental work are carried out with copper twisted tape inserts 3mm with 5.2,4.2 and 3.2 twists respectively. The inserts when placed in the path of the flow of the fluid, create a high degree of turbulence resulting in an increase in the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop. The work includes the determination of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient for various twisted wire inserts with varying twists and different materials. The Reynolds number is varied from 5000 to 16000. Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are developed for the twisted wire inserts from the obtained results. The results of varying twists in square jagged tape with different pitches have been compared with the values for the smooth tube. The 3mm thick with 3.2 twists copper insert shows increase in Nusselt number values by 76% however there is increase in friction factor by only 19.5% as compared to the smooth tube values.

  8. Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong; Schultz, Natalie; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-08-23

    The urban heat island (UHI), the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban land than the surrounding rural land, is commonly attributed to changes in biophysical properties of the land surface associated with urbanization. Here we provide evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the biogeochemical effect of urban aerosol or haze pollution is also a contributor to the UHI. Our results are based on satellite observations and urban climate model calculations. We find that a significant factor controlling the nighttime surface UHI across China is the urban-rural difference in the haze pollution level. The average haze contribution to the nighttime surface UHI is 0.7±0.3 K (mean±1 s.e.) for semi-arid cities, which is stronger than that in the humid climate due to a stronger longwave radiative forcing of coarser aerosols. Mitigation of haze pollution therefore provides a co-benefit of reducing heat stress on urban residents.

  9. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  10. Luminaries-level structure improvement of LEDs for heat dissipation enhancement under natural convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ke Wu; Le Wang; Yi-Bo Yu; Zhi-Yi Huang; Pei Liang

    2013-12-01

    Heat dissipation enhancement of LED luminaries is of great significance to the large-scale application of LED. Luminaries-level structure improvement by the method of boring through-hole is adopted to intensify heat dissipation. Furthermore, the natural convection heat transfer process of LED luminaries is simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model before and after the structural modification. As shown by computational results, boring through-hole is beneficial to develop bottomto-top natural convection, eliminate local circumfluence, and finally form better flow pattern. Analysis based on field synergy principle shows that boring through-hole across LED luminaries improves the synergy between flow field and temperature field, and effectively decreases the thermal resistance of luminaries-level heat dissipation structure. Under the same computational conditions, by luminaries-level structure improvement the highest temperature of heat sink is decreased by about 8° C and the average heat transfer coefficient is increased by 45.8%.

  11. Transient heating effects on tungsten: Ablation of Be layers and enhanced fuzz growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.H., E-mail: j2yu@eng.ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Dittmar, T. [Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung: Plasmaphysik (IEK-4), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Hakola, A. [VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Höschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), D-85748 Garching (Germany); Likonen, J. [VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Nishijima, D.; Toudeshki, H.H. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A pulsed laser in the PISCES-B facility is used to simulate transient heating events such as ELMs and disruptions on W. The first study of enhanced nano-scale W tendril growth (“fuzz”) due to cyclic fast transient heating of W exposed to low energy (E{sub He+} ∼ 30 eV) He{sup +} ions is presented. Fuzz due to transient heating is up to ∼10× thicker than the steady state fuzz thickness with no laser heating. A general thermal activation model yields higher values for the activation energy and pre-exponential factor than previously reported in steady state experiments with E{sub He+} ∼ 60 eV. Transient heating of W exposed to D plasma with Be seeding shows that the removal threshold of Be follows simple energy considerations based on the heat of formation of Be.

  12. Experimental studies on radiation heat transfer enhancement on a standard muffle furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minea Alina Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources of increased industrial energy consumption is the heating equipment, e.g., furnaces. Their domain of use is very wide and due to its abundance of applications it is key equipment in modern civilization. The present experimental investigations are related to reducing energy consumptions and started from the geometry of a classic manufactured furnace. During this experimental study, different cases have been carefully chosen in order to compare and measure the effects of applying different enhancement methods of the radiation heat transfer processes. The main objective work was to evaluate the behavior of a heated enclosure, when different radiant panels were introduced. The experimental investigation showed that their efficiency was influenced by their position inside the heating area. In conclusion, changing the inner geometry by introducing radiant panels inside the heated chamber leads to important time savings in the heating process.

  13. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan M. Dede

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  14. Enhanced Stomatal Conductance by a Spontaneous Arabidopsis Tetraploid, Me-0, Results from Increased Stomatal Size and Greater Stomatal Aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monda, Keina; Araki, Hiromitsu; Kuhara, Satoru; Ishigaki, Genki; Akashi, Ryo; Negi, Juntaro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Sho; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Goto, Nobuharu; Iba, Koh

    2016-03-01

    The rate of gas exchange in plants is regulated mainly by stomatal size and density. Generally, higher densities of smaller stomata are advantageous for gas exchange; however, it is unclear what the effect of an extraordinary change in stomatal size might have on a plant's gas-exchange capacity. We investigated the stomatal responses to CO2 concentration changes among 374 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes and discovered that Mechtshausen (Me-0), a natural tetraploid ecotype, has significantly larger stomata and can achieve a high stomatal conductance. We surmised that the cause of the increased stomatal conductance is tetraploidization; however, the stomatal conductance of another tetraploid accession, tetraploid Columbia (Col), was not as high as that in Me-0. One difference between these two accessions was the size of their stomatal apertures. Analyses of abscisic acid sensitivity, ion balance, and gene expression profiles suggested that physiological or genetic factors restrict the stomatal opening in tetraploid Col but not in Me-0. Our results show that Me-0 overcomes the handicap of stomatal opening that is typical for tetraploids and achieves higher stomatal conductance compared with the closely related tetraploid Col on account of larger stomatal apertures. This study provides evidence for whether larger stomatal size in tetraploids of higher plants can improve stomatal conductance. PMID:26754665

  15. Enhanced economic connectivity to foster heat stress-related losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Assessing global impacts of unexpected meteorological events in an increasingly connected world economy is important for estimating the costs of climate change. We show that since the beginning of the 21st century, the structural evolution of the global supply network has been such as to foster an increase of climate-related production losses. We compute first- and higher-order losses from heat stress-induced reductions in productivity under changing economic and climatic conditions between 1991 and 2011. Since 2001, the economic connectivity has augmented in such a way as to facilitate the cascading of production loss. The influence of this structural change has dominated over the effect of the comparably weak climate warming during this decade. Thus, particularly under future warming, the intensification of international trade has the potential to amplify climate losses if no adaptation measures are taken. PMID:27386555

  16. Enhanced economic connectivity to foster heat stress–related losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Assessing global impacts of unexpected meteorological events in an increasingly connected world economy is important for estimating the costs of climate change. We show that since the beginning of the 21st century, the structural evolution of the global supply network has been such as to foster an increase of climate-related production losses. We compute first- and higher-order losses from heat stress–induced reductions in productivity under changing economic and climatic conditions between 1991 and 2011. Since 2001, the economic connectivity has augmented in such a way as to facilitate the cascading of production loss. The influence of this structural change has dominated over the effect of the comparably weak climate warming during this decade. Thus, particularly under future warming, the intensification of international trade has the potential to amplify climate losses if no adaptation measures are taken. PMID:27386555

  17. Enhanced Energy Distribution for Quantum Information Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Diaz de la Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new scenario for energy distribution, security and shareability is presented that assumes the availability of quantum information heat engines and a thermal bath. It is based on the convertibility between entropy and work in the presence of a thermal reservoir. Our approach to the informational content of physical systems that are distributed between users is complementary to the conventional perspective of quantum communication. The latter places the value on the unpredictable content of the transmitted quantum states, while our interest focuses on their certainty. Some well-known results in quantum communication are reused in this context. Particularly, we describe a way to securely distribute quantum states to be used for unlocking energy from thermal sources. We also consider some multi-partite entangled and classically correlated states for a collaborative multi-user sharing of work extraction possibilities. In addition, the relation between the communication and work extraction capabilities is analyzed and written as an equation.

  18. Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2014-08-19

    A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

  19. Airshuffler implementation at freezer air outlets for heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćerezci, Gökhan; Darka, Murat; Şenman, Ozan

    2016-06-01

    A study which is composed of computational simulation and experimental validation has been conducted for implementation of small, vane type geometries at freezer air outlets, similar to microvortex generators used in aircraft wings, in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency inside the freezer compartment by decreasing airside thermal resistance and improving the air distribution. Both simulation and experimental validation were performed in a loaded condition which was prepared according to `Household refrigerating appliances - characteristics and test methods - IEC 62552 [1]. Solutions for the incompressible K-epsilon (k-ɛ) turbulence model obtained for Bosch KDN 49 refrigerator freezer both with and without airshufflers at air outlets, which are similar to vane type microvortex generators with different geometric dimensions. The airshuffler dimensions were chosen with design of experiment (DOE) principles for finding the optimum geometry. The best combinations were tested according to cooling rate inside freezer compartment. Results were evaluated for feasibility of implementing of vortex generating surfaces (airshufflers) for cooling appliances.

  20. Thermoacoustic sensor for nuclear fuel temperaturemonitoring and heat transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Alli; Steven L. Garrett

    2013-05-01

    A new acoustical sensing system for the nuclear power industry has been developed at The Pennsylvania State University in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratories. This sensor uses the high temperatures of nuclear fuel to convert a nuclear fuel rod into a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. When a standing wave is generated, the sound wave within the fuel rod will be propagated, by acoustic radiation, through the cooling fluid within the reactor or spent fuel pool and can be monitored a remote location external to the reactor. The frequency of the sound can be correlated to an effective temperature of either the fuel or the surrounding coolant. We will present results for a thermoacoustic resonator built into a Nitonic-60 (stainless steel) fuel rod that requires only one passive component and no heat exchangers.

  1. Enhanced heat rectification effect in a quantum dot connected to ferromagnetic leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Feng, E-mail: chifeng@semi.ac.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Huhehaote 010023 (China); College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Sun, Lian-Liang [College of Science, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100041 (China); Zheng, Jun; Guo, Yu [College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We study theoretically the heat generation by electric current in an interacting single level quantum-dot connected to ferromagnetic leads. The heat is transferred between the dot and the lattice vibration of its host material (phonon reservoir). Particular attention is paid on the heat's rectification effect achieved by properly arranging the dot level and the bias voltage. We find that this effect is remarkably enhanced when the two leads' magnetic moments are in antiparallel configuration, i.e., the magnitude of the heat generation is reduced (amplified) in the negative (positive) bias regime as compared to the cases of parallel configuration and nonmagnetic leads. The rectification effect is even enhanced when one of the lead's spin polarization approaches to unit, during which the negative differential of the heat generation is weakened due to the change of the spin-dependent electron occupation numbers on the dot. The found results may be used for thermal transistor in the newly emerged research subject of phononics. - Highlights: • Heat flow between electrons and phonons is controlled by interaction between them. • A thermal diode or rectifier is proposed to work under electrical bias. • The heat rectification effect can be enhanced by the leads' ferromagnetism.

  2. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Forced Convective Boiling in Microchannels by Periodic Electrospun Nanofiber Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarin, Alexander; Freystein, Martin; Kolberg, Felix; Sinha-Ray, Sumit; Sahu, Rakesh; Spiegel, Lucas; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana; Stephan, Peter

    2015-03-01

    To enhance heat transfer in forced convective boiling the microchannel bottom was amended by a nano-texture - periodic rectangular mats of electrospun polymer nanofibers. The fibers were ~ 300-500 nm in diameter and the mat thicknesses were about 6-15 μm. The test fluid was FC-72 and the flow in microchannels contained trains of Taylor bubbles. The role of the nanofibers was to retain the warm microchannel bottom wet, to prevent dry-out and thus to enhance the heat removal rate. In the present experiments the time-average heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the nanofiber-coated domains were found to be 1.5-2 times higher than those at the uncoated ones. Accordingly, a significant decrease (by 5-8 K) in the superheat was observed at the same Re of 387 and power supply of 36.1 kW/m2. At a higher Re of 432 and lower power supply of 28.1 kW/m2 similar trends in the heat removal rate and surface superheat were found. The significant enhancement of the heat transfer results from the fact that nanofiber mats facilitate wetting of surface under passing Taylor bubbles, thus delaying formation of vapor flow at the channel bottom. The interstices of the nanofiber mat act as the nucleation sites facilitating formation of tiny bubbles, which eventually results in a higher heat removal rate from the surface at a reduced superheat.

  3. A new model for analyzing laminar forced convective enhanced heat transfer in latent functionally thermal fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wenqiang; BAI Fengwu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new model to analyze laminar forced convective enhanced heat transfer in latent functionally thermal fluid is developed. The main characteristics of the model are: I) a new formula of the specific heat at constant pressure is used; ii) a real heat transfer process is considered; that is, heat transfer processes occur not only between working fluid and microcapsules, but also between the mixture and tube wall; iii) the new method, which combines the newly developed axisymmetrical dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM) with finite difference method (FDM), is used to solve the control equations of this problem. The new model is validated by experimental data.Some new physical results on the variational characteristics of the specific heat at constant pressure with space and time during phase-change process, the time-marching history of the phase-change interfaces and so on are obtained. Several main physical factors that affect enhanced heat transfer in latent functionally thermal fluid are numerically analyzed.Some new understandings for the mechanism of enhanced heat transfer in the functionally fluid are obtained.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Rectangular Heated Pipe for Turbulent Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Yarmand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM. The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations.

  5. Numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement in a rectangular heated pipe for turbulent nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmand, Hooman; Gharehkhani, Samira; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations.

  6. Heat transfer enhancement in sphere-packed pipes under high Reynolds number conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent design of LHD-type helical reactor FFHR, the first wall is expected to be exposed to the high heat load of almost 1.0 MW/m2, which is removed by high temperature molten salt Flibe flow. The Flibe is a mixture of LiF and BeF2 and has advantages in high heat capacity, reduction of MHD-pressure drop due to its low electric conductivity. The Flibe blanket system, however, needs heat transfer enhancement under high heat flux since the Flibe is categorized as a high Prandtl number fluid. A Sphere-Packed Pipe (SPP) has been proposed as one of heat transfer enhancement techniques for the high Prandtl number fluid. The matrix of SPP is composed of a number of spheres. The fluid is mixed in the process of passing through the complicated flow channels, which leads to high heat transfer performance. In addition, heat conduction between each sphere and a heating wall contributes to the enhancement of heat transport to the center of pipe, which is called fin-effect. However, the complicated structure causes relatively large pressure drop, which means it necessary to exactly solve the trade-off between the heat transfer enhancement and pumping-power increase in order to optimize the design. Although several papers have been published relating to forced-convection heat transfer in SPPs, most of the studies have been performed under low Reynolds number regimes. In this study, therefore, the pressure drop and the heat transfer characteristics of the SPP flow are evaluated under high Reynolds number for different diameter ratios of the pipe to the sphere. A test section is made of a stainless pipe with the diameter of 56 mm and acrylic spheres. The diameters of packed spheres are 18.5 mm, 25.0 mm, 27.6 mm and 42.7 mm, respectively. Water is employed as a working fluid. The pipe wall of 600 mm length is uniformly heated by Joule heating. Experimental results show that the pressure drop in the SPP flows approximately corresponds to the values between Ergun's correlation and

  7. Mechanism and numerical analysis of heat transfer enhancement in the core flow along a tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present study introduces the principles of enhanced heat transfer in the core flow to form an equivalent thermal boundary layer in the fully developed laminar tube flow, which consequently enlarges the temperature gradient of the fluid near the tube wall, and thereby enhances the heat transfer between the fluid and the tube wall. At the same time, the increase of flow resistance in the tube is not so obvious. Mechanism analysis and numerical calculation based on air and water have been carried out to verify the principle and method presented in this paper, which may bring positive effects to the design of heat exchanger with high heat transfer efficiency and low flow resistance.

  8. Convective heat transfer characters of nanoparticle enhanced latent functionally thermal fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The latent heat of the microencapsulated phase change material(MPCM)increases the effective ther-mal capacity of latent functionally thermal fluid.However,researchers found that the heat transfer performance of such fluids was diminished due to the reduction of the low thermal conductivity of MPCM.For this reason,the nanoparticle enhanced latent functionally thermal fluids were formulated and the heat transfer behaviors of these fluids in a vertical circular tube at the laminar regime were conducted.The result showed that slurries containing 0.5% TiO2 nanoparticles by mass and 5%―20% MPCM by mass exhibited improved heat transfer rates in comparison with the conventional latent functionally thermal fluid and that the enhancement increased with the increasing MPCM concentration and up to 18.9% of the dimensionless wall temperature was reduced.

  9. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-06-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

  10. Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement of a Rectangular Flat Plate by an Impinging Jet in Cross Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国能; 郑友取; 胡桂林; 张治国

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the heat transfer performance of an impinging jet in a cross flow. Several parameters including the jet-to-cross-flow mass ratio (X=2%-8%), the Reynolds number (Red=1434-5735) and the jet diameter (d=2-4 mm) were explored. The heat transfer enhancement factor was found to increase with the jet-to-cross-flow mass ratio and the Reynolds number, but decrease with the jet diameter when other parameters maintain fixed. The presence of a cross flow was observed to degrade the heat transfer performance in respect to the effect of impinging jet to the target surface only. In addition, an impinging jet was confirmed to be capable of en-hancing the heat transfer process in considerable amplitude even though the jet was not designed to impinge on the target surface.

  11. Convective heat transfer characters of nanoparticle enhanced latent functionally thermal fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; LIN GuiPing; CHEN HaiSheng; DING YuLong

    2009-01-01

    The latent heat of the microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) increases the effective ther-mal capacity of latent functionally thermal fluid. However, researchers found that the heat transfer performance of such fluids was diminished due to the reduction of the low thermal conductivity of MPCM. For this reason, the nanoparticle enhanced latent functionally thermal fluids were formulated and the heat transfer behaviors of these fluids in a vertical circular tube at the laminar regime were conducted. The result showed that slurries containing 0.5% TiO2 nanoparticles by mass and 5%-20% MPCM by mass exhibited improved heat transfer rates in comparison with the conventional latent functionally thermal fluid and that the enhancement increased with the increasing MPCM concentration and up to 18.9% of the dimensionless wall temperature was reduced.

  12. Immersion condensation on oil-infused heterogeneous surfaces for enhanced heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

  13. Heat exchanger performance calculations for enhanced-tube condenser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabas, T.J.

    1992-07-01

    The lack of a prediction method is sometimes used for the rejection of enhanced tubes for some condenser applications even though there is ample data from single-tube condensing experiments. Three methods are discussed that can be used to rate and/or size these multitube units based on the single-tube experimental results. The Kern vertical-number correction appears to be quite adequate for most operating conditions, the exceptions being large sizes and/or deep vacuum operation. The bundle-factor method is preferred for these applications; however, field test results are required to obtain this factor. If performance data are not available, pointwise or numerical methods are required but special care must be taken to insure that the adverse effects of noncondensable gas pockets and the saturation-temperature depression are properly addressed.

  14. Heat exchanger performance calculations for enhanced-tube condenser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabas, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The lack of a prediction method is sometimes used for the rejection of enhanced tubes for some condenser applications even though there is ample data from single-tube condensing experiments. Three methods are discussed that can be used to rate and/or size these multitube units based on the single-tube experimental results. The Kern vertical-number correction appears to be quite adequate for most operating conditions, the exceptions being large sizes and/or deep vacuum operation. The bundle-factor method is preferred for these applications; however, field test results are required to obtain this factor. If performance data are not available, pointwise or numerical methods are required but special care must be taken to insure that the adverse effects of noncondensable gas pockets and the saturation-temperature depression are properly addressed.

  15. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Xiao; Nenad Miljkovic; Ryan Enright; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where w...

  16. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part I - flow development length and adiabatic friction factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    The study is conducted to evaluate the flow characteristics in a double tube heat exchanger using two new and versatile enhancement configurations. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Correlations are proposed for flow development length and friction factor for use in predicting fluid pumping power in thermal equipment as well as in subsequent heat transfer characterization of the surface. (orig.)

  17. Numerical analysis on heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex based on field synergy principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Junmei; TAO Wenquan

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulation results are presented for a fin-and-tube heat transfer surface with vortex generators.The effects of the Reynolds number (from 800 to 2 000) and the attack angle (30° and 45°) of a delta winglet vortex generator are examined.The numerical results are analyzed on the basis of the field synergy principle to explain the inherent mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex.The secondary flow generated by the vortex generators causes the reduction of the intersection angle between the velocity and fluid temperature gradients.In addition,the computational evaluations indicate that the heat transfer enhancement of delta winglet pairs for an aligned tube bank fin-and-tube surface is more significant than that for a staggered tube bank fin-and-tube surface.The heat transfer enhancement of the delta winglet pairs with an attack angle of 45° is larger than that with an angle of 30°.The delta winglet pair with an attack angle of 45° leads to an increase in pressure drop,while the delta winglet pair with the 30°angle results in a slight decrease.The heat transfer enhancement under identical pumping power condition for the attack angle of 30° is larger than that for the attack angle of 45°either for staggered or for aligned tube bank arrangement.

  18. An experimental investigation of convective heat transfer enhancement in electronic module using curved deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, A. S.; Ali, R. K.; Abdel-Aziz, A. A.; Elshazly, K. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigated experimentally the heat transfer and pressure drop in electronic module using a curved deflector to direct the flow towards the recirculation zone enclosed between the two heat sources. The experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of deflector dimensionless radius (R r ) and both horizontal and vertical distances (R x , R y ) within a range of Reynolds number from 5223 to 11,380. The results show that larger deflector at small vertical distance enhances the heat transfer for upstream and downstream heat sources while the horizontal distance has a contrast effect. Correlations are obtained for the average Nusselt number of both upstream and downstream heat sources utilizing the present measurements within 5223 ≤ Re L ≤ 11,380, 0.02 ≤ R x ≤ 0.4, 0.3 ≤ R y ≤ 0.5 and 0.15 ≤ R r ≤ 0.35.

  19. Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Air-Water SprayImpingement Cooling to Enhance Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research focused with the optimization of the heat flux from the surface of a hot steel test plate by air atomized water spray cooling. The air atomized water spray cooling experimental setup was designed and fabricated at School of Mechanical Engineering KIIT University, Odisha, India to investigate the role of various process parameters to enhance the heat flux from the surface of the heated steal specimen. The dimensions of test specimen used in the experiment were 120 mm X 120 mm, having different thickness of 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The effect of the process parameters such as thickness of the test plate, nozzle to plate distance, air and water pressure for removal of heat flux were optimized. The optimization of the controlling parameters was carried out by using the response surface method (RSM. A new correlation was developed for optimization of the surface heat flux.

  20. Flow-Induced Deformation of a Flexible Thin Structure as Manifestation of Heat Transfer Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, Atul Kumar; Sheridan, John

    2015-01-01

    Flow-induced deformation of thin structures coupled with convective heat transfer has potential applications in energy harvesting and is important for understanding functioning of several biological systems. We numerically demonstrate large-scale flow-induced deformation as an effective passive heat transfer enhancement technique. An in-house, strongly-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver is employed in which flow and structure solvers are based on sharp-interface immersed boundary and finite element method, respectively. In the present work, we validate convective heat transfer module of the in-house FSI solver against several benchmark examples of conduction and convective heat transfer including moving structure boundaries. The thermal augmentation is investigated as well as quantified for the flow-induced deformation of an elastic thin plate attached to lee side of a rigid cylinder in a heated channel laminar flow. We show that the wake vortices past the plate sweep higher sources of vorticity...

  1. Enhanced heat transfer rocket combustor technology component hot-fire test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William S.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of a method for enhancing combustor hot-gas wall heat extraction by using hot-fire tests of a rocket engine combustor calorimeter with hot-gas wall ribs is presented. The capability for enhanced heat extraction is required to increase available turbine drive energy for high chamber pressure operation, and therefore higher overall expander cycle engine performance. Determination of the rib effectiveness for incorporation into the design of a high-performance combustor for an advanced expander cycle combustor intended for use in an orbital transfer vehicle or advanced space engine, was the objective of these tests.

  2. Overexpression of VrUBC1, a Mung Bean E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsook Chung

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2 mediates selective ubiquitination, acting with E1 and E3 enzymes to designate specific proteins for subsequent degradation. In the present study, we characterized the function of the mung bean VrUBC1 gene (Vigna radiata UBC 1. RNA gel-blot analysis showed that VrUBC1 mRNA expression was induced by either dehydration, high salinity or by the exogenous abscisic acid (ABA, but not by low temperature or wounding. Biochemical studies of VrUBC1 recombinant protein and complementation of yeast ubc4/5 by VrUBC1 revealed that VrUBC1 encodes a functional UBC E2. To understand the function of this gene in development and plant responses to osmotic stresses, we overexpressed VrUBC1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana. The VrUBC1-overexpressing plants displayed highly sensitive responses to ABA and osmotic stress during germination, enhanced ABA- or salt-induced stomatal closing, and increased drought stress tolerance. The expression levels of a number of key ABA signaling genes were increased in VrUBC1-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that VrUBC1 interacts with AtVBP1 (A. thalianaVrUBC1 Binding Partner 1, a C3HC4-type RING E3 ligase. Overall, these results demonstrate that VrUBC1 plays a positive role in osmotic stress tolerance through transcriptional regulation of ABA-related genes and possibly through interaction with a novel RING E3 ligase.

  3. Overexpression of VrUBC1, a Mung Bean E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunsook; Cho, Chang-Woo; So, Hyun-Ah; Kang, Jee-Sook; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2) mediates selective ubiquitination, acting with E1 and E3 enzymes to designate specific proteins for subsequent degradation. In the present study, we characterized the function of the mung bean VrUBC1 gene (Vigna radiata UBC 1). RNA gel-blot analysis showed that VrUBC1 mRNA expression was induced by either dehydration, high salinity or by the exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but not by low temperature or wounding. Biochemical studies of VrUBC1 recombinant protein and complementation of yeast ubc4/5 by VrUBC1 revealed that VrUBC1 encodes a functional UBC E2. To understand the function of this gene in development and plant responses to osmotic stresses, we overexpressed VrUBC1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The VrUBC1-overexpressing plants displayed highly sensitive responses to ABA and osmotic stress during germination, enhanced ABA- or salt-induced stomatal closing, and increased drought stress tolerance. The expression levels of a number of key ABA signaling genes were increased in VrUBC1-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that VrUBC1 interacts with AtVBP1 (A. thalianaVrUBC1 Binding Partner 1), a C3HC4-type RING E3 ligase. Overall, these results demonstrate that VrUBC1 plays a positive role in osmotic stress tolerance through transcriptional regulation of ABA-related genes and possibly through interaction with a novel RING E3 ligase.

  4. Contrasting Roles of the Apoplastic Aspartyl Protease APOPLASTIC, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1-DEPENDENT1 and LEGUME LECTIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 in Arabidopsis Systemic Acquired Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Heiko H; Wenig, Marion; Wittek, Finni; Jordá, Lucia; Maldonado-Alconada, Ana M; Sarioglu, Hakan; Colby, Thomas; Knappe, Claudia; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Pabst, Elisabeth; Mackey, David; Parker, Jane E; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-04-22

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible immune response that depends on ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) EDS1 is required for both SAR signal generation in primary infected leaves and SAR signal perception in systemic uninfected tissues. In contrast to SAR signal generation, local resistance remains intact in eds1 mutant plants in response to Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. We utilized the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant to identify new SAR regulatory proteins in plants conditionally expressing AvrRpm1. Comparative proteomic analysis of apoplast-enriched extracts from AvrRpm1-expressing wild-type and eds1 mutant plants led to the identification of 12 APOPLASTIC, EDS1-DEPENDENT (AED) proteins. The genes encoding AED1, a predicted aspartyl protease, and another AED, LEGUME LECTIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (LLP1), were induced locally and systemically during SAR signaling and locally by salicylic acid (SA) or its functional analog, benzo 1,2,3-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester. Because conditional overaccumulation of AED1-hemagglutinin inhibited SA-induced resistance and SAR but not local resistance, the data suggest that AED1 is part of a homeostatic feedback mechanism regulating systemic immunity. In llp1 mutant plants, SAR was compromised, whereas the local resistance that is normally associated with EDS1 and SA as well as responses to exogenous SA appeared largely unaffected. Together, these data indicate that LLP1 promotes systemic rather than local immunity, possibly in parallel with SA. Our analysis reveals new positive and negative components of SAR and reinforces the notion that SAR represents a distinct phase of plant immunity beyond local resistance.

  5. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  6. Enhanced heat transfer in a heat exchanger square-duct with discrete V-finned tape inserts☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Watcharin Noothong; Supattarachai Suwannapan; Chinaruk Thianpong; Pongjet Promvonge

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an experimental and numerical study on thermal performance enhancement in a constant heat-fluxed square-duct inserted diagonal y with 45° discrete V-finned tapes (DFT). The experiments were carried out by varying the airflow rate through the tested square duct with DFT inserts for Reynolds number from 4000 to 25000. The effect of the DFT with V-tip pointing upstream at various relative fin heights and pitches on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics was experimentally investigated. Both the heat transfer and pressure drop were presented in terms of Nusselt number and friction factor respectively. Several V-finned tape characteristics were introduced such as fin-to duct-height ratio or blockage ratio (RB=e/H=0.075, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2), fin pitch to duct height ratio (RP=P/H=0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) and fin attack angle,α=45°. The experimental results reveal that the heat transfer and friction factor values with DFT inserts increase with the increment of RB but the decrease of RP. The inserted square-duct at RB=0.2 and RP=0.5 provides the highest heat transfer and friction factor while the one with RB=0.1 and RP=1.5 yields the highest thermal performance. Also, a numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the flow structure and heat transfer mechanism inside the tested duct with DFT inserts.

  7. Effect of particle loading on heat transfer enhancement in a gas-solid suspension cross flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周劲松; 骆仲泱; 高翔; 倪明江; 岑可法

    2002-01-01

    Heat transfer between gas-solid multiphase flow and tubes occurs in many industry processes, such as circulating fluidized bed process, pneumatic conveying process, chemical process, drying process, etc. (This paper focuses on the influence of the presence of particles on the heat transfer between a tube and gas-solid sus-pension. The presence of particles causes positive enhancement of heat transfer in the case of high solid loading ratio, but heat transfer reduction has been found for in the case of very low soliding ratio (Ms of less than 0.05 kg/kg). A usefial correlation ineorpomting solid lolling ratio, particle size and flow Reytmlds number was derived from experimental data. In addition, the κ-ε two-equation model and the Fluctuation-Spectrum-Random-Trajectory Model (FSRT Model) are used to simulate the flow field and heat transit of the gas-phase and the solid-phase, respectively. Through coupling of the two phases the model can predict the local and total heat transfer characteristics of tube in gas-solid cross flow. For the total heat transfer enhancement due to particles loading the model predictions agreed well wih experimental data.

  8. Numerical investigation on side heat transfer enhancement in 300 kA aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhong WANG; Dongsheng ZHU; Jiemin ZHOU; Junxi LEI

    2008-01-01

    Industrial test and numerical simulation were synchronously applied to analyze the side heat transfer process and enhance heat transfer in aluminum reduction cell. The 3D slice finite element model of aluminum reduc-tion cell was developed, with which the sidewall temper-ature field of the cell was computed by using software ANSYS. The main influencing factors on heat dissipation were analyzed and some effective measures were proposed to enhance sidewall heat transfer. The results show that the shell temperature of the test cell and the common cell is respectively 312℃ and 318℃ and the ledge thickness is 16 cm and 15 cm when side coefficient of heat transfer With the increase of the side coefficient of heat transfer between the shell and the surroundings, the temperature of the shell decreases but the thickness of the side ledge increases when the electrolytic temperature, the ambient temperature, the coefficient of heat transfer between mol-ten bath and ledge, the eutectic temperature and the thermo-resistance of the side lining are constant.

  9. Heat transfer enhancement of a steam condensation by mixing ethanol vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utaka, Yoshio; Kenmotsu, Tatsuya; Kobayashi; Hironori

    1999-07-01

    The heat transfer enhancement of ethanol vapor mixing into steam were investigated. First, it was shown that the influence of the cooling intensity revealed themselves remarkably on the heat transfer rate and the modes of condensate varied with the change in cooling intensity. The effect could be shown as the condensation characteristic curve (Marangoni condensation curve) that exhibited the variation of the heat flux or the heat transfer coefficient against the surface subcooling. It was also confirmed that the enhancement effect of the heat transfer is considerable by using the mixing of small quantities of ethanol vapor into steam. Next, the effect of principal conditions such as the vapor concentration, the vapor velocity and the height of heat transfer surface on the condensation characteristic curves for the vapor mixture of water-ethanol were clarified. As a result, the maximum peak value of the heat transfer coefficient appeared at about ethanol vapor mass fraction of 0.05 due to the experiment of varying ethanol concentration. The condensation characteristic curve moved parallel to the axis of the heat transfer coefficient with increasing vapor velocity. The effect of vapor velocity acted as the reduction of the diffusion resistance in the vapor layer for relatively small surface subcooling region and the reduction of the condensate resistance in the region of the steep increase and transition regions. Although the peak value of the heat transfer coefficient decreased with increasing distance from the top of the condensing surface, the heat transfer coefficient was independent on the position of the surface in the steep increase region.

  10. Experimental and numerical contribution to heat transfer enhancement in compact plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of CEA R and D program to develop an industrial prototype of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor, the present thesis aimed to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger technology. In order to increase the global compactness the basic idea of this work is to design a channel were the fluid flow is as much three-dimensional as possible. In particular the channel can be thought as the result of the superposition of two undulated channels in phase opposition. To numerically provide a physically-consistent model, a new non-linear eddy viscosity named Anisotropic Shear Stress Transport (ASST) model has been developed and implemented into the available solver ANSYS FLUENT. To validate the numerical model, two experimental sections have been used to acquire an extensive aerodynamic database, whereas, to validate the thermal modeling approach, the VHEGAS facility has been built. Once having validated the ASST model, correlations for friction factor and Nusselt number for various geometries could be obtained. Finally, it has been shown that the innovative channel is the most compact one among the most important existing industrial compact heat exchanger technologies. (author)

  11. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Tang, Hui; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Qi-Sheng; Li, Shi-Gui; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant survival and growth. Excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer has generated serious environment pollution and increased production cost in agriculture. To deal with this problem, tremendous efforts have been invested worldwide to increase the nitrogen use ability of crops. However, only limited success has been achieved to date. Here we report that NLP7 (NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 7) is a potential candidate to improve plant nitrogen use ability. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, NLP7 increases plant biomass under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions with better-developed root system and reduced shoot/root ratio. NLP7–overexpressing plants show a significant increase in key nitrogen metabolites, nitrogen uptake, total nitrogen content, and expression levels of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and signalling. More importantly, overexpression of NLP7 also enhances photosynthesis rate and carbon assimilation, whereas knockout of NLP7 impaired both nitrogen and carbon assimilation. In addition, NLP7 improves plant growth and nitrogen use in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results demonstrate that NLP7 significantly improves plant growth under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions by coordinately enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation and sheds light on crop improvement. PMID:27293103

  12. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Tang, Hui; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Qi-Sheng; Li, Shi-Gui; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant survival and growth. Excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer has generated serious environment pollution and increased production cost in agriculture. To deal with this problem, tremendous efforts have been invested worldwide to increase the nitrogen use ability of crops. However, only limited success has been achieved to date. Here we report that NLP7 (NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 7) is a potential candidate to improve plant nitrogen use ability. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, NLP7 increases plant biomass under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions with better-developed root system and reduced shoot/root ratio. NLP7-overexpressing plants show a significant increase in key nitrogen metabolites, nitrogen uptake, total nitrogen content, and expression levels of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and signalling. More importantly, overexpression of NLP7 also enhances photosynthesis rate and carbon assimilation, whereas knockout of NLP7 impaired both nitrogen and carbon assimilation. In addition, NLP7 improves plant growth and nitrogen use in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results demonstrate that NLP7 significantly improves plant growth under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions by coordinately enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation and sheds light on crop improvement. PMID:27293103

  13. Drought and salt tolerance enhancement of transgenic Arabidopsis by overexpression of the vacuolar pyrophosphatase 1 (EVP1) gene from Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, M C; Baltierra, F; Leon, G; Krauskopf, E

    2013-12-01

    Vacuolar solute accumulation has been shown to be a mechanism by which plants are capable of increasing drought and salt tolerance. The exposure of plants to NaCl induces H+ transport into the vacuole by specialized pumps. One of them corresponds to the vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase, which generates a H+ gradient across the vacuolar membrane. In our laboratory we isolated the first cDNA sequence of a vacuolar pyrophosphatase type I (EVP1) from Eucalyptus globulus. Using real-time PCR we confirmed that EVP1 participates in Eucalyptus plants' response to drought and salt stress through an ABA independent pathway. Additionally, the overexpression of EVP1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in an enhancement of drought and salt tolerance. Interestingly we established that the transgenic plants had a higher number of root hairs, which may have a positive effect on the plant's response to drought and salt stress. These results suggest that EVP1 plays an active role in abiotic stress tolerance in E. globulus, and that it may be potentially used to enhance drought and stress tolerance of plants.

  14. Fundamental studies on enhancing heat transfer in contact zone during high efficiency grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Hongjun(徐鸿钧); FU; Yucan(傅玉灿); XU; Xipeng(徐西鹏); XU; Xipeng

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of research on the thermal effect in grinding contact zone during high effi-ciency grinding, an idea of enhancing heat transfer in contact zone using high pressure water jetimpinging is advanced. Fundamental heat transfer experiments on enhancing heat transfer withhigh pressure water jet impinging were completed. The maximum speed of jet impinging reaches110m/s. The experimental results of transient and steady-state experiment prove that the criticalheat flux and the heat-transfer coefficient of water jet impinging are 70 and 30 times those of thepool boiling, respectively. Furthermore, a new grinding fluid supply system was employed to en-hance heat transfer in grinding zone by high-pressure water jet impingement during creep feedgrinding. The experimental results show that high-pressure water jet impinging has remarkablecooling effect. The temperature of the workpiece surface can be steadily kept below 100℃, whilethe workpiece is badly burnt with conventional coolant supply. The study will exploit an importantresearch orientation that has great potentialities in the high efficiency grinding. Further perfectionof this study will not only enable us to increase the available material removal rate to a new levelbut also solve the workpiece burn problem of the difficult-to-machining materials in high efficiencygrinding,

  15. Numerical evaluation of laminar heat transfer enhancement in nanofluid flow in coiled square tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmito, Agus Pulung; Kurnia, Jundika Candra; Mujumdar, Arun Sadashiv

    2011-05-09

    Convective heat transfer can be enhanced by changing flow geometry and/or by enhancing thermal conductivity of the fluid. This study proposes simultaneous passive heat transfer enhancement by combining the geometry effect utilizing nanofluids inflow in coils. The two nanofluid suspensions examined in this study are: water-Al2O3 and water-CuO. The flow behavior and heat transfer performance of these nanofluid suspensions in various configurations of coiled square tubes, e.g., conical spiral, in-plane spiral, and helical spiral, are investigated and compared with those for water flowing in a straight tube. Laminar flow of a Newtonian nanofluid in coils made of square cross section tubes is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)approach, where the nanofluid properties are treated as functions of particle volumetric concentration and temperature. The results indicate that addition of small amounts of nanoparticles up to 1% improves significantly the heat transfer performance; however, further addition tends to deteriorate heat transfer performance.

  16. Numerical evaluation of laminar heat transfer enhancement in nanofluid flow in coiled square tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmito Agus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Convective heat transfer can be enhanced by changing flow geometry and/or by enhancing thermal conductivity of the fluid. This study proposes simultaneous passive heat transfer enhancement by combining the geometry effect utilizing nanofluids inflow in coils. The two nanofluid suspensions examined in this study are: water-Al2O3 and water-CuO. The flow behavior and heat transfer performance of these nanofluid suspensions in various configurations of coiled square tubes, e.g., conical spiral, in-plane spiral, and helical spiral, are investigated and compared with those for water flowing in a straight tube. Laminar flow of a Newtonian nanofluid in coils made of square cross section tubes is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFDapproach, where the nanofluid properties are treated as functions of particle volumetric concentration and temperature. The results indicate that addition of small amounts of nanoparticles up to 1% improves significantly the heat transfer performance; however, further addition tends to deteriorate heat transfer performance.

  17. Effect of particle loading on heat transfer enhancement in a gas-solid suspension cross flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周劲松; 骆仲泱; 高翔; 倪明江; 岑可法

    2002-01-01

    Heat transfer between gas-solid multiphase flow and tubes occurs in m a ny industry processes, such as circulating fluidized bed process, pneumatic conv eying process, chemical process, drying process, etc. This paper focuses on the influence of the presence of particles on the heat transfer between a tube and g as-solid suspension. The presence of particles causes positive enhancement of h e at transfer in the case of high solid loading ratio, but heat transfer reduction has been found for in the case of very low solid loading ratio (Ms of les s than 0.05 kg/kg). A useful correlation incorporating solid loading ratio, particle s ize and flow Reynolds number was derived from experimental data. In addition, th e k-ε two-equation model and the Fluctuation-Spectrum- Random-Trajecto ry Model ( FSRT Model) are used to simulate the flow field and heat transfer of the gas-ph a se and the solid-phase, respectively. Through coupling of the two phases the mo d el can predict the local and total heat transfer characteristics of tube in gas - solid cross flow. For the total heat transfer enhancement due to particles loadi ng the model predictions agreed well with experimental data.

  18. Enhancement of heat transfer between two horizontal liquid layers by gas injection at the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with investigations concerning the cone melt-concrete interaction the enhancement of heat transfer between two horizontal liquid layers by gas injection has been studied using two systems - oil over water and oil over Wood metal - with very different density ratios. For the largest gas injection rate (superficial gas velocity 0.63 cm/s) the heat transfer coefficient is increased by nearly a factor 400 for oil over water and by about a factor of ten for oil over Wood metal. In the core melt-concrete interaction the superficial gas velocities might be even higher, therefore the gas-induced enhancement of interfacial heat transfer should be taken into account. (orig.)

  19. 管壳式换热器壳程的传热强化%Heat Transfer Enhancement in Shell Side of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若兰; 丁杰; 霍正齐

    2014-01-01

    This article described heat transfer enhancement technology in shell side of the shell and tube heat ex-changer, sketched a typical structure and performance of shell side of heat exchanger, analyzed heat transfer en-hancement mechanism.%本文介绍管壳式换热器壳程的强化传热技术,简述换热器壳程的典型结构、性能,分析强化传热机理。

  20. Constitutive expression of the barley dehydrin gene aba2 enhances Arabidopsis germination in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calestani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins (DHNs are a sub-family of the late embryogenesis abundant proteins generally induced during development of desiccation tolerance in seeds and water deficit or salinity stress in plants. Nevertheless, a detailed understanding of the DHNs function is still lacking. In this work we investigated the possible protective role during salt stress of a Dhn from Hordeum vulgare (L., aba2. The coding sequence of the aba2 gene was constitutively expressed in transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.. During salt stress conditions germination rate, cotyledon expansion and greening were greatly improved in the transgenic lines as compared to the wild type. Between 98 and 100% of the transgenic seeds germinated after two weeks in media containing up to 250 mM NaCl, and 90% after 22 days at 300 mM NaCl. In conditions of 200 mM NaCl 93% of the transgenic cotyledons had greened after two weeks, outperforming the wild type by 45%. Our study provides further evidence that DHNs have an important role in salt stress tolerance. The production of plants constitutively expressing DHNs could be an effective strategy to improve plant breeding programs.

  1. AtTCTP2, an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein, enhances in vitro plant regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eToscano-Morales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP is a central regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation in animals, and probably also in plants. Arabidopsis harbors two TCTP genes, AtTCTP1 (At3g16640, which is an important mitotic regulator, and AtTCTP2 (At3g05540, which is considered a pseudogene. Nevertheless, we have obtained evidence suggesting that this gene is functional. Indeed, a T-DNA insertion mutant, SALK_045146, displays a lethal phenotype during early rosette stage. Also, both the AtTCTP2 promoter and structural gene are functional, and heterozygous plants show delayed development. AtTCTP1 cannot compensate for the loss of AtTCTP2, since the accumulation levels of the AtTCTP1 transcript are even higher in heterozygous plants than in wild-type plants. Leaf explants transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring AtTCTP2, but not AtTCTP1, led to whole plant regeneration with a high frequency. Insertion of a sequence present in AtTCTP1 but absent in AtTCP2 demonstrates that this suppresses the capacity for plant regeneration; also, this phenomenon requires the presence of TCTP (AtTCTP1 or 2 in the nuclei of root cells. This confirms that AtTCTP2 is not a pseudogene and suggests the involvement of certain TCTP isoforms in vegetative reproduction in some plant species.

  2. A chimeric protein of aluminum-activated malate transporter generated from wheat and Arabidopsis shows enhanced response to trivalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Ryan, Peter R; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    TaALMT1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and AtALMT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encode aluminum (Al)-activated malate transporters, which confer acid-soil tolerance by releasing malate from roots. Chimeric proteins from TaALMT1 and AtALMT1 (Ta::At, At::Ta) were previously analyzed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Those studies showed that Al could activate malate efflux from the Ta::At chimera but not from At::Ta. Here, functions of TaALMT1, AtALMT1 and the chimeric protein Ta::At were compared in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. We focused on the sensitivity and specificity of their activation by trivalent cations. The activation of malate efflux by Al was at least two-fold greater in the chimera than the native proteins. All proteins were also activated by lanthanides (erbium, ytterbium, gadolinium, and lanthanum), but the chimera again released more malate than TaALMT1 or AtALMT1. In Xenopus oocytes, Al, ytterbium, and erbium activated inward currents from the native TaALMT1 and the chimeric protein, but gadolinium only activated currents from the chimera. Lanthanum inhibited currents from both proteins. These results demonstrated that function of the chimera protein was altered compared to the native proteins and was more responsive to a range of trivalent cations when expressed in plant cells. PMID:27039280

  3. Sustained exposure to abscisic acid enhances the colonization potential of the mutualist fungus Piriformospora indica on Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskan-Berghöfer, Tatjana; Vilches-Barro, Amaya; Müller, Teresa M; Glawischnig, Erich; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Rausch, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Root colonization by the beneficial fungus Piriformospora indica is controlled by plant innate immunity, but factors that channel this interaction into a mutualistic relationship are not known. We have explored the impact of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmotic stress on the P. indica interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana. The activation of plant innate immunity in roots was determined by measuring the concentration of the phytoalexin camalexin and expression of transcription factors regulating the biosynthesis of tryptophan-related defence metabolites. Furthermore, the impact of the fungus on the content of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-related metabolites was examined. We demonstrated that treatment with exogenous ABA or the ABA analogue pyrabactin increased fungal colonization efficiency without impairment of plant fitness. Concomitantly, ABA-deficient mutants of A. thaliana (aba1-6 and aba2-1) were less colonized, while plants exposed to moderate stress were more colonized than corresponding controls. Sustained exposure to ABA attenuated expression of transcription factors MYB51, MYB122 and WRKY33 in roots upon P. indica challenge or chitin treatment, and prevented an increase in camalexin content. The results indicate that ABA can strengthen the interaction with P. indica as a consequence of its impact on plant innate immunity. Consequently, ABA will be relevant for the establishment and outcome of the symbiosis under stress conditions.

  4. A Sweetpotato Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthase Gene, IbGGPS, Increases Carotenoid Content and Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato highly produces carotenoids in storage roots. In this study, a cDNA encoding geranylgeranyl phyrophosphate synthase (GGPS, named IbGGPS, was isolated from sweetpotato storage roots. Green fluorescent protein (GFP was fused to the C-terminus of IbGGPS to obtain an IbGGPS-GFP fusion protein that was transiently expressed in both epidermal cells of onion and leaves of tobacco. Confocal microscopic analysis determined that the IbGGPS-GFP protein was localized to specific areas of the plasma membrane of onion and chloroplasts in tobacco leaves. The coding region of IbGGPS was cloned into a binary vector under the control of 35S promoter and then transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain transgenic plants. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed a significant increase of total carotenoids in transgenic plants. The seeds of transgenic and wild-type plants were germinated on an agar medium supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG. Transgenic seedlings grew significantly longer roots than wild-type ones did. Further enzymatic analysis showed an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in transgenic seedlings. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced in transgenics. qRT-PCR analysis showed altered expressions of several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis in transgenic plants. These data results indicate that IbGGPS is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in sweetpotato storage roots and likely associated with tolerance to osmotic stress.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of New Vortex Generator Enhancing Heat Exchange of Solar Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Juan; YANG Li; QI Cheng-ying

    2009-01-01

    This paper put forward a new-type vortex generator enhancing heat exchange of solar air-drier and air-heater on the gas side,and investigated the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement and drag reduction by the influence of vortex generators on the coherent structure of turbulent boundary layer.The flow and heat transfer characteristics of rectangle channel with bevel-cut half-elliptical column vortex generators were obtained using large eddy simulation (LES) and the hydromechanics software FLUENT6.3.The instantaneous proper-ties of velocity,temperature and pressure in channel were gained.The coherent structure of turbulent boundary layer flow was showed, and the characteristic of vortex induced by inclined-cut semi-ellipse vortex generator and its influence on turbulent coherent structure were analyzed.And the effect mechanism of turbulent coherent structure on flow field,pressure field and temperature field was discussed.Based on the results,the heat trans-fer coefficient and drag reduction of the new vortex generator with different pitch angles were compared.Some-times.the coherent effects of the increased wall heat transfer and the decreased skin friction do not satisfy theReynolds analogy.The turbulent coherent structure can be controlled through the geometry of the vortex gener-ator.so the heat transfer and drag reduction can also be controlled.Then we can seek suitable form of vortex generator and structure parameters.in order to achieve the enhanced heat transfer and flow of drag reduction in the solar air-heater and solar air-drier.

  6. Further understanding of twisted tape effects as tube insert for heat transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Khader, Mazen M. [Al-Balqa Applied University, Department of Chemical Engineering, FET, Amman (Jordan)

    2006-12-15

    Tube inserts are used as heat transfer enhancement tool for both retrofit and new design of shell and tube heat exchangers. This paper discusses and reviews the characteristics and performance of twisted tapes. The theory and application are also addressed. Industrial case study was selected to illustrate the behaviour effect that the twisted tapes impose at various laminar, transition and turbulent flow regions. This effect was demonstrated by changing the inside tube diameter and twist ratio through evaluating selected exchanger design parameters such as: local heat transfer coefficient, friction factor and pressure drop. Testing the exponent powers for Re and Pr at both laminar and turbulent regions were carried out. General design considerations are outlined for the use of twisted tapes in shell and tube heat exchangers. (orig.)

  7. Further understanding of twisted tape effects as tube insert for heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Khader, Mazen M.

    2006-12-01

    Tube inserts are used as heat transfer enhancement tool for both retrofit and new design of shell and tube heat exchangers. This paper discusses and reviews the characteristics and performance of twisted tapes. The theory and application are also addressed. Industrial case study was selected to illustrate the behaviour effect that the twisted tapes impose at various laminar, transition and turbulent flow regions. This effect was demonstrated by changing the inside tube diameter and twist ratio through evaluating selected exchanger design parameters such as: local heat transfer coefficient, friction factor and pressure drop. Testing the exponent powers for Re and Pr at both laminar and turbulent regions were carried out. General design considerations are outlined for the use of twisted tapes in shell and tube heat exchangers.

  8. Hybrid Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Enhanced Phase-Change Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han; Yun, Hyung Duk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-02-10

    Nucleate boiling is an effective heat transfer method in power generation systems and cooling devices. In this letter, hybrid graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), graphene, and SWCNT films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces were fabricated to investigate the enhancement of nucleate boiling phenomena described by the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient. The graphene films were grown on Cu foils and transferred to ITO surfaces. Furthermore, SWCNTs were deposited on the graphene layer to fabricate hybrid graphene/SWCNT films. We determined that the hybrid graphene/SWCNT film deposited on an ITO surface is the most effective heat transfer surface in pool boiling because of the interconnected network of carbon structures.

  9. Dendritic-tumor fusion cells derived heat shock protein70-peptide complex has enhanced immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfei; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Yunyan; Luo, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-derived heat shock protein70-peptide complexes (HSP70.PC-Tu) have shown great promise in tumor immunotherapy due to numerous advantages. However, large-scale phase III clinical trials showed that the limited immunogenicity remained to be enhanced. In previous research, we demonstrated that heat shock protein 70-peptide complexes (HSP70.PC-Fc) derived from dendritic cell (DC)-tumor fusions exhibit enhanced immunogenicity compared with HSP70.PCs from tumor cells. However, the DCs used in our previous research were obtained from healthy donors and not from the patient population. In order to promote the clinical application of these complexes, HSP70.PC-Fc was prepared from patient-derived DC fused directly with patient-derived tumor cells in the current study. Our results showed that compared with HSP70.PC-Tu, HSP70.PC-Fc elicited much more powerful immune responses against the tumor from which the HSP70 was derived, including enhanced T cell activation, and CTL responses that were shown to be antigen specific and HLA restricted. Our results further indicated that the enhanced immunogenicity is related to the activation of CD4+ T cells and increased association with other heat shock proteins, such as HSP90. Therefore, the current study confirms the enhanced immunogenicity of HSP70.PC derived from DC-tumor fusions and may provide direct evidence promoting their future clinical use.

  10. Flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement by using magnetic nanofluids and external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the nanofluid as a working fluid, we can expect the enhancement in the flow boiling critical heat flux mainly due to the deposition of nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface. In this study, we suggest the magnetic nanofluid, or magnetite-water nanofluid, as a working fluid which is regarded as a controllable nanofluid, that is, nanoparticles or magnetite nanoparticles in a nanofluid can be controlled by an external magnetic field. Therefore, we can expect the advantages of magnetic nanofluid such as, i) control of nanofluid concentration to maintain nanoparticle suspension and to localize nanofluid concentration, and ii) removal of nanoparticle from nanofluid when we want. In this study, we focused on the investigation of flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics for the magnetic nanofluid. Series of experiments were performed under the low pressure and low flow conditions, and based on the experimental results; we can conclude that the use of magnetic nanofluid improves the flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics. This is mainly due to the deposition of magnetite nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface, which results in the improvement of wettability and re-wetting characteristics of heat transfer surface. Preliminary results of the magnetic field effects on the flow boiling critical heat flux would be presented also. (author)

  11. 换热器的选择使用及强化传热%Alternative Use and Enhanced Heat Transfer of Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽

    2011-01-01

    换热器作为一种交换热量的设备,具有强化传热措施传热阻力小、传热能力大的特点,也使换热器的应用更加广泛。要选择适合于生产系统的换热器,就需要了解各种换热器的性能和特点,笔者从换热器的特点和换热器强化传热的方式分析,以此提高换热器的节能效果。%As a kind of equipment to exchange heat, heat exchanger is more widely used by making use of enhanced heat transfer measure's features of small heat transmission resistance and great heat transmission capability. To choose heat exchanger suitable to production system requires understanding of performance and characteristics of all kinds of heat exchangers. This paper analyzes the method of enhanced heat transfer and the characteristics of heat exchanger, which enhances the energy saving effect of heat exchanger.

  12. Dehydration induced loss of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis leaves during senescence is accompanied by the reversible enhancement in the activity of cell wall β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Lichita; Mohapatra, Pranab Kishor; Biswal, Udaya Chand; Biswal, Basanti

    2014-08-01

    The physiology of loss of photosynthetic production of sugar and the consequent cellular sugar reprogramming during senescence of leaves experiencing environmental stress largely remains unclear. We have shown that leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana causes a significant reduction in the rate of oxygen evolution and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). The decline in photosynthesis is further aggravated by dehydration. During dehydration, primary photochemical reaction of thylakoids and net photosynthesis decrease in parallel with the increase in water deficit. Senescence induced loss in photosynthesis is accompanied by a significant increase in the activity of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme such as β-glucosidase associated with cell wall catabolism. The activity of this enzyme is further enhanced when the senescing leaves experience dehydration stress. It is possible that both senescence and stress separately or in combination result in the loss in photosynthesis which could be a signal for an enhancement in the activity of β-glucosidase that breaks down cell wall polysaccharides to sugar to sustain respiration for metabolic activities of plants experiencing stress. Thus dehydration response of cell wall hydrolases of senescing leaves is considered as plants' strategy to have cell wall polysaccharides as an alternative energy source for completion of energy requiring senescence process, stress survival and maintenance of recovery potential of energy deficit cells in the background of loss in photosynthesis. Withdrawal of stress (rehydration) distinctly exhibits recovery of photosynthesis and suppression of enzyme activity. Retention of the signaling for sugar reprogramming through breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides in the senescing leaves exposed to severe drought stress suggests that senescing leaves like mature ones possess potential for stress recovery. The precise mechanism of stress adaptation of senescing leaves is yet to be known. A significant

  13. Numerical study on the effective heating due to inertial cavitation in microbubble-enhanced HIFU therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2015-10-01

    The enhancement of heating due to inertial cavitation was focused in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. The influences of the rectified diffusion on microbubble-enhanced HIFU were examined numerically. A bubble dynamics equation in consideration of the spherical shell bubble and the elasticity of surrounding tissue was employed. Mass and heat transfer between the surrounding medium and the bubble were considered. The basic equations were discretized by finite difference method. The mixture phase and bubbles are coupled by the Euler-Lagrange method to take into account the interaction between ultrasound and bubbles. The mass transfer rate of gas from the surrounding medium to the bubble was examined as function of the initial bubble radius and the driving pressure amplitude. As the results, the pressure required to bubble growth was decreases with increasing the initial bubble radius. Thus, the injection of microbubble reduces the cavitation threshold pressure. On the other hand, the influence of the rectified diffusion on the triggered HIFU therapy which generates cavitation bubbles by high-intensity burst and induces the localized heating owing to cavitation bubble oscillation by low-intensity continuous waves. The calculation showed that the localized heating was enhanced by the increase of the equilibrium bubble size due to the rectified diffusion.

  14. Enhance heat transfer in the channel with V-shaped wavy lower plate using liquid nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azher M. Abed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer and flow characteristics in corrugated with V-shape lower plate using nanofluids are numerically studied. The computations are performed on uniform heat flux over a range of Reynolds number (Re 8000–20,000. The governing equations are numerically solved in the domain by a finite volume method (FVM using the k–ε standard turbulent model. Studies are carried out for different types of nanoparticles Al2O3,CuO, SiO2 and ZnO with different volume fractions in the range of 0–4%. Three different types of base fluid (water, glycerin, ethylene glycol are also examined. Results indicated that the average Nusselt number for nanofluids is greater than that of the base liquid. The SiO2 nanofluid yields the best heat transfer enhancement among all other type of nanofluids. Heat transfer enhancement increase with increases the volumetric concentration, but it is accompanied by increasing pressure drop values. Moreover, the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in Reynolds number and volume concentration. The SiO2–glycerin nanofluid has the highest Nusselt number compared with other base fluids. The present study shows that these V-shaped wavy channels have advantages by using nanofluids and thus serve as promising candidates for incorporation into efficient heat transfer devices.

  15. Heat transfer enhancement through PCM thermal storage by use of copper fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudonja Nedžad R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of heat transfer over a cylinder shaped thermal energy storage filled by paraffin E53 by use of radial rectangular copper fins was analyzed. The thermo-physical features of the storage material are determined in separate experiments and implemented to Fluent software over UDF. Advanced thermal storage geometry comprehension and optimization required introduction of a parameter suitable for the analysis of heat transfer enhancement, so the ratio of heat transfer surfaces as a factor was proposed and applied. It is revealed that increase of the ratio of heat transfer surfaces leads to the decrease of melting time and vice versa. Numerical analysis, employing the 3D model built in Ansys software, observed storage reservoir geometries with variable number of longitudinal radial fins. The adjusted set of boundary conditions was carried out and both written in C language and implemented over UDF in order to define variable heat flux along the height of the heater. The comparison of acquired numerical and experimental results showed a strong correlation. Experimental validation of numerical results was done on the real TES apparatus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42011, TR 33042 i OI 176006

  16. Heat transfer enhancement of free surface MHD-flow by a protrusion wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect on the flow, which degrades heat transfer coefficients by pulsation suppression of external magnetic field on the flow, a hemispherical protrusion wall is applied to free surface MHD-flow system as a heat transfer enhancement, because the hemispherical protrusion wall has some excellent characteristics including high heat transfer coefficients, low friction factors and high overall thermal performances. So, the characteristics of the fluid flow and heat transfer of the free surface MHD-flow with hemispherical protrusion wall are simulated numerically and the influence of some parameters, such as protrusion height δ/D, and Hartmann number, are also discussed in this paper. It is found that, in the range of Hartmann number 30 ≤ Ha ≤ 70, the protrusion wall assemblies can achieve heat transfer enhancements (Nu/Nu0) of about 1.3-2.3 relative to the smooth channel, while the friction loss (f/f0) increases by about 1.34-1.45. Thus, the high Nusselt number can be obtained when the protrusion wall with a radically lower friction loss increase, which may help get much higher overall thermal performances.

  17. Heat-transfer enhancement in AC electro-osmotic micro-flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. P.; Speetjens, M. F. M.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Heat transfer in micro-flows is essential to emerging technologies as advanced microelectronics cooling systems and chemical processes in lab-on-a-chip applications. The present study explores the potential of AC electro-osmotic (ACEO) flow forcing, a promising technique for the actuation and manipulation of micro-flows, for heat-transfer enhancement. Subjects of investigation include the 3D flow structure due to ACEO forcing via an array of electrodes in a micro-channel by way of 3D velocity measurements. Presence and properties of vortical structures of the 3D flow are quantified in laboratory experiments. Typical outcomes of the experimental study result from a number of 3D particle trajectories obtained by using 3D micro-Particle-Tracking Velocimetry (3D μ-PTV). The steady nature of the flow enables combination of results from a series of measurements into one dense data set. This facilitates accurate evaluation of quantities relevant for heat transfer by data-processing methods. The primary circulation is given above one half of an electrode in terms of the spanwise component of vorticity. The outline of the vortex boundary is determined via the eigenvalues of the strain-rate tensor. To estimate convective heat transfer, wall shear rate above one half of an electrode is quantitatively analyzed as function of voltage amplitude and frequency. These results yield first insights into the characteristics of 3D ACEO flows and ways to exploit and manipulate them for heat-transfer enhancement.

  18. Enhancement of minority carrier diffusion length in grains of cast Si by hydrogen heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.; Duenas-Santos, F.; del Valle, J. L.

    Minority carrier diffusion length (mcdl) enhancement in the bulk of grains of cast poly-silicon for solar cells has been produced by hydrogen heat treatments. Measurements made by LBIC method, showed an increase of mcdl in the bulk of grains from a mean value of 53 microns to a mean value of 69 microns, before and after the hydrogen heat treatments, respectively, under white light illumination. A mean increase ratio of 33% in the mcdl was obtained in a reproducible way and it was verified that hydrogen was effectively responsible. This result clearly establishes the hydrogen passivating role in this material

  19. Six-phase soil heating for enhanced removal of contaminants during soil vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six-phase soil heating (SPSH) is a technique that uses low-frequency electricity to resistively heat soils as an enhancement to soil vapor extraction. This paper details a demonstration of SPSH at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The method removed 99.7% (median) of perchloroethylene from the clay zone within the electrode array and accelerated the removal of volatile organic compounds as compared to vapor extraction alone. The implementation of SPSH to treat soil at the Rocky Flats plant is also summarized

  20. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE-ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2013-04-15

    An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Nanoparticle-Enhanced Ionic Liquids (NEILs) Heat-Transfer Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Amoroso, Jake W.

    2013-06-20

    An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

  2. Low-Temperature Enhanced Geothermal System using Carbon Dioxide as the Heat-Transfer Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Alan D. [GreenFire Energy, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2014-07-24

    This report describes work toward a supercritical CO2-based EGS system at the St. Johns Dome in Eastern Arizona, including a comprehensive literature search on CO2-based geothermal technologies, background seismic study, geological information, and a study of the possible use of metal oxide heat carriers to enhance the heat capacity of sCO2. It also includes cost estimates for the project, and the reasons why the project would probably not be cost effective at the proposed location.

  3. Enhancement of heat radiative characteristics of coatings by ultra-attenuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehong Xia; Yonghong Wu

    2004-01-01

    The absorption process of radiative heat in its transmission medium and the effect of ultra-attenuation on the radiative characteristics are analyzed in detail. A method of ultra-attenuation to enhance the radiative characteristics of the medium is proposed. It is proved that decreasing the particle size of coatings can increase the transmission depth of radiative heat and get higher emissivity and absorptivity both theoretically and practically. Ultra-attenuation and nanocrystallization will bring a brilliant prospect to the development of radiative coatings.

  4. Ectopic expression of a stress-inducible glycosyltransferase from saffron enhances salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis while alters anchor root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Climent, María Fernanda López; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Glycosyltransferases play diverse roles in cellular metabolism by modifying the activities of regulatory metabolites. Three stress-regulated UDP-glucosyltransferase-encoding genes have been isolated from the stigmas of saffron, UGT85U1, UGT85U2 and UGT85V1, which belong to the UGT85 family that includes members associated with stress responses and cell cycle regulation. Arabidopsis constitutively expressing UGT85U1 exhibited and increased anchor root development. No differences were observed in the timing of root emergence, in leaf, stem and flower morphology or flowering time. However, salt and oxidative stress tolerance was enhanced in these plants. Levels of glycosylated compounds were measured in these plants and showed changes in the composition of several indole-derivatives. Moreover, auxin levels in the roots were higher compared to wild type. The expression of several key genes related to root development and auxin homeostasis, including CDKB2.1, CDKB2.2, PIN2, 3 and 4; TIR1, SHR, and CYCD6, were differentially regulated with an increase of expression level of SHR, CYCD6, CDKB2.1 and PIN2. The obtained results showed that UGT85U1 takes part in root growth regulation via auxin signal alteration and the modified expression of cell cycle-related genes, resulting in significantly improved survival during oxidative and salt stress treatments.

  5. Nucleolin enhances the proliferation and migration of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bimei; Li, Yuanbin; Liang, Pengfei; Liu, Yanjuan; Huang, Xu; Tong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Denatured dermis, a part of dermis in burned skin, has the ability to restore its normal morphology and functions after their surrounding microenvironment is improved. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the denatured dermis could improve wound healing are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts. Nucleolin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased time-dependently during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts (52 °C, 30 seconds). Heat-denaturation promoted a time-dependent cell proliferation, migration, chemotaxis, and scratched wound healing during the recovery of human dermal fibroblasts. These effects were prevented by knockdown of nucleolin expression with small interference RNA (siRNA), whereas overexpression of nucleolin enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts with heat-denaturation. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) was significantly increased during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and human dermal fibroblasts. TGF-β1 expression was up-regulated by nucleolin in human dermal fibroblasts. The results suggest that nucleolin expression is up-regulated, and play an important role in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis with a mechanism probably related to TGF-β1. PMID:26148015

  6. An Approach to Enhance the Efficiency of a Brownian Heat Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Ping; HE Ji-Zhou; XIAO Yu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    A Brownian microscopic heat engine, driven by temperature difference and consisting of a Brownian particle moving in a sawtooth potential with an external load, is investigated. The heat Hows, driven by both potential and kinetic energies, are taken into account. Based on the master equation, the expressions for efficiency and power output are derived analytically, and performance characteristic curves are plotted. It is shown that the heat How via the kinetic energy of the particle decreases. The efficiency of the engine is enhanced, but the power output reduces as the a shape parameter of the sawtooth potential increases. The influence of the a shape parameter on efficiency and power output is then analyzed in detail.%A Brownian microscopic heat engine,driven by temperature difference and consisting of a Brownian particle moving in a sawtooth potential with an external load,is investigated.The heat flows,driven by both potential and kinetic energies,are taken into account.Based on the master equation,the expressions for efficiency and power output are derived analytically,and performance characteristic curves are plotted.It is shown that the heat flow via the kinetic energy of the particle decreases.The efficiency of the engine is enhanced,but the power output reduces as the α shape parameter of the sawtooth potential increases.The influence of the α shape parameter on efficiency and power output is then analyzed in detail.Like the Carnot cycle,the Brownian heat engine can extract work from the temperature difference between heat reservoirs,where the Brownian working material operates as a transducer of thermal energy into mechanical work.In the last few decades,the study of Brownian heat engines has received considerable attention,not only for the construction of the miniaturized engine that helps us utilize energy resources at microscopic scales,but also for a better understanding of nonequilibrium statistical physics.[1-3] The thermodynamic properties of the

  7. Modulation of ethylene- and heat-controlled hyponastic leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana by the plant defence hormones jasmonate and salicylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, M. van; Ritsema, T.; Polko, J.K.; Leon-Reyes, A.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Millenaar, F.F.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Peeters, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Upward leaf movement (hyponastic growth) is adopted by several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, as a mechanism to escape adverse growth conditions. Among the signals that trigger hyponastic growth are, the gaseous hormone ethylene, low light intensities, and supra-optimal temperatures (

  8. Optimizing critical heat flux enhancement through nano-particle-based surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal dispersions of nano-particles, also known as nano-fluids, have shown to yield significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. The CHF enhancement mechanism in nano-fluids is due to the buildup of a porous layer of nano-particles upon boiling. Unlike microporous coatings that had been studied extensively, nano-particles have the advantages of forming a thin layer on the substrate with surface roughness ranges from the sub-micron to several microns. By tuning the chemical properties it is possible to coat the nano-particles in colloidal dispersions onto the desired surface, as has been demonstrated in engineering thin film industry. Building on recent work conducted at MIT, this paper illustrates the maximum CHF enhancement that can be achieved based on existing correlations. Optimization of the CHF enhancement by incorporation of key factors, such as the surface wettability and roughness, will also be discussed. (authors)

  9. Exergo-economic criteria for performance evaluation of enhanced heat transfer duct with constant wall temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics with the exergo-economic theory, the exergy-economic performance of enhanced duct in comparison with reference smooth duct subjected to constant wall temperature have been examined comprehensively under three design constraints. Extended exergo-economic performance evaluation criteria formulas, i.e., the net profit per unit transferred heat load (ηp) and the total cost per unit transferred heat load (ηc) have been obtained from the perspectives of exergy recovery and exergy destruction respectively, accounting for all potential factors such as heat transfer, flow and investment costs. The application of exergo-economic performance evaluation based on ηp and ηc is illustrated by selecting a spirally corrugated duct as an example. The results for different design constraints show that the exergo-economic performance of enhanced duct is largely determined by Reynolds number (Rea) and dimensionless inlet temperature difference (θ). There exist critical values of Rea and θ exceeding which ηp of enhanced and smooth ducts would be less than zero, showing no engineering significance; however, ηc of enhanced and smooth ducts is unconditionally greater than zero due to their specific physical meaning. For all the three design constraints, better exergo-economic performance for enhanced duct can be achieved provided that Rea and θ are in the desirable ranges. - Highlights: ► Extended exergo-economic performance evaluation criteria for enhanced duct with constant wall temperature are put forward. ► The performance evaluation from the perspectives of exergy recovery and exergy destruction respectively has been conducted. ► The effects of Reynolds number and dimensionless inlet temperature difference on exergo-economic performance are studied. ► The performance evaluation difference for various design constraints is given.

  10. Survey of ICRF heating experiments and enhanced performance modes in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Y.; Boivin, R.L.; Bonoli, P.T. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Results of ICRF heating experiments in Alcator C-Mod during the November 1994 to June 1995 campaign are summarized. Efficient heating of high-density (nbar{sub e} ``heating at 5.3 T, near complete absorption is achieved. Energy confinement in L-mode plasmas was found to be consistent with the ITER89-P scaling. H-mode is routinely observed when the ion {nabla}B drift is directed toward the X-point. The H-mode power threshold was found to scale as low as P/S(MW m{sup -2}) = 0.02 nbar {sub e}B{sub T}(10{sup 20} m{sup -3} T), which is a factor of two lower than the scaling observed on other tokamaks. PEP modes with highly peaked density and ion temperature profiles and highly enhanced fusion reactivity were obtained with Li pellet injection followed by on-axis ICRF heating at both B{sub T} = 5.3 T (H minority heating) and 8 T ({sup 3}He minority heating). In H-{sup 3}He plasmas at B{sub T} = 6.5 T highly localized direct electron heating by the mode converted ion Bernstein wave was observed. Nearly complete absorption by electrons in a small volume resulted in an extremely high electron heating power density of P{sub eO} ``

  11. Heat Transfer Enhancement By Three-Dimensional Surface Roughness Technique In Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Umair

    This thesis experimentally investigates the enhancement of single-phase heat transfer, frictional loss and pressure drop characteristics in a Single Heater Element Loop Tester (SHELT). The heater element simulates a single fuel rod for Pressurized Nuclear reactor. In this experimental investigation, the effect of the outer surface roughness of a simulated nuclear rod bundle was studied. The outer surface of a simulated fuel rod was created with a three-dimensional (Diamond-shaped blocks) surface roughness. The angle of corrugation for each diamond was 45 degrees. The length of each side of a diamond block is 1 mm. The depth of each diamond block was 0.3 mm. The pitch of the pattern was 1.614 mm. The simulated fuel rod had an outside diameter of 9.5 mm and wall thickness of 1.5 mm and was placed in a test-section made of 38.1 mm inner diameter, wall thickness 6.35 mm aluminum pipe. The Simulated fuel rod was made of Nickel 200 and Inconel 625 materials. The fuel rod was connected to 10 KW DC power supply. The Inconel 625 material of the rod with an electrical resistance of 32.3 kO was used to generate heat inside the test-section. The heat energy dissipated from the Inconel tube due to the flow of electrical current flows into the working fluid across the rod at constant heat flux conditions. The DI water was employed as working fluid for this experimental investigation. The temperature and pressure readings for both smooth and rough regions of the fuel rod were recorded and compared later to find enhancement in heat transfer coefficient and increment in the pressure drops. Tests were conducted for Reynold's Numbers ranging from 10e4 to 10e5. Enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all Re was recorded. The maximum heat transfer co-efficient enhancement recorded was 86% at Re = 4.18e5. It was also observed that the pressure drop and friction factor increased by 14.7% due to the increased surface roughness.

  12. Overexpression of a common wheat gene TaSnRK2.8 enhances tolerance to drought, salt and low temperature in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Zhang

    Full Text Available Drought, salinity and low temperatures are major factors limiting crop productivity and quality. Sucrose non-fermenting1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 plays a key role in abiotic stress signaling in plants. In this study, TaSnRK2.8, a SnRK2 member in wheat, was cloned and its functions under multi-stress conditions were characterized. Subcellular localization showed the presence of TaSnRK2.8 in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. Expression pattern analyses in wheat revealed that TaSnRK2.8 was involved in response to PEG, NaCl and cold stresses, and possibly participates in ABA-dependent signal transduction pathways. To investigate its role under various environmental stresses, TaSnRK2.8 was transferred to Arabidopsis under control of the CaMV-35S promoter. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.8 resulted in enhanced tolerance to drought, salt and cold stresses, further confirmed by longer primary roots and various physiological characteristics, including higher relative water content, strengthened cell membrane stability, significantly lower osmotic potential, more chlorophyll content, and enhanced PSII activity. Meanwhile, TaSnRK2.8 plants had significantly lower total soluble sugar levels under normal growing conditions, suggesting that TaSnRK2.8 might be involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, the transcript levels of ABA biosynthesis (ABA1, ABA2, ABA signaling (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, stress-responsive genes, including two ABA-dependent genes (RD20A, RD29B and three ABA-independent genes (CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, were generally higher in TaSnRK2.8 plants than in WT/GFP controls under normal/stress conditions. Our results suggest that TaSnRK2.8 may act as a regulatory factor involved in a multiple stress response pathways.

  13. THEORETICAL STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN PIPE WITH POROUS BODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the fluid flow and heat transferin a pipe with porous body of high porosity twis ted by metal wire was carried out. A theoretical model of a circular pipe with porous matrix attached at the channel wall and extended inward the centerline was set up. Through ana lyzing the flow in the porous matrix by the Brinkman-extend ed-Darcy equation and through including the effect of disper sion by adding the dispersion coefficient into the energy equa tion, the theoretical solutions of velocity distribution and temperature fields were obtained. Finally the effect of the properties of the porous matrix on the flow and heat transfer in the porous body was studied, which indicates that dispersion can really enhance the heat transfer in pipe.

  14. Performance enhancement of a heat pump system with ice storage subcooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Ming-Jer [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, No.568 Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou, Taiwan 54243 (China); Kuo, Yu-Fu; Cheng, Chiao-Hung; Chen, Sih-Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec.4 Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Shen, Chih-Chiu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, No.250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan 40227 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This article experimentally investigates the thermal performance of a heat pump system with an ice storage subcooler. The system supplies heating and cooling demands to two greenhouses with temperature ranging 308{proportional_to}323 K and 273{proportional_to}291 K respectively and utilizes an ice storage tank to subcool the condensed refrigerant, which can enhance the system coefficient of performance (COP). The ice storage tank charges for storing ice, when the cooling load is less than the nominal cooling capacity. While the cooling load is larger than the nominal cooling capacity, the ice storage tank discharges for subcooling. The results show that in the charge mode the heat pump COP of ice storage system is 12% higher than that without ice storage tank. Under the discharge mode, the ice storage system provides the refrigerator COP 15% higher than that without ice storage tank. (author)

  15. Controlling Spatial Heat and Light Distribution by Using Photothermal Enhancing Auto-Regulated Liposomes (PEARLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenneth K; Weersink, Robert A; Lim, Liang; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2016-08-16

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is enhanced by the use of nanoparticles with a large optical absorption at the treatment wavelength. However, this comes at the cost of higher light attenuation that results in reduced depth of heating as well as larger thermal gradients, leading to potential over- and under-treatment in the target tissue. These limitations can be overcome by using photothermal enhancing auto-regulating liposomes (PEARLs), based on thermochromic J-aggregate forming dye-lipid conjugates that reversibly alter their absorption above a predefined lipid phase-transition temperature. Under irradiation by near-infrared light, deeper layers of the target tissue revert to the intrinsic optical absorption, halting the temperature rise and enabling greater light penetration and heat generation at depth. This effect is demonstrated in both nanoparticle solutions and in gel phantoms containing the nanoparticles. PMID:27411830

  16. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2-12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI.

  17. Experimental and numerical studies of single-phase heat transfer enhancement in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel-element appendages affect the thermalhydraulic performance of a CANDU fuel channel by increasing its pressure drop and enhancing fuel-to-coolant heat transfer. The high cost of characterization of these effects through experiments provides incentive to develop reliable numerical methodologies by which to quantify relevant parametric trends. Recent studies at Chalk River Laboratories indicate that the current capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are adequate to assess the fuel-appendage effects under normal operating (single-phase) conditions from simulations alone. This paper describes the experimental work undertaken to provide data for validation of CFD models used in the numerical assessment of appendage effects, and presents preliminary results of a validation study completed with the TASCflow software. Heat transfer and pressure drop in single-phase flow through a vertical pipe obstructed by a cylindrical ring were investigated experimentally in the MR-7A loop at Chalk River Laboratories using Freon-134a as a coolant. The test section was a vertical 8 mm ID directly heated tube, made of Inconel 600. Two ring-shaped flow obstructions were tested; they reduced the flow area by 17.8% and 30%. The presence of the flow obstructions enhanced heat transfer up to 38% and 61%, respectively. These significant changes were observed in the downstream region, over a very short distance behind the obstruction. The tests were carried out within the mass flux range between 1 and 6 Mg/m2s, and the highest relative heat-transfer enhancement occurred at 1 Mg/m2s. The pressure drop increase due to the flow obstructions was characterized by the form loss factor, K, which was found to be 0.18 and 0.45, for the 17.8% and 30% rings, respectively. 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  18. Operant conditioning of enhanced pain sensitivity by heat-pain titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Klossika, Iris; Hölzl, Rupert

    2008-11-15

    Operant conditioning mechanisms have been demonstrated to be important in the development of chronic pain. Most experimental studies have investigated the operant modulation of verbal pain reports with extrinsic reinforcement, such as verbal reinforcement. Whether this reflects actual changes in the subjective experience of the nociceptive stimulus remained unclear. This study replicates and extends our previous demonstration that enhanced pain sensitivity to prolonged heat-pain stimulation could be learned in healthy participants through intrinsic reinforcement (contingent changes in nociceptive input) independent of verbal pain reports. In addition, we examine whether different magnitudes of reinforcement differentially enhance pain sensitivity using an operant heat-pain titration paradigm. It is based on the previously developed non-verbal behavioral discrimination task for the assessment of sensitization, which uses discriminative down- or up-regulation of stimulus temperatures in response to changes in subjective intensity. In operant heat-pain titration, this discriminative behavior and not verbal pain report was contingently reinforced or punished by acute decreases or increases in heat-pain intensity. The magnitude of reinforcement was varied between three groups: low (N1=13), medium (N2=11) and high reinforcement (N3=12). Continuous reinforcement was applied to acquire and train the operant behavior, followed by partial reinforcement to analyze the underlying learning mechanisms. Results demonstrated that sensitization to prolonged heat-pain stimulation was enhanced by operant learning within 1h. The extent of sensitization was directly dependent on the received magnitude of reinforcement. Thus, operant learning mechanisms based on intrinsic reinforcement may provide an explanation for the gradual development of sustained hypersensitivity during pain that is becoming chronic. PMID:18774227

  19. Heterologous expression of a plant small heat-shock protein enhances Escherichia coli viability under heat and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, A; Allona, I; Collada, C; Guevara, M A; Casado, R; Rodriguez-Cerezo, E; Aragoncillo, C; Gomez, L

    1999-06-01

    A small heat-shock protein (sHSP) that shows molecular chaperone activity in vitro was recently purified from mature chestnut (Castanea sativa) cotyledons. This protein, renamed here as CsHSP17. 5, belongs to cytosolic class I, as revealed by cDNA sequencing and immunoelectron microscopy. Recombinant CsHSP17.5 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli to study its possible function under stress conditions. Upon transfer from 37 degrees C to 50 degrees C, a temperature known to cause cell autolysis, those cells that accumulated CsHSP17.5 showed improved viability compared with control cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of cell lysates suggested that such a protective effect in vivo is due to the ability of recombinant sHSP to maintain soluble cytosolic proteins in their native conformation, with little substrate specificity. To test the recent hypothesis that sHSPs may be involved in protection against cold stress, we also studied the viability of recombinant cells at 4 degrees C. Unlike the major heat-induced chaperone, GroEL/ES, the chestnut sHSP significantly enhanced cell survivability at this temperature. CsHSP17.5 thus represents an example of a HSP capable of protecting cells against both thermal extremes. Consistent with these findings, high-level induction of homologous transcripts was observed in vegetative tissues of chestnut plantlets exposed to either type of thermal stress but not salt stress.

  20. Optical clearing agent perfusion enhancement via combination of microneedle poration, heating and pneumatic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Damestani, Y; Melakeberhan, B; Rao, MP; Aguilar, G

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Optical clearing agents (OCAs) have shown promise for increasing the penetration depth of biomedical lasers by temporarily decreasing optical scattering within the skin. However, their translation to the clinic has been constrained by lack of practical means for effectively perfusing OCA within target tissues in vivo. The objective of this study was to address this limitation through combination of a variety of techniques to enhance OCA perfusion, including heating of...

  1. Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, Kevin [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Jovanovic, Goran [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Paul, Brian [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The document summarized the technical progress associated with OSU’s involvement in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. OSU focused on the development of microscale enhancement technologies for improving heat and mass transfer in automotive hydrogen storage systems. OSU’s key contributions included the development of an extremely compact microchannel combustion system for discharging hydrogen storage systems and a thermal management system for adsorption based hydrogen storage using microchannel cooling (the Modular Adsorption Tank Insert or MATI).

  2. Flow mechanism and heat transfer enhancement in longitudinal-flow tube bundle of shell-and-tube heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LIU ZhiChun; WANG YingShuang; HUANG SuYi

    2009-01-01

    ormer is superior to that of the latter.Compared with rod baffle heat exchanger,heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger under investigation is higher under same pressure drop,especially under the high Reynolds numbers.

  3. Boundary element method applied to a gas-fired pin-fin-enhanced heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C.E.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Drewien, C.A.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal conduction of a portion of an enhanced surface heat exchanger for a gas fired heat pipe solar receiver was modeled using the boundary element and finite element methods (BEM and FEM) to determine the effect of weld fillet size on performance of a stud welded pin fin. A process that could be utilized by others for designing the surface mesh on an object of interest, performing a conversion from the mesh into the input format utilized by the BEM code, obtaining output on the surface of the object, and displaying visual results was developed. It was determined that the weld fillet on the pin fin significantly enhanced the heat performance, improving the operating margin of the heat exchanger. The performance of the BEM program on the pin fin was measured (as computational time) and used as a performance comparison with the FEM model. Given similar surface element densities, the BEM method took longer to get a solution than the FEM method. The FEM method creates a sparse matrix that scales in storage and computation as the number of nodes (N), whereas the BEM method scales as N{sup 2} in storage and N{sup 3} in computation.

  4. Perspectives of heat transfer enhancement in nuclear reactors toward nanofluids applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Marcelo S.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br, E-mail: elcabral@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid with interesting physical properties and large potential for heat transfer enhancement in thermal systems among other applications. There are an increasing number of nanofluids investigations concerning many aspects of synthesis and fabrication technologies, physical properties, and special applications. Results demonstrate that physical properties like high thermal conductivities and high critical heat flux (CHF) of some nanofluids classifies them as potential working fluids for high heat flux transportation in special systems, including thermal management of microelectronic devices (MEMS) and nuclear reactors. Understanding the importance of such investigations for the knowledge development of nuclear engineering a new research is being conducted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN) of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to analyze the application potentiality of some nanofluids in nuclear systems for heat transfer enhancement under ionizing radiation influence. In this work a revision of theoretical and experimental studies of nanofluids is performed and its potentiality for using in future generations of nuclear reactors is highlighted showing the status of the research at present. (author)

  5. Enhanced O2+ loss at Mars due to an ambipolar electric field from electron heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; McEnulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (Te) in Mars' dayside ionosphere above ~180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to ~500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher Te (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher Te may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced Te in Mars' ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (eΦ) of several kBTe, which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron, and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  6. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Heated Tube Caused by Wire-Coil and Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Vahidifar; M. Kahrom

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates heat transfer characteristics and the pressure drop of a horizontal double pipe heat exchanger with wire coil inserts. The amplification of convection heat transfer coefficient in the heat exchanger reduces the weight, size and cost of heat exchanger. One way of augmenting the heat transfer is to disturb the boundary layer. When an object is placed in a boundary layer, it affects the flow structure and alters the velocity and thermal profiles. The change is affected by...

  7. Enhancement of natural convection heat transfer from a fin by triangular perforation of bases parallel and toward its tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah H. AlEssa; Mohamad I. Al-Widyan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the heat transfer enhancement from a horizontal rect- angular fin embedded with triangular perforations (their bases parallel and toward the fin tip) under natural convection. The fin's heat dissipation rate is compared to that of an equivalent solid one. The parameters considered axe geometrical dimensions and thermal properties of the fin and the perforations. The gain in the heat transfer enhancement and the fin weight reduction due to the perforations are considered. The study shows that the heat dissipation from the perforated fin for a certain range of triangular perforation di- mensions and spaces between perforations result in improvement in the heat transfer over the equivalent solid fin. The heat transfer enhancement of the perforated fin increases as the fin thermal conductivity and its thickness are increased.

  8. Eugenol and carvacrol excite first- and second-order trigeminal neurons and enhance their heat-evoked responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A H; Joe, C L; Davoodi, A; Takechi, K; Carstens, M I; Carstens, E

    2014-06-20

    Eugenol and carvacrol from clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of the warmth-sensitive transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 and the irritant-sensitive transient receptor potential ankyrin (TRPA)-1. Eugenol and carvacrol induce oral irritation that rapidly desensitizes, accompanied by brief enhancement of innocuous warmth and heat pain in humans. We presently investigated if eugenol and carvacrol activate nociceptive primary afferent and higher order trigeminal neurons and enhance their heat-evoked responses, using calcium imaging of cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and in vivo single-unit recordings in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) of rats. Eugenol and carvacrol activated 20-30% of TG and 7-20% of DRG cells, the majority of which additionally responded to menthol, mustard oil and/or capsaicin. TG cell responses to innocuous (39°) and noxious (42 °C) heating were enhanced by eugenol and carvacrol. We identified dorsomedial Vc neurons responsive to noxious heating of the tongue in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Eugenol and carvacrol dose-dependently elicited desensitizing responses in 55% and 73% of heat-sensitive units, respectively. Responses to noxious heat were briefly enhanced by eugenol and carvacrol. Many eugenol- and carvacrol-responsive units also responded to menthol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin. These data support a peripheral site for eugenol and carvacrol to enhance warmth- and noxious heat-evoked responses of trigeminal neurons, and are consistent with the observation that these agonists briefly enhance warmth and heat pain on the human tongue.

  9. Enhancement of Heat Transfer and Thermo-Hydraulic Performance Using Triangular Protrusions as Roughness Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagaraju

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar heat has been thrust area of research to explore renewable energy utilisation for the past few decades. In solar air heaters artificial roughness is tried on the surface of the absorber plate by adding small roughness elements to enhance the heat transfer rate. In the present work triangular protrusion are provided to act as roughness elements over the surface of the aluminum absorber plate. The experimental study is carried out on the effect of change in apex angle of protrusions on the heat transfer rate by keeping the other design parameters unchanged. Maximum heat transfer rate and thermo-hydraulic performance between the range of apex angle 300 and 600 is studied. The Nusselt number is between 50 and 110, friction factor 4.5-6.7x10-3 , Stanton number is 6- 14x10-3 . The heat transfer rate and thermo-hydraulic performance are observed to be maximum for 450 apex angle and least for the 600 plate.

  10. Water deficits and heat shock effects on photosynthesis of a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana constitutively expressing ABP9, a bZIP transcription factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xia; Wollenweber, Bernd; Jiang, Dong;

    2008-01-01

    transport rate (ETR) in 5P2 plants were depressed under optimal growth conditions (control) in relation to WT, they were enhanced under HS and HSWD. These results indicate that ABP9 transgenic plants are less susceptible to stress than the WT. In addition, the increased ABA contents in both WT and 5P2...... plants in response to WD and/or HS stresses suggest that declines in A and gs might have been due to ABA-induced stomatal closure. Moreover, compared with WT, 5P2 plants exhibited higher ABA content, instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), Chl a/b, NPQ, and lower Chl/carotenoid ratios. Finally......The effects of water deficits (WD), heat shock (HS), and both (HSWD) on photosynthetic carbon- and light-use efficiencies together with leaf ABA content, pigment composition and expressions of stress- and light harvesting-responsive genes were investigated in ABP9 [ABA-responsive-element (ABRE...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241281 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-12 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242986 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-13 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241762 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 9e-17 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 3e-13 ...

  15. Enhanced biomedical heat-triggered carriers via nanomagnetism tuning in ferrite-based nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelakeris, M., E-mail: agelaker@auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Greece (Greece); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, Duisburg D-47048 (Germany); Li, Zi-An; Hilgendorff, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, Duisburg D-47048 (Germany); Simeonidis, K.; Sakellari, D. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Greece (Greece); Filippousi, M.; Tian, H.; Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Spasova, M.; Acet, M.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, Duisburg D-47048 (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Biomedical nanomagnetic carriers are getting a higher impact in therapy and diagnosis schemes while their constraints and prerequisites are more and more successfully confronted. Such particles should possess a well-defined size with minimum agglomeration and they should be synthesized in a facile and reproducible high-yield way together with a controllable response to an applied static or dynamic field tailored for the specific application. Here, we attempt to enhance the heating efficiency in magnetic particle hyperthermia treatment through the proper adjustment of the core–shell morphology in ferrite particles, by controlling exchange and dipolar magnetic interactions at the nanoscale. Thus, core–shell nanoparticles with mutual coupling of magnetically hard (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and soft (MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) components are synthesized with facile synthetic controls resulting in uniform size and shell thickness as evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, excellent crystallinity and size monodispersity. Such a magnetic coupling enables the fine tuning of magnetic anisotropy and magnetic interactions without sparing the good structural, chemical and colloidal stability. Consequently, the magnetic heating efficiency of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core–shell nanoparticles is distinctively different from that of their counterparts, even though all these nanocrystals were synthesized under similar conditions. For better understanding of the AC magnetic hyperthermia response and its correlation with magnetic-origin features we study the effect of the volume ratio of magnetic hard and soft phases in the bimagnetic core−shell nanocrystals. Eventually, such particles may be considered as novel heating carriers that under further biomedical functionalization may become adaptable multifunctional heat-triggered nanoplatforms. - Highlights: • Core–shell ferrite magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic particle hyperthermia

  16. Enhanced biomedical heat-triggered carriers via nanomagnetism tuning in ferrite-based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomedical nanomagnetic carriers are getting a higher impact in therapy and diagnosis schemes while their constraints and prerequisites are more and more successfully confronted. Such particles should possess a well-defined size with minimum agglomeration and they should be synthesized in a facile and reproducible high-yield way together with a controllable response to an applied static or dynamic field tailored for the specific application. Here, we attempt to enhance the heating efficiency in magnetic particle hyperthermia treatment through the proper adjustment of the core–shell morphology in ferrite particles, by controlling exchange and dipolar magnetic interactions at the nanoscale. Thus, core–shell nanoparticles with mutual coupling of magnetically hard (CoFe2O4) and soft (MnFe2O4) components are synthesized with facile synthetic controls resulting in uniform size and shell thickness as evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, excellent crystallinity and size monodispersity. Such a magnetic coupling enables the fine tuning of magnetic anisotropy and magnetic interactions without sparing the good structural, chemical and colloidal stability. Consequently, the magnetic heating efficiency of CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 core–shell nanoparticles is distinctively different from that of their counterparts, even though all these nanocrystals were synthesized under similar conditions. For better understanding of the AC magnetic hyperthermia response and its correlation with magnetic-origin features we study the effect of the volume ratio of magnetic hard and soft phases in the bimagnetic core−shell nanocrystals. Eventually, such particles may be considered as novel heating carriers that under further biomedical functionalization may become adaptable multifunctional heat-triggered nanoplatforms. - Highlights: • Core–shell ferrite magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic particle hyperthermia candidates. • Enhanced heating efficiency when

  17. Dehydration induced loss of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis leaves during senescence is accompanied by the reversible enhancement in the activity of cell wall β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Lichita; Mohapatra, Pranab Kishor; Biswal, Udaya Chand; Biswal, Basanti

    2014-08-01

    The physiology of loss of photosynthetic production of sugar and the consequent cellular sugar reprogramming during senescence of leaves experiencing environmental stress largely remains unclear. We have shown that leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana causes a significant reduction in the rate of oxygen evolution and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). The decline in photosynthesis is further aggravated by dehydration. During dehydration, primary photochemical reaction of thylakoids and net photosynthesis decrease in parallel with the increase in water deficit. Senescence induced loss in photosynthesis is accompanied by a significant increase in the activity of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme such as β-glucosidase associated with cell wall catabolism. The activity of this enzyme is further enhanced when the senescing leaves experience dehydration stress. It is possible that both senescence and stress separately or in combination result in the loss in photosynthesis which could be a signal for an enhancement in the activity of β-glucosidase that breaks down cell wall polysaccharides to sugar to sustain respiration for metabolic activities of plants experiencing stress. Thus dehydration response of cell wall hydrolases of senescing leaves is considered as plants' strategy to have cell wall polysaccharides as an alternative energy source for completion of energy requiring senescence process, stress survival and maintenance of recovery potential of energy deficit cells in the background of loss in photosynthesis. Withdrawal of stress (rehydration) distinctly exhibits recovery of photosynthesis and suppression of enzyme activity. Retention of the signaling for sugar reprogramming through breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides in the senescing leaves exposed to severe drought stress suggests that senescing leaves like mature ones possess potential for stress recovery. The precise mechanism of stress adaptation of senescing leaves is yet to be known. A significant

  18. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Segarra

    Full Text Available Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  19. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng eWen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw., a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084, increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.

  20. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  1. An experimental study of the enhanced heating capacity of an electric heat pump (EHP) using the heat recovered from a gas engine generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Min; Chang, Se Dong [HAC R and D Laboratory, LG Electronics, 327-23 Gasan-Dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-802 (Korea); Lee, Jaekeun; Hwang, Yujin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Changjeon-Dong, Keumjeong-Ku, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the effect of recovered heat on the heating capacity of an Electric Heat Pump (EHP), which is supplied with electric power and recovered heat from a gas engine generator system. Two methods of supplying recovery heat are examined: (i) to the refrigerant with the discharge line heat exchanger (HEX), and (ii) to the refrigerant of the evaporator with the sub-evaporator. Heating capacity, input power and coefficient of performance (COP) were investigated and compared for each heat recovery method. Conclusively, we found that the second method was most reasonable to recover wasted heat and increased system COP by 215%. (author)

  2. MRI-guided gas bubble enhanced ultrasound heating in in vivo rabbit thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, S D; King, R; Hynynen, K

    2003-01-21

    In this study, we propose a focused ultrasound surgery protocol that induces and then uses gas bubbles at the focus to enhance the ultrasound absorption and ultimately create larger lesions in vivo. MRI and ultrasound visualization and monitoring methods for this heating method are also investigated. Larger lesions created with a carefully monitored single ultrasound exposure could greatly improve the speed of tumour coagulation with focused ultrasound. All experiments were performed under MRI (clinical, 1.5 T) guidance with one of two eight-sector, spherically curved piezoelectric transducers. The transducer, either a 1.1 or 1.7 MHz array, was driven by a multi-channel RF driving system. The transducer was mounted in an MRI-compatible manual positioning system and the rabbit was situated on top of the system. An ultrasound detector ring was fixed with the therapy transducer to monitor gas bubble activity during treatment. Focused ultrasound surgery exposures were delivered to the thighs of seven New Zealand while rabbits. The experimental, gas-bubble-enhanced heating exposures consisted of a high amplitude 300 acoustic watt, half second pulse followed by a 7 W, 14 W or 21 W continuous wave exposure for 19.5 s. The respective control sonications were 20 s exposures of 14 W, 21 W and 28 W. During the exposures, MR thermometry was obtained from the temperature dependency of the proton resonance frequency shift. MRT2-enhanced imaging was used to evaluate the resulting lesions. Specific metrics were used to evaluate the differences between the gas-bubble-enhanced exposures and their respective control sonications: temperatures with respect to time and space, lesion size and shape, and their agreement with thermal dose predictions. The bubble-enhanced exposures showed a faster temperature rise within the first 4 s and higher overall temperatures than the sonications without bubble formation. The spatial temperature maps and the thermal dose maps derived from the MRI

  3. MRI-guided gas bubble enhanced ultrasound heating in in vivo rabbit thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we propose a focused ultrasound surgery protocol that induces and then uses gas bubbles at the focus to enhance the ultrasound absorption and ultimately create larger lesions in vivo. MRI and ultrasound visualization and monitoring methods for this heating method are also investigated. Larger lesions created with a carefully monitored single ultrasound exposure could greatly improve the speed of tumour coagulation with focused ultrasound. All experiments were performed under MRI (clinical, 1.5 T) guidance with one of two eight-sector, spherically curved piezoelectric transducers. The transducer, either a 1.1 or 1.7 MHz array, was driven by a multi-channel RF driving system. The transducer was mounted in an MRI-compatible manual positioning system and the rabbit was situated on top of the system. An ultrasound detector ring was fixed with the therapy transducer to monitor gas bubble activity during treatment. Focused ultrasound surgery exposures were delivered to the thighs of seven New Zealand white rabbits. The experimental, gas-bubble-enhanced heating exposures consisted of a high amplitude 300 acoustic watt, half second pulse followed by a 7 W, 14 W or 21 W continuous wave exposure for 19.5 s. The respective control sonications were 20 s exposures of 14 W, 21 W and 28 W. During the exposures, MR thermometry was obtained from the temperature dependency of the proton resonance frequency shift. MR T2-enhanced imaging was used to evaluate the resulting lesions. Specific metrics were used to evaluate the differences between the gas-bubble-enhanced exposures and their respective control sonications: temperatures with respect to time and space, lesion size and shape, and their agreement with thermal dose predictions. The bubble-enhanced exposures showed a faster temperature rise within the first 4 s and higher overall temperatures than the sonications without bubble formation. The spatial temperature maps and the thermal dose maps derived from the MRI

  4. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  5. Numerical Anaysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement by Waves on Falling Liquid Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AkioMiyara

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been carried out for two dimensional wavy falling liquid films on a vertical wall.The algorithm of the simulation is based on MAC method and schemes for interfacial boundary conditions are modifed.Small artificial perturbations given at the inflow boundary grow rapidly and then the amplitude of the waves approaches to developed waves.Effects of the disturbance frequency on the wave development behavior and heat transfer characteristics are especially investigated.For low frequency,a disturbance wave develops to a solitary wave consisted of a large amplitude roll wave and small amplitude capillary waves,Increasing the frequency,the wave amplitude decreases and the capillary wave disappears.For further high frequency,the disturbance amplitude reduces along down stream.The heat transfer coefficient is enhanced by the surface wave and has a maximum at a certain frequency,The streamlines and the temperature comtoure contours are shown for various frequency waves and the heat transfer enhancement mechanism is clarified.

  6. Application of steam injection and electrical heating for enhanced in situ soil and ground water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by an increase in soil temperature. Of the various methods of delivery of thermal energy to soils and ground water, steam injection appears to be the most economical and versatile technique for soils with sufficient permeability. The use of steam injection to recovery volatile semivolatile, and nonvolatile contaminants from the sub-surface also allows the exploitation of various thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms. These mechanisms include vaporization of liquids with boiling points below that of water, enhanced evaporation rates of semivolatile components, physical displacement of low viscosity liquids, dilution and displacement of aqueous contaminants, and removal of residual contaminants from low permeability zones by depressurization and vacuum drying. Electrical heating provides a means of preferentially heating the low permeability zones. A recently completed field-scale demonstration of the patented combined steam injection and electrical heating enhanced extraction technology (Dynamic Underground Stripping) to remove gasoline at a site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory confirms the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found above and below the water table

  7. Microstructured silver surfaces produced by freeze casting for enhanced phase change heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, G. J.; Shortt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Microporous silver surface layers were formed on copper substrates by means of a modified freeze casting method. The structure of such layers is the result of the templating action of the ice crystals and layers were found to contain a hierarchical porous structure. Three different pore morphologies were present in the microstructure with pore sizes ranging from approximately 0.5 to 200 μm. The application of these surface structures was found to considerably enhance the heat flux during the nucleate phase of pool boiling, with heat fluxes up to five times higher from a microporous surface compared to a bare copper substrate. Bubble formation and departure was found to be significantly different on the two types of surfaces, with smaller bubbles formed with a high density on the microporous surface. The enhancement in heat flux by these structures is most likely due to the combined effect of an increased surface area with high thermal conductivity, an increase in nucleation sites for bubble formation as well as effective wicking from micropores to sustain bubble growth and departure.

  8. Enhanced apatite formation on Ti metal heated in PO2-controlled nitrogen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masami; Hayashi, Kazumi; Kitaoka, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The oxynitridation of biomedical titanium metal under a precisely regulated oxygen partial pressure (PO2) of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K for 1 h strongly enhanced apatite formation compared with that on Ti heated in air. The factors governing the high apatite-forming ability are discussed from the viewpoint of the surface properties of Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential measurements. Nitrogen (N)-doped TiO2 (interstitial N) was formed on pure Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K. The XPS O1s main peak shifted toward a lower binding energy upon heating under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. This shift may be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. This Ti surface had a positive zeta potential of approximately 20 mV. According to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy results, PO4(3-) ions were predominantly adsorbed on Ti soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) after heat treatment, followed by calcium ions. It was concluded that the apatite formation kinetics can be described using the Avrami-Erofeev equation with an Avrami index of n=2, which implies the instantaneous nucleation of apatite on the surface of Ti soaked in SBF after heat treatment at 973 K under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. PMID:23910327

  9. Continuous Carbon Nanotube-Based Fibers and Films for Applications Requiring Enhanced Heat Dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Fan, Zeng; Mikhalchan, Anastasiia; Tran, Thang Q; Jewell, Daniel; Duong, Hai M; Marconnet, Amy M

    2016-07-13

    The production of continuous carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers and films has paved the way to leverage the superior properties of individual carbon nanotubes for novel macroscale applications such as electronic cables and multifunctional composites. In this manuscript, we synthesize fibers and films from CNT aerogels that are continuously grown by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) and measure thermal conductivity and natural convective heat transfer coefficient from the fiber and film. To probe the mechanisms of heat transfer, we develop a new, robust, steady-state thermal characterization technique that enables measurement of the intrinsic fiber thermal conductivity and the convective heat transfer coefficient from the fiber to the surrounding air. The thermal conductivity of the as-prepared fiber ranges from 4.7 ± 0.3 to 28.0 ± 2.4 W m(-1) K(-1) and depends on fiber volume fraction and diameter. A simple nitric acid treatment increases the thermal conductivity by as much as a factor of ∼3 for the fibers and ∼6.7 for the thin films. These acid-treated CNT materials demonstrate specific thermal conductivities significantly higher than common metals with the same absolute thermal conductivity, which means they are comparatively lightweight, thermally conductive fibers and films. Beyond thermal conductivity, the acid treatment enhances electrical conductivity by a factor of ∼2.3. Further, the measured convective heat transfer coefficients range from 25 to 200 W m(-2) K(-1) for all fibers, which is higher than expected for macroscale materials and demonstrates the impact of the nanoscale CNT features on convective heat losses from the fibers. The measured thermal and electrical performance demonstrates the promise for using these fibers and films in macroscale applications requiring effective heat dissipation. PMID:27322344

  10. Enhancement and performance evaluation for heat transfer of air cooling zone for reduction system of sponge titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Wu, Fuzhong; Jin, Huixin

    2016-05-01

    Since the magnesiothermic reduction employed in current sponge titanium is a highly exothermic reaction, the TiCl4 feed rate is carried out slowly to keep a suitable temperature in reduction reactor, which accounts for an extremely low level of productivity and energy efficiency. In order to shorten the production cycle and improve the energy efficiency, an enhancing scheme is proposed to enhance the heat transfer of air cooling zone for reduction system. The air cooling zone and enhancing scheme are firstly introduced. And then, the heat transfer characteristics of cooling zone are obtained by theoretical analysis and experimental date without enhancing scheme. Finally, the enhancement is analyzed and evaluated. The results show that the fitting results of heat transfer coefficients can be used to evaluate the heat transfer enhancement of cooling zone. Heat sources temperatures have a limited decreasing, heat transfer rate increases obviously with the enhanced cooling, and the TiCl4 feed rate can be increased significantly by 9.61 %. And the measured and calculated results are good enough to meet the design requirements.

  11. Enhancement of LNG plant propane cycle through waste heat powered absorption cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants utilizing sea water for process cooling, both the efficiency and production capacity of the propane cycle decrease with increasing sea water temperature. To address this issue, several propane cycle enhancement approaches are investigated in this study, which require minimal modification of the existing plant configuration. These approaches rely on the use of gas turbine waste heat powered water/lithium bromide absorption cooling to either (i) subcool propane after the propane cycle condenser, or (ii) reduce propane cycle condensing pressure through pre-cooling of condenser cooling water. In the second approach, two alternative methods of pre-cooling condenser cooling water are considered, which consist of an open sea water loop, and a closed fresh water loop. In addition for all cases, three candidate absorption chiller configurations are evaluated, namely single-effect, double-effect, and cascaded double- and single-effect chillers. The thermodynamic performance of each propane cycle enhancement scheme, integrated in an actual LNG plant in the Persian Gulf, is evaluated using actual plant operating data. Subcooling propane after the propane cycle condenser is found to improve propane cycle total coefficient of performance (COPT) and cooling capacity by 13% and 23%, respectively. The necessary cooling load could be provided by either a single-effect, double-effect or cascaded and single- and double-effect absorption refrigeration cycle recovering waste heat from a single gas turbine operated at full load. Reducing propane condensing pressure using a closed fresh water condenser cooling loop is found result in propane cycle COPT and cooling capacity enhancements of 63% and 22%, respectively, but would require substantially higher capital investment than for propane subcooling, due to higher cooling load and thus higher waste heat requirements. Considering the present trend of short process enhancement payback periods in the

  12. Heat transfer enhancement with elliptical tube under turbulent flow TiO2-water nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Adnan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer and friction characteristics were numerically investigated, employing elliptical tube to increase the heat transfer rate with a minimum increase of pressure drop. The flow rate of the tube was in a range of Reynolds number between 10000 and 100000. FLUENT software is used to solve the governing equation of CFD (continuity, momentum and energy by means of a finite volume method (FVM. The electrical heater is connected around the elliptical tube to apply uniform heat flux (3000 W/m2 as a boundary condition. Four different volume concentrations in the range of 0.25% to 1% and different TiO2 nanoparticle diameters in the range of 27 nm to 50 nm, dispersed in water are utilized. The CFD numerical results indicate that the elliptical tube can enhance heat transfer and friction factor by approximately 9% and 6% than the circular tube respectively. The results show that the Nusselt number and friction factor increase with decreasing diameters but increasing volume concentrations of nanoparticles.

  13. Experimental Study for Heat Transfer Enhancement Due To Surface Roughness at Laminar Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju R.Yenare

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to determine whether dimples on a heat sink fin can increase heat transfer for laminar airflows. This was accomplished by performing experimental studies using two different types of dimples: 1 circular (spherical dimples, and 2 oval (elliptical dimples. Dimples were placed on both sides of a aluminium plate with a relative pitch of S/D=1.21 and relative depth of δ/D=0.16 (e.g., circular dimples. For oval dimples, similar ratios with the same total depth and circular-edge-to-edge distance as the circular dimples were used. For those configurations the average heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, thermal performance and Nusselt number ratio were determined experimentally. For circular and oval dimples, heat transfer enhancements (relative to a flat plate were observed for Reynolds number range from 600 to 2000 (Reynolds number based on channel height. Also the results are validated analytically for Nusselt number and friction factor for plain vertical plate.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Cila

    1999-01-01

    In boiling high heat fluxes are possible driven by relatively small temperature differences, which make its use increasingly attractive in aerospace applications. The objective of the research is to develop ways to overcome specific problems associated with boiling in the low gravity environment by substituting the buoyancy force with the electric force to enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. Previous studies indicate that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50, as compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. The goal of our research is to experimentally explore the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions, by visualizing the temperature distributions in the vicinity of the heated surface and around the bubble during boiling using real-time holographic interferometry (HI) combined with high-speed cinematography. In the first phase of the project the influence of the electric field on a single bubble is investigated. Pool boiling is simulated by injecting a single bubble through a nozzle into the subcooled liquid or into the thermal boundary layer developed along the flat heater surface. Since the exact location of bubble formation is known, the optical equipment can be aligned and focused accurately, which is an essential requirement for precision measurements of bubble shape, size and deformation, as well as the visualization of temperature fields by HI. The size of the bubble and the frequency of bubble departure can be controlled by suitable selection of nozzle diameter and mass flow rate of vapor. In this approach effects due to the presence of the electric field can be separated from effects caused by the temperature gradients in the thermal boundary layer. The influence of the thermal boundary layer can be investigated after activating the heater at a later stage of the research. For the visualization experiments a

  15. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program enhanced heat transfer combustor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to increase the performance of a high performance, advanced expander-cycle engine combustor, higher chamber pressures are required. In order to increase chamber pressure, more heat energy is required to be transferred to the combustor coolant circuit fluid which drives the turbomachinery. This requirement was fulfilled by increasing the area exposed to the hot-gas by using combustor ribs. A previous technology task conducted 2-d hot air and cold flow tests to determine an optimum rib height and configuration. In task C.5 a combustor calorimeter was fabricated with the optimum rib configuration, 0.040 in. high ribs, in order to determine their enhancing capability. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of mixture ratio changers on the enhancement during hot-fire testing. The program used the Rocketdyne Integrated Component Evaluator (ICE) reconfigured into a thrust chamber only mode. The test results were extrapolated to give a projected enhancement from the ribs for a 16 in. long cylindrical combustor at 15 Klb nominal thrust level. The hot-gas wall ribs resulted in a 58 percent increase in heat transfer. When projected to a full size 15K combustor, it becomes a 46 percent increase. The results of those tests, a comparison with previous 2-d results, the effects of mixture ratio and combustion gas flow on the ribs and the potential ramifications for expander cycle combustors are detailed.

  16. Numerical analysis of melting of nano-enhanced phase change material in latent heat thermal energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashani Sina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer enhancement in the latent heat thermal energy storage system through dispersion of nanoparticle is reported. The resulting nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity in comparison to the base material. Calculation is performed for nanoparticle volume fraction from 0 to 0.08. In this study rectangular and cylindrical containers are modeled numerically and the effect of containers dimensions and nano particle volume fraction are studied. It has been found that the rectangular container requires half of the melting time as for the cylindrical container of the same volume and the same heat transfer area and also, higher nano particle volume fraction result in a larger solid fraction. The increase of the heat release rate of the nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials shows its great potential for diverse thermal energy storage application.

  17. Radiofrequency-heated enhanced confinement modes in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Y.; Boivin, R.L.; Bombarda, F.; Bonoli, P.T.; Christensen, C.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.A.; Golovato, S.N.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.F.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; McCracken, G.; OShea, P.; Porkolab, M.; Reardon, J.; Rice, J.; Rost, C.; Schachter, J.; Snipes, J.A.; Stek, P.; Terry, J.; Watterson, R.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Enhanced confinement modes up to a toroidal field of B{sub T}=8T have been studied with up to 3.5 MW of radiofrequency (rf) heating power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) at 80 MHz. H-mode is observed when the edge temperature exceeds a threshold value. The high confinement mode (H-mode) with higher confinement enhancement factors (H) and longer duration became possible after boronization by reducing the radiated power from the main plasma. A quasi-steady state with high confinement (H=2.0), high normalized beta ({beta}{sub N}=1.5), low radiated power fraction (P{sub rad}{sup main}/P{sub loss}=0.3), and low effective charge (Z{sub eff}=1.5) has been obtained in Enhanced D{sub {alpha}} H-mode. This type of H-mode has enhanced levels of continuous D{sub {alpha}} emission and very little or no edge localized mode (ELM) activity, and reduced core particle confinement time relative to ELM-free H-mode. The pellet enhanced performance (PEP) mode is obtained by combining core fueling with pellet injection and core heating. A highly peaked pressure profile with a central value of 8 atmospheres was observed. The steep pressure gradient drives off-axis bootstrap current, resulting in a shear reversed safety factor (q) profile. Suppression of sawteeth appears to be important in maintaining the highly peaked pressure profile. Lithium pellets were found to be more effective than deuterium pellets in raising q{sub 0}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. 板式脉动热管强化传热方法研究%Research on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Flat Plate Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈陶菲; 徐德好; 刘向东

    2011-01-01

    To research the method of enhancing heat transfer of flat plate loop pulsating heat pipe,the article compares the heat transfer character of the original heat pipe and the improved one by numerical simulation.Based on the VOF(volume of fluid) method,a three-dimensional unsteady mathematical model was developed to describe the vapor-liquid two-phase flow and phase change heat transfer in the flat plate loop pulsating heat pipe.The two-phase flow pattern transition and the temperature distribution in the flat plate loop pulsating heat pipe under different heat load conditions was numerically investigated using the developed model.The result shows that the heat transfer character of the improved heat pipe can be enhanced under high heat load condition.%为了研究板式脉动热管的传热性能强化的方法,对原型和改进型两种不同板式脉动热管传热特性进行数值分析比较。基于VOF方法建立板式脉动热管汽液两相流动及相变传热三维非稳态数学模型,仿真得到不同加热功率条件下热管内流型演化和温度分布。仿真结果表明,改进型脉动热管在高功率阶段,整体等效热阻小于原型。

  19. l-Arginine Enhances Resistance against Oxidative Stress and Heat Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of l-arginine (l-Arg in vivo, and its effect on enhancing resistance to oxidative stress and heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. C. elegans, a worm model popularly used in molecular and developmental biology, was used in the present study. Here, we report that l-Arg, at a concentration of 1 mM, prolonged C. elegans life by 26.98% and 37.02% under oxidative and heat stress, respectively. Further experiments indicated that the longevity-extending effects of l-Arg may be exerted by its free radical scavenging capacity and the upregulation of aging-associated gene expression in worms. This work is important in the context of numerous recent studies that concluded that environment stresses are associated with an increased population death rate.

  20. A new approach for modelling chromospheric evaporation in response to enhanced coronal heating: 1 the method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, C D; Cargill, P J; De Moortel, I

    2016-01-01

    We present a new computational approach that addresses the difficulty of obtaining the correct interaction between the solar corona and the transition region in response to rapid heating events. In the coupled corona, transition region and chromosphere system, an enhanced downward conductive flux results in an upflow (chromospheric evaporation). However, obtaining the correct upflow generally requires high spatial resolution in order to resolve the transition region. With an unresolved transition region, artificially low coronal densities are obtained because the downward heat flux jumps across the unresolved region to the chromosphere, underestimating the upflows. Here, we treat the lower transition region as a discontinuity that responds to changing coronal conditions through the imposition of a jump condition that is derived from an integrated form of energy conservation. To illustrate and benchmark this approach against a fully resolved one-dimensional model, we present field-aligned simulations of corona...

  1. Enhancement of methane gas sensing characteristics of graphene oxide sensor by heat treatment and laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mohammadreza; Karimzadeh, Rouhollah

    2016-12-01

    The present study uses a rapid, easy and practical method for cost-effective fabrication of a methane gas sensor. The sensor was made by drop-casting a graphene oxide suspension onto an interdigital circuit surface. The electrical conductivity and gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor were determined and then heat treatment and in situ laser irradiation were applied to improve the device conductivity and gas sensitivity. Real-time monitoring of the evolution of the device current as a function of heat treatment time revealed significant changes in the conductance of the graphene oxide sensor. The use of low power laser irradiation enhanced both the electrical conductivity and sensing response of the graphene oxide sensor. PMID:27567028

  2. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manglik, R M; Athavale, A; Kalaikadal, D S; Deodhar, A; Verma, U

    2011-09-02

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  3. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  4. Heat Transfer Measurements through Thermally Enhanced Insulation Schemes for Nb-Ti Superconducting Magnets operating in He-II

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting magnets submitted to large heat loads, as the low-β quadrupoles for the LHC luminosity upgrade, need the development of new concepts of cable electrical insulation featuring a He-II porous wrapping scheme. This paper reports and discusses recent results of dedicated heat transfer measurements performed on different variants of such schemes, with emphasis on the heat transfer enhancements achievable with respect to the state-of-the-art insulation used for the main LHC magnets.

  5. Heat shock pretreatment enhances porcine myoblasts survival after autotransplantation in intact skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng; Thomas LAUMONIER; Jacques MENETREY

    2007-01-01

    Myoblast transplantation (MT) is a cell-based gene therapy treatment, representing a potential treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), cardiac failure and muscle trauma. The rapid and massive death of transplanted cells after MT is considered as a major hurdle which limits the efficacy of MT treatment. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are overexpressed when cells undergo various insults. HSPs have been described to protect cells in vivo and in vitro against diverse insults. The aim of our study is to investigate whether HSP overexpression could increase myoblast survival after autotransplantation in pig intact skeletal muscle. HSP expression was induced by warming the cells at 42℃ for 1 h. HSP70 expression was quantified by Western blot and flow cytometry 24 h after the treatment. To investigate the myogenic characteristics of myoblasts, desmin and CD56 were analysed by Western blot and flow cytometry; and the fusion index was measured. We also quantified cell survival after autologous transplantation in pig intact skeletal muscle and followed cell integration. Results showed that heat shock treatment of myoblasts induced a significative overexpression of the HSP70 (P<0.01) without loss of their myogenic characteristics as assessed by FACS and fusion index. In vivo (n=7), the myoblast survival rate was not significantly different at 24 h between heat shock treated and nontreated cells (67.69%±8.35% versus 58.79%±8.35%, P>0.05). However, the myoblast survival rate in the heat shocked cells increased by twofold at 48 h (53.32%±8.22% versus 28.27%±6.32%, P<0.01)and more than threefold at 120 h (26.33%±5.54% versus 8.79%±2.51%, P<0.01). Histological analysis showed the presence of non-heat shocked and heat shocked donor myoblasts fused with host myoblasts. These results suggested that heat shock pretreatment increased the HSP70 expression in porcine myoblasts, and improved the survival rate after autologous transplantation. Therefore, heat shock

  6. Heat shock pretreatment enhances porcine myoblasts survival after autotransplantation in intact skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    . Therefore, heat shock pretreatment of myoblast in vitro is a simple and effective way to enhance cell survival after transplantation in pig. It might represent a potential method to overcome the limitations of MT treat-ment.

  7. Eugenol and carvacrol excite first- and second-order trigeminal neurons and enhance their heat-evoked responses

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Amanda H.; Joe, Christopher L.; Davoodi, Auva; Takechi, Kenichi; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E.

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol and carvacrol from clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of the warmth-sensitive transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 and the irritant-sensitive TRPA1. Eugenol and carvacrol induce oral irritation that rapidly desensitizes, accompanied by brief enhancement of innocuous warmth and heat pain in humans. We presently investigated if eugenol and carvacrol activate nociceptive primary afferent and higher-order trigeminal neurons and enhance their heat-evoked ...

  8. Overexpression of URO Gene Enhances Drought Resistance in Arabidopsis%过量表达URO基因提高拟南芥的抗旱能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞静洋; 倪伟平; 杨扬; 徐艳飞; 李玲; 杨美良; 李小方; 孙越

    2013-01-01

    拟南芥uro突变体中由于URO (UPRIGHT ROSETTE)基因的过量表达导致生长素含量明显提高.本文结果表明,uro突变体的抗旱能力明显强于野生型,但uro突变体的根长、表皮毛数目以及离体叶的脱水速度都没有优于野生型.uro突变体对外源ABA不敏感,且在uro突变体中ABA响应基因的表达与野生型相比显著推迟.另外,表型分析表明uro突变体的营养生长延长,植株衰老延迟,特别是经过渗透胁迫后,uro植株内的丙二醛含量低于野生型.由此可见,URO基因的过量表达使uro突变体通过ABA非依赖途径提高了抗旱能力,而且uro突变体衰老延迟可能与其干旱抗性提高有关.%Arabidopsis uro mutant has higher IAA content than wild-type plants because of UROSETTE) gene overexpression.In this study,the results showed that uro mutant displayed improved drought tolerance compared to wild type.However,no evidence showed uro mutant had any drought tolerance related phenotypes such as root length,number of trichomes and the speed of cellular dehydration of leaf explants.In addition,uro mutant exhibited decreased sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA).At the same time,the enhanced expression of ABA-responsive genes in uro mutant was delayed obviously relative to wild type after ABA treatment.On the other hand,uro mutant has prolonged vegetable growth and delayed senescence.Especially after osmotic stress treatment,there was much less malondialdehyde (MDA) in uro mutant than in wild type.These results indicate that overexpression of URO gene enhances drought tolerance of uro mutant through an ABA-independent pathway,and the delayed senescence of uro mutant may relate to its high drought tolerance.

  9. Enhancing heat transfer at the micro-scale using elastic turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Whalley; W.M. Abed; D.J.C. Dennis; Poole, R J

    2015-01-01

    Small concentrations of a high-molecular-weight polymer have been used to create so-called “elastic turbulence” in a micro-scale serpentine channel geometry. It is known that the interaction of large elastic stresses created by the shearing motion within the fluid flow with streamline curvature of the serpentine geometry leads initially to a purely-elastic instability and then the generation of elastic turbulence. We show that this elastic turbulence enhances the heat transfer at the micro-sc...

  10. Nanofluids Containing γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles and Their Heat Transfer Enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shou-Zhu; Li, Yang; Jiang, Ji-Sen; Xie, Hua-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneous and stable magnetic nanofluids containing γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared using a two-step method, and their thermal transport properties were investigated. Thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were measured to be higher than that of base fluid, and the enhanced values increase with the volume fraction of the nanoparticles. Viscosity measurements showed that the nanofluids demonstrated Newtonian behavior and the viscosity of the nanofluids depended strongly on the tested temperatures and the nanoparticles loadings. Convective heat transfer coefficients tested in a laminar flow showed that the coefficients increased with the augment of Reynolds number and the volume fraction. PMID:20596461

  11. Nanofluids Containing γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles and Their Heat Transfer Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homogeneous and stable magnetic nanofluids containing γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared using a two-step method, and their thermal transport properties were investigated. Thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were measured to be higher than that of base fluid, and the enhanced values increase with the volume fraction of the nanoparticles. Viscosity measurements showed that the nanofluids demonstrated Newtonian behavior and the viscosity of the nanofluids depended strongly on the tested temperatures and the nanoparticles loadings. Convective heat transfer coefficients tested in a laminar flow showed that the coefficients increased with the augment of Reynolds number and the volume fraction.

  12. Melting of Nanoprticle-Enhanced Phase Change Material inside Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiyed Mohammad Javad Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study of melting of Nanoprticle-Enhanced phase change material (NEPCM inside a shell and tube heat exchanger using RT50 and copper particles as base material and nanoparticle, respectively. In this study, the effects of nanoparticles dispersion (, 0.03, and 0.05 on melting time, liquid fraction, and penetration length are investigated. The results show that the melting time decreases to 14.6% and the penetration length increases to 146% with increasing volume fraction of nanoparticle up to .

  13. Heat transfer enhancement with actuation of magnetic nanoparticles suspended in a base fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Hande; Acar, Funda Havva Yağcı; Şeşen, Muhsincan; Tekşen, Yiğit; Mengüç, M. Pınar; Koşar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Heat transfer enhancement with actuation of magnetic nanoparticles suspended in a base fluid Muhsincan een, Yiit Teken, Kürat endur, M. Pnar Mengüç, Hande Öztürk, H. F. Yac Acar, and Ali Koar Citation: Journal of Applied Physics 112, 064320 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4752729 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4752729 View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/112/6?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing Articles you may be interested in...

  14. Heat stress enhances adipogenic differentiation of subcutaneous fat depot-derived porcine stromovascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, H; Donkin, S S; Ajuwon, K M

    2015-08-01

    Heat stress (HS) results from excessive heat load on animals such that all adaptive mechanisms used to dissipate the heat do not return the body to normal body temperature. In pigs, HS results in increased fat deposition compared with pair-fed animals in a thermoneutral environment. Although there is evidence that HS increases activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in adipose tissue of heat stressed pigs, the fundamental causes of the increased adiposity are still unknown. It remains unclear whether HS directly alters metabolism in adipocytes. Therefore, to understand the mechanism of HS effects on porcine adipocytes, we used an in vitro adipocyte differentiation model to characterize cellular responses that occur during differentiation of pig adipocytes. Preadipocytes (stromovascular cells) were differentiated for 9 d at a normal (37°C) or HS (41.5°C) temperature under 5% CO. Expressions of HS genes such as heat shock proteins (HSP; HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90), adipogenic markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBPα), fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), fatty acid translocase 36 (CD36), fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), fatty acid transport protein 6 (FATP6), LPL, glucose transporter protein type 4 (GLUT4), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1 or PEPCK-C), and glycerol kinase (GK) and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) were determined by real-time-PCR and immunoblotting or ELISA. Cellular triglyceride (TAG) and ATP concentrations were also determined. As expected, HS increased ( CD36, FATP4, FATP6, LPL, GLUT4, PCK1, and GK). This is supported by increased cellular TAG under HS. Therefore, HS promotes increased adipocyte TAG storage, perhaps through upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and TAG synthesis. PMID:26440163

  15. Preparation of Biologically Active Arabidopsis Ribosomes and Comparison with Yeast Ribosomes for Binding to a tRNA-Mimic that Enhances Translation of Plant Plus-Strand RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Aleksey Stupina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of biologically active cell components from multicellular eukaryotic organisms often poses difficult challenges such as low yields and inability to retain the integrity and functionality of the purified compound. We previously identified a cap-independent translation enhancer (3’CITE in the 3’UTR of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV that structurally mimics a tRNA and binds to yeast 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site. Yeast ribosomes were used for these studies due to the lack of methods for isolation of plant ribosomes with high yields and integrity. To carry out studies with more natural components, a simple and efficient procedure has been developed for the isolation of large quantities of high quality ribosomes and ribosomal subunits from Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts prepared from seed-derived callus tissue. Attempts to isolate high quality ribosomes from wheat germ, bean sprouts and evacuolated protoplasts were unsuccessful. Addition of purified Arabidopsis 80S plant ribosomes to ribosome-depleted wheat germ lysates resulted in a greater than 1200-fold enhancement in in vitro translation of a luciferase reporter construct. The TCV 3’CITE bound to ribosomes with a 3 to 7-fold higher efficiency when using plant 80S ribosomes compared with yeast ribosomes, indicating that this viral translational enhancer is adapted to interact more efficiently with host plant ribosomes.

  16. Research Status and Development on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Ground Heat Exchanger used in Ground-coupled Heat Pump%土壤源热泵地埋管传热强化研究现状及其发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洁莲; 杨卫波; 嵇素雯

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the technology characteristics of ground-coupled heat pump and influence factors of heat exchange performance of ground heat exchanger, and points out that heat transfer enhancement of the ground heat exchanger is one of the core problems of the ground coupled heat pump research. The research status on heat transfer enhancement of ground heat exchanger at home and abroad were analyzed in detail, the latest progress and the key problems to be solved about heat transfer enhancement subject were also pointed out.%分析了土壤源热泵技术特点及地埋管换热器的影响因素,指出地埋管换热器传热强化是地源热泵研究的核心问题之一,详细介绍了近十年来地埋管传热强化的国内外研究状况,在此基础上指出了土壤源热泵地埋管传热强化的最新进展和有待解决的关键问题。

  17. Enhanced apatite formation on Ti metal heated in P{sub O2}-controlled nitrogen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Masami, E-mail: masami@jfcc.or.jp; Hayashi, Kazumi, E-mail: k_hayashi@jfcc.or.jp; Kitaoka, Satoshi, E-mail: kitaoka@jfcc.or.jp

    2013-10-15

    The oxynitridation of biomedical titanium metal under a precisely regulated oxygen partial pressure (P{sub O2}) of 10{sup −14} Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K for 1 h strongly enhanced apatite formation compared with that on Ti heated in air. The factors governing the high apatite-forming ability are discussed from the viewpoint of the surface properties of Ti heated under a P{sub O2} of 10{sup −14} Pa in nitrogen atmosphere determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential measurements. Nitrogen (N)-doped TiO{sub 2} (interstitial N) was formed on pure Ti heated under a P{sub O2} of 10{sup −14} Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K. The XPS O1s main peak shifted toward a lower binding energy upon heating under a P{sub O2} of 10{sup −14} Pa. This shift may be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. This Ti surface had a positive zeta potential of approximately 20 mV. According to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy results, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions were predominantly adsorbed on Ti soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) after heat treatment, followed by calcium ions. It was concluded that the apatite formation kinetics can be described using the Avrami–Erofeev equation with an Avrami index of n = 2, which implies the instantaneous nucleation of apatite on the surface of Ti soaked in SBF after heat treatment at 973 K under a P{sub O2} of 10{sup −14} Pa. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} was formed on Ti heated under a P{sub O2} of 10{sup −14} Pa. • Oxygen vacancy was existed on the outermost layer of nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2}. • This nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} surface had a positive zeta potential of 20 mV. • PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions were predominantly adsorbed on the nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} soaked in SBF.

  18. Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Natural Circulation Liquid Cooling System for Electronic Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正国; 李倩侠; 方晓明; 本田博司

    2004-01-01

    The present research is an experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of a natural circulation cooling system for electronic components. A smooth chip and two micro-pin-finned chips were tested. The chip is mounted on the base of a rectangular horizontal duct located at the bottom of 250 mm high natural circulation loop.FC-72 is used as a coolant. The test conditions are set that the operation pressure of experimental system is 1. 013× 105 Pa, the flow rate of FC-72 is 150 g/min and the subcoolings are 10 K, 25 K and 35 k, respectively. Effect of the subcooling on nucleate boiling and critical heat flux(CHF) were investigated. The results show that subcoolingis found to significantly affect CHF for all chips and micro-pin-finned chips sharply enhanced the boiling heat transfer, CHF of micro-pin-finned chips are 2.5~3 times as large as that of smooth chip at the same subcooling.

  19. Enhancement of binding kinetics on affinity substrates by laser point heating induced transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bu; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the time response and detection limit of affinity-binding based biosensors is an area of active research. For diffusion limited reactions, introducing active mass transport is an effective strategy to reduce the equilibration time and improve surface binding. Here, a laser is focused on the ceiling of a microchamber to generate point heating, which introduces natural advection and thermophoresis to promote mass transport to the reactive floor. We first used the COMSOL simulation to study how the kinetics of ligand binding is influenced by the optothermal effect. Afterwards, binding of biotinylated nanoparticles to NeutrAvidin-treated substrates is quantitatively measured with and without laser heating. It is discovered that laser induced point heating reduces the reaction half-life locally, and the reduction improves with the natural advection velocity. In addition, non-uniform ligand binding on the substrate is induced by the laser with predictable binding patterns. This optothermal strategy holds promise to improve the time-response and sensitivity of biosensors and microarrays. PMID:26898559

  20. Neutron-enhanced annealing of ion-implantation induced damage in silicon heated by nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinomura, A., E-mail: a.kinomura@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yoshiie, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Chayahara, A.; Mokuno, Y.; Tsubouchi, N.; Horino, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Kansai, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Xu, Q.; Sato, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yasuda, K.; Ishigami, R. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0192 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: •Neutron-enhanced annealing was observed for irradiation damage in Si below 90 °C. •The irradiation was performed in a nuclear reactor without intentional heating. •Reduction of damage peaks was detected by Rutherford backscattering/channeling. •The annealing efficiency was comparable to that of ion-beam annealing. -- Abstract: The effect of neutron irradiation on recovery (annealing) of irradiation damage has been investigated for self-ion implanted Si. A damage layer was introduced by 200 keV Si{sup +} implantation to a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 14} Si/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. The damaged samples were neutron-irradiated to 3.8 × 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (fast neutron), without intentional heating, in the core of the Kyoto University Reactor. During neutron irradiation, the samples were heated only by nuclear reactions, and the irradiation temperature was estimated to be less than 90 °C. The damage levels of the samples were characterized by Rutherford backscattering with channeling. Reduction of damage peaks as a result of neutron irradiation was clearly observed in the samples. The annealing efficiency was calculated to be 0.44 defects/displacement.

  1. Enhancement of parathion toxicity to quail by heat and cold exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Becker, J.M.; Nakatsugawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of ambient temperature on the acute oral toxicity of parathion were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) maintained at thermoneutral temperature (26.degree. C) or exposed to elevated (37.degree. C) or reduced (4.degree. C) temperatures commonly encountered by free-ranging wild birds. Based upon estimates of the median lethal dosage, there was up to a two-fold enhancement of parathion toxicity in birds chronically exposed to heat or cold. Twenty-four hours after administration of a low dosage (4 mg/kg body wt, po), there was markedly greater cholinesterase inhibition in surviving heat-exposed quail compared with those reared at 26.degree. C (e.g., brain acetylcholinesterase depression of 42% versus 12%). There were no differences in hepatic activities of parathion oxidase, paraoxonase, or paraoxon deethylase which could account for greater toxicity to chronically heat-exposed birds. In contrast, 4 mg parathion/kg wt elicited less plasma cholinesterase inhibition in cold-exposed quail compared to thermoneutral controls (e.g., cold-exposed quail. These findings, together with limited field observations, indicate that the hazard associated with anticholinesterase exposure of wild birds is substantially influenced by environmental temperature.

  2. Enhancement of central heating plant economic evaluation program for retrofit to coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinast, J.J.; Biederman, R.; Blazek, C.F.; Lin, M.C.; Moshagge, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    Public Law 99-190 requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal for steam generation. However, DOD also has an obligation to use the most economical fuel. Supporting the coal conversion effort, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has developed a computer program for engineering personnel at Major Army Commands, installations, the Defense Logistics Agency, and other DOD facilities to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of specific coal-combustion technologies at central heating plant facilities on military bases. The program, Central Heating Plant Economic Evaluation (CHPECON), can model plants that have a capacity of 50,000 to 600,000 MBtu/hr of steam, with individual boiler sizes from 25,000 to 200,000 MBtu/hr. The technologies examined include coal-fired stoker and fluidized-bed boilers, oil/natural gas boilers, and coal-slurry boilers. This report documents enhancements to existing CHPECON procedures for analyzing the retrofit or reconversion of a central heating plant to coal firing. They include: improving the screening and scoring process for boiler facilities considered for retrofit; adding options for converting a facility back to coal firing; detailing retrofit costs; upgrading economic analysis of a retrofit from an operating cost evaluation to a life-cycle cost analysis; and expanding the economic analysis to include examination of the condition of existing equipment.

  3. Enhanced mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal pretreatment: Substrate versus digestate heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Yeh, Daniel H; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Food waste (FW) represents a source of high potential renewable energy if properly treated with anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreating the substrates could yield a higher biomethane production in a shorter time. In this study, the effects of thermal (heating the FW in a separate chamber) and thermophilic (heating the full reactor content containing both FW and inoculum) pretreatments at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C prior to mesophilic AD were studied through a series of batch experiments. Pretreatments at a lower temperature (50°C) and a shorter time (biomethane production with an increase by 44-46% was achieved with a thermophilic pretreatment at 50°C for 6-12h or a thermal pretreatment at 80°C for 1.5h. Thermophilic pretreatments at higher temperatures (>55°C) and longer operating times (>12h) yielded higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), but had a negative effect on the methanogenic activity. The thermal pretreatments at the same conditions resulted in a lower solubilization of COD. Based on net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production is sufficient to heat up the FW for the thermal, but not for the thermophilic pretreatment. PMID:26272711

  4. Properties enhancement of Al-Zn-Mg alloy by retrogression and re-aging heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid H.R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher strength 7xxx aluminum alloys exhibited low resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC when aged to the peak hardness (T6 temper. The overaged alloys (T7 temper developed to enhance the SCC with loss in the strength of the alloy. Recently, retrogression and re-aging (RRA heat treatments are used for improving the SCC behavior for alloys in T6 tempers such as 7075, 7475 and 8090. In this study, an application of retrogression and re-aging heat treatment processes are carried out to enhance toughness properties of the 7079-T651 aluminum alloy, while maintaining the higher strength of T651-temper. The results of charpy impact energy and electrical conductivity tests show a significantly increases in absorbed energy and electrical conductivity values, when the alloys are exposed to various retrogression temperatures (190, 200, 210°C and times (20, 40, 60 minutes, and then re-aged at 160°C for 18 hours.

  5. Neutral-Line Magnetic Shear and Enhanced Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Gary, G. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1997-01-01

    By examining the magnetic structure at sites in the bright coronal interiors of active regions that are not flaring but exhibit persistent strong coronal heating, we establish some new characteristics of the magnetic origins of this heating. We have examined the magnetic structure of these sites in five active regions, each of which was well observed by both the Yohkoh SXT and the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and showed strong shear in its magnetic field along part of at least one neutral line (polarity inversion). Thus, we can assess whether this form of nonpotential field structure in active regions is a characteristic of the enhanced coronal heating and vice versa. From 27 orbits' worth of Yohkoh SXT images of the five active regions, we have obtained a sample of 94 persistently bright coronal features (bright in all images from a given orbit), 40 long (greater than or approximately equals 20,000 km) neutral-line segments having strong magnetic shear throughout (shear angle greater than 45 deg), and 39 long neutral-line segments having weak magnetic shear throughout (shear angle less than 45 deg). From this sample, we find that: (1) all of our persistently bright coronal features are rooted in magnetic fields that are stronger than 150 G; (2) nearly all (95%) of these enhanced coronal features are rooted near neutral lines (closer than 10,000 km); (3) a great majority (80%) of the bright features are rooted near strong-shear portions of neutral lines; (4) a great majority (85%) of long strong-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; (5) a large minority (40%) of long weak-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; and (6) the brightness of a persistently bright Coronal feature often changes greatly over a few hours. From these results, we conclude that most persistent enhanced heating of coronal loops in active regions: (1) requires the

  6. Expression of the Znt1 zinc transporter from the metal hyperaccumulator noccaea caerulescens confers enhanced zinc and cadmium tolerance and accumulation to arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ya Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, S.; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis.

  7. Review of the correlation developments and a new concept based on mixing mechanism for heat transfer enhancement of spacer grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, H.; Yang, B.W.; Liu, X. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China). Science and Technology Center for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Research

    2016-07-15

    Spacer grids could cause heat transfer enhancement both at the spacer grid regions and downstream of the spacer grids as a result of mixing promoted by the spacer grids in the rod bundle. This phenomenon has been demonstrated by many experiments, and several correlations have been developed based on these experimental data. This paper gives a review of the grid-enhanced heat transfer correlation developments in single phase flow. Following the exploration of the correlation development history, a predictive formulation of grid-enhanced heat transfer in single phase flow is established taking into account the effect of both swirl flow and crossflow. With emphasis on modeling of the mixing mechanism associated with the mixing vane grid, the new correlation could better reflect the physical process of the heat transfer augmentation, while a large number of experimental data are needed to determine the coefficients of the new correlation.

  8. Downregulation of chloroplast RPS1 negatively modulates nuclear heat-responsive expression of HsfA2 and its target genes in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available Heat stress commonly leads to inhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants. The transcriptional induction of heat stress-responsive genes represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis. Although heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 and its downstream target genes are well studied, the regulatory mechanisms by which HsfA2 is activated in response to heat stress remain elusive. Here, we show that chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1 is a heat-responsive protein and functions in protein biosynthesis in chloroplast. Knockdown of RPS1 expression in the rps1 mutant nearly eliminates the heat stress-activated expression of HsfA2 and its target genes, leading to a considerable loss of heat tolerance. We further confirm the relationship existed between the downregulation of RPS1 expression and the loss of heat tolerance by generating RNA interference-transgenic lines of RPS1. Consistent with the notion that the inhibited activation of HsfA2 in response to heat stress in the rps1 mutant causes heat-susceptibility, we further demonstrate that overexpression of HsfA2 with a viral promoter leads to constitutive expressions of its target genes in the rps1 mutant, which is sufficient to reestablish lost heat tolerance and recovers heat-susceptible thylakoid stability to wild-type levels. Our findings reveal a heat-responsive retrograde pathway in which chloroplast translation capacity is a critical factor in heat-responsive activation of HsfA2 and its target genes required for cellular homeostasis under heat stress. Thus, RPS1 is an essential yet previously unknown determinant involved in retrograde activation of heat stress responses in higher plants.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigations of heat transfer enhancement in circular tubes with transverse twisted-baffles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanan, K.; Piriyarungrod, N.; Thianpong, C.; Wongcharee, K.; Eiamsa-ard, S.

    2016-10-01

    Transverse twisted-baffles (T-TBs) and transverse baffles (TBs) were employed for heat transfer enhancement in circular tubes. The experimental and numerical studies were carried out to investigate heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance factor associated with the use of the baffles (T-TBs/TBs). The studies encompass three different baffle width ratios ( w/ D = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, for TBs and T-TBs), three baffle twist ratios ( y/ w = 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0, for T-TBs) and Reynolds numbers from 6000 to 20,000. The experimental results reveal that at similar conditions, thermal performance factors of the tubes with the T-TBs are consistently higher than those of the ones with the TBs. This is attributed to the superior heat transfer enhancement with lower pressure drop penalty as the beneficial effects given by the T-TBs, as compared to those given by the TBs. For T-TBs, thermal performance factor increases as baffle width ratio ( w/ D) increases and twist ratio ( y/ w) decreases. The T-TBs with the smallest twist ratio ( y/ w = 2.0) give higher thermal performance factors than the ones with 3.0 and 4.0 by around 4.7-6.1 and 10.2-15 %, respectively. For the studied range, the T-TBs with the optimal geometric parameters, ( y/ w = 2.0 and w/ D = 0.3), give the thermal performance factors in a range of 1.46-1.69.

  10. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, Sangita; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G M

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading. PMID:26930473

  11. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fen Lin

    Full Text Available Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading.

  12. Visualization of droplet departure on a superhydrophobic surface and implications to heat transfer enhancement during dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, C.; Rykaczewski, K.; Fedorov, A. G.; Joshi, Y.

    2010-07-01

    Droplet departure frequency is investigated using environmental scanning electron microscopy with implications to enhancing the rate of dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic surfaces, formed by cupric hydroxide nanostructures, allow the condensate to depart from a surface with a tilt angle of 30° from the horizontal. The resulting decrease in drop departure size shifts the drop size distribution to smaller radii, which may enhance the heat transfer rate during dropwise condensation. The heat transfer enhancement is estimated by modifying the Rose and Le Fevre drop distribution function to account for a smaller maximum droplet size on a superhydrophobic surface.

  13. Heating of tissues in vivo by pulsed focused ultrasound to stimulate enhanced HSP expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Tamara; Wójcik, Janusz; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    The main aim of this work was numerical modeling of temperature fields induced in soft tissues in vivo by pulsed focused ultrasound during neurodegenerative disease treatment and experimental verification of the proposed model for a rat liver. The new therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases consists of stimulation of enhanced expression of the Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) which are responsible for immunity of cells to stress. During therapy the temperature rise in tissues in vivo should not exceed 6 °C above level of the thermal norm (37 °C). First, the 3D acoustic pressure field, and the rate of heat production per unit volume due to that field, were calculated using our 3D numerical solver capable of predicting nonlinear propagation of pulsed high intensity waves generated from circular focused acoustic sources in multilayer configuration of attenuating media. The two-layer configuration of media (water—rat liver) assumed in calculations fairly well approximated both the real anatomic dimensions of rat liver and the geometric scheme of our experimental set-up. A numerical solution of the Pennes bio-heat transfer equation which accounted for the effects of heat diffusion, blood perfusion and metabolism rates, was employed to calculate the temperature fields induced in the rat liver by the ultrasonic beam. The numerical simulation results were verified experimentally using a thermocouple inserted in the liver of a rat under anesthesia at the beam focus. The quantitative analysis of the obtained results enabled estimation of the effects of several acoustic and thermal parameters of the rat liver in vivo on the temperature rise, as well as determination of exposure time for ultrasonic beams with varied acoustic power generated by a 2-MHz circular transducer of 15-mm diameter and 25-mm focal length, in order to avoid the tissue overheating that leads to cells necrosis, which would be unacceptable in neurodegenerative disease treatment.

  14. Persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer enhances sensible and latent heat loss in a tropical great lake: Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Piet; Antenucci, Jason P.

    2010-06-01

    Energy fluxes across the surface of lakes regulate heat storage and affect the water balance. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are affected by atmospheric stability, especially for large lakes. We examined the effect of atmospheric stability on the heat fluxes on seasonal time scales at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, by estimating hourly sensible and latent heat fluxes and net radiation using thermistor chains and meteorological stations. The atmosphere was almost always unstable, in contrast to the atmosphere above North American Great Lakes which is unstable in winter and stable in summer. Persistent atmospheric instability resulted in a 13% and 18% increase in the annual mean heat loss by latent and sensible heat fluxes, respectively, relative to conditions of neutral stability. The persistent unstable atmosphere is caused by a higher water surface temperature compared with air temperature, which we argue is the case in general in (sub)tropical lakes. Low humidity further enhanced the frequency of unstable conditions and enhanced the exchange of heat and vapor from the lake to the atmosphere. The estimated heat fluxes were sensitive to the temporal scale of data inputs and to the local values of parameters such as air density. To our knowledge this is the first paper that demonstrates and quantifies the effect of atmospheric stability on latent and sensible heat fluxes from a lake on an annual basis, using data collected from the lake surface.

  15. Gas turbine efficiency enhancement using waste heat powered absorption chillers in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hot climates, the efficiency of energy-intensive industrial facilities utilizing gas turbines for power generation, such as oil refineries and natural gas processing plants (NGPPs), can be enhanced by reducing gas turbine compressor inlet air temperature. This is typically achieved using either evaporative media coolers or electrically-driven mechanical vapor-compression chillers. However, the performance of evaporative media coolers is constrained in high relative humidity (RH) conditions, such as encountered in the Middle East and tropical regions, and such coolers require demineralized water supply, while electrically-driven mechanical vapor-compression chillers consume a significant amount of electric power. In this study, the use of gas turbine exhaust gas waste-heat powered, single-effect water–lithium bromide (H2O–LiBr) absorption chillers is thermo-economically evaluated for gas turbine compressor inlet air cooling scheme, with particular applicability to Middle East NGPPs. The thermodynamic performance of the proposed scheme, integrated in a NGPP, is compared with that of conventional evaporative coolers and mechanical vapor-compression chillers, in terms of key operating parameters, and either demineralized water or electricity consumption, respectively. The results show that in extreme ambient conditions representative of summer in the Persian Gulf (i.e., 55 °C, 80% RH), three steam-fired, single-effect H2O–LiBr absorption chillers utilizing 17 MW of gas turbine exhaust heat, could provide 12.3 MW of cooling to cool compressor inlet air to 10 °C. In the same ambient conditions, evaporative coolers would only provide 2.3 MW cooling capacity, and necessitate consumption of approximately 0.8 kg/s of demineralized water to be vaporized. In addition, mechanical vapor-compression chillers would require an additional 2.7 MW of electric energy to provide the same amount of cooling as H2O–LiBr absorption chillers. The additional electricity generated

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243008 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243008 J090097H12 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242849 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242849 J090072M15 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243505 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243505 J100074N19 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288959 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288959 J090084E19 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287577 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287577 J065037N08 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288072 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288072 J075161I05 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065706 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065706 J013038P03 At5g48030.1 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted (...GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:21429604; cont

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120746 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120746 J023004K12 At5g48030.1 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted (...GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:21429604; cont

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243178 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243178 J100036P15 At5g48030.1 68418.m05935 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted... (GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058985 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058985 001-020-E06 At5g48030.1 DNAJ heat shock protein, mitochondrially targeted ...(GFA2) 99.8% identical to mitochondrially targeted DnaJ protein GFA2 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:21429604; con

  6. Physiological, biochemical, and genome-wide transcriptional analysis reveals that elevated CO2 mitigates the impact of combined heat wave and drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana at multiple organizational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Domagalska, Malgorzata A; Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Nijs, Ivan; Janssens, Ivan A; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Asard, Han

    2014-12-01

    Climate changes increasingly threaten plant growth and productivity. Such changes are complex and involve multiple environmental factors, including rising CO2 levels and climate extreme events. As the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying plant responses to realistic future climate extreme conditions are still poorly understood, a multiple organizational level analysis (i.e. eco-physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional) was performed, using Arabidopsis exposed to incremental heat wave and water deficit under ambient and elevated CO2 . The climate extreme resulted in biomass reduction, photosynthesis inhibition, and considerable increases in stress parameters. Photosynthesis was a major target as demonstrated at the physiological and transcriptional levels. In contrast, the climate extreme treatment induced a protective effect on oxidative membrane damage, most likely as a result of strongly increased lipophilic antioxidants and membrane-protecting enzymes. Elevated CO2 significantly mitigated the negative impact of a combined heat and drought, as apparent in biomass reduction, photosynthesis inhibition, chlorophyll fluorescence decline, H2 O2 production, and protein oxidation. Analysis of enzymatic and molecular antioxidants revealed that the stress-mitigating CO2 effect operates through up-regulation of antioxidant defense metabolism, as well as by reduced photorespiration resulting in lowered oxidative pressure. Therefore, exposure to future climate extreme episodes will negatively impact plant growth and production, but elevated CO2 is likely to mitigate this effect.

  7. Enhancing light-harvesting power with coherent vibrational interactions: A quantum heat engine picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killoran, N.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-10-21

    Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations may contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system’s power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle and quantifies its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle’s relevance in parameter regimes connected to natural light-harvesting structures.

  8. Variability of Jovian ion winds: an upper limit for enhanced Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Lystrup

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that short-timescale fluctuations about the mean electric field can significantly increase the upper atmospheric energy inputs at Jupiter, which may help to explain the high observed thermospheric temperatures. We present data from the first attempt to detect such variations in the Jovian ionosphere. Line-of-sight ionospheric velocity profiles in the Southern Jovian auroral/polar region are shown, derived from the Doppler shifting of H3+ infrared emission spectra. These data were recently obtained from the high-resolution CSHELL spectrometer at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We find that there is no variability within this data set on timescales of the order of one minute and spatial scales of 640 km, putting upper limits on the timescales of fluctuations that would be needed to enhance Joule heating.

  9. Characteristics of thermally-enhanced bentonite grouts for geothermal heat exchanger in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chulho; LEE; Kangja; LEE; Hangseok; CHOI; Hyo-Pum; CHOI

    2010-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of bentonite grouts have been evaluated and compared each other to determine the suitability of these materials for backfilling vertical boreholes of ground heat exchangers.Seven bentonite grouts from different product sources were considered in this paper.Two additives,silica sand and graphite were added in bentonite grouts to enhance thermal performance.The bentonite grouts indicate that both the thermal conductivity and the viscosity increase with the content of silica sand and graphite.Therefore,it is recommended to select cautiously the amount of silica sand and graphite considering not only thermal conductivity but also viscosity for the optimum condition of backfilling.Finally,the effect of salinity in the pore water on the change of swelling potential of the bentonite-based grouts has been quantitatively evaluated to show the feasibility of bentonite grouts in the coastal area.

  10. Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement by Nanofluids: Single-Phase and Two-Phase Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaç, S.; Pramuanjaroenkij, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanofluids have been investigated regarding their advantages and potentialities for the purpose of increasing convective heat transfer rates inside thermal systems where they are used as working fluids. Researchers in thermophysics have investigated these fluids experimentally and numerically. This review provides extensive theoretical information concerning nanofluids in the single-phase and two-phase treatments. Important published works on nanofluid properties and correlations are summarized and reviewed in detail. Heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids is a challenging problem due to the difficulties inherent in the model of the physical mechanism of interaction between the paricles. Here the interaction between the phases is modeled by several two-phase models, and the results are given in graphical and tabular forms. Despite the advantages of the mixture model, such as imlementation of physical properties and less computational power requirements, some studies showed that the results of the single-phase and two-phase models are very similar. The main difference consists in the effect of the drift velocities of the phases relative to each other.

  11. Enhancing the mechanical properties of electrospun polyester mats by heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kancheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfibrous materials with a targeted design based on poly(L-lactic acid (PLA and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL were prepared by electrospinning and by combining electrospinning and electrospraying. Several approaches were used: (i electrospinning of a common solution of the two polymers, (ii simultaneous electrospinning of two separate solutions of PLA and PCL, (iii electrospinning of PLA solution in conjunction with electrospraying of PCL solution, and (iv alternating layer-by-layer deposition by electrospinning of separate PLA and PCL solutions. The mats were heated at the melting temperature of PCL (60°", thus achieving melting of PCL fibers/particles and thermal sealing of the fibers. The mats subjected to thermal treatment were characterized by greater mean fiber diameters and reduced values of the water contact angle compared to the pristine mats. Heat treatment of the mats affected their thermal stability and led to an increase in the crystallinity degree of PLA incorporated in the mats, whereas that of PCL was reduced. All mats were characterized by enhanced mechanical properties after thermal treatment as compared to the non-treated fibrous materials.

  12. Performance of double -pass solar collector with CPC and fins for heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfegi, Ebrahim M. A.; Abosbaia, Alhadi A. S.; Mezughi, Khaled M. A.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2013-06-01

    The temperature of photovoltaic modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. This undesirable effect can be partially avoided by applying a heat recovery unit with fluid circulation (air or water) with the photovoltaic module. Such unit is called photovoltaic / thermal collector (pv/t) or hybrid (pv/t). In this unit, photovoltaic cells were pasted directly on the flat plate absorber. An experimental study of a solar air heater with photovoltaic cell located at the absorber with fins and compound parabolic collector for heat transfer enhancement and increasing the number of reflection on the cells have been conducted. The performance of the photovoltaic, thermal, and combined pv/t collector over range of operating conditions and the results was discussed. Results at solar irradiance of 500 W/m2 show that the combined pv/t efficiency is increasing from 37.28 % to 81.41 % at mass flow rates various from 0.029 to 0.436 kg/s.

  13. Enhancement and tunability of near-field radiative heat transfer mediated by surface plasmon polaritons in thin plasmonic films

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Jiawei; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (...

  14. Soybean salt tolerance 1 (GmST1 reduces ROS production, enhances ABA sensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin eRen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative RT-PCR analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops.

  15. Soybean Salt Tolerance 1 (GmST1) Reduces ROS Production, Enhances ABA Sensitivity, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Penumala, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27148284

  16. Neutralization of Bacterial YoeBSpn Toxicity and Enhanced Plant Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana via Co-Expression of the Toxin-Antitoxin Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Abu Bakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA systems have various cellular functions, including as part of the general stress response. The genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors several putative TA systems, including yefM-yoeBSpn, which is one of four systems that had been demonstrated to be biologically functional. Overexpression of the yoeBSpn toxin gene resulted in cell stasis and eventually cell death in its native host, as well as in Escherichia coli. Our previous work showed that induced expression of a yoeBSpn toxin-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP fusion gene apparently triggered apoptosis and was lethal in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-expression of the yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic A. thaliana. When co-expressed in Arabidopsis, the YefMSpn antitoxin was found to neutralize the toxicity of YoeBSpn-GFP. Interestingly, the inducible expression of both yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic hybrid Arabidopsis resulted in larger rosette leaves and taller plants with a higher number of inflorescence stems and increased silique production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a prokaryotic antitoxin neutralizing its cognate toxin in plant cells.

  17. Effect of humidity, temperature, and pressure on corona discharge characteristics and heat transfer enhancements in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the effect of working fluid humidity, temperature, and pressure on corona discharge characteristics and heat transfer enhancements for air flow in a tube with a co-axial wire electrode that were studied experimentally. It was found that higher working fluid temperatures result in higher corona currents and higher corresponding heat transfer enhancements. A higher humidity yielded lower corona discharge currents. However, its effect on heat transfer enhancement was not as definitive and depended on the flow Reynolds number. With respect to the effect of pressure, an increase was associated with a rapid decrease in corona current and increase in threshold voltage for both positive and negative polarities. At low pressures discharge consisted of a stable corona at lower currents and an unstable corona at higher currents

  18. Flow of suspensions of carbon nanotubes carrying phase change materials through microchannels and heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Ray, Sumit; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Sriram, Hari; Yarin, Alexander L

    2014-02-01

    This work explores the potential of nano-encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in applications related to microelectronics cooling. PCMs (wax or meso-erythritol) were encapsulated in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a method of self-sustained diffusion at room temperature and pressure. These nano-encapsulated wax nanoparticles alone allowed heat removal over a relatively wide range of temperatures (different waxes have melting temperatures in the range 40-80 °C). On the other hand, nano-encapsulated meso-erythritol nanoparticles allowed heat removal in the range 118-120 °C. The combination of these two PCMs (wax and meso-erythritol) could extend the temperature range to 40-120 °C, when both types of nanoparticles (wax and meso-erythritol intercalated) would be suspended in the same carrier fluid (an oil). The nanoparticles possess a short response time of the order of 10(-7) s. Such nano-encapsulation can also prevent the PCM from sticking to the wall. In this work, experiments with wax-intercalated CNTs, stable aqueous suspensions of CNTs with concentrations up to 3 wt% with and without nano-encapsulated wax were prepared using a surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (NaDDBS). These suspensions were pumped through two channels of 603 μm or 1803 μm in diameter subjected to a constant heat flux at the wall. It was found that the presence of the surfactant in CNT suspensions results in a pseudo-slip at the channel wall which enhances the flow rate at a fixed pressure drop. When aqueous solutions of the surfactant were employed (with no CNTs added), the enhanced convection alone was responsible for a ~2 °C reduction in temperature in comparison with pure water flows. When CNTs with nano-encapsulated wax were added, an additional ~1.90 °C reduction in temperature due to the PCM fusion was observed when using 3 wt% CNT suspensions. In addition, suspensions of meso-erythritol-intercalated CNTs in alpha-olefin oil were used as coolants in flows through the

  19. Using solar heat to enhance waste-heat use; Solarthermische Abwaermenutzung; Aufwertung von Abwaerme mittels Solarthermie zur Erzeugung hochwertiger Prozessenergie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R. [BMG Engineering AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Luzzi, A.; Marty, H. [HSR, Hochschule fuer Technik, SPF Institut fuer Solartechnik, Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the work done in a project involving the use of solar heat to enhance the use of waste heat at a chemical plant in Nyon, Switzerland. On the basis of a study carried out in 2006/2007, which looked at the reduction of process energy demand of a production site where an agent is produced in batch operation, possibilities for the recovery of waste heat were identified. The relatively low temperatures of the existing waste heat flows have, however, complicated its efficient use. This reflects a problem with waste heat use in industrial processes that can often be observed. Due to the sunny location in Nyon, a concept using solar energy to increase the temperature level of this waste heat has been developed. The objective of this analysis was the technical and economical assessment of such an installation and its transferability to other sites. Variants are presented and their economic viability is discussed.

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVE RADIAL THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY FOR EVALUATING ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER IN TUBES UNDER NON-NEWTONIAN LAMINAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Morais

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEnhanced heat transfer in tubes under laminar flow conditions can be found in coils or corrugated tubes or in the presence of high wall relative roughness, curves, pipe fittings or mechanical vibration. Modeling these cases can be complex because of the induced secondary flow. A modification of the Graetz problem for non-Newtonian power-law flow is proposed to take into account the augmented heat transfer by the introduction of an effective radial thermal diffusivity. The induced mixing was modeled as an increased radial heat transfer in a straight tube. Three experiments using a coiled tube and a tubular heat exchanger with high relative wall roughness are presented in order to show how this parameter can be obtained. Results were successfully correlated with Reynolds number. This approach can be useful for modeling laminar flow reactors (LFR and tubular heat exchangers available in the chemical and food industries.

  1. Enhanced upconversion emission of Dy3+-doped tellurite glass by heat-treated silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dy3+-doped lead sodium tellurite glasses containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a melt-quenching technique and treated for different annealing time intervals above the glass transition temperature. The glass samples were characterized by UV–vis–IR absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope imaging. Eight absorption peaks of Dy3+ ions were observed indicating the transitions from ground state to different excited states. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of silver NPs was probed at 522 nm. Blue, yellow and red luminescence emissions were recorded at 485, 578 and 665 nm. The intensity of emission peaks for heat-treated samples containing silver NPs found to be 1.7–4 times larger than their singly-doped counterpart. Such enhancements are attributed to the modification of the local field due to difference between dielectric constants of metal and surrounding medium as the major factor, and energy transfer from nano-metal particles to Dy3+ ions as the minor aspect. The size distribution of silver NPs has a Gaussian shape with a maximum around 18 nm. The glasses can be nominated as promising materials for solid state lasers. - Highlights: • Dy3+-doped sodium lead tellurite glass containing silver NPs are prepared by the melt quench technique. • The surface plasmon band of silver NPs is observed at 522 nm. • Enhancements in the order of 1.7–4 times are obtained for visible lines of Dy3+ ions under 800 nm excitation. • Different mechanisms for enhancements and quenches of emission intensities are discussed

  2. Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer in Mechanically Contstrained Ultra Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Drost; Jim Liburdy; Brian Paul; Richard Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research focused on resolving the key technical issues that limited the deployment of efficient and extremely compact microtechnology based heat actuated absorption heat pumps and gas absorbers. Success in demonstrating these technologies will reduce the main barriers to the deployment of a technology that can significantly reduce energy consumption in the building, automotive and industrial sectors while providing a technology that can improve our ability to sequester CO{sub 2}. The proposed research cost $939,477. $539,477 of the proposed amount funded research conducted at OSU while the balance ($400,000) was used at PNNL. The project lasted 42 months and started in April 2001. Recent developments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oregon State University suggest that the performance of absorption and desorption systems can be significantly enhanced by the use of an ultra-thin film gas/liquid contactor. This device employs microtechnology-based structures to mechanically constrain the gas/liquid interface. This technology can be used to form very thin liquid films with a film thickness less then 100 microns while still allowing gas/liquid contact. When the resistance to mass transfer in gas desorption and absorption is dominated by diffusion in the liquid phase the use of extremely thin films (<100 microns) for desorption and absorption can radically reduce the size of a gas desorber or absorber. The development of compact absorbers and desorbers enables the deployment of small heat-actuated absorption heat pumps for distributed space heating and cooling applications, heat-actuated automotive air conditioning, manportable cooling, gas absorption units for the chemical process industry and the development of high capacity CO{sub 2} absorption devices for CO{sub 2} collection and sequestration. The energy

  3. Full Scale Investigation of the Dynamic Heat Storage of Concrete Decks with PCM and Enhanced Heat Transfer Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the full-scale experimental investigation of the dynamic heat storage potential of the prefabricated hollow core deck elements with and without phase change material (PCM) and with and without increased bottom surface area of the decks. In the presented investigation five types...... can result in the increased heat amount that can be transferred and stored in the heavy construction element during the diurnal indoor temperature fluctuations.......The paper presents the full-scale experimental investigation of the dynamic heat storage potential of the prefabricated hollow core deck elements with and without phase change material (PCM) and with and without increased bottom surface area of the decks. In the presented investigation five types...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101133 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-10 ... ...eneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum and contains P...AK101133 J033026F23 At1g12980.1 AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, putative / enhancer of shoot reg

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-10 ... ...ve / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum and contains ...AK119645 002-130-G05 At1g12980.1 AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, putati

  6. Enhancement of Nucleate Boiling Heat Flux on Macro/Micro-Structured Surfaces Cooled by Multiple Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Scott Lee

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer from modified surfaces cooled by multiple in-line impinging circular jets is reported and found to agree with single jet results. A copper block is heated from the back by two electrical arcs, and cooled on the opposite side by three identical liquid jets of distilled water at subcoolings of 25 C 50 C and 77 C and Freon 113 at 24 C subcooling. Liquid flow rates are held constant at 5, 10, and 15 GPH for each of the three jets with jet velocities ranging from 1.4 m/s to 1 1.2 m/s and jet diameters from 0.95 mm to 2.2 mm. To increase the maximum heat flux (CHF) and heat removal rate, the boiling surface was modified by both macro and micro enhancements. Macro modification consists of machined radial grooves in the boiling surface arranged in an optimally designed pattern to allow better liquid distribution along the surface. These grooves also reduce splashing of liquid droplets, and provide 'channels' to sweep away bubbles. Micro modification was achieved by flame spraying metal powder on the boiling surface, creating a porous, sintered surface. With the addition of both micro and macro structured enhancements, maximum heat flux and nucleate boiling can be enhanced by more than 200%. Examination of each surface modification separately and together indicates that at lower superheats, the micro structure provides the enhanced heat transfer by providing more nucleation sites, while for higher superheats the macro structure allows better liquid distribution and bubble removal. A correlation is presented to account for liquid subcoolings and surface enhancements, in addition to the geometrical and fluid properties previously reported in the literature.

  7. Heat transfer enhancement using air-atomized spray cooling with water-Al2O3 nano-fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals with the air-atomized spray cooling using nano-fluid as the cooling media for high heat flux applications. The nano-fluid has been prepared by commercial Al2O3 particles of diameter less than 13 nm and water. Heat transfer study has been carried out on a pre-heated steel specimen of dimensions 100 mm x 100 mm x 6 mm. The initial temperature of the plate which was subjected to air-atomized spray cooling was over 900 deg. C. Various coolants consisting of 0.1% volumetric concentration of water -Al2O3 mixture, with or without a dispersing agent (surfactant) were used for the study. The dispersing agents used are sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20). Inverse heat conduction software INTEMP has been used for estimating the surface heat flux and temperatures taking into account the measured internal temperature histories by the thermocouples during the cooling process. The results obtained using nano-fluid coolants are compared with that of the results where pure water (filtered potable water) is used as a coolant. The analyses reveal that the cooling rate, critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficients are significantly enhanced when nano-fluids are used as coolants in air-atomized spray process. Also, the nano-fluid coolants with dispersing agent shows a better enhancement of heat transfer over that of the nano-fluid without the dispersing media. The nano-fluid with dispersing agent Tween 20 is found more effective than that of its counterpart. Overall, the percentage enhancement in cooling rate of all these nano-fluids compared with pure water (filtered potable water) is 10.2% for water-Al2O3, 18.6% for water-Al2O3-SDS, and up to 32.3% for water-Al2O3 -Tween 20. (authors)

  8. Enhancement of Heat Transfer Rate in Fractional Horse Power Condensing Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruveedhula, Vamsi Krishna; Davuluru, Sridevi; Munnangi, Naveen

    2012-01-01

    Rating & Sizing of heat exchangers are two important challenges encountered in the system design. The rating problem is concerned with the determination total heat transfer rate, the sizing problem is concerned with the determination of the total heat transfer surface area. The key factor contributing in higher heat transfer rate & minimum heat transfer area is the air flow over the condenser coil, as the system lies in indoor of a cabinet. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is used to optimi...

  9. Heat Transfer Enhancement Using CuO Nanofluids -The Effect of Sonication Time on the Paradoxical Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis M.K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usual heat transfer fluids with suspended ultra fine particles of nanometer size are namedas nanofluids, which have opened a new dimension in heat transfer processes. The recentinvestigations confirm the potential of nanofluids in enhancing heat transfer required forpresent age technology. The present study aims at a critical analysis of the apparently paradoxical behaviour of heat transfer with a special focus on the effect of sonication time on the heat transfer behaviour of nanofluids. To this end CuO nanofluids of different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2% are prepared at various sonication times (2, 3 and 4 hours and their effects on theheat transfer characteristics are investigated. Accordingly, an unsteady state heat transfer analysis of a heated vertical cylinder cooled in the aforesaid aCuO nanofluid is carried out.Investigation shows that the sonication time greatly influences the heat transfer performance of the nanofluids and this influence is affected by thenanoparticle concentration. However a solid conclusive remark as an increasing or decreasing trend could not be observed during these studies. More research needed in future to determine the exactness Sonication time effect.

  10. Mild electrical stimulation with heat shock ameliorates insulin resistance via enhanced insulin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Morino

    Full Text Available Low-intensity electrical current (or mild electrical stimulation; MES influences signal transduction and activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway. Because insulin resistance is characterized by a marked reduction in insulin-stimulated PI3K-mediated activation of Akt, we asked whether MES could increase Akt phosphorylation and ameliorate insulin resistance. In addition, it was also previously reported that heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72 alleviates hyperglycemia. Thus, we applied MES in combination with heat shock (HS to in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance. Here we show that 10-min treatment with MES at 5 V (0.1 ms pulse duration together with HS at 42 degrees C increased the phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor substrate (IRS and Akt in HepG2 cells maintained in high-glucose medium. MES (12 V+mild HS treatment of high fat-fed mice also increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta subunit (IRbeta and Akt in mice liver. In high fat-fed mice and db/db mice, MES+HS treatment for 10 min applied twice a week for 12-15 weeks significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels and improved insulin sensitivity. The treated mice showed significantly lower weight of visceral and subcutaneous fat, a markedly improved fatty liver and decreased size of adipocytes. Our findings indicated that the combination of MES and HS alleviated insulin resistance and improved fat metabolism in diabetes mouse models, in part, by enhancing the insulin signaling pathway.

  11. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1) Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Breja, Priyanka; Khurana, Jitendra P; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs) gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5), at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL) hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress. PMID:27322749

  12. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1 Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1 when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5, at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress.

  13. Concurrent studies of enhanced heat transfer and materials for ocean thermal exchangers. Progress report, July 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothfus, R.R.

    1976-07-31

    To demonstrate the enhancement of heat transfer in OTEC exchangers by means of fine, axial flutes on the heat transfer surfaces, experiments have been performed on single internally or externally fluted tubes of 1-inch diameter. Internal flutes provide water-side enhancement of both heat transfer and friction to about the same extent. At moderate water velocities heat transfer coefficients and friction factors are greater than those of the comparable smooth tube by a multiplying factor about equal to the fluted-to-smooth surface area ratio. Area ratios from 1.0 to 1.5 have been tested using two styles of flutes. Flute heights have ranged from 3 to 35 mils, tube lengths from 2 to 8 ft. Heat transfer experiments have been performed on Freon-11 moving in a thin layer under gravity down the outer surface of a smooth tube and of a tube having 26-mil external, axial flutes. Test lengths have averaged 4-/sup 1///sub 2/ ft. Enhancement of the local coefficient by 3 to 5 times has been observed during both evaporation and condensation. The effectiveness of the flutes is greatest in the range of laminar-turbulent transition.

  14. Enhancement and Tunability of Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Thin Plasmonic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Boriskina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (SPhP strongly modify the heat flux spectrum owing to the interactions between SPPs on thin films and SPhPs of the substrate. The use of thin film phase change materials on polar dielectric substrates allows for dynamic switching of the heat flux spectrum between SPP-mediated and SPhP-mediated peaks.

  15. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT BY LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION FROM HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED TUBE HEATED WITH CONSTANT HEAT FLUX, USING TWO TYPES OF POROUS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir K. Jassem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental forced laminar study was presented in this research for an air flowing through a circular channel for different angles ( ,30o,45o,60o, the channel was heated at constant heat flux , the channel also was packed with steel and glass spheres respectively . The tests were done for three values of Peclets number (2111.71,3945.42,4575.47 with changing the heat flux for each case and five times for each number.The results showed that the dimensionless temperature distribution  will decrease with increasing the dimensionless channel length for all cases with changing Peclet number, heat flux and inclination angles, and its lowest value will be for glass spheres at highest flux, while at lower flux for , and the decreasing in dimensionless temperature was closed for both types of packed at other inclination angles.The study declared that the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the dimensionless length of the channel for both packeds and for different applied heat flux, also through this study it was declared that the average Nusselt increases as Peclet number increases for both packed. Its value for the glass spheres is greater than the steel spheres with percentage (98.3% at small Peclet, and percentage (97.2% at large Peclet number for the horizontal tube, and (98.3% at small Peclet number and (97.8% at large Peclet number at  .Through this study its was found that average Nusselt number increases along the channel as the heat flux increases, because the bulk temperature will increase as the flow proceeds toward the end of the channel , so the heat transfer coefficient will increase.  It was declared from this study that in the case of the steel packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by conduction, while in the case of glass packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by laminar forced convection, where the lowest Nusselt number (Nu=3.8 was found when the pipe is horizontal and lowest heat flux and lowest Peclet number.  

  16. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. PMID:27323080

  17. Flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement on the 2-D slice for boric acid and TSP solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slice test section. The radius of the curvature and the channel area of the test section were 0.15 m and 0.03 mx0.03 m, respectively. The objectives are to assess the effects of additives (TSP, boric acid) and heated material (SA508) in inclination angle 90° and to investigate flow boiling CHF enhancement resulting from various working fluids of 5000 ppm tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4∙12H2O) solution, 4000 ppm boric acid solution and mixture solution of TSP and boric acid. Boric acid solution didn't show CHF enhancement and TSP and mixture solution showed CHF enhancement (20~34%). (author)

  18. Enhancement of Heat Transfer in a Liquid Metal Flow past a Thermally Conducting and Oscillating Infinite Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvaneswari Puvaneswari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of conjugation on the enhancement of heat transfer in a liquid metal flow past a thermally conducting and sinusoidally oscillating infinite flat plate, when a constant temperature gradient is superimposed on the fluid, is investigated. The plate is made up of the materials compatible with the liquid metals used and is considered to be of finite thickness. Analytical solutions for the velocity and the temperature of the fluid and the solid are obtained. The effects of thermal conductivity and the thickness of the plate on the total time averaged heat flux transported and the thermal boundary layer thickness are investigated in detail. It is found that the effects of wall thickness and wall thermal conductivity on the heat flux transported depend on their effects on the transverse temperature gradient at any frequency. The optimum value of wall thickness at which the net heat flux transported attains the maximum value, for each fluid and for each wall material under consideration, is reported. A maximum increase of 46.14 % in the heat flux transported can be achieved by optimizing the wall thickness. A maximum convective heat flux of 1.87 × 108W/m2 is achieved using Na with AISI 316 wall. All the results obtained have been compared with the experimental and analytical results reported in the literature and are found to be in good agreement. It is believed that the new insights gained will be of significant use while designing liquid metal heat transfer systems.

  19. Heat transfer enhancement of laminar nanofluids flow in a circular tube fitted with parabolic-cut twisted tape inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Numerical investigation has been carried out on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of copper-water nanofluid flow in a constant heat-fluxed tube with the existence of new configuration of vortex generator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two types of swirl flow generator: Classical twisted tape (CTT) and Parabolic-cut twisted tape (PCT) with a different twist ratio (y = 2.93, 3.91 and 4.89) and different cut depth (w = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm) with 2% and 4% volume concentration of CuO nanofluid were used for simulation. The effect of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, twist ratio, cut depth and nanofluid were considered. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate and the friction factor induced by the Classical (CTT) and Parabolic-cut (PCT) inserts increases with twist ratio and cut depth decreases. The results also revealed that the heat transfer enhancement increases with an increase in the volume fraction of the CuO nanoparticle. Furthermore, the twisted tape with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered 10% enhancement of the average Nusselt number with significant increases in friction factor than those of Classical twisted tape.

  20. Numerical investigation and analysis of heat transfer enhancement in channel by longitudinal vortex based on field synergy principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenquan TAO; Junmei WU

    2008-01-01

    3-D numerical simulations were presented for laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel with vortex generators. The effects of Reynolds number (from 800 to 3 000), the attack angle of vortex generator (from 15° to 90°) and the shape of vortex generator were examined. The numerical results were analyzed based on the field synergy principle. It is found that the inherent mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex can be explained by the field synergy principle, that is, the second flow generated by vortex generators results in the reduction of the intersection angle between the velocity and fluid temperature gradient. The longitudinal vortex improves the field synergy of the large downstream region of longitudinal vortex generator (LVG) and the region near (LVG); however, transverse vortex only improves the syn-ergy of the region near vortex generator. Thus, longitudinal vortex can enhance the integral heat transfer of the flow field, while transverse vortex can only enhance the local heat transfer. The synergy angle decreases with the increase of Reynolds number for the channel with LVG to differ from the result obtained from the plain channel, and the triangle winglet performs better than the rectanglar one under the same surface area condition.

  1. Vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays with different anodization times for enhanced boiling heat transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jia; YANG MingJie; XU JinLiang; JI XianBing

    2012-01-01

    Pool boiling of saturated water on a plain Ti surface and surfaces covered with vertically-oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays NTAs) has been studied.The technique of potentiostatic anodization using non-aqueous electrolytes was adopted to fabricate three types of TiO2 NTAs distinguished by their anodization time.Compared to the bare Ti surface,the incipient boiling wall superheat on the TiO2 NTAs was decreased by 11 K.Both the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient of pool boiling on the TiO2 NTAs were higher than those from boiling on a bare Ti surface.The measured maximum critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient values were 186.7 W/cm2 and 6.22 W/cm2K,respectively.Different performances for the enhancement of heat transfer by the three types of TiO2 NTAs were attributed to the different degrees of deformation in the nanostructure during boiling.Long-term performance of the nanomaterial-coated surfaces for enhanced pool boiling showed degradation of the TiO2 NTAs prepared with an anodization time of 3 hours.

  2. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Irvine, T.F., Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus_minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured [0 to 8.5 cm/s], the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  3. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Irvine, T.F., Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured (0 to 8.5 cm/s), the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  4. Short Time-Scale Enhancements to the Global Thermosphere Temperature and Nitric Oxide Content Resulting From Ionospheric Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D. R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Sutton, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The total Joule heating in the polar ionosphere can be derived from an empirical model of the electric fields and currents, using input measurements of the solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In the thermosphere, measurements of the neutral density from accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites are used to derive exospheric temperatures, showing that enhanced ionospheric energy dissipation produces elevated temperatures with little delay.Using the total ionospheric heating, changes in the global mean exosphere temperature as a function of time can be calculated with a simple differential equation. The results compare very well with the CHAMP and GRACE measurement. A critical part of the calculation is the rate at which the thermosphere cools after the ionospheric heating is reduced. It had been noted previously that events with significant levels of heating subsequently cool at a faster rate, and this cooling was attributed to enhanced nitric oxide emissions. This correlation with nitric oxide has been confirmed with very high correlations with measurements of nitric oxide emissions in the thermosphere, from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. These measurements were used in a recent improvement in the equations that calculate the thermosphere temperature. The global nitric oxide cooling rates are included in this calculation, and the predicted levels of nitric oxide, derived from the ionosphere heating model, match the SABER measurements very well, having correlation coefficients on the order of 0.9.These calculations are used to govern the sorting of measurements CHAMP and GRACE measurements, on the basis of the global temperature enhancements due to Joule heating, as well as various solar indices, and season. Global maps of the exospheric temperature are produced from these sorted data.

  5. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-04-15

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  6. Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation.

  7. Investigation of heat treating conditions for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Su-Chen; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2008-09-10

    In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate coughs and reduce phlegm in the respiratory tract. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory cells and increased airway production of nitric oxide (NO) are well recognized as key events in inflammation-related respiratory tract diseases. Despite the fact that the enhancing effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels has been well documented, the impact of heat treatment on citrus peel beneficial activities regarding anti-inflammation is unclear. To address this issue, we determined the anti-inflammatory activities of heat-treated citrus peel extracts by measuring their inhibitory effect upon NO production by lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel was significantly elevated after 100 degrees C heat treatment in a time-dependent fashion during a period from 0 to 120 min. Inhibition of iNOS gene expression was the major NO-suppressing mechanism of the citrus peel extract. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel extract highly correlated with the content of nobiletin and tangeretin. Conclusively, proper and reasonable heat treatment helped to release nobiletin and tangeretin, which were responsible for the increased anti-inflammatory activity of heat-treated citrus peels. PMID:18683945

  8. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Anson, E-mail: piercea2@uthscsa.edu [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); The Department of Veteran' s Affairs, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas, 78284 (United States); Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Yoo, Si-Eun [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); The Department of Veteran' s Affairs, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas, 78284 (United States)

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. {yields} HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. {yields} HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. {yields} HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1{sup +/0}) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1{sup +/0} mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1{sup +/0} cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1{sup +/0} cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  9. Heat increases MDMA-enhanced NAcc 5-HT and body temperature, but not MDMA self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Kongovi, Nundhun; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that hot environments enhance adverse effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). In this study, long-term (4-wks) daily MDMA self-administration sessions and an MDMA challenge test were conducted with rats under normal and high thermal conditions (23° or 32° C). During MDMA self-administration sessions, activity and body temperature were increased by heat or MDMA experience, while MDMA self-administration rates increased with experience, but were compar...

  10. Spectrally enhancing near-field radiative heat transfer by exciting magnetic polariton in SiC gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate, for the first time, that near field radiative transport between 1D periodic grating microstructures separated by subwavelength vacuum gaps can be significantly enhanced by exciting magnetic resonance or polariton. Fluctuational electrodynamics that incorporates scattering matrix theory with rigorous coupled wave analysis is employed to exactly calculate the near field radiative heat flux between two SiC gratings. Besides the well known couple...

  11. Enhancement of urban heat load through social inequalities on an example of a fictional city King's Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, M.

    2016-08-01

    The numerical model MUKLIMO_3 is used to simulate the urban climate of an imaginary city as an illustrative example to demonstrate that the residential areas with deprived socio-economic conditions can exhibit an enhanced heat load at night, and thus more disadvantageous environmental conditions, compared with the areas of higher socio-economic status. The urban climate modelling simulations differentiate between orographic, natural landscape, building and social effects, where social differences are introduced by selection of location, building type and amount of vegetation. The model results show that the increase of heat load can be found in the areas inhabited by the poor population as a combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The unfavourable location in the city and the building type, consisting of high density, low housing with high fraction of pavement and small amount of vegetation contribute to the formation of excessive heat load. This abstract example shows that the enhancement of urban heat load can be linked to the concept of a socially stratified city and is independent of the historical development of any specific city.

  12. Heat transfer enhancement in a parabolic trough solar receiver using longitudinal fins and nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amina, Benabderrahmane; Miloud, Aminallah; Samir, Laouedj; Abdelylah, Benazza; Solano, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present a three dimensional numerical investigation of heat transfer in a parabolic trough collector receiver with longitudinal fins using different kinds of nanofluid, with an operational temperature of 573 K and nanoparticle concentration of 1% in volume. The outer surface of the absorber receives a non-uniform heat flux, which is obtained by using the Monte Carlo ray tracing technique. The numerical results are contrasted with empirical results available in the open literature. A significant improvement of heat transfer is derived when the Reynolds number varies in the range 2.57×104 ≤ Re ≤ 2.57×105, the tube-side Nusselt number increases from 1.3 to 1.8 times, also the metallic nanoparticles improve heat transfer greatly than other nanoparticles, combining both mechanisms provides better heat transfer and higher thermo-hydraulic performance.

  13. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone complex. A molecular target for enhancement of thermosensitivity and radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Sakurai, Hideyuki [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Mitsuhashi, Norio [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved heat shock protein in animal and plants, and exists abundantly in the cytoplasm in unstressed condition, accounting for 1-2% in cytoplasmic proteins. Main difference of Hsp90 from other Hsps are its substrate that Hsp90 binds to. These substrates include various signal transduction proteins, kinase, steroid receptors and transcription factors, therefore, Hsp90 plays a key role in maintaining cellular signal transduction networks. Many chaperoned proteins (client proteins) of Hsp90 are associated with cellular proliferation or malignant transformation, thus Hsp90 chaperone complex has been focused as targets for cancer therapy. Among the client proteins, there are several molecules that have been defined as targets or factors for determination or enhancement of radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity. Thus, it is easily speculated that Hsp90 chaperone complex inhibitors that disrupt association of Hsp90 and client protein in combination with radiation or/and heat has potential effect on enhancement of radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity. In this paper, possible mechanisms in enhancing radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity according to the client proteins will be summarized. (author)

  14. Enhanced heat transfer through filler-polymer interface by surface-coupling agent in heat-dissipation material: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kouichi [DENSO CORPORATION, Kariya, Aichi 448-8661 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kitsunezuka, Masashi; Shinma, Atsushi [DENSO CORPORATION, Kariya, Aichi 448-8661 (Japan)

    2013-11-21

    Developing a composite material of polymers and micrometer-sized fillers with higher heat conductance is crucial to realize modular packaging of electronic components at higher densities. Enhancement mechanisms of the heat conductance of the polymer-filler interfaces by adding the surface-coupling agent in such a polymer composite material are investigated through the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. A simulation system is composed of α-alumina as the filler, bisphenol-A epoxy molecules as the polymers, and model molecules for the surface-coupling agent. The inter-atomic potential between the α-alumina and surface-coupling molecule, which is essential in the present MD simulation, is constructed to reproduce the calculated energies with the electronic density-functional theory. Through the non-equilibrium MD simulation runs, we find that the thermal resistance at the interface decreases significantly by increasing either number or lengths of the surface-coupling molecules and that the effective thermal conductivity of the system approaches to the theoretical value corresponding to zero thermal-resistance at the interface. Detailed analyses about the atomic configurations and local temperatures around the interface are performed to identify heat-transfer routes through the interface.

  15. Effect of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cell Protein%增强UV-B辐射对拟南芥叶肉细胞蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小丽; 郑娜; 李晓阳; 韩榕

    2013-01-01

    Four-week-old wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings ( Columbia-O) was treated using different doses of UV-B radiation,the protein in the mesophyll cells was extracted using acetone precipitation and TCA-acetone,then Arabidopsis mesophyllcellular protein content and composition of the different intensity of UV-B radiation response were analyzed.The results showed that comparing two methods,the protein content of the TCA-acetone extract is relatively higher,which was more suitable for the analysis of enhanced UV-B radiation on Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protein; The changes of protein contents by two extraction methods showed the same trend,along with the increasing of UV-B radiation dose,the protein content increased first and then reduced,B2 group reached a maximum.In addition,the number of protein bands and expression has taken place significant change,the most obvious changes were also in the middle dose treatment group ( B2) ,both new bands and disappearance bands.This may be due to the Arabidopsis thaliana can activate some of its own resistance gene expressions and induce resistance protein by low doses of UV-B radiation,and thus resist the damage of UV-B; however,when subjected to high doses of UV-B radiation,damage their own protein synthesis pathway,and affect protein synthesis.%采用不同剂量的UV-B辐射处理4周龄的野生型拟南芥幼苗(Columbia-0),分别采用丙酮沉淀法和TCA-丙酮法提取其叶肉细胞中的蛋白质,进而研究分析拟南芥叶肉细胞中蛋白质的含量与组成对不同强度UV-B辐射的响应.结果显示,两种方法相比较,TCA-丙酮法所提取得到的蛋白含量相对较多,更适合于分析增强UV-B辐射对拟南芥叶肉细胞蛋白质的影响;而两种方法所提取得到的蛋白质含量的变化趋势相同,随着UV-B辐射剂量的增加,蛋白质含量呈先增加后减少的趋势,B2组达到了最大.此外,蛋白条带的数目和表达量也都发生了显著变化,同样

  16. Experimental and Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement of a Rectangular Channel with Discontinuous Crossed Ribs and Grooves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新宜; 朱冬生

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted to study turbulent flow of water and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel with discontinuous crossed ribs and grooves.The tests investigated the overall heat transfer performance and friction factor in ribbed and ribbed-grooved channels with rib angle of 30°.The experimental results show that the overall thermo-hydraulic performance for ribbed-grooved channel is increased by 10%-13.6% when compared to ribbed channel.The investigation on the effects of different rib angles and rib pitches on heat transfer characteristics and friction factor in ribbed-grooved channel was carried out using Fluent with SST(shear-stress transport) k-ω turbulence model.The numerical results indicate that the case for rib angle of 45° shows the best overall thermo-hydraulic performance,about 18%-36% higher than the case for rib angle of 0°.In addition,the flow patterns and local heat transfer characteristics for ribbed and ribbed-grooved channels based on the numerical simulation were also analyzed to reveal the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement.

  17. Numerical study of the enhancement of heat transfer for hybrid CuO-Cu Nanofluids flowing in a circular pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Hyder H; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mohdfaizal, Wan; Zulkifli, Rozli; Sopian, Kamaruzaman

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation model for laminar flow of nanofluids in a pipe with constant heat flux on the wall was built to study the effect of the Reynolds number on convective heat transfer and pressure loss. The investigation was performed for hybrid nanofluids consisting of CuO-Cu nanoparticles and compared with CuO and Cu in which the nanoparticles have a spherical shape with size 50, 50, 50nm respectively. The nanofluids were prepared, following which the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity were measured for a range of temperatures (10 -60°C). The numerical results obtained were compared with the existing well-established correlation. The prediction of the Nusselt number for nanofluids agrees well with the Shah correlation. The comparison of heat transfer coefficients for CuO, Cu and CuO-Cu presented an increase in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid as the convective heat transfer coefficient increased. It was found that the pressure loss increases with an increase in the Reynolds number, nanoparticle density and particle volume fraction. However, the flow demonstrates enhancement in heat transfer which becomes greater with an increase in the Reynolds number for the nanofluid flow.

  18. On the development of a grid-enhanced single-phase convective heat transfer correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new single-phase convective heat transfer augmentation correlation has been developed using single phase steam cooling experimental data obtained from the Penn State/NRC Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) facility. Experimental data obtained from the RBHT single phase steam cooling tests have been evaluated and new findings identified. Previous rod bundle tests showed the importance of spacer grid on the local heat transfer, and that the augmentation in heat transfer downstream of a grid decays exponentially. The RBHT data also shows that the Reynolds number affects the rate at which this augmentation decays. The new correlation includes the strong dependence of heat transfer on both the Reynolds number and the grid blockage ratio. While the effects of both parameters were clearly evident in the RBHT experimental data, existing correlations do not account for the Reynolds number effect. The developed correlation incorporates Reynolds number in the decay curve of heat transfer. The newly developed correlation adequately accounts for the dependence of the heat transfer augmentation decay rate on the local flow Reynolds number. (author)

  19. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants expressing an Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) exhibit enhanced As and Cd tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Ksenija; Korban, Schuyler S

    2007-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are post-translationally synthesized thiol reactive peptides that play important roles in detoxification of heavy metal and metalloids in plants and other living organisms. The overall goal of this study is to develop transgenic plants with increased tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids from soil by expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCS1 gene, encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A FLAG-tagged AtPCS1 gDNA, under its native promoter, is expressed in Indian mustard, and transgenic pcs lines have been compared with wild-type plants for tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). Compared to wild type plants, transgenic plants exhibit significantly higher tolerance to Cd and As. Shoots of Cd-treated pcs plants have significantly higher concentrations of PCs and thiols than those of wild-type plants. Shoots of wild-type plants accumulated significantly more Cd than those of transgenic plants, while accumulation of As in transgenic plants was similar to that in wild type plants. Although phytochelatin synthase improves the ability of Indian mustard to tolerate higher levels of the heavy metal Cd and the metalloid As, it does not increase the accumulation potential of these metals in the above ground tissues of Indian mustard plants.

  20. Strong Near-Field Enhancement of Radiative Heat Transfer between Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Tomas; Hanzelka, Pavel; Zobac, Martin; Musilova, Vera; Fort, Tomas; Horak, Michal

    2012-11-01

    Near-field heat transfer across a gap between plane-parallel tungsten layers in vacuo was studied experimentally with the temperature of the cold sample near 5 K and the temperature of the hot sample in the range 10-40 K as a function of the gap size d. At gaps smaller than one-third of the peak wavelength λm given by Wien’s displacement law, the near-field effect was observed. In comparison with blackbody radiation, hundred times higher values of heat flux were achieved at d≈1μm. Heat flux normalized to the radiative power transferred between black surfaces showed scaling (λm/d)n, where n≈2.6. This Letter describes the results of experiment and a comparison with present theory over 4 orders of magnitude of heat flux.

  1. Enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound heat deposition for more efficient hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Cecille Pemberton

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is currently being developed for hemorrhage control since it provides rapid energy deposition in the form of heat in the HIFU focal region. When the HIFU focus is targeted on soft tissue wounds, the resulting elevation of tissue temperature cauterizes the tissues thus stopping the bleeding. If HIFU is targeted near blood vessels with millimeter-range diameter, the rate of heat deposition is limited by loss of heat to the blood flow. Maximizing the local heat deposition is important for the achievement of HIFU-induced hemorrhage control, or "hemostasis", near large vessels. In this study, the effect of a fiber device on the heat deposition in the HIFU focal region is investigated in tissue-mimicking flow phantoms with liquid albumen as the heat-sensitive denaturing flow fluid. The effect of the embedded fiber on albumen coagulation in the flow phantom is compared to the degree and rate of albumen coagulation when no fiber is present. The effect of the fiber device on the size of lesions formed in a heat-sensitive tissue-mimicking phantom is also investigated. Finally, finite difference time domain simulations are performed to determine the heat deposition in a tissue-mimicking phantom with a nylon disc embedded and a phantom with the nylon disc removed. The results of this study are quite promising for the possibility of increased efficacy of hemostasis for such a device in concert with HIFU in vessel-containing tissue volumes where HIFU alone is not completely effective.

  2. Strategy and Enhanced Temperature Determination in a Laser Heated Diamond Anvil Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Deemyad, Shanti; Papathanassiou, Anthony N.; Silvera, Isaac F.

    2009-01-01

    We show that a strategy for increased accuracy in temperature determination by optical pyrometry when the wavelength dependence of the emissivity is unknown is to measure the spectral irradiance at short wavelengths. We then introduce an improved method of determining the temperature in laser heated diamond anvil cells. In general a blackbody source is used to determine the optical transfer function required for determining the blackbody curve. By using the thermal radiation of a heated absor...

  3. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Enhances Heat Stress-Impaired Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function in Caco-2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guizhen Xiao; Liqun Tang; Fangfang Yuan; Wei Zhu; Shaoheng Zhang; Zhifeng Liu; Yan Geng; Xiaowen Qiu; Yali Zhang; Lei Su

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier is known to have an important etiologic role in the pathophysiology of heat stroke. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in maintaining and protecting the TJ structure and function. This study is aimed at investigating whether n-3 PUFAs could alleviate heat stress-induced dysfunction of intestinal tight junction. METHODS: Human i...

  4. REVIEW OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXTENDED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.GANORKAR,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended surface heat exchangers are simple in construction and extensively used in many of the industries. Continuous Research is going on to improve its effectiveness by increasing fluid turbulence,generating secondary fluid flow patterns, reducing the thermal boundary layer thickness and increasing the heat transfer surface area. The present paper is a review of different types of arrangements of extended surfaces.

  5. 3D Numerical Study on Compound Heat Transfer Enhancement of Converging-diverging Tubes Equipped with Twin Twisted Tapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪宇翔; 邓先和; 张连山

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer and flow characteristics in converging-diverging tubes (CDs) and converging-diverg)ng tubes.equi.pped with twin counter-swirling twisted tapes (CDTs). The effects of Reynolds number (Re= 10000-20000), pitch length (P= 11.25, 22.5 mm), rib height (e = 0.5, 0.8, 1.1 ram), pitch ratio (8= 1 " 8, 5 " 4, 8 " 1), gap distance between twin t)visted tapes (b = 0.5, 4.5, 8.5 mm) and tape number (n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) on Nusselt number (Nu), Iriction tactor 0') and thermal enhancement factor (r/) are investigated under uniform heat flux conditions,using water as working fluid. In order to illustrate the heat transter and tlu~d tlow mechamsms, flow structures m ~StJs and ~SDIs are presented. The obtained results reveal that all geometric parameters have important effects on the thermal performance of CD and CDT, and both CD and CDT show better thermal performance than plain tube at the constant pumping power. It is also found that the increases in the Nusselt number and friction factor for CDT are, respectively, up to 6.3%-35.7% and 1.75-5.3 times of thecorresponding bare CD. All CDTs have good thermal perbrmance with greater than 1 which indicates that the compound heat transfer technique of CDT is commendable for the maximum enhanced heat transfer rate.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of local heat transfer enhancement in helically coiled pipes. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.; Rainieri, S.; Zachár, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the last years, the attention of heat transfer equipments manufacturers turned toward helically coiled-tube heat exchangers, especially with regards to applications for viscous and/or particulate products. The recent progress achieved in numerical simulation motivated many research groups to develop numerical models for this kind of apparatuses. These models, intended both to improve the knowledge of the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms in curved geometries and to support the industrial design of this kind of apparatuses, are usually validated throughout the comparison with either theoretical or experimental evidences by considering average heat transfer performances. However, this approach doesn't guarantee that the validated models are able to reproduce local effects in details, which are so important in this kind of non-standard geometries. In the present paper a numerical model of convective heat transfer in coiled tubes for laminar flow regime was formulated and discussed. Its goodness was checked throughout the comparison with the latest experimental outcomes of Bozzoli et al. [1] in terms of convective heat flux distribution along the boundary of the duct, by ensuring the effectiveness of the model also in the description of local behaviours. Although the present paper reports only preliminary results of this simulation/validation process, it could be of interest for the research community because it proposes a novel approach that could be useful to validate many numerical models for nonstandard geometries.

  7. Heat transfer enhancement by the Goertler vortices developed on a wall with a finite thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Peixinho, Jorge; Kahouadji, Lyes

    2013-11-01

    Görtler vortices appear in a flow over a concave wall as a result of centrifugal instability [Saric, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 379 (1994)]. They may have a strong influence on heat transfer [Momayez et al., Int. J. heat Mass transfer 47, 3783 (2004)]. The purpose of this work is to model heat transfer by Görtler vortices using a weakly nonlinear analysis of Smith &-Haj- Hariri [Phys. Fluids A 5, 2815 (1993)]. We have investigated the coupling of the convective heat transfer by the stationary vortices with the heat conduction inside the solid wall. The finite thickness and thermal conductivity of the wall enter into the boundary conditions of the problem through the ratio δ of the wall thickness to the boundary layer thickness and through the ratio K of the thermal conductivities of the fluid and the wall. The parametric dependence Nu (δ , K) of the Nusselt number is performed and it is shown that found the heat transfer is quite well modified by these two parameters. The local thermal stress can be estimated in order to analyze the effects on ageing of the wall material. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the french Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), through the program ``Investissements d'Avenir'' (ANR-10-LABX-09-01), LabEx EMC3.

  8. Antiferromagnetism and enhanced heat in CeM2Sn2 (M = Ni, Ir, Cu, Rh, Pd, and Pt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently a new series of compounds has been discovered by M. Selsane et al. which has a structure close to CeCu2Si2. Specific heat, dc susceptibility, and resistivity measurements on annealed, polycrystalline samples of CeM2 Sn2 where M = Ni, Ir, Cu, Rh, Pd, or Pt indicate that each of these compounds orders antiferromagnetically with transition temperatures ranging from TN = 4.1 K to ∼ 0.5 K. All these materials have significant enhancements of the specific heat just before the transition which can be as large as ∼3.7 J/mole-K2 in some cases. Provided the enhanced heat capacities above TN are associated with large effective masses, the anomalously low ordering temperature and the very large C/T suggest that TN and the Kondo temperature TK are comparable, making these materials particularly attractive for studying the interplay between these competing interactions. In all cases except M = Ir, the susceptibility follows a Curie-Weiss behavior with a high temperature effective moment μeff ∼2.54 μB/Ce, while the Ir compound has a very strong mixed-valent nature. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  10. Trigeneration scheme for energy efficiency enhancement in a natural gas processing plant through turbine exhaust gas waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Efficiency enhancement of Natural Gas (NG) processing plants in hot/humid climates. ► Gas turbine waste heat powered trigeneration scheme using absorption refrigeration. ► Annual NG savings of 1879 MSCM and operating cost savings of US$ 20.9 million realized. ► Trigeneration scheme payback period estimated at approximately 1 year. ► Significant economical and environmental benefits for NG processing plants. - Abstract: The performance of Natural Gas Processing Plants (NGPPs) can be enhanced with the integration of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) generation schemes. This paper analyzes the integration of a trigeneration scheme within a NGPP, that utilizes waste heat from gas turbine exhaust gases to generate process steam in a Waste Heat Recovery Steam Generator (WHRSG). Part of the steam generated is used to power double-effect water–lithium bromide (H2O–LiBr) absorption chillers that provide gas turbine compressor inlet air-cooling. Another portion of the steam is utilized to meet part furnace heating load, and supplement plant electrical power in a combined regenerative Rankine cycle. A detailed techno-economic analysis of scheme performance is presented based on thermodynamic predictions obtained using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The results indicate that the trigeneration system could recover 79.7 MW of gas turbine waste heat, 37.1 MW of which could be utilized by three steam-fired H2O–LiBr absorption chillers to provide 45 MW of cooling at 5 °C. This could save approximately 9 MW of electric energy required by a typical compression chiller, while providing the same amount of cooling. In addition, the combined cycle generates 22.6 MW of additional electrical energy for the plant, while process heating reduces furnace oil consumption by 0.23 MSCM per annum. Overall, the trigeneration scheme would result in annual natural gas fuel savings of approximately 1879 MSCM, and annual operating cost savings of

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid enhances heat stress-impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function in Caco-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhen Xiao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ barrier is known to have an important etiologic role in the pathophysiology of heat stroke. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, play a role in maintaining and protecting the TJ structure and function. This study is aimed at investigating whether n-3 PUFAs could alleviate heat stress-induced dysfunction of intestinal tight junction. METHODS: Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were pre-incubated with EPA, DHA or arachidonic acid (AA and then exposed to heat stress. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP permeability were measured to analyze barrier integrity. Levels of TJ proteins, including occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-2, were analyzed by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Messenger RNA levels were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. TJ morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: EPA effectively attenuated the decrease in TEER and impairment of intestinal permeability in HRP flux induced by heat exposure. EPA significantly elevated the expression of occludin and ZO-1, while DHA was less effective and AA was not at all effective. The distortion and redistribution of TJ proteins, and disruption of morphology were also effectively prevented by pretreatment with EPA. CONCLUSION: This study indicates for the first time that EPA is more potent than DHA in protecting against heat-induced permeability dysfunction and epithelial barrier damage of tight junction.

  12. An enhanced version of the heat exchange algorithm with excellent energy conservation properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wirnsberger, P; Dellago, C

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm for non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal gradients. The algorithm is an extension of the heat exchange algorithm developed by Hafskjold and co-workers [Mol. Phys. 80, 1389 (1993); Mol. Phys. 81, 251 (1994)], in which a certain amount of heat is added to one region and removed from another by rescaling velocities appropriately. Since the amount of added and removed heat is the same and the dynamics between velocity rescaling steps is Hamiltonian, the heat exchange algorithm is expected to conserve the energy. However, it has been reported previously that the original version of the heat exchange algorithm exhibits a pronounced drift in the total energy, the exact cause of which remained hitherto unclear. Here, we show that the energy drift is due to the truncation error arising from the operator splitting and suggest an additional coordinate integration step as a remedy. The new algorithm retains all the advantages of the original one whilst exhibiting excellent ...

  13. Functional analysis of the Hikeshi-like protein and its interaction with HSP70 in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Shinya; Ohama, Naohiko; Mizoi, Junya [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kazuo [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko, E-mail: akys@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • HKL, a Hikeshi homologous gene is identified in Arabidopsis. • HKL interacts with two HSP70 isoforms and regulates the subcellular localization of HSC70-1. • The two HSP70 translocate into nucleus in response to heat stress. • Overexpression of HKL confers thermotolerance in transgenic plants. - Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) refold damaged proteins and are an essential component of the heat shock response. Previously, the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) has been reported to translocate into the nucleus in a heat-dependent manner in many organisms. In humans, the heat-induced translocation of HSP70 requires the nuclear carrier protein Hikeshi. In the Arabidopsis genome, only one gene encodes a protein with high homology to Hikeshi, and we named this homolog Hikeshi-like (HKL) protein. In this study, we show that two Arabidopsis HSP70 isoforms accumulate in the nucleus in response to heat shock and that HKL interacts with these HSP70s. Our histochemical analysis revealed that HKL is predominantly expressed in meristematic tissues, suggesting the potential importance of HKL during cell division in Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that HKL regulates HSP70 localization, and HKL overexpression conferred thermotolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that HKL plays a positive role in the thermotolerance of Arabidopsis plants and cooperatively interacts with HSP70.

  14. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26 was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm, as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2 and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1 were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling.

  15. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  16. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  17. Heat enhancement of radiation resistivity of evaporated CsI, KI and KBr photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S

    2000-01-01

    The photoemissive stability of as-deposited and heat-treated CsI, KI and KBr evaporated thin films under UV radiation is examined in this paper. After the deposition, some photocathodes were annealed for several hours at 90 deg. C in vacuum and their performance was then compared to the performance of non-heated samples. We observed that the post-evaporation thermal treatment not only increases the photoyield of CsI and KI photocathodes in the spectral range of 115-190 nm, but also reduces CsI, KI and KBr photocurrent degradation that occurs after UV irradiation. KBr evaporated layers appeared to be more radiation-resistant than CsI and KI layers. Post-deposition heat treatment did not result in any significant variation of KBr UV sensitivity.

  18. Enhancing ultra-high CPV passive cooling using least-material finned heat sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Leonardo; Fernandez, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Reddy, K. S.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems aim to increase the cost-competiveness of CPV by increasing the concentrations over 2000 suns. In this work, the design of a heat sink for ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications is presented. For the first time, the least-material approach, widely used in electronics to maximize the thermal dissipation while minimizing the weight of the heat sink, has been applied in CPV. This method has the potential to further decrease the cost of this technology and to keep the multijunction cell within the operative temperature range. The designing procedure is described in the paper and the results of a thermal simulation are shown to prove the reliability of the solution. A prediction of the costs is also reported: a cost of 0.151/Wp is expected for a passive least-material heat sink developed for 4000x applications.

  19. Heat transfer enhancement in sphere-packed pipes under high Reynolds number conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow analysis in sphere-packed pipes (SPP) for different pipe to sphere diameter ratios was experimentally performed in order to clarify a relationship between the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. The experiments, using water as a working fluid, were carried out with ReD = 2000-33,000 and Pr = 5.0-6.0. Experimental results of the pressure drop characteristics were compared with the Ergun's and Drag model correlations. Empirical correlations for the averaged Nusselt number are proposed, and SPP heat transfer performance is compared with that of the swirl flow. Furthermore, the applicability of the SPP system to the first wall cooling is also discussed from the temperature distribution aspect of the heating wall

  20. Enhancement of Structure, Tc and Irreversibility Line in High Tc Superconductors by Heat Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljabar Aboulkassim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AC susceptibility (ac= ’+ i‖ and X ray diffraction (XRD are very useful for characterizing high Tc superconductors. We report here on the preparation, X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement, resistivity , AC magnetic susceptibility measurements and effect of heat treatments in (Y1-xNdxSrBaCu3O6+z. Each sample was subject to two types of heat treatment: oxygen annealing [O] and argon annealing followed by oxygen annealing [AO]. For each x, the [AO] heat treatment increases the orthorhombicity ε = (b-a/(b+a (for 0≤x0.2, the distance d[Cu(1-(Sr/Ba] (for x0.25; increase in cationic and chain oxygen ordering; psh and in-phase purity for the [AO] samples may account for the observed data.