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Sample records for arabidopsis dwarf mutant

  1. Mighty Dwarfs: Arabidopsis Autoimmune Mutants and Their Usages in Genetic Dissection of Plant Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wersch, Rowan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Plants lack the adaptive immune system possessed by mammals. Instead they rely on innate immunity to defend against pathogen attacks. Genomes of higher plants encode a large number of plant immune receptors belonging to different protein families, which are involved in the detection of pathogens and activation of downstream defense pathways. Plant immunity is tightly controlled to avoid activation of defense responses in the absence of pathogens, as failure to do so can lead to autoimmunity that compromises plant growth and development. Many autoimmune mutants have been reported, most of which are associated with dwarfism and often spontaneous cell death. In this review, we summarize previously reported Arabidopsis autoimmune mutants, categorizing them based on their functional groups. We also discuss how their obvious morphological phenotypes make them ideal tools for epistatic analysis and suppressor screens, and summarize genetic screens that have been carried out in various autoimmune mutant backgrounds. PMID:27909443

  2. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on both cell division and cell expansion. Plant hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs, are central to the control of these two cellular processes. Despite clear evidence that BRs regulate cell elongation, their roles in cell division have remained elusive. Results Here, we report results emphasizing the importance of BRs in cell division. An Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic mutant, dwarf7-1, displayed various characteristics attributable to slower cell division rates. We found that the DWARF4 gene which encodes for an enzyme catalyzing a rate-determining step in the BR biosynthetic pathways, is highly expressed in the actively dividing callus, suggesting that BR biosynthesis is necessary for dividing cells. Furthermore, dwf7-1 showed noticeably slower rates of callus growth and shoot induction relative to wild-type control. Flow cytometric analyses of the nuclei derived from either calli or intact roots revealed that the cell division index, which was represented as the ratio of cells at the G2/M vs. G1 phases, was smaller in dwf7-1 plants. Finally, we found that the expression levels of the genes involved in cell division and shoot induction, such as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN2 (PCNA2 and ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION2 (ESR2, were also lower in dwf7-1 as compared with wild type. Conclusions Taken together, results of callus induction, shoot regeneration, flow cytometry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggest that BRs play important roles in both cell division and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

  3. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  4. A dominant semi dwarf mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the winter of 1997, a semi dwarf mutant was found in the F6 population of M9056/ R8018 xuan in Hainan Province. In the spring of 1998, the seeds were sown in Hefei, Anhui Province and the plant height of the population was measured at maturity.

  5. Suppression of Dwarf and irregular xylem Phenotypes Generates Low-Acetylated Biomass Lines in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensussan, Matthieu; Lefebvre, Valérie; Ducamp, Aloïse; Trouverie, Jacques; Gineau, Emilie; Fortabat, Marie-Noëlle; Guillebaux, Alexia; Baldy, Aurélie; Naquin, Delphine; Herbette, Stéphane; Lapierre, Catherine; Mouille, Gregory; Horlow, Christine; Durand-Tardif, Mylène

    2015-06-01

    eskimo1-5 (esk1-5) is a dwarf Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant that has a constitutive drought syndrome and collapsed xylem vessels, along with low acetylation levels in xylan and mannan. ESK1 has xylan O-acetyltransferase activity in vitro. We used a suppressor strategy on esk1-5 to screen for variants with wild-type growth and low acetylation levels, a favorable combination for ethanol production. We found a recessive mutation in the KAKTUS (KAK) gene that suppressed dwarfism and the collapsed xylem character, the cause of decreased hydraulic conductivity in the esk1-5 mutant. Backcrosses between esk1-5 and two independent knockout kak mutants confirmed suppression of the esk1-5 effect. kak single mutants showed larger stem diameters than the wild type. The KAK promoter fused with a reporter gene showed activity in the vascular cambium, phloem, and primary xylem in the stem and hypocotyl. However, suppression of the collapsed xylem phenotype in esk1 kak double mutants was not associated with the recovery of cell wall O-acetylation or any major cell wall modifications. Therefore, our results indicate that, in addition to its described activity as a repressor of endoreduplication, KAK may play a role in vascular development. Furthermore, orthologous esk1 kak double mutants may hold promise for ethanol production in crop plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Metabolomic Characterization of Knockout Mutants in Arabidopsis: Development of a Metabolite Profiling Database for Knockout Mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Kusano, Miyako; Mejia, Ramon Francisco; Iwasa, Mami; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Watanabe-Takahashi, Akiko; Narisawa, Tomoko; Tohge, Takayuki; Hur, Manhoi; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Nikolau, Basil J; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-05-14

    Despite recent intensive research efforts in functional genomics, the functions of only a limited number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes have been determined experimentally, and improving gene annotation remains a major challenge in plant science. As metabolite profiling can characterize the metabolomic phenotype of a genetic perturbation in the plant metabolism, it provides clues to the function(s) of genes of interest. We chose 50 Arabidopsis mutants, including a set of characterized and uncharacterized mutants, that resemble wild-type plants. We performed metabolite profiling of the plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To make the data set available as an efficient public functional genomics tool for hypothesis generation, we developed the Metabolite Profiling Database for Knock-Out Mutants in Arabidopsis (MeKO). It allows the evaluation of whether a mutation affects metabolism during normal plant growth and contains images of mutants, data on differences in metabolite accumulation, and interactive analysis tools. Nonprocessed data, including chromatograms, mass spectra, and experimental metadata, follow the guidelines set by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative and are freely downloadable. Proof-of-concept analysis suggests that MeKO is highly useful for the generation of hypotheses for genes of interest and for improving gene annotation. MeKO is publicly available at http://prime.psc.riken.jp/meko/.

  7. Phenotypical and structural characterization of the Arabidopsis mutant involved in shoot apical meristem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe HU; Ping LI; Jinfang MA; Yunlong WANG; Xinyu WANG; Chongying WANG

    2008-01-01

    An Arabidopsis mutant induced by T-DNA insertion was studied with respect to its phenotype, micro-structure of shoot apical meristem (SAM) and histo-chemical localization of the GUS gene in comparison with the wild type. Phenotypical observation found that the mutant exhibited a dwarf phenotype with smaller organs (such as smaller leaves, shorter petioles), and slower development and flowering time compared to the wild type. Optical microscopic analysis of the mutant showed that it had a smaller and more flattened SAM, with reduced cell layers and a shortened distance between two leaf primordia compared with the wild type. In addi-tion, analysis of the histo-chemical localization of the GUS gene revealed that it was specifically expressed in the SAM and the vascular tissue of the mutant, which suggests that the gene trapped by T-DNA may function in the SAM, and T-DNA insertion could influence the functional activity of the related gene in the mutant, lead-ing to alterations in the SAM and a series of phenotypes in the mutant.

  8. Epigenetic Suppression of T-DNA Insertion Mutants in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangbin Gao; Yunde Zhao

    2013-01-01

    T-DNA insertion mutants have been widely used to define gene functions in Arabidopsis and in other plants.Here,we report an unexpected phenomenon of epigenetic suppression of T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis.When the two T-DNA insertion mutants,yucl-1 and ag-TD,were crossed together,the defects in all of the ag-TD plants in the F2 population were partially suppressed regardless of the presence of yucl-1.Conversion of ag-TD to the suppressed ag-TD (named as ag-TD*) did not follow the laws of Mendelian genetics.The ag-TD* could be stably transmitted for many generations without reverting to ag-TD,and ag-TD* had the capacity to convert ag-TD to ag-TD*.We show that epigenetic suppression of T-DNA mutants is not a rare event,but certain structural features in the T-DNA mutants are needed in order for the suppression to take place.The suppressed T-DNA mutants we observed were all intronic T-DNA mutants and the T-DNA fragments in both the trigger T-DNA as well as in the suppressed T-DNA shared stretches of identical sequences.We demonstrate that the suppression of intronic T-DNA mutants is mediated by trans-interactions between two ToDNA insertions.This work shows that caution is needed when intronic T-DNA mutants are used.

  9. Characterisation of cuticular mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Plants are protected by the extracellular cuticle, which is made up of cutin, cutan and waxes. The cutin composition of a variety of plants has been known and models of the biosynthesis of cutin monomers exist but not many enzymes have been identified. It is generally accepted that a defect in the cuticle leads to an organ fusion phenotype. In the model plant A. thaliana many fusion mutants have been identified but the identification of genes involved have not lead to a complete picture of th...

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, S.; Roy, S.; Shah, J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Nandi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acidmediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article,

  11. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  12. Human GLTP and mutant forms of ACD11 suppress cell death in the Arabidopsis acd11 mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nikolaj H T; McKinney, Lea V; Pike, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis acd11 mutant exhibits runaway, programmed cell death due to the loss of a putative sphingosine transfer protein (ACD11) with homology to mammalian GLTP. We demonstrate that transgenic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of human GLTP partially suppressed the phenotype of the acd11 ...

  13. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  14. Comparison of arabidopsis stomatal density mutants indicates variation in water stress responses and potential epistatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    Recent physiological analysis of Arabidopsis stomatal density (SD) mutants indicated that SD was not the major factor controlling aboveground biomass accumulation. Despite the general theory that plants with fewer stomata have limited biomass acquisition capabilities, epf1 and several other Arabidopsis mutants varied significantly in leaf fresh...

  15. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants.

  16. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Jie; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased the production costs.So the breeding for dwarf plant is the best way to solve this problem.In the past,some dwarf mutants of cotton with recessive gene controlled were reported.

  17. Arabidopsis mutant bik1 exhibits strong resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1 and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2 and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40-50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 and npr1-1 (non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms enhance the resistance to clubroot disease.

  18. Photocontrol of seed germination of wild type and long-hypocotyl mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis reports research on the photocontrol of seed germination of wildtype and long-hypocotyl mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutants show reduced photoinhibition of hypocotyl growth in white light in comparison to that of wildtype. In monochromatic light some of the mutants also show no

  19. Inverse polymerase chain reaction for rapid gene isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana insertion mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhaeghen, R.; Scheres, B.J.G.; Montagu, M. van; Lijsebetten, M. van

    1992-01-01

    Recently, many mutants have been isolated in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by the insertion of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA into the plant genome. Instead of applying Southern analysis on these insertion mutants and to avoid the construction of mutant- derived genomic libraries, we pro

  20. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R

    1996-01-01

    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  1. Regulation of chloroplast biogenesis: the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodermel, Steven

    2015-11-16

    The immutans (im) variegation mutant of Arabidopsis is an ideal model to gain insight into factors that control chloroplast biogenesis. im defines the gene for PTOX, a plastoquinol terminal oxidase that participates in control of thylakoid redox. Here, we report that the im defect can be suppressed during the late stages of plant development by gigantea (gi2), which defines the gene for GIGANTEA (GI), a central component of the circadian clock that plays a poorly-understood role in diverse plant developmental processes. imgi2 mutants are late-flowering and display other well-known phenotypes associated with gi2, such as starch accumulation and resistance to oxidative stress. We show that the restoration of chloroplast biogenesis in imgi2 is caused by a developmental-specific de-repression of cytokinin signaling that involves crosstalk with signaling pathways mediated by gibberellin (GA) and SPINDLY (SPY), a GA response inhibitor. Suppression of the plastid defect in imgi2 is likely caused by a relaxation of excitation pressures in developing plastids by factors contributed by gi2, including enhanced rates of photosynthesis and increased resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the suppression phenotype of imgi can be mimicked by crossing im with the starch accumulation mutant, sex1, perhaps because sex1 utilizes pathways similar to gi. We conclude that our studies provide a direct genetic linkage between GIGANTEA and chloroplast biogenesis, and we construct a model of interactions between signaling pathways mediated by gi, GA, SPY, cytokinins, and sex1 that are required for chloroplast biogenesis.

  2. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ7-Sterol-C5-Desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), Δ5,7-Sterol-Δ7-Reductase (DWARF5) and Δ24-Sterol-Δ24-Reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh) L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Daniele; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Schaller, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown...... to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map...... of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of ¿(7)-sterol-C(5)-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), ¿(24)-sterol-¿(24)-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) and ¿(5,7)-sterol-¿(7)-reductase (DWARF5) were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient...

  3. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ7-Sterol-C5-Desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), Δ5,7-Sterol-Δ7-Reductase (DWARF5) and Δ24-Sterol-Δ24-Reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh) L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Daniele; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Schaller, Hubert;

    2013-01-01

    to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map...... of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of ¿(7)-sterol-C(5)-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), ¿(24)-sterol-¿(24)-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) and ¿(5,7)-sterol-¿(7)-reductase (DWARF5) were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient...... in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both ¿(5,7)-sterol-¿(7)-reductase and ¿(24)-sterol-¿(24)-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas ¿(7)-sterol-C(5)-desaturase...

  4. Identiifcation of a novel male sterile wheat mutant dms conferring dwarf status and multi-pistils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zong-biao; SHEN Chun-cai; LI Qiao-yun; L Gui-zhen; NI Yong-jing; YU Dong-yan; NIU Ji-shan

    2015-01-01

    Plant height and fertility are two important traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), whose mutants are ideal materials for studies on molecular mechanisms of stem and lforal organ development. In this study, we identiifed a dwarf, multi-pistil and male sterile (dms hereafter) wheat mutant from Zhoumai 18. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker assay with 181 primer pairs showed that only one locus of GWM148-2B was divergent between Zhoumai 18 and dms. There were three typical phenotypes in the progeny of dms, tal (T;ca. 0.8 m), semi-dwarf (M;ca. 0.6 m) and dwarf (D;under 0.3 m) plants. Morphological investigation indicated that the internode length of M was shortened by about 20–50 mm each;the internode number of D was 2 less than that of T and Zhoumai 18, and its internode length was shorter also. The pol en vigor and hybridization test demonstrated that dms mutant was male sterility. Segregated phenotypes in progeny of M suggested that the multi-pistils and sterility were control ed by one recessive gene locus which was designated as dms temporarily, and the plant height was control ed by a semi-dominant gene locus Dms. Therefore, progeny individuals of the dms had three genotypes, DmsDms for tal plants, Dmsdms for semi-dwarf plants and dmsdms for dwarf plants. The mutant progenies were individual y selected and propagated for more than 6 generations, thus a set of near isogenic lines of T, M and D for dms were developed. This study provides a set germplasms for studies on molecular mechanisms of wheat stem and spike development.

  5. Identification of a novel male sterile wheat mutant dms conferring dwarf status and multi-pistils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zong-biao[1; SHEN Chun-cai[1; LI Qiao-yun[1; LU Gui-zhen[1; NI Yong-jing[2; YU Dong-yan[1; NIU Ji-shan[1

    2015-01-01

    Plant height and fertility are two important traits of wheat (Triticum aesfivum L.), whose mutants are ideal materials for studies on molecular mechanisms of stem and floral organ development. In this study, we identified a dwarf, multi-pistil and male sterile (dms hereafter) wheat mutant from Zhoumai 18. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker assay with 181 primer pairs showed that only one locus of GWM148-2B was divergent between Zhoumai 18 and dins. There were three typical phenotypes in the progeny of dms, tall (T; ca. 0.8 m), semi-dwarf (M; ca. 0.6 m) and dwarf (D; under 0.3 m) plants. Morphological investigation indicated that the intemode length of M was shortened by about 20-50 mm each; the intemode number of D was 2 less than that ofT and Zhoumai 18, and its internode length was shorter also. The pollen vigor and hybridization test demonstrated that dms mutant was male sterility. Segregated phenotypes in progeny of M suggested that the multi-pistils and sterility were controlled by one recessive gene locus which was designated as dms temporarily, and the plant height was controlled by a semi-dominant gene locus Dms. Therefore, progeny individuals of the dms had three genotypes, DmsDms for tall plants, Dmsdms for semi-dwarf plants and dmsdms for dwarf plants. The mutant progenies were individually selected and propagated for more than 6 generations, thus a set of near isogenic lines of T, M and D for dms were developed. This study provides a set germplasms for studies on molecular mechanisms of wheat stem and spike development.

  6. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants: quantitative analysis of root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, Peter

    2008-03-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe growth of plant roots is very easy to measure and is particularly straightforward in Arabidopsis thaliana, because the increase in organ size is essentially restricted to one dimension. The precise measurement of root apical growth can be used to accurately determine growth activity (the rate of growth at a given time) during development in mutants, transgenic backgrounds, or in response to experimental treatments. Root growth is measured in a number of ways, the simplest of which is to grow the seedlings in a Petri dish and record the position of the advancing root tip at appropriate time points. The increase in root length is measured with a ruler and the data are entered into Microsoft Excel for analysis. When dealing with large numbers of seedlings, however, this procedure can be tedious, as well as inaccurate. An alternative approach, described in this protocol, uses "snapshots" of the growing plants, which are taken using gel-documentation equipment (i.e., a video camera with a frame-grabber unit, now commonly used to capture images from ethidium-bromide-stained electrophoresis gels). The images are analyzed using publicly available software (NIH-Image), which allows the user simply to cut and paste data into Microsoft Excel.

  7. Metabolomic Characterization of Knockout Mutants in Arabidopsis: Development of a Metabolite Profiling Database for Knockout Mutants in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Kusano, Miyako; Mejia, Ramon Francisco; Iwasa, Mami; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Watanabe-Takahashi, Akiko; Narisawa, Tomoko; Tohge, Takayuki; Hur, Manhoi; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Nikolau, Basil J.; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent intensive research efforts in functional genomics, the functions of only a limited number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes have been determined experimentally, and improving gene annotation remains a major challenge in plant science. As metabolite profiling can characterize the metabolomic phenotype of a genetic perturbation in the plant metabolism, it provides clues to the function(s) of genes of interest. We chose 50 Arabidopsis mutants, including a set of characterized and uncharacterized mutants, that resemble wild-type plants. We performed metabolite profiling of the plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To make the data set available as an efficient public functional genomics tool for hypothesis generation, we developed the Metabolite Profiling Database for Knock-Out Mutants in Arabidopsis (MeKO). It allows the evaluation of whether a mutation affects metabolism during normal plant growth and contains images of mutants, data on differences in metabolite accumulation, and interactive analysis tools. Nonprocessed data, including chromatograms, mass spectra, and experimental metadata, follow the guidelines set by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative and are freely downloadable. Proof-of-concept analysis suggests that MeKO is highly useful for the generation of hypotheses for genes of interest and for improving gene annotation. MeKO is publicly available at http://prime.psc.riken.jp/meko/. PMID:24828308

  8. Characterization Of Laccase T-DNA Mutants In Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Asp, Torben; Mansfield, Shawn

    Laccases (P-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2), also termed laccase-like multicopper oxidases, are blue copper-containing oxidases which comprise multigene families in plants. In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 17 laccase genes (LAC1 to LAC17) have been annotated. To identify laccases invo...... different and distinct biochemical pathways and that laccases might be involved in polymerization of both polysaccharides and monolignols in the Arabidopsis cell wall....

  9. nana plant2 Encodes a Maize Ortholog of the Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Gene DWARF1, Identifying Developmental Interactions between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Norman B; Hartwig, Thomas; Budka, Josh; Fujioka, Shozo; Johal, Gurmukh; Schulz, Burkhard; Dilkes, Brian P

    2016-08-01

    A small number of phytohormones dictate the pattern of plant form affecting fitness via reproductive architecture and the plant's ability to forage for light, water, and nutrients. Individual phytohormone contributions to plant architecture have been studied extensively, often following a single component of plant architecture, such as plant height or branching. Both brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) affect plant height, branching, and sexual organ development in maize (Zea mays). We identified the molecular basis of the nana plant2 (na2) phenotype as a loss-of-function mutation in one of the two maize paralogs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BR biosynthetic gene DWARF1 (DWF1). These mutants accumulate the DWF1 substrate 24-methylenecholesterol and exhibit decreased levels of downstream BR metabolites. We utilized this mutant and known GA biosynthetic mutants to investigate the genetic interactions between BR and GA. Double mutants exhibited additivity for some phenotypes and epistasis for others with no unifying pattern, indicating that BR and GA interact to affect development but in a context-dependent manner. Similar results were observed in double mutant analyses using additional BR and GA biosynthetic mutant loci. Thus, the BR and GA interactions were neither locus nor allele specific. Exogenous application of GA3 to na2 and d5, a GA biosynthetic mutant, also resulted in a diverse pattern of growth responses, including BR-dependent GA responses. These findings demonstrate that BR and GA do not interact via a single inclusive pathway in maize but rather suggest that differential signal transduction and downstream responses are affected dependent upon the developmental context.

  10. Characterization of Arabidopsis calreticulin mutants in response to calcium and salinity stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Li; Yangrong Cao; Jinsong Zhang; Shouyi Chen

    2008-01-01

    As an important calcium-binding protein,calreticulin plays an important role in regulating calcium homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of plants.Here,we identified three loss-of-function mutants ofcalreticulin genes in Arabidopsis to demonstrate the function of calreticulin in response to calcium and salinity stresses.There are three genes encoding calreticulin in Arabidopsis,and they are named AtCRT1,2,and 3,respectively.We found that both single mutant of crt3 and double mutant of crtl crt2 were more sensitive to low calcium environment than wild-type Arabidopsis.Moreover,crt3 mutant showed more sensitivity to salt treatment at germination stage,but tolerance to salt stress at later stage compared with wild-type plant.However,there was no obvious growth difference in the mutant crt1 and crt2 compared with wild-type Arabidopsis under calcium and salt stresses.These results suggest that calreticulin functions in plant responses to calcium and salt stresses.

  11. The phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana det1 mutants suggest a role for cytokinins in greening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, J.; Aguilar, N.; Peto, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    When grown in the absence of light, the det1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana develop characteristics of light-grown plants by morphological, cellular, and molecular criteria. Further, in light-grown plants, mutations in the DET1 gene affect cell-type-specific expression of light-regulated genes and the chloroplast developmental program. Here we show that the addition of exogenously added cytokinins (either 2-isopentenyl adenine, kinetin, or benzyladenine) to the growth medium of dark-germinated wild-type seedlings results in seedlings that resemble det1 mutants, instead of having the normal etiolated morphology. Like det1 mutants, these dark-grown seedlings now contain chloroplasts and have high levels of expression of genes that are normally light''-regulated. These results suggest an important role for cytokinins during greening of Arabidopsis, and may implicate cytokinin levels or an increased sensitivity to cytokinins as explanations for some of the observed phenotypes of det1 mutants.

  12. Characterization Of Laccase T-DNA Mutants In Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Asp, Torben; Mansfield, Shawn

    Laccases (P-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2), also termed laccase-like multicopper oxidases, are blue copper-containing oxidases which comprise multigene families in plants. In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 17 laccase genes (LAC1 to LAC17) have been annotated. To identify laccases...

  13. Structural changes of DNA in heavy ion-induced mutants on Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, S.; Shikazono, N.; Tanaka, A.; Yokota, Y.; Watanabe, H. [Japan Atomic Research Research Inst., Watanuki, Takasaki (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of structural changes induced by high LET radiation in plants, a comparison was made between DNA fragments amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from C ion- and electron-induced Arabidopsis mutants at GL and TT loci. (orig./MG)

  14. Fusion genetic analysis of jasmonate-signalling mutants in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Bøgh; Raventos, D.; Mundy, John Williams

    2002-01-01

    Jasmonates induce plant-defence responses and act to regulate defence-related genes including positive feedback of the lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2) gene involved in jasmonate synthesis. To identify jasmonate-signalling mutants, we used a fusion genetic strategy in which the firefly luciferase (FLUC...... as two recessive mutants, designated joe1 and 2, that overexpress the reporter. Genetic analysis indicated that reporter overexpression in the joe mutants requires COI. joe1 responded to MeJA with increased anthocyanin accumulation, while joe2 responded with decreased root growth inhibition. In addition...

  15. Homologous Recombination Defective Arabidopsis Mutants Exhibit Enhanced Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sujit; Das, Kali Pada

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) acts as an important plant hormone in regulating various aspects of plant growth and developmental processes particularly under abiotic stress conditions. An increased ABA level in plant cells inhibits DNA replication and cell division, causing plant growth retardation. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ABA on the growth responses of some major loss-of-function mutants of DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair genes in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth for understanding the role of ABA in the induction of genome instability in plants. A comparative analysis of ABA sensitivity of wild-type Arabidopsis and the knockout mutant lines related to DSB sensors, including atatm, atatr, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway genes, and mutants related to homologous recombination (HR) pathway genes showed relatively enhanced sensitivity of atatr and HR-related mutants to ABA treatment. The expression levels of HR-related genes were increased in wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth. Immunoblotting experiments detected phosphorylation of histone H2AX in wild-type (Col-0) and DSB repair gene mutants after ABA treatment, indicating the activation of DNA damage response due to ABA treatment. Analyses of DSB repair kinetics using comet assay under neutral condition have revealed comparatively slower DSB repair activity in HR mutants. Overall, our results have provided comprehensive information on the possible effect of ABA on DNA repair machinery in plants and also indicated potential functional involvement of HR pathway in repairing ABA induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis. PMID:28046013

  16. An Arabidopsis embryonic lethal mutant with reduced expression of alanyl—t RNA synthetase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIANGE; XIAOLIYAO; 等

    1998-01-01

    In present paper,one of the T-DNA insertional embryonic lethal mutant of Arabidopsis is identified and designated as acd mutant.The embryo developmant of this mutant is arrested in globular stage,The cell division pattern is abnormal during early embryogenesis and results in distubed cellular differentiation.Most of mutant embryos are finally degenerated and aborted in globular stage,However,a few of them still can germinate in agar palte and produce seedlings with shoter hypoctyl and distorted shoot meristem.To understand the molecular basis of the phenotype of this mutant,the joint fragment of T-DNA/plant DNA is isolated by plasmid rescue and Dig-labeled as probe for cDNA library screening.According to the sequence analysis and similarity searching,a 936 bp cDNA sequence(EMBL accession #:Y12555)from selectoed positive clone shows a 99.8%(923/925bp) sequence homolgy with Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase(AlaRS) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana.Furthermore,the data of in situ hybridization experiment indicate that the expression of Ala RS gene is weak in early embryogenesis and declines along with globular embryodevelopment in this mutant Accordingly,the reduced expression of Ala RS gene may be closely related to the morphological changes in early embryogenesis of this lethal mutant.

  17. Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with altered shoot gravitropism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, B.L.; Poff, K.L.

    1987-04-01

    A procedure has been developed and used to screen 40,000 m-2 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana for strains with altered shoot gravitropism. Several strains have been identified for which shoot gravitropism is considerably more random than that of their wild-type parent (based on frequency distribution histograms of the gravitropic response to a 1 g stimulus). One such strain exhibits normal hypocotyl phototropism and normal root gravitropism. Thus, the gravitropism pathway in the shoot contains at least one mutable element which is not required for root gravitropism.

  18. A direct screening procedure for gravitropism mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. ) Heynh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, B.L.; Best, T.R.; Gregg, M.M.; Barsel, S.E.; Poff, K.L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-06-01

    In order to isolate gravitropism mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. var Estland for the genetic dissection of the gravitropism pathway, a direct screening procedure has been developed in which mutants are selected on the basis of their gravitropic response. Variability in hypocotyl curvature was dependent on the germination time of each seed stock, resulting in the incorrect identification of several lines as gravitropism mutants when a standard protocol for the potentiation of germination was used. When the protocol was adjusted to allow for differences in germination time, these lines were eliminated from the collection. Out of the 60,000 M2 seedlings screened, 0.3 to 0.4% exhibited altered gravitropism. In approximately 40% of these mutant lines, only gravitropism by the root or the hypocotyl was altered, while the response of the other organ was unaffected. These data support the hypothesis that root and hypocotyl gravitropism are genetically separable.

  19. Identification and primary genetic analysis of Arabidopsis stomatal mutants in response to multiple stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yuwei; KANG Yanli; LIU Hao; ZHAO Xiaoliang; WANG Pengtao; AN Guoyong; ZHOU Yun; MIAO Chen; SONG Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    In response to variable environmental conditions, guard cells located in the leaf epidermis can integrate and cope with a multitude of complicated stimuli, thereby making stomata in an appropriate state. However, many signaling components in guard cell signaling remain elusive. In our laboratory,a tool for non-invasive remote infrared thermal images was used to screen an ethyl methane sulfonate-mutagenized population for Arabidopsis stomatal response mutants under multiple stresses (ABA, H2O2, CO2, etc.). More than forty "hot" or "cold"mutants were isolated (above or below 0.5℃ in contrast to normal plantlets). Identification and primary genetic analysis of these mutants show that they are monogenic recessive mutations and there exist distinct difference in stomata apertures compared to wild type. These mutants in response to various environmental stresses and hormones were comprehensively investigated, which enables us to further understand the cross-talk in different signal transduction pathways.

  20. Effect of plant growth regulators on leaf anatomy of the has mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosević, D; Uzelac, B; Budimir, S

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of plant growth regulators on leaf morphogenesis of the recessive T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed. The morpho-anatomical analysis revealed that leaves of the has mutant are small and narrow, with lobed blades and disrupted tissue organization. When has plants were grown on the medium supplied with plant growth regulators: benzylaminopurine (BAP) or ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the leaf anatomy was partially restored to the wild type, although plants still exhibited morphological abnormalities.

  1. Meiotic and Mitotic Cell Cycle Mutants Involved in Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Liu; Li-Jia Qu

    2008-01-01

    The alternation between diploid and haploid generations is fundamentalin the life cycles of both animals and plants.The meiotic cell cycle is common to both animals and plants gamete formation, but in animals the products of meiosis are gametes,whereas for most plants,subsequent mitotic cell cycles are needed for their formation. Clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of mitotic cell cycle progression during gametophyte development will help understanding of sexual reproduction in plants.Many mutants defective in gametophyte development and,in particular,many meiotic and mitotic cell cycle mutants in Arabidopsis male and female gametophyte development were identified through both forward and reverse genetics approaches.

  2. Branching patterns in leaf starches from Arabidopsis mutants deficient in diverse starch synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Szydlowski, Nicolas; d'Hulst, Christophe; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2015-01-12

    This is the first report on the cluster structure of transitory starch from Arabidopsis leaves. In addition to wild type, the molecular structures of leaf starch from mutants deficient in starch synthases (SS) including single enzyme mutants ss1-, ss2-, or ss3-, and also double mutants ss1-ss2- and ss1-ss3- were characterized. The mutations resulted in increased amylose content. Clusters from whole starch were isolated by partial hydrolysis using α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The clusters were then further hydrolyzed with concentrated α-amylase of B. amyloliquefaciens to produce building blocks (α-limit dextrins). Structures of the clusters and their building blocks were characterized by chromatography of samples before and after debranching treatment. While the mutations increased the size of clusters, the reasons were different as reflected by the composition of their unit chains and building blocks. In general, all mutants contained more of a-chains that preferentially increased the number of small building blocks with only two chains. The clusters of the double mutant ss1-ss3- were very large and possessed also more of large building blocks with four or more chains. The results from transitory starch are compared with those from agriculturally important crops in the context that to what extent the Arabidopsis can be a true biotechnological reflection for starch modifications through genetic means.

  3. Changes in DNA base sequences in the mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana induced by low-energy N+ implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常凤启; 刘选明; 李银心; 贾庚祥; 马晶晶; 刘公社; 朱至清

    2003-01-01

    To reveal the mutation effect of low-energy ion implantation on Arabidopsis thaliana in vivo, T80II, a stable dwarf mutant, derived from the seeds irradiated by 30 keV N+ with the dose of 80×1015 ions/cm2 was used for Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and base sequence analysis. The results indicated that among total 397 RAPD bands observed, 52 bands in T80II were different from those of wild type showing a variation frequency 13.1%. In comparison with the sequences of A. thaliana in GenBank, the RAPD fragments in T80II were changed greatly in base sequences with an average rate of one base change per 16.8 bases. The types of base changes included base transition, transversion, deletion and insertion. Among the 275 base changes detected, single base substitutions (97.09%) occurred more frequently than base deletions and insertions (2.91%). And the frequency of base transitions (66.55%) was higher than that of base transversions (30.55%). Adenine, thymine, guanine or cytosine could be replaced by any of other three bases in cloned DNA fragments in T80II. It seems that thymine was more sensitive to the irradiation than other bases. The flanking sequences of the base changes in RAPD fragments in T80II were analyzed and the mutational "hotspot" induced by low-energy ion implantation was discussed.

  4. Photochemistry of PSII in CYP38 Arabidopsis thaliana Deletion Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Lepeduš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast protein CYP38 is a cyclophilin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase involved in photosystem II (PSII assembly. It also serves as a regulator of thylakoid protein phosphatase. In this work the efficiency of PSII in CYP38 deficient Arabidopsis thaliana M13 plants has been analyzed by measuring in vivo chlorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence transient (OJIP test. Significant differences in overall photosynthetic performance (PIABS, absorption (ABS/RC, trapping (TRo/RC, electron transport (ETo/RC, and dissipation (DIo/RC were observed between A. thaliana M13 and the wild type (WT plants. Increased Chl a and Chl b levels, as well as decreased Chl a/Chl b ratio were measured in M13 plants, indicating the adjustment of PSII antenna for increasing light absorption capability. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the deficiency in CYP38 protein leads to impaired function of PSII due to the conversion of a certain fraction of active reaction centres to dissipative ones. This leads to a decrease in overall photosynthetic performance (PIABS in M13 plants. Such effect was due to lowering of TRo/DIo parameter, which was influenced mostly by significant increases in energy dissipation (DIo/RC and in trapping of electrons (TRo/RC per active reaction centre.

  5. The TOC159 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates altered levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Fry, Morgan; Workman, Samantha

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated whether the TOC159 mutant of Arabidopsis called plastid protein import 2-2 (ppi2-2) accumulates normal levels of fatty acids, and transcripts of fatty acid desaturases and galactolipid synthesis enzymes. The ppi2-2 mutant accumulates decreased pigments and total fatty acid content. The MGD1 gene was downregulated and the mutant accumulates decreased levels of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and 16:3, which suggests that the prokaryotic pathway was impaired in the mutant. The HY5 gene, which encodes long hypocotyl5 transcription factor, was upregulated in the mutant. The DGD1 gene, an HY5 target was marginally increased and the mutant accumulates digalactosyldiacylglycerol at the control level. The mutant had increased expression of 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II gene, which encodes a plastid enzyme that elongates 16:0 to 18:0. Interestingly, glycerolipids in the mutant accumulate increased levels of 18:0. A gene that encodes stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) was expressed at the control level and 18:1 was increased, which suggest that SAD may be strongly regulated at the posttranscriptional level. The molar ratio of MGDG to bilayer forming plastid lipids was decreased in the cold-acclimated wild type but not in the ppi2-2 mutant. This indicates that the mutant was unresponsive to cold-stress, and is consistent with increased levels of 18:0, and decreased 16:3 and 18:3 in the ppi2-2 mutant. Overall, these data indicate that a defective Toc159 receptor impaired the synthesis of MGDG, and affected desaturation of 16 and 18-carbon fatty acids. We conclude that expression of the MGD1 gene and synthesis of MGDG are tightly linked to plastid biogenesis.

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana siRNA biogenesis mutants have the lower frequency of homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youli; Bilichak, Andriy; Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-07-02

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are involved in the regulation of plant development and response to stress. We have previously shown that mutants impaired in Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), DCL3 and DCL4, RDR2, RDR6 and NPRD1 are partially impaired in their response to stress and dcl2 and dcl3 plants are also impaired in transgenerational response to stress, including changes in homologous recombination frequency (HRF). Here, we have analyzed genome stability of dcl2, dcl3, dcl4, dcl2 dcl3, dcl2 dcl3 dcl4 and rdr6 mutants by measuring the non-induced and the stress-induced recombination frequency. We found that all mutants had the lower spontaneous HRF. The analysis of strand breaks showed that all tested Arabidopsis mutants had a higher level of spontaneous strand breaks, suggesting that the lower HRF is not due to the unusually low level of breaks. Exposure to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) resulted in an increase in the level of strand breaks in wild-type plants and a decrease in mutants. All mutants had the higher methylation of cytosines at CpG sites under non-induced conditions. Exposure to MMS resulted in a decrease in methylation level in wild-type plants and an increase in methylation in all dcl mutants. The expression of several DNA repair genes was altered in dcl4 plants under non-induced and induced conditions. Our data suggest that siRNA biogenesis may be essential for the maintenance of the genome stability and stress response in Arabidopsis.

  7. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ(7-Sterol-C5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7, Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase (DWARF5 and Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1 show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silvestro

    Full Text Available Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of Δ(7-sterol-C(5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7, Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1 and Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase (DWARF5 were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase and Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas Δ(7-sterol-C(5-desaturase was clearly detected in lipid particles. These findings raise new challenging questions about the spatial and dynamic cellular organization of sterol biosynthesis in plants.

  8. Mutants of GABA transaminase (POP2 suppress the severe phenotype of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ssadh mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ludewig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gamma-aminubutyrate (GABA shunt bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase (GABA-T; POP2 and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. We have previously shown that compromising the function of the GABA-shunt, by disrupting the SSADH gene of Arabidopsis, causes enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and cell death in response to light and heat stress. However, to date, genetic investigations of the relationships between enzymes of the GABA shunt have not been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the role of succinic semialdehyde (SSA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and GABA in the accumulation of ROIs, we combined two genetic approaches to suppress the severe phenotype of ssadh mutants. Analysis of double pop2 ssadh mutants revealed that pop2 is epistatic to ssadh. Moreover, we isolated EMS-generated mutants suppressing the phenotype of ssadh revealing two new pop2 alleles. By measuring thermoluminescence at high temperature, the peroxide contents of ssadh and pop2 mutants were evaluated, showing that only ssadh plants accumulate peroxides. In addition, pop2 ssadh seedlings are more sensitive to exogenous SSA or GHB relative to wild type, because GHB and/or SSA accumulate in these plants. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the lack of supply of succinate and NADH to the TCA cycle is not responsible for the oxidative stress and growth retardations of ssadh mutants. Rather, we suggest that the accumulation of SSA, GHB, or both, produced downstream of the GABA-T transamination step, is toxic to the plants, resulting in high ROI levels and impaired development.

  9. The aba mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is impaired in epoxy-carotenoid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The three mutant alleles of the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana result in plants that are deficient in the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA). The authors have used {sup 18}O{sub 2} to label ABA in water-stressed leaves of mutant and wild-type Arabidopsis. Analysis by selected ion monitoring and tandem mass spectrometry of ({sup 18}O)ABA and its catabolites, phaseic acid and ABA-glucose ester ({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate), indicates that the aba genotypes are impaired in ABA biosynthesis and have a small ABA precursor pool of compounds that contain oxygens on the rings, presumably oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Quantitation of the carotenoids form mutant and wild-type leaves establishes that the aba alleles cause a deficiency of the epoxy-carotenoids violaxanthin and neoxanthin and an accumulation of their biosynthetic precursor, zeaxanthin. These results provide evidence that ABA is synthesized by oxidative cleavage of epoxy-carotenoids (the indirect pathway). Furthermore the carotenoid mutant they describe undergoes normal greening. Thus the aba alleles provide an opportunity to study the physiological roles of epoxy-carotenoids in photosynthesis in a higher plants.

  10. Effects of ion beam irradiation on size of mutant sector and genetic damage in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, Yoshihiro, E-mail: hase.yoshihiro@qst.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nozawa, Shigeki [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Narumi, Issay [Faculty of Life Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura, Gunma 374-0193 (Japan); Oono, Yutaka [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Size of mutant sector and genetic damage were evaluated in Arabidopsis to further our understanding of effective ion beam use in plant mutation breeding. Arabidopsis seeds, heterozygous for the GLABRA1 (GL1) gene (GL1/gl1-1), were irradiated with 15.8 MeV/u neon ions (mean linear energy transfer (LET): 352 keV/μm), 17.3 MeV/u carbon ions (113 keV/μm), or {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The frequency and size of glabrous sectors generated because of inactivation of the GL1 allele were examined. The frequency and overall size of large deletions were evaluated based on the loss of heterozygosity of DNA markers using DNA isolated from glabrous tissue. Irrespective of the radiation properties, plants with mutant sectors were obtained at similar frequencies at the same effective dosage necessary for survival reduction. Ion beams tended to induce larger mutant sectors than gamma rays. The frequency of large deletions (>several kbp) increased as the LET value increased, with chromosome regions larger than 100 kbp lost in most large deletions. The distorted segregation ratio of glabrous plants in the progenies of irradiated GL1/gl1-1 plants suggested frequent occurrence of chromosome rearrangement, especially those subjected to neon ions. Exposure to ion beams with moderate LET values (30–110 keV/μm) is thought effective for inducing mutant sectors without causing extensive genetic damage.

  11. Chloroplast dysfunction causes multiple defects in cell cycle progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudik, Elodie; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Domenichini, Séverine; Bourge, Mickaël; Soubigout-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Yi, Dalong; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; De Veylder, Lieven; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2014-09-01

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants.

  12. Effects of ion beam irradiation on size of mutant sector and genetic damage in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Yoshihiro; Nozawa, Shigeki; Narumi, Issay; Oono, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Size of mutant sector and genetic damage were evaluated in Arabidopsis to further our understanding of effective ion beam use in plant mutation breeding. Arabidopsis seeds, heterozygous for the GLABRA1 (GL1) gene (GL1/gl1-1), were irradiated with 15.8 MeV/u neon ions (mean linear energy transfer (LET): 352 keV/μm), 17.3 MeV/u carbon ions (113 keV/μm), or 60Co gamma rays. The frequency and size of glabrous sectors generated because of inactivation of the GL1 allele were examined. The frequency and overall size of large deletions were evaluated based on the loss of heterozygosity of DNA markers using DNA isolated from glabrous tissue. Irrespective of the radiation properties, plants with mutant sectors were obtained at similar frequencies at the same effective dosage necessary for survival reduction. Ion beams tended to induce larger mutant sectors than gamma rays. The frequency of large deletions (>several kbp) increased as the LET value increased, with chromosome regions larger than 100 kbp lost in most large deletions. The distorted segregation ratio of glabrous plants in the progenies of irradiated GL1/gl1-1 plants suggested frequent occurrence of chromosome rearrangement, especially those subjected to neon ions. Exposure to ion beams with moderate LET values (30-110 keV/μm) is thought effective for inducing mutant sectors without causing extensive genetic damage.

  13. Chloroplast Dysfunction Causes Multiple Defects in Cell Cycle Progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf Mutant

    KAUST Repository

    Hudik, Elodie

    2014-07-18

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants.

  14. An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in intracellular calcium elevation is sensitive to biotic and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal Johnson, Joy; Reichelt, Michael; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-06-11

    Ca2+, a versatile intracellular second messenger in various signaling pathways, initiates many responses involved in growth, defense and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. Endogenous and exogenous signals induce cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevation, which are responsible for the appropriate downstream responses. Here we report on an ethyl-methane sulfonate-mediated Arabidopsis mutant that fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from the pathogenic mibrobes Alternaria brassicae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The cytoplasmic Ca2+elevation mutant1 (cycam1) is susceptible to infections by A. brassicae, its toxin preparation and sensitive to abiotic stress such as drought and salt. It accumulates high levels of reactive oxygen species and contains elevated salicylic acid, abscisic acid and bioactive jasmonic acid iso-leucine levels. Reactive oxygen species- and phytohormone-related genes are higher in A. brassicae-treated wild-type and mutant seedlings. Depending on the analysed response, the elevated levels of defense-related compounds are either caused by the cycam mutation and are promoted by the pathogen, or they are mainly due to the pathogen infection or application of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Furthermore, cycam1 shows altered responses to abscisic acid treatments: the hormone inhibits germination and growth of the mutant. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant which fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from various microbes. The higher susceptibility of the mutant to pathogen infections correlates with the higher accumulation of defense-related compounds, such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen-species, defense-related mRNA levels and secondary metabolites. Therefore, CYCAM1 couples [Ca2+]cyt elevation to biotic, abiotic and oxidative stress responses.

  15. Gravity-Induced Modifications to Development in Hypocotyls of Arabidopsis Tubulin Mutants1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hoson, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the roles of cortical microtubules in gravity-induced modifications to the development of stem organs by analyzing morphology and orientation of cortical microtubule arrays in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tubulin mutants, tua3(D205N), tua4(S178Δ), and tua6(A281T), cultivated under 1g and hypergravity (300g) conditions. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants were shorter and thicker than the wild type even at 1g, and hypergravity further suppressed elongation and stimulated expansion. The degree of such changes was clearly smaller in tubulin mutants, in particular in tua6. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants also showed either left-handed or right-handed helical growth at 1g, and the degree of twisting phenotype was intensified under hypergravity conditions, especially in tua6. Hypergravity induced reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions in epidermal cells of wild-type hypocotyls. In tubulin mutants, especially in tua6, the percentage of cells with longitudinal microtubules was high even at 1g, and it was further increased by hypergravity. The twisting phenotype was most obvious at cells 10 to 12 from the top, where reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions occurred. Moreover, the left-handed helical growth mutants (tua3 and tua4) had right-handed microtubule arrays, whereas the right-handed mutant (tua6) had left-handed arrays. There was a close correlation between the alignment angle of epidermal cell files and the alignment of cortical microtubules. Gadolinium ions, blockers of mechanosensitive ion channels (mechanoreceptors), suppressed the twisting phenotype in tubulin mutants under both 1g and 300g conditions. Microtubule arrays in tubulin mutants were oriented more transversely by gadolinium treatment, irrespective of gravity conditions. These results support the hypothesis that cortical microtubules play an essential role in maintenance of normal growth

  16. Gravity-induced modifications to development in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis tubulin mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hoson, Takayuki

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the roles of cortical microtubules in gravity-induced modifications to the development of stem organs by analyzing morphology and orientation of cortical microtubule arrays in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tubulin mutants, tua3(D205N), tua4(S178Delta), and tua6(A281T), cultivated under 1g and hypergravity (300g) conditions. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants were shorter and thicker than the wild type even at 1g, and hypergravity further suppressed elongation and stimulated expansion. The degree of such changes was clearly smaller in tubulin mutants, in particular in tua6. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants also showed either left-handed or right-handed helical growth at 1g, and the degree of twisting phenotype was intensified under hypergravity conditions, especially in tua6. Hypergravity induced reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions in epidermal cells of wild-type hypocotyls. In tubulin mutants, especially in tua6, the percentage of cells with longitudinal microtubules was high even at 1g, and it was further increased by hypergravity. The twisting phenotype was most obvious at cells 10 to 12 from the top, where reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions occurred. Moreover, the left-handed helical growth mutants (tua3 and tua4) had right-handed microtubule arrays, whereas the right-handed mutant (tua6) had left-handed arrays. There was a close correlation between the alignment angle of epidermal cell files and the alignment of cortical microtubules. Gadolinium ions, blockers of mechanosensitive ion channels (mechanoreceptors), suppressed the twisting phenotype in tubulin mutants under both 1g and 300 g conditions. Microtubule arrays in tubulin mutants were oriented more transversely by gadolinium treatment, irrespective of gravity conditions. These results support the hypothesis that cortical microtubules play an essential role in maintenance of normal

  17. New molecular phenotypes in the dst mutants of Arabidopsis revealed by DNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Amador, M A; Lidder, P; Johnson, M A; Landgraf, J; Wisman, E; Green, P J

    2001-12-01

    In this study, DNA microarray analysis was used to expand our understanding of the dst1 mutant of Arabidopsis. The dst (downstream) mutants were isolated originally as specifically increasing the steady state level and the half-life of DST-containing transcripts. As such, txhey offer a unique opportunity to study rapid sequence-specific mRNA decay pathways in eukaryotes. These mutants show a threefold to fourfold increase in mRNA abundance for two transgenes and an endogenous gene, all containing DST elements, when examined by RNA gel blot analysis; however, they show no visible aberrant phenotype. Here, we use DNA microarrays to identify genes with altered expression levels in dst1 compared with the parental plants. In addition to verifying the increase in the transgene mRNA levels, which were used to isolate these mutants, we were able to identify new genes with altered mRNA abundance in dst1. RNA gel blot analysis confirmed the microarray data for all genes tested and also was used to catalog the first molecular differences in gene expression between the dst1 and dst2 mutants. These differences revealed previously unknown molecular phenotypes for the dst mutants that will be helpful in future analyses. Cluster analysis of genes altered in dst1 revealed new coexpression patterns that prompt new hypotheses regarding the nature of the dst1 mutation and a possible role of the DST-mediated mRNA decay pathway in plants.

  18. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na+, (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na+/K+ homeostasis and hormonal balance. PMID:23299430

  19. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na(+), (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and hormonal balance.

  20. Arabidopsis mutant analysis and gene regulation define a nonredundant role for glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Oliveira, R; Oliveira, I C; Coruzzi, G M

    1996-05-14

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is ubiquitous to all organisms, yet its role in higher plants remains enigmatic. To better understand the role of GDH in plant nitrogen metabolism, we have characterized an Arabidopsis mutant (gdh1-1) defective in one of two GDH gene products and have studied GDH1 gene expression. GDH1 mRNA accumulates to highest levels in dark-adapted or sucrose-starved plants, and light or sucrose treatment each repress GDH1 mRNA accumulation. These results suggest that the GDH1 gene product functions in the direction of glutamate catabolism under carbon-limiting conditions. Low levels of GDH1 mRNA present in leaves of light-grown plants can be induced by exogenously supplied ammonia. Under such conditions of carbon and ammonia excess, GDH1 may function in the direction of glutamate biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis gdh-deficient mutant allele gdh1-1 cosegregates with the GDH1 gene and behaves as a recessive mutation. The gdh1-1 mutant displays a conditional phenotype in that seedling growth is specifically retarded on media containing exogenously supplied inorganic nitrogen. These results suggest that GDH1 plays a nonredundant role in ammonia assimilation under conditions of inorganic nitrogen excess. This notion is further supported by the fact that the levels of mRNA for GDH1 and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) are reciprocally regulated by light.

  1. Chloroplast 2010: a database for large-scale phenotypic screening of Arabidopsis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Savage, Linda J; Larson, Matthew D; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Last, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    Large-scale phenotypic screening presents challenges and opportunities not encountered in typical forward or reverse genetics projects. We describe a modular database and laboratory information management system that was implemented in support of the Chloroplast 2010 Project, an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reverse genetics phenotypic screen of more than 5,000 mutants (http://bioinfo.bch.msu.edu/2010_LIMS; www.plastid.msu.edu). The software and laboratory work environment were designed to minimize operator error and detect systematic process errors. The database uses Ruby on Rails and Flash technologies to present complex quantitative and qualitative data and pedigree information in a flexible user interface. Examples are presented where the database was used to find opportunities for process changes that improved data quality. We also describe the use of the data-analysis tools to discover mutants defective in enzymes of leucine catabolism (heteromeric mitochondrial 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase [At1g03090 and At4g34030] and putative hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase [At2g26800]) based upon a syndrome of pleiotropic seed amino acid phenotypes that resembles previously described isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (At3g45300) mutants. In vitro assay results support the computational annotation of At2g26800 as hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase.

  2. Characterization of N-Glycans from Arabidopsis. Application to a Fucose-Deficient Mutant1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayon, Catherine; Cabanes-Macheteau, Marion; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Salliot-Maire, Isabelle; Lemoine, Jérome; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; Lerouge, Patrice; Faye, Loïc

    1999-01-01

    The structures of glycans N-linked to Arabidopsis proteins have been fully identified. From immuno- and affinodetections on blots, chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and glycosidase sequencing data, we show that Arabidopsis proteins are N-glycosylated by high-mannose-type N-glycans from Man5GlcNAc2 to Man9GlcNAc2, and by xylose- and fucose (Fuc)-containing oligosaccharides. However, complex biantenary structures containing the terminal Lewis a epitope recently reported in the literature (A.-C. Fitchette-Lainé, V. Gomord, M. Cabanes, J.-C. Michalski, M. Saint Macary, B. Foucher, B. Cavalier, C. Hawes, P. Lerouge, and L. Faye [1997] Plant J 12: 1411–1417) were not detected. A similar study was done on the Arabidopsis mur1 mutant, which is affected in the biosynthesis of l-Fuc. In this mutant, one-third of the Fuc residues of the xyloglucan has been reported to be replaced by l-galactose (Gal) (E. Zablackis, W.S. York, M. Pauly, S. Hantus, W.D. Reiter, C.C.S. Chapple, P. Albersheim, and A. Darvill [1996] Science 272: 1808–1810). N-linked glycans from the mutant were identified and their structures were compared with those isolated from the wild-type plants. In about 95% of all N-linked glycans from the mur1 plant, l-Fuc residues were absent and were not replaced by another monosaccharide. However, in the remaining 5%, l-Fuc was found to be replaced by a hexose residue. From nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data of the mur1 N-glycans, and by analogy with data reported on mur1 xyloglucan, this subpopulation of N-linked glycans was proposed to be l-Gal-containing N-glycans resulting from the replacement of l-Fuc by l-Gal. PMID:9952469

  3. The toc132toc120 heterozygote mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates reduced levels of hexadecatrienoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Duffield-Duncan, Kayla; Fry, Morgan; Workman, Samantha; Hum-Musser, Sue; Hildebrand, David

    2015-11-01

    A null and heterozygous mutant for the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC132 and TOC120 genes accumulates increased levels of 16:0 and decreased 16:3, suggesting altered homeostasis in fatty acid synthesis. The FAD5 gene encodes a plastid desaturase that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of 16:3 in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). In non-acclimated toc132toc120+/- mutant plants, the FAD5 gene was repressed and this correlated with decreased levels of 16:3. In cold-acclimated mutant however, the FAD5 gene was upregulated and there was a small increase in 16:3 levels relative to the non-acclimated mutant plants. The MGD1 gene was expressed at control levels and the mutant accumulated levels of MGDG that were similar to the wild type. In the mutant however, MGDG had decreased 16:3 levels, suggesting that the activity of FAD5 desaturase was compromised. In the mutant, the FAD2 and FAD3 genes were downregulated but levels of 18:3-PC were increased, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation for the ER-localized fatty acid desaturases. The Toc120 or Toc159 receptor is likely to compensate for a defective Toc132 receptor. In the cold-acclimated mutant, the TOC159 gene was repressed ca. 300-fold, whereas the TOC120 gene was repressed 7-fold relative to the non-acclimated wild type. Thus, the TOC159 gene is more sensitive to cold-stress and might not compensate for defect in the TOC132 gene under these conditions. Overall, these data show that a mutation in the TOC132 gene results in decreased 16:3 levels, indicating the need for an intact Toc132/Toc120 receptor, presumably to facilitate the import of the FAD5 preprotein into chloroplasts.

  4. Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogas, J.; Somerville, C. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States); Cheng, Jin-Chen; Sung, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-07-04

    The plant growth regulator gibberellin (GA) has a profound effect on shoot development and promotes developmental transitions such as flowering. Little is known about any analogous effect GA might have on root development. In a screen for mutants, Arabi-dopsis plants carrying a mutation designated pickle (pkl) were isolated in which the primary root meristem retained characteristics of embryonic tissue. Expression of this aberrant differentiation state was suppressed by GA. Root tissue from plants carrying the pkl mutation spontaneously regenerated new embryos and plants. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Arabidopsis mutant analysis and gene regulation define a nonredundant role for glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Melo-Oliveira, R; I.C. Oliveira; Coruzzi, G M

    1996-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is ubiquitous to all organisms, yet its role in higher plants remains enigmatic. To better understand the role of GDH in plant nitrogen metabolism, we have characterized an Arabidopsis mutant (gdh1-1) defective in one of two GDH gene products and have studied GDH1 gene expression. GDH1 mRNA accumulates to highest levels in dark-adapted or sucrose-starved plants, and light or sucrose treatment each repress GDH1 mRNA accumulation. These results suggest that the GDH...

  6. Developmental defects in mutants of the PsbP domain protein 5 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnna L Roose

    Full Text Available Plants contain an extensive family of PsbP-related proteins termed PsbP-like (PPL and PsbP domain (PPD proteins, which are localized to the thylakoid lumen. The founding member of this family, PsbP, is an established component of the Photosystem II (PS II enzyme, and the PPL proteins have also been functionally linked to other photosynthetic processes. However, the functions of the remaining seven PPD proteins are unknown. To elucidate the function of the PPD5 protein (At5g11450 in Arabidopsis, we have characterized a mutant T-DNA insertion line (SALK_061118 as well as several RNAi lines designed to suppress the expression of this gene. The functions of the photosynthetic electron transfer reactions are largely unaltered in the ppd5 mutants, except for a modest though significant decrease in NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH activity. Interestingly, these mutants show striking plant developmental and morphological defects. Relative to the wild-type Col-0 plants, the ppd5 mutants exhibit both increased lateral root branching and defects associated with axillary bud formation. These defects include the formation of additional rosettes originating from axils at the base of the plant as well as aerial rosettes formed at the axils of the first few nodes of the shoot. The root-branching phenotype is chemically complemented by treatment with the synthetic strigolactone, GR24. We propose that the developmental defects observed in the ppd5 mutants are related to a deficiency in strigolactone biosynthesis.

  7. Photosynthetic Properties of Photosystem Ⅱ in Arabidopsis thaliana Ipa1 Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Wei Peng; Jin-Kui Guo; Jin-Fang Ma; Wei Chi; Li-Xin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, we characterized a high chlorophyll fluorescence Ipa1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana,in which approximately 20% photosystem (PS) Ⅱ protein is accumulated. In the present study, analysis of fluorescence decay kinetics and thermoluminescence profiles demonstrated that the electron transfer reaction on either the donor or acceptor side of PSll remained largely unaffected in the Ipa1 mutant. In the mutant, maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) decreased with increasing light intensity and remained almost unchanged in wildtype plants under different light conditions. The Fv/Fm values also increased when mutant plants were transferred from standard growth light to low light conditions. Analysis of PSⅡ protein accumulation further confirmed that the amount of PSll reaction center protein is correlated with changes in Fv/Fm in Ipa1 plants.Thus, the assembled PSll in the mutant was functional and also showed increased photosensitivity compared with wild-type plants.

  8. Characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking a cytosolic non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Sebastián P; Casati, Paula; Iglesias, Alberto A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2006-08-01

    Non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NP-GAPDH) is a conserved cytosolic protein found in higher plants. In photosynthetic cells, the enzyme is involved in a shuttle transfer mechanism to export NADPH from the chloroplast to the cytosol. To investigate the role of this enzyme in plant tissues, we characterized a mutant from Arabidopsis thaliana having an insertion at the NP-GAPDH gene locus. The homozygous mutant was determined to be null respect to NP-GAPDH, as it exhibited undetectable levels of both transcription of NP-GAPDH mRNA, protein expression and enzyme activity. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the insertion mutant plant shows altered expression of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Significantly, cytosolic phosphorylating (NAD-dependent) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA levels are induced in the mutant, which correlates with an increase in enzyme activity. mRNA levels and enzymatic activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also elevated, correlating with an increase in NADPH concentration. Moreover, increased ROS levels were measured in the mutant plants. Down-regulation of several glycolytic and photosynthetic genes suggests that NP-GAPDH is important for the efficiency of both metabolic processes. The results presented demonstrate that NP-GAPDH has a relevant role in plant growth and development.

  9. Fine mapping of an Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile mutant EC2-157

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huijuan; ZHANG Zaibao; LI Hui; GAO Jufang; YANG Zhongnan

    2006-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile mutant EC2-157 has been isolated using an EMS mutagenesis strategy.Genetic analysis indicated that it was controlled by a single recessive gene called ms157.No pollen grains have been observed in mutant anthers.ms157 Has been mapped to a region of 74 kb located in BAC clone T6K22 on chromosome Ⅳ using a map-based cloning strategy.As no male sterile genes have been reported in this region.ms157 could be a novel gene related to fertility.The further molecular cloning and functional analysis on this gene should facilitate our understanding of A.thaliana anther development.

  10. Employing libraries of zinc finger artificial transcription factors to screen for homologous recombination mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Beatrice I; Pinas, Johan E; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2006-11-01

    A library of genes for zinc finger artificial transcription factors (ZF-ATF) was generated by fusion of DNA sequences encoding three-finger Cys(2)His(2) ZF domains to the VP16 activation domain under the control of the promoter of the ribosomal protein gene RPS5A from Arabidopsis thaliana. After introduction of this library into an Arabidopsis homologous recombination (HR) indicator line, we selected primary transformants exhibiting multiple somatic recombination events. After PCR-mediated rescue of ZF sequences, reconstituted ZF-ATFs were re-introduced in the target line. In this manner, a ZF-ATF was identified that led to a 200-1000-fold increase in somatic HR (replicated in an independent second target line). A mutant plant line expressing the HR-inducing ZF-ATF exhibited increased resistance to the DNA-damaging agent bleomycin and was more sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a combination of traits not described previously. Our results demonstrate that the use of ZF-ATF pools is highly rewarding when screening for novel dominant phenotypes in Arabidopsis.

  11. Large genetic screens for gynogenesis and androgenesis haploid inducers in Arabidopsis thaliana failed to identify mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie ePortemer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gynogenesis is a process in which the embryo genome originates exclusively from female origin, following embryogenesis stimulation by a male gamete. In contrast, androgenesis is the development of embryos that contain only the male nuclear genetic background. Both phenomena are of great interest in plant breeding as haploidisation is an efficient tool to reduce the length of breeding schemes to create varieties. Although few inducer lines have been described, the genetic control of these phenomena is poorly understood. We developed genetic screens to identify mutations that would induce gynogenesis or androgenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ability of mutant pollen to induce either gynogenesis or androgenesis was tested by crossing mutagenized plants as males. Seedlings from these crosses were screened with recessive phenotypic markers, one genetically controlled by the female genome and another by the male genome. Positive and negative controls confirmed the unambiguous detection of both gynogenesis and androgenesis events. This strategy was applied to 1,666 EMS-mutagenised lines and 47 distant Arabidopsis strains. While an internal control suggested that the mutagenesis reached saturation, no gynogenesis or androgenesis inducer was found. However, spontaneous gynogenesis was observed at a frequency of 1/10,800. Altogether, these results suggest that no simple EMS-induced mutation in the male genome is able to induce gynogenesis or androgenesis in Arabidopsis.

  12. The ARABIDOPSIS accession Pna-10 is a naturally occurring sng1 deletion mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Bergelson, Joy; Chapple, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Sinapoylmalate is the major sinapate ester found in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, where it plays an important role in UV-B protection. Metabolic profiling of rosette leaves from 96 Arabidopsis accessions revealed that the Pna-10 accession accumulates sinapoylglucose instead of sinapoylmalate. This unique leaf sinapate ester profile is similar to that of the previously characterized sinapoylglucose accumulator1 (sng1) mutants. SNG1 encodes sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase (SMT), a serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sinapoylglucose to sinapoylmalate. In the reference Columbia genome, the SNG1 gene is located in a cluster of five SCPL genes on Chromosome II. PCR and sequencing analysis of the same genomic region in the Pna-10 accession revealed a 13-kb deletion that eliminates the SNG1 gene (At2g22990) and the gene encoding sinapoylglucose:anthocyanin sinapoyltransferase (SAT) (At2g23000). In addition to its sinapoylmalate-deficient phenotype, and consistent with the loss of SAT, Pna-10 is unable to accumulate sinapoylated anthocyanins. Interestingly, the Pna-17 accession, collected from the same location as Pna-10, has no such deletion. Further analysis of 135 lines collected from the same location as Pna-10 and Pna-17 revealed that four more lines contain the deletion found in Pna-10 accession, suggesting that either the deletion found in Pna-10 is a recent event that has not yet been eliminated through selection or that sinapoylmalate is dispensable for the growth of Arabidopsis under field conditions.

  13. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-08-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content.

  14. Hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferase mutants oppositely alter tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana and Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAlister, Cora A; Ortiz-Ramírez, Carlos; Becker, Jörg D; Feijó, José A; Lippman, Zachary B

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferases (HPATs) are members of a small, deeply conserved family of plant-specific glycosyltransferases that add arabinose sugars to diverse proteins including cell wall-associated extensins and small signaling peptides. Recent genetic studies in flowering plants suggest that different HPAT homologs have been co-opted to function in diverse species-specific developmental contexts. However, nothing is known about the roles of HPATs in basal plants. We show that complete loss of HPAT function in Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens results in a shared defect in gametophytic tip cell growth. Arabidopsis hpat1/2/3 triple knockout mutants suffer from a strong male sterility defect as a consequence of pollen tubes that fail to fully elongate following pollination. Knocking out the two HPAT genes of Physcomitrella results in larger multicellular filamentous networks due to increased elongation of protonemal tip cells. Physcomitrella hpat mutants lack cell-wall associated hydroxyproline arabinosides and can be rescued with exogenous cellulose, while global expression profiling shows that cell wall-associated genes are severely misexpressed, implicating a defect in cell wall formation during tip growth. Our findings point to a major role for HPATs in influencing cell elongation during tip growth in plants.

  15. Interaction of root gravitropism and phototropism in Arabidopsis wild-type and starchless mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitha, S; Zhao, L; Sack, F D

    2000-02-01

    Root gravitropism in wild-type Arabidopsis and in two starchless mutants, pgm1-1 and adg1-1, was evaluated as a function of light position to determine the relative strengths of negative phototropism and of gravitropism and how much phototropism affects gravitropic measurements. Gravitropism was stronger than phototropism in some but not all light positions in wild-type roots grown for an extended period, indicating that the relationship between the two tropisms is more complex than previously reported. Root phototropism significantly influenced the time course of gravitropic curvature and the two measures of sensitivity. Light from above during horizontal exposure overestimated all three parameters for all three genotypes except the wild-type perception time. At the irradiance used (80 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), the shortest periods of illumination found to exaggerate gravitropism were 45 min of continuous illumination and 2-min doses of intermittent illumination. By growing roots in circumlateral light or by gravistimulating in the dark, corrected values were obtained for each gravitropic parameter. Roots of both starchless mutants were determined to be about three times less sensitive than prior estimates. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for phototropism in the design of root gravitropism experiments in Arabidopsis.

  16. Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B sister (ABS) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Kerstin; Anfang, Nicole; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    2005-09-01

    Recently, close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes, termed B(sister) genes, have been identified in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In contrast to the B genes themselves, B(sister) genes are exclusively expressed in female reproductive organs, especially in the envelopes or integuments surrounding the ovules. This suggests an important ancient function in ovule or seed development for B(sister) genes, which has been conserved for about 300 million years. However, investigation of the first loss-of-function mutant for a B(sister) gene (ABS/TT16 from Arabidopsis) revealed only a weak phenotype affecting endothelium formation. Here, we present an analysis of two additional mutant alleles, which corroborates this weak phenotype. Transgenic plants that ectopically express ABS show changes in the growth and identity of floral organs, suggesting that ABS can interact with floral homeotic proteins. Yeast-two-hybrid and three-hybrid analyses indicated that ABS can form dimers with SEPALLATA (SEP) floral homeotic proteins and multimeric complexes that also include the AGAMOUS-like proteins SEEDSTICK (STK) or SHATTERPROOF1/2 (SHP1, SHP2). These data suggest that the formation of multimeric transcription factor complexes might be a general phenomenon among MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins in angiosperms. Heterodimerization of ABS with SEP3 was confirmed by gel retardation assays. Fusion proteins tagged with CFP (Cyan Fluorescent Protein) and YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that ABS is localized in the nucleus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a structurally deviant, but closely related, paralogue of ABS in the Arabidopsis genome. Thus the evolutionary developmental genetics of B(sister) genes can probably only be understood as part of a complex and redundant gene network that may govern ovule formation in a conserved manner, which has yet to be fully explored.

  17. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swadhin Swain; Nidhi Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2015-03-01

    A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1 (cdd1) is an exception. The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene expression profile between cdd1 and wild-type plants as obtained by microarray hybridization. Expression of several defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA insertion mutant lines of selected genes, for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant defence against bacterial pathogens.

  18. A Lesion-Mimic Syntaxin Double Mutant in Arabidopsis Reveals Novel Complexity of Pathogen Defense Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziguo Zhang; Hans Thordal-Christensen; Andrea Lenk; Mats X. Andersson; Torben Gjetting; Carsten Pedersen; Mads E. Nielsen; Marl-Anne Newman; Bi-Huei Hou; Shauna C. Somerville

    2008-01-01

    The lesion-mimicArabidopsis mutant, syp121 syp122, constitutively expresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway and has low penetration resistance to powdery mildew fungi. Genetic analyses of the lesion-mimic phenotype have expanded our understanding of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. Inactivation of SA signaling genes in syp121 syp 122 only partially rescues the lesion-mimic phenotype, indicating that additional defenses contribute to the PCD. Whole genome transcriptome analysis confirmed that SA-induced transcripts, as well as numerous other known pathogenresponse transcripts, are up-regulated after inactivation of the syntaxin genes. A suppressor mutant analysis of syp121 syp122 revealed that FMO1, ALD1, and PAD4 are important for lesion development. Mutant alleles of EDS1, NDR1, RAR1, and SGT1b also partially rescued the lesion-mimic phenotype, suggesting that mutating syntaxin genes stimulates TIR-NB-LRR and CC-NB-LRR-type resistances. The syntaxin double knockout potentiated a powdery mildewinduced HR-like response. This required functional PAD4 but not functional SA signaling. However, SA signaling potentiated the PAD4-dependent HR-like response. Analyses of quadruple mutants suggest that EDS5 and SID2 confer separate SA-independent signaling functions, and that FMO1 and ALD1 mediate SA-independent signals that are NPRl-dependent.These studies highlight the contribution of multiple pathways to defense and point to the complexity of their interactions.

  19. A user's guide to the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ronan C; Barragan, Cesar C; Ecker, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    The T-DNA sequence-indexed mutant collections contain insertional mutants for most Arabidopsis thaliana genes and have played an important role in plant biology research for almost two decades. By providing a large source of mutant alleles for in vivo characterization of gene function, this resource has been leveraged thousands of times to study a wide range of problems in plant biology. Our primary goal in this chapter is to provide a general guide to strategies for the effective use of the data and materials in these collections. To do this, we provide a general introduction to the T-DNA insertional sequence-indexed mutant collections with a focus on how best to use the available data sources for good line selection. As isolation of a homozygous line is a common next step once a potential disruption line has been identified, the second half of the chapter provides a step-by-step guide for the design and implementation of a T-DNA genotyping pipeline. Finally, we describe interpretation of genotyping results and include a troubleshooting section for common types of segregation distortions that we have observed. In this chapter we introduce both basic concepts and specific applications to both new and more experienced users of the collections for the design and implementation of small- to large-scale genotyping pipelines.

  20. Arabidopsis haiku mutants reveal new controls of seed size by endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Saingery, Virginie; Chambrier, Pierre; Mayer, Ulrike; Jürgens, Gerd; Berger, Frédéric

    2003-04-01

    In flowering plants, maternal seed integument encloses the embryo and the endosperm, which are both derived from double fertilization. Although the development of these three components must be coordinated, we have limited knowledge of mechanisms involved in such coordination. The endosperm may play a central role in these mechanisms as epigenetic modifications of endosperm development, via imbalance of dosage between maternal and paternal genomes, affecting both the embryo and the integument. To identify targets of such epigenetic controls, we designed a genetic screen in Arabidopsis for mutants that phenocopy the effects of dosage imbalance in the endosperm. The two mutants haiku 1 and haiku 2 produce seed of reduced size that resemble seed with maternal excess in the maternal/paternal dosage. Homozygous haiku seed develop into plants indistinguishable from wild type. Each mutation is sporophytic recessive, and double-mutant analysis suggests that both mutations affect the same genetic pathway. The endosperm of haiku mutants shows a premature arrest of increase in size that causes precocious cellularization of the syncytial endosperm. Reduction of seed size in haiku results from coordinated reduction of endosperm size, embryo proliferation, and cell elongation of the maternally derived integument. We present further evidence for a control of integument development mediated by endosperm-derived signals.

  1. The phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana det1 mutants suggest a role for cytokinins in greening. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, J.; Aguilar, N.; Peto, C.A.

    1990-12-31

    When grown in the absence of light, the det1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana develop characteristics of light-grown plants by morphological, cellular, and molecular criteria. Further, in light-grown plants, mutations in the DET1 gene affect cell-type-specific expression of light-regulated genes and the chloroplast developmental program. Here we show that the addition of exogenously added cytokinins (either 2-isopentenyl adenine, kinetin, or benzyladenine) to the growth medium of dark-germinated wild-type seedlings results in seedlings that resemble det1 mutants, instead of having the normal etiolated morphology. Like det1 mutants, these dark-grown seedlings now contain chloroplasts and have high levels of expression of genes that are normally ``light``-regulated. These results suggest an important role for cytokinins during greening of Arabidopsis, and may implicate cytokinin levels or an increased sensitivity to cytokinins as explanations for some of the observed phenotypes of det1 mutants.

  2. Mechanical touch responses of Arabidopsis TCH1-3 mutant roots on inclined hard-agar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Guodong; Wang, Bochu; Liu, Junyu; Yan, Jie; Zhu, Liqing; Yang, Xingyan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity-induced mechanical touch stimulus can affect plant root architecture. Mechanical touch responses of plant roots are an important aspect of plant root growth and development. Previous studies have reported that Arabidopsis TCH1-3 genes are involved in mechano-related events, how-ever, the physiological functions of TCH1-3 genes in Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses remain unclear. In the present study, we applied an inclined hard agar plate method to produce mechanical touch stimulus, and provided evidence that altered mechanical environment could influence root growth. Furthermore, tch1-3 Arabidopsis mutants were investigated on inclined agar surfaces to explore the functions of TCH1-3 genes on Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses. The results showed that two tch2 mutants, cml24-2 and cml24-4, exhibited significantly reduced root length, biased skewing, and decreased density of lateral root. In addition, primary root length and density of lateral root of tch3 (cml12-2) was significantly decreased on inclined agar surfaces. This study indicates that the tch2 and tch3 mutants are hypersensitive to mechanical touch stimulus, and TCH2 (CML24-2 and CML24-4) and TCH3 (CML12-2) genes may participate in the mechanical touch response of Arabidopsis roots.

  3. Genetic analysis and fine-mapping of a dwarfing with withered leaf-tip mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A dwarf mutant of rice(Oryza.sativa L.)by mutagenesis of ethylene methylsulfonate(EMS)treatment from Nipponbare was identified.The mutant exhibited phenotypes of dwarfism and withered leaf tip(dwll).Based on the internode length of dwl1,this mutant be longs to the dm type of dwarfing.Analysis of elongation of the second sheath and α-amylase activity in endosperm showed that the phenotype caused by dwll was insensitive to gibberellin acid treatment.Using a large F2 population derived from a cross between the dwll and an indica rice variety,TN1,the DWLl gene was mapped to the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 3.Fine-mapping de-limited it into a 46 kb physical distance between two STS markers,HL921 and HL944,where 6 open reading frames were predicted.Cloning of DWL1 will contribute to dissecting molecular mechanism that regulates plant height in rice,which will be beneficial to molecular assisted selection of this important trait.

  4. The gravity persistent signal (gps) Mutants of Arabidopsis: Insights into Gravitropic Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, S.

    The gravitropic response of Arabidopsis stems is rapid with a visible within 30 min and vertical reorientation within 2 h. However, horizontal gravistimulation for 3 h at 4°C does not cause curvature. When the stems are subsequently placed in the vertical position at RT, they bend in response to the previous, horizontal gravistimulation. These results indicate that the gravity perception step can occur at 4°C, but that part of the response is sensitive to cold. At 4°C, starch-containing amyloplasts in the endodermis of the inflorescence stems sedimented normally but auxin transport was abolished indicating that the cold treatment affected early events of the signal transduction pathway that occur after amyloplast sedimentation but prior to auxin transport. The gps mutants of Arabidopsis are a unique group of mutants that respond abnormally after gravistimulation at 4°C. gps1 shows no response to the cold gravistimulation, gps2 bends the wrong way as compared to wild type and gps3 over responds, bending past the anticipated curvature. The mutants were selected from a T-DNA tagged population. Cloning strategies based on the tag have been employed to identify the genes disrupted. GPS1 was cloned using TAIL PCR and is At3g20130, a cytochrome P450, CYP705A22, of unknown function. GPS1p::GFP fusions are being used to determine temporal and spatial expression of GPS1. The mutation in gps3 appears to disrupt a non-coding region downstream of At1g43950 No function has yet been determined for this region, but it appears that the mutation disrupts transcription of a transcription factor homologous to the DNA binding domain of an auxin response factor (ARF) 9-like protein. The identity of GPS2 is as yet unknown. The gps mutants represent potentially three independent aspects of signal transduction in the gravitropic response: perception or retention of the gravity signal (gps1), determination of the polarity of the response (gps2), and the tissue specificity of the

  5. Leaf biomechanical properties in Arabidopsis thaliana polysaccharide mutants affect drought survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ronald; Boak, Merewyn; Nagle, Kayla; Peethambaran, Bela; Layton, Bradley

    2015-11-26

    Individual sugars are the building blocks of cell wall polysaccharides, which in turn comprise a plant׳s overall architectural structure. But which sugars play the most prominent role in maintaining a plant׳s mechanical stability during large cellular deformations induced by drought? We investigated the individual contributions of several genes that are involved in the synthesis of monosaccharides which are important for cell wall structure. We then measured drought tolerance and mechanical integrity during simulated drought in Arabidopsis thaliana. To assess mechanical properties, we designed a small-scale tensile tester for measuring failure strain, ultimate tensile stress, work to failure, toughness, and elastic modulus of 6-week-old leaves in both hydrated and drought-simulated states. Col-0 mutants used in this study include those deficient in lignin, cellulose, components of hemicellulose such as xylose and fucose, the pectic components arabinose and rhamnose, as well as mutants with enhanced arabinose and total pectin content. We found that drought tolerance is correlated to the mechanical and architectural stability of leaves as they experience dehydration. Of the mutants, S096418 with mutations for reduced xylose and galactose was the least drought tolerant, while the arabinose-altered CS8578 mutants were the least affected by water loss. There were also notable correlations between drought tolerance and mechanical properties in the diminished rhamnose mutant, CS8575 and the dehydrogenase-disrupted S120106. Our findings suggest that components of hemicellulose and pectins affect leaf biomechanical properties and may play an important role in the ability of this model system to survive drought.

  6. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific 'carbonic anhydrase domain' of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe 'life without complex I'.

  7. Reporter-based screen for Arabidopsis mutants com-promised in nonhost resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN HuaMin; PAN JunSong; ZHAO XiuXiang; ZHOU JianMin; CAI Run

    2008-01-01

    Plants are exposed to many potentially pathogenic microbes in the environment, but each species is only susceptible to a limited number of pathogens. The broad resistance is referred to as nonhost re-sistance. To date, little is known about the underlying mechanism of nonhost resistance and the sig-naling transduction process. Here we describe a simple method for isolating Arabidopsis nonhost re-sistance mutants against a nonadapted bacterial pathogen. A RAP2.6 promoter-driven LUC reporter system was developed to replace the tedious bacterial growth assay during the primary screening. The RAP2.6-LUC reporter gone is normally induced by the virulent bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato but not the nonadapted bacterium P. syringae pv phaseolicola. By using this method we iso-lated 4 mutants displaying strong reporter activity in response to P. syringae pv phaseolicola, which were characterized in some details, ebsl, ebs2, ebs3, and ebs4 (enhanced bacterial susceptibility) were compromised in resistance against P. syringae pv phaseolicola and/or P. syringae pv tomato. In addi-tion, ebs4 showed enhanced hypersensitive response to the incompatible bacterium P. syringae pv tomato (avrB). These results demonstrated that the method is suited for large scale screening for nonhost resistance mutants.

  8. Ascorbate-Deficient vtc2 Mutants in Arabidopsis Do Not Exhibit Decreased Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Benson; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Cobbett, Christopher S; Golz, John F

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants the L-galactose pathway represents the major route for ascorbate biosynthesis. The first committed step of this pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and is encoded by two paralogs in Arabidopsis - VITAMIN C2 (VTC2) and VTC5. The first mutant of this enzyme, vtc2-1, isolated via an EMS mutagenesis screen, has approximately 20-30% of wildtype ascorbate levels and has been reported to have decreased growth under standard laboratory conditions. Here, we show that a T-DNA insertion into the VTC2 causes a similar reduction in ascorbate levels, but does not greatly affect plant growth. Subsequent segregation analysis revealed the growth defects of vtc2-1 mutants segregate independently of the vtc2-1 mutation. These observations suggest that it is the presence of an independent cryptic mutation that affects growth of vtc2-1 mutants, and not the 70-80% decrease in ascorbate levels that has been assumed in past studies.

  9. Analysis of vascular development in the hydra sterol biosynthetic mutants of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Pullen

    Full Text Available The control of vascular tissue development in plants is influenced by diverse hormonal signals, but their interactions during this process are not well understood. Wild-type sterol profiles are essential for growth, tissue patterning and signalling processes in plant development, and are required for regulated vascular patterning.Here we investigate the roles of sterols in vascular tissue development, through an analysis of the Arabidopsis mutants hydra1 and fackel/hydra2, which are defective in the enzymes sterol isomerase and sterol C-14 reductase respectively. We show that defective vascular patterning in the shoot is associated with ectopic cell divisions. Expression of the auxin-regulated AtHB8 homeobox gene is disrupted in mutant embryos and seedlings, associated with variably incomplete vascular strand formation and duplication of the longitudinal axis. Misexpression of the auxin reporter proIAA2ratioGUS and mislocalization of PIN proteins occurs in the mutants. Introduction of the ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutation partially rescues defective cell division, localization of PIN proteins, and vascular strand development.The results support a model in which sterols are required for correct auxin and ethylene crosstalk to regulate PIN localization, auxin distribution and AtHB8 expression, necessary for correct vascular development.

  10. Arabidopsis AAL-toxin-resistant mutant atr1 shows enhanced tolerance to programmed cell death induced by reactive oxygen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S.; Ferwerda, MargFiet A.; Mehterov, Nikolay; Laloi, Christophe; Qureshi, Muhammad K.; Hille, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The fungal AAL-toxin triggers programmed cell death (PCD) through perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism in AAL-toxin-sensitive plants. While Arabidopsis is relatively insensitive to the toxin, the loh2 mutant exhibits increased Susceptibility to AAL-toxin due to the knockout of a gene involved in

  11. The Arabidopsis defence response mutant esa1 as a tool to discover novel resistance traits against Fusarium diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijck, van W.; Wouters, P.F.J.; Brouwer, M.; Windelinckx, A.; Goderis, I.J.W.M.; Bolle, De M.F.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Delauré, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant esa1 was previously shown to exhibit enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. In this work, we tried to elaborate on this susceptibility by investigating whether the esa1 ph

  12. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with decreased amplitude in their phototropic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurana, J.P.; Ren, Zhangling; Steinitz, B.; Parks, B.; Best, T.R.; Poff, K.L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Two mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified with decreased phototropism to 450-nanometer light. Fluence-response relationships for these strains (ZR8 and ZR19) to single and multiple flashes of light show thresholds, curve shapes, and fluence for maximum curvature in first positive phototropism which are the same as those of the wild type. Similarly, there is no alteration from the wild type in the kinetics of curvature or in the optimum dark period separating sequential flashes in a multiple flash regimen. In addition, in both strains, gravitropism is decreased compared to the wild type by an amount which is comparable to the decrease in phototropism. Based on reciprocal backcrosses, it appears that the alteration is due to a recessive nuclear mutation. It is suggested that ZR8 and ZR19 represent alterations in some step analogous to an amplifier, downstream of the photoreceptor pigment, and common to both phototropism and gravitropism.

  13. SaliCylic Acid-Altering Arabidopsis Mutants Response to Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Tian; Liang; Wu

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the role of endogenous SA in plant response to Cd stress,Arabidopsis wild type(Columbia)and its SA-altering mutants snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive) with high SA level, nahG(tansgenic line)with low SA level and npr1-1(non-expressor of PR gene)with SA signaling blockage were used in this study. Results showed that a greater growth inhibition occurred in snc1,while a less inhibition was observed in nahG and npr1-1 plants. Although the anti-oxidative enzymes SOD and POD increased upon Cd exposure,they were insufficient to remove oxidative stress,especially in snc1 plants. The accumulations of soluble sugar and proline in the tested plants were positively related to their tolerance to Cd stress.

  14. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase lambda mutant is mildly sensitive to DNA double strand breaks but defective in integration ofa transgene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki eFurukawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g. errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork and exogenous sources (e.g. ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals. Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ, much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1 displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2, both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway.

  15. Knockout mutants as a tool to identify the subunit composition of Arabidopsis glutamine synthetase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragićević, Milan; Todorović, Slađana; Bogdanović, Milica; Filipović, Biljana; Mišić, Danijela; Simonović, Ana

    2014-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, which catalyzes the formation of glutamine from ammonia and glutamate. Plant GS isoforms are multimeric enzymes, recently shown to be decamers. The Arabidopsis genome encodes five cytosolic (GS1) proteins labeled as GLN1;1 through GLN1;5 and one chloroplastic (GS2) isoform, GLN2;0. However, as many as 11 GS activity bands were resolved from different Arabidopsis tissues by Native PAGE and activity staining. Western analysis showed that all 11 isoforms are composed exclusively of 40 kDa GS1 subunits. Of five GS1 genes, only GLN1;1, GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 transcripts accumulated to significant levels in vegetative tissues, indicating that only subunits encoded by these three genes produce the 11-band zymogram. Even though the GS2 gene also had significant expression, the corresponding activity was not detected, probably due to inactivation. To resolve the subunit composition of 11 active GS1 isoforms, homozygous knockout mutants deficient in the expression of different GS1 genes were selected from the progeny of T-DNA insertional SALK and SAIL lines. Comparison of GS isoenzyme patterns of the selected GS1 knockout mutants indicated that all of the detected isoforms consist of varying proportions of GLN1;1, GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 subunits, and that GLN1;1 and GLN1;3, as well as GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 and possibly GLN1;1 and GLN1;2 proteins combine in all proportions to form active homo- and heterodecamers.

  16. Selection of Arabidopsis mutants overexpressing genes driven by the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kop, D A; Schuyer, M; Pinas, J E; van der Zaal, B J; Hooykaas, P J

    1999-03-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants were isolated that contained a T-DNA construct in which the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from tobacco was fused to the kanamycin resistance (nptII) as well as to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene. Subsequently, seeds were treated with EMS to obtain mutants in which both reporter gene fusions were up-regulated. Northern analysis showed that the mRNA level of a related, endogenous auxin-inducible GST gene of Arabidopsis was increased in some of these mutants as well. Two of the gup (GST up-regulated) mutants were characterized in more detail and roughly mapped. Both had epinastic cotyledons and leaves, a phenotype that turned out to be linked to the gup mutation.

  17. Synthetic phytochelatins complement a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant and enhance the accumulation of heavy metal(loid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Tiwari, Manish; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-05-10

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are naturally occurring thiol-rich peptides containing gamma (γ) peptide bonds and are well known for their metal-binding and detoxification capabilities. Whether synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) can be used as an alternative approach for enhancing the metal-binding capacity of plants has been investigated in this study. The metal-binding potential of ECs has been demonstrated in bacteria; however, no report has investigated the expression of ECs in plants. We have expressed three synthetic genes encoding ECs of different lengths in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis (Col-0 background) and a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant (cad1-3). After exposure to different heavy metals, the transgenic plants were examined for phenotypic changes, and metal accumulation was evaluated. The expression of EC genes rescued the sensitive phenotype of the cad1-3 mutant under heavy metal(loid) stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EC genes accumulated a significantly enhanced level of heavy metal(loid)s in comparison with the WT plant. The mutant complementation and enhanced heavy metal(loid) accumulation in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggest that ECs work in a manner similar to that of PCs in plants and that ECs could be used as an alternative for phytoremediation of heavy metal(loid) exposure.

  18. Whole organ, venation and epidermal cell morphological variations are correlated in the leaves of Arabidopsis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Rubio-Díaz, Silvia; Dhondt, Stijn; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaquín; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2011-12-01

    Despite the large number of genes known to affect leaf shape or size, we still have a relatively poor understanding of how leaf morphology is established. For example, little is known about how cell division and cell expansion are controlled and coordinated within a growing leaf to eventually develop into a laminar organ of a definite size. To obtain a global perspective of the cellular basis of variations in leaf morphology at the organ, tissue and cell levels, we studied a collection of 111 non-allelic mutants with abnormally shaped and/or sized leaves, which broadly represent the mutational variations in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf morphology not associated with lethality. We used image-processing techniques on these mutants to quantify morphological parameters running the gamut from the palisade mesophyll and epidermal cells to the venation, whole leaf and rosette levels. We found positive correlations between epidermal cell size and leaf area, which is consistent with long-standing Avery's hypothesis that the epidermis drives leaf growth. In addition, venation parameters were positively correlated with leaf area, suggesting that leaf growth and vein patterning share some genetic controls. Positional cloning of the genes affected by the studied mutations will eventually establish functional links between genotypes, molecular functions, cellular parameters and leaf phenotypes.

  19. Overproduction of stomatal lineage cells in Arabidopsis mutants defective in active DNA demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Chizuko; Miki, Daisuke; Zheng, Zhimin; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jing; Yang, Zhenbiao; Dong, Juan; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-06-05

    DNA methylation is a reversible epigenetic mark regulating genome stability and function in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation depends on the function of the ROS1 subfamily of genes that encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases/lyases. ROS1-mediated DNA demethylation plays a critical role in the regulation of transgenes, transposable elements and some endogenous genes; however, there have been no reports of clear developmental phenotypes in ros1 mutant plants. Here we report that, in the ros1 mutant, the promoter region of the peptide ligand gene EPF2 is hypermethylated, which greatly reduces EPF2 expression and thereby leads to a phenotype of overproduction of stomatal lineage cells. EPF2 gene expression in ros1 is restored and the defective epidermal cell patterning is suppressed by mutations in genes in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. Our results show that active DNA demethylation combats the activity of RNA-directed DNA methylation to influence the initiation of stomatal lineage cells.

  20. Exaggerated root respiration accounts for growth retardation in a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Katrin; Hörmiller, Imke; Nägele, Thomas; Heyer, Arnd G

    2014-07-01

    The knock-out mutation of plastidial phosphoglucomutase (pgm) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana, and results in a severe growth reduction of plants cultivated under diurnal conditions. It has been speculated that high soluble sugar levels accumulating during the light phase in leaf mesophyll might cause a reduction of photosynthetic activity or that shortage of reduced carbon during the night is the reason for the slow biomass gain of pgm. Separate simultaneous measurements of leaf net photosynthesis and root respiration demonstrate that photosynthetic activity per unit fresh weight is not reduced in pgm, whereas root respiration is strongly elevated. Comparison with a mutant defective in the dominating vacuolar invertase (AtβFruct4) revealed that high sucrose concentration in the cytosol, but not in the vacuole, of leaf cells is responsible for elevated assimilate transport to the root. Increased sugar supply to the root, as observed in pgm mutants, forces substantial respiratory losses. Because root respiration accounts for 80% of total plant respiration under long-day conditions, this gives rise to retarded biomass formation. In contrast, reduced vacuolar invertase activity leads to reduced net photosynthesis in the shoot and lowered root respiration, and affords an increased root/shoot ratio. The results demonstrate that roots have very limited capacity for carbon storage but exert rigid control of supply for their maintenance metabolism. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Protection of Chloroplast Membranes by VIPP1 Rescues Aberrant Seedling Development in Arabidopsis nyc1 Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingang eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls (Chl in photosynthetic apparatuses, along with other macromolecules in chloroplasts, are known to undergo degradation during leaf senescence. Several enzymes involved in Chl degradation, by which detoxification of Chl is safely implemented, have been identified. Chl degradation also occurs during embryogenesis and seedling development. Some genes encoding Chl degradation enzymes such as Chl b reductase (CBR function during these developmental stages. Arabidopsis mutants lacking CBR (NYC1 and NOL reportedly exhibit reduced seed storability and compromised germination and cotyledon development. This study examined aberrant cotyledon development, finding that NYC1 is solely responsible for this phenotype. We inferred that oxidative damage of chloroplast membranes caused the aberrant cotyledon. To test the inference, we attempted to trans-complement nyc1 mutant with overexpressing VIPP1 protein that is unrelated to Chl degradation but which supports chloroplast membrane integrity. VIPP1 expression actually complemented the aberrant cotyledon of nyc1, whereas stay-green phenotype during leaf senescence remained. The swollen chloroplasts observed in unfixed cotyledons of nyc1, which are characteristics of chloroplasts receiving envelope membrane damage, were recovered by overexpressing VIPP1. These results suggest that chloroplast membranes are a target for oxidative damage caused by the impairment in Chl degradation. Trans-complementation of nyc1 with VIPP1 also suggests that VIPP1 is useful for protecting chloroplasts against oxidative stress.

  2. Growth stimulation in inflorescences of an Arabidopsis tubulin mutant under microgravity conditions in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T; Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Hashimoto, T; Karahara, I; Yano, S; Tanigaki, F; Shimazu, T; Kasahara, H; Masuda, D; Kamisaka, S

    2014-01-01

    Cortical microtubules are involved in plant resistance to hypergravity, but their roles in resistance to 1 g gravity are still uncertain. To clarify this point, we cultivated an Arabidopsis α-tubulin 6 mutant (tua6) in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the Kibo Module of the International Space Station, and analyzed growth and cell wall mechanical properties of inflorescences. Growth of inflorescence stems was stimulated under microgravity conditions, as compared with ground and on-orbit 1 g conditions. The stems were 10-45% longer and their growth rate 15-55% higher under microgravity conditions than those under both 1 g conditions. The degree of growth stimulation tended to be higher in the tua6 mutant than the wild-type Columbia. Under microgravity conditions, the cell wall extensibility in elongating regions of inflorescences was significantly higher than the controls, suggesting that growth stimulation was caused by cell wall modifications. No clear differences were detected in any growth or cell wall property between ground and on-orbit 1 g controls. These results support the hypothesis that cortical microtubules generally play an important role in plant resistance to the gravitational force.

  3. Photocycle dynamics of the E149A mutant of cryptochrome 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Moldt, J; Pokorny, R; Batschauer, A; Essen, L-O

    2009-11-09

    The E149A mutant of the cryDASH member cryptochrome 3 (cry3) from Arabidopsis thaliana was characterized in vitro by optical absorption and emission spectroscopic studies. The mutant protein non-covalently binds the chromophore flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In contrast to the wild-type protein it does not bind N5,N10-methenyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF). Thus, the photo-dynamics caused by FAD is accessible without the intervening coupling with MTHF. In dark adapted cry3-E149A, FAD is present in the oxidized form (FAD(ox)), semiquinone form (FADH(.)), and anionic hydroquinone form (FAD(red)H(-)). Blue-light photo-excitation of previously unexposed cry3-E149A transfers FAD(ox) to the anionic semiquinone form (FAD()(-)) with a quantum efficiency of about 2% and a back recovery time of about 10s (photocycle I). Prolonged photo-excitation leads to an irreversible protein re-conformation with structure modification of the U-shaped FAD and enabling proton transfer. Thus, a change in the photocycle dynamics occurs with photo-conversion of FAD(ox) to FADH(.), FADH(.) to FAD(red)H(-), and thermal back equilibration in the dark (photocycle II). The photocycle dynamics of cry3-E149A is compared with the photocycle behaviour of wild-type cry3 and other photo-sensory cryptochromes.

  4. Maize DELLA proteins dwarf plant8 and dwarf plant9 as modulators of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawit, Shai J; Wych, Heidi M; Xu, Deping; Kundu, Suman; Tomes, Dwight T

    2010-11-01

    DELLA proteins are nuclear-localized negative regulators of gibberellin signaling found ubiquitously throughout higher plants. Dominant dwarfing mutations of DELLA proteins have been primarily responsible for the dramatic increases in harvest index of the 'green revolution'. Maize contains two genetic loci encoding DELLA proteins, dwarf plant8 (d8) and dwarf plant 9 (d9). The d8 gene and three of its dominant dwarfing alleles have been previously characterized at the molecular level. Almost 20 years after the initial description of the mutant, this investigation represents the first molecular characterization of d9 and its gibberellin-insensitive mutant, D9-1. We have molecularly, subcellularly and phenotypically characterized the gene products of five maize DELLA alleles in transgenic Arabidopsis. In dissecting the molecular differences in D9-1, a critical residue for normal DELLA function has been uncovered, corresponding to E600 of the D9 protein. The gibberellin-insensitive D9-1 was found to produce dwarfing and, notably, earlier flowering in Arabidopsis. Conversely, overexpression of the D9-1 allele delayed flowering in transgenic maize, while overexpression of the d9 allele led to earlier flowering. These results corroborate findings that DELLA proteins are at the crux of many plant developmental pathways and suggest differing mechanisms of flowering time control by DELLAs in maize and Arabidopsis.

  5. MicroRNAs and other small RNAs enriched in the Arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-2 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Kulkarni, Karthik; Souret, Frédéric F.; MuthuValliappan, Ramesh; Tej, Shivakundan Singh; Poethig, R. Scott; Henderson, Ian R.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Wang, Wenzhong; Green, Pamela J.; Meyers, Blake C.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome contains a highly complex and abundant population of small RNAs, and many of the endogenous siRNAs are dependent on RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase 2 (RDR2) for their biogenesis. By analyzing an rdr2 loss-of-function mutant using two different parallel sequencing technologies, MPSS and 454, we characterized the complement of miRNAs expressed in Arabidopsis inflorescence to considerable depth. Nearly all known miRNAs were enriched in this mutant and we identified 13 new miRNAs, all of which were relatively low abundance and constitute new families. Trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) were even more highly enriched. Computational and gel blot analyses suggested that the minimal number of miRNAs in Arabidopsis is ∼155. The size profile of small RNAs in rdr2 reflected enrichment of 21-nt miRNAs and other classes of siRNAs like ta-siRNAs, and a significant reduction in 24-nt heterochromatic siRNAs. Other classes of small RNAs were found to be RDR2-independent, particularly those derived from long inverted repeats and a subset of tandem repeats. The small RNA populations in other Arabidopsis small RNA biogenesis mutants were also examined; a dcl2/3/4 triple mutant showed a similar pattern to rdr2, whereas dcl1–7 and rdr6 showed reductions in miRNAs and ta-siRNAs consistent with their activities in the biogenesis of these types of small RNAs. Deep sequencing of mutants provides a genetic approach for the dissection and characterization of diverse small RNA populations and the identification of low abundance miRNAs. PMID:16954541

  6. Complementation of the pha2 yeast mutant suggests functional differences for arogenate dehydratases from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Crystal D; Corea, Oliver R A; Kaldis, Angelo; Menassa, Rima; Bernards, Mark A; Kohalmi, Susanne E

    2011-08-01

    The final steps of phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthesis in bacteria, fungi and plants can occur via phenylpyruvate or arogenate intermediates. These routes are determined by the presence of prephenate dehydratase (PDT, EC4.2.1.51), which forms phenylpyruvate from prephenate, or arogenate dehydratase (ADT, EC4.2.1.91), which forms phenylalanine directly from arogenate. We compared sequences from select yeast species to those of Arabidopsis thaliana. The in silico analysis showed that plant ADTs and yeast PDTs share many common features allowing them to act as dehydratase/decarboxylases. However, plant and yeast sequences clearly group independently conferring distinct substrate specificities. Complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pha2 mutant, which lacks PDT activity and cannot grow in the absence of exogenous Phe, was used to test the PDT activity of A. thaliana ADTs in vivo. Previous biochemical characterization showed that all six AtADTs had high catalytic activity with arogenate as a substrate, while AtADT1, AtADT2 and AtADT6 also had limited activity with prephenate. Consistent with these results, the complementation test showed AtADT2 readily recovered the pha2 phenotype after ∼6 days growth at 30 °C, while AtADT1 required ∼13 days to show visible growth. By contrast, AtADT6 (lowest PDT activity) and AtADT3-5 (no PDT activity) were unable to recover the phenotype. These results suggest that only AtADT1 and AtADT2, but not the other four ADTs from Arabidopsis, have functional PDT activity in vivo, showing that there are two functional distinct groups. We hypothesize that plant ADTs have evolved to use the arogenate route for Phe synthesis while keeping some residual PDT activity.

  7. 2个水稻矮杆突变体的遗传分析%Genetic Analysis of Two Dwarf Mutants of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建峰; 汤永荣; 查仁明; 罗洪发

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study the genetic development of dwarf mutants of rice. Two dwarf mutants mini-plant (mp) and dwarf multi-tiller, reciprocal crossed with 'Minghui 63' and 'Minghui 86'. By the character investigation and chi-square test, in the F1 generation, two dwarf mutants had recessive heredity. In the F2 segregating population, the number of rice dwarf mutant and wild-type plants, met Mendel's single-genetic laws. Therefore, it confirmed that the two dwarf mutants of rice were controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene, respectively.%为了研究水稻矮杆突变体的遗传规律,通过将2个矮杆突变体mini-plant(mp)和矮蘖丛生突变体分别与‘明恢63’、‘明恢86’等进行正反交杂交组合,经过田间的性状调查与卡方测定,发现F1代中2个矮杆突变体均为隐性遗传,在F2分离群体中,2个矮杆突变体的遗传规律符合孟德尔的常染色体单基因隐性遗传.因此,可以推断2个水稻矮杆突变体都是由常染色体上的隐性单基因控制.

  8. Molecular phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals far-reaching consequences on phenylpropanoid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Antje; Morreel, Kris; Ralph, John; Goeminne, Geert; Hostyn, Vanessa; De Rycke, Riet; Kushnir, Sergei; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Van Driessche, Gonzalez; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Messens, Eric; Boerjan, Wout

    2004-01-01

    The first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, Phe ammonia-lyase (PAL), is encoded by four genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas PAL function is well established in various plants, an insight into the functional significance of individual gene family members is lacking. We show that in the absence of clear phenotypic alterations in the Arabidopsis pall and pal2 single mutants and with limited phenotypic alterations in the pall pal2 double mutant, significant modifications occur in the tran...

  9. Characterization of an activation-tagged mutant uncovers a role of GLABRA2 in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xianling; Hu, Qingnan; Dai, Xuemei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Mao, Tonglin; Chen, Jin-Gui; Wang, Shucai

    2015-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled by a MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) transcriptional activator complex. The MBW complex activates the transcription of late biosynthesis genes in the flavonoid pathway, leading to the production of anthocyanins. A similar MBW complex regulates epidermal cell fate by activating the transcription of GLABRA2 (GL2), a homeodomain transcription factor required for trichome formation in shoots and non-hair cell formation in roots. Here we provide experimental evidence to show that GL2 also plays a role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. From an activation-tagged mutagenized population of Arabidopsis plants, we isolated a dominant, gain-of-function mutant with reduced anthocyanins. Molecular cloning revealed that this phenotype is caused by an elevated expression of GL2, thus the mutant was named gl2-1D. Consistent with the view that GL2 acts as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, gl2-1D seedlings accumulated less whereas gl2-3 seedlings accumulated more anthocyanins in response to sucrose. Gene expression analysis indicated that expression of late, but not early, biosynthesis genes in the flavonoid pathway was dramatically reduced in gl2-1D but elevated in gl2-3 mutants. Further analysis showed that expression of some MBW component genes involved in the regulation of late biosynthesis genes was reduced in gl2-1D but elevated in gl2-3 mutants, and chromatin immunoprecipitation results indicated that some MBW component genes are targets of GL2. We also showed that GL2 functions as a transcriptional repressor. Taken together, these results indicate that GL2 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by directly repressing the expression of some MBW component genes.

  10. Characterization of variation induced by low-energy N+ and cloning of differentially expressed cDNA of a mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Using Arabidopsis thaliana as experimental materials, the variations induced by low-energy N+ have been investigated. Germination rate of the treated seeds is lower than that of the control, and it decreases with the intensification of the radiation. The phenotypic variations have been observed in M2 plants irradiated with higher doses, such as chlorisis, semilethality, plant morphology, and changes of blooming habit and fertility. In random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis on M2 seedlings, some differences including band deletions or additions are found in treated plants compared to the control and the differences are associated with the radiation doses. One of the M1 plants from the seeds irradiated with the dose of 80×1015 N+/cm2 is a dwarf variant. Its stable M6 generation, mutant T80II, is used to construct subtractive cDNA library and to clone differentially expressed cDNA. A 721 bp cDNA fragment is partly homologous with GRF7 gene.

  11. An altered hydrotropic response (ahr1) mutant of Arabidopsis recovers root hydrotropism with cytokinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, Manuel; Ponce, Georgina; Campos, María Eugenia; Eapen, Delfeena; García, Edith; Luján, Rosario; Sánchez, Yoloxóchitl; Cassab, Gladys I.

    2012-01-01

    Roots are highly plastic and can acclimate to heterogeneous and stressful conditions. However, there is little knowledge of the effect of moisture gradients on the mechanisms controlling root growth orientation and branching, and how this mechanism may help plants to avoid drought responses. The aim of this study was to isolate mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered hydrotropic responses. Here, altered hydrotropic response 1 (ahr1), a semi-dominant allele segregating as a single gene mutation, was characterized. ahr1 directed the growth of its primary root towards the source of higher water availability and developed an extensive root system over time. This phenotype was intensified in the presence of abscisic acid and was not observed if ahr1 seedlings were grown in a water stress medium without a water potential gradient. In normal growth conditions, primary root growth and root branching of ahr1 were indistinguishable from those of the wild type (wt). The altered hydrotropic growth of ahr1 roots was confirmed when the water-rich source was placed at an angle of 45° from the gravity vector. In this system, roots of ahr1 seedlings grew downward and did not display hydrotropism; however, in the presence of cytokinins, they exhibited hydrotropism like those of the wt, indicating that cytokinins play a critical role in root hydrotropism. The ahr1 mutant represents a valuable genetic resource for the study of the effects of cytokinins in the differential growth of hydrotropism and control of lateral root formation during the hydrotropic response. PMID:22442413

  12. ars1, an Arabidopsis mutant exhibiting increased tolerance to arsenate and increased phosphate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David A; Chen, Alice; Schroeder, Julian I

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic is one of the most toxic pollutants at contaminated sites, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which certain plants survive exposure to high arsenic levels. To gain insight into the mechanisms of arsenic tolerance in plants, we developed a genetic screen to isolate Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered tolerance to arsenic. We report here on the isolation of a mutant arsenic resisant 1 (ars1) with increased tolerance to arsenate. ars1 germinates and develops under conditions that completely inhibit growth of wild-type plants and shows a semi-dominant arsenic resistance phenotype. ars1 accumulates levels of arsenic similar to that accumulated by wild-type plants, suggesting that ars1 plants have an increased ability to detoxify arsenate. However, ars1 plants produce phytochelatin levels similar to levels produced by the wild type, and the enhanced resistance of ars1 is not abolished by the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor l-buthionine sulfoxime (BSO). Furthermore, ars1 plants do not show resistance to arsenite or other toxic metals such as cadmium and chromium. However, ars1 plants do show a higher rate of phosphate uptake than that shown by wild-type plants, and wild-type plants grown with an excess of phosphate show increased tolerance to arsenate. Traditional models of arsenate tolerance in plants are based on the suppression of phosphate uptake pathways and consequently on the reduced uptake of arsenate. Our data suggest that arsenate tolerance in ars1 could be due to a new mechanism mediated by increased phosphate uptake in ars1. Models discussing how increased phosphate uptake could contribute to arsenate tolerance are discussed.

  13. A no hydrotropic response root mutant that responds positively to gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Delfeena; Barroso, María Luisa; Campos, María Eugenia; Ponce, Georgina; Corkidi, Gabriel; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Cassab, Gladys I

    2003-02-01

    For most plants survival depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Because land plants cannot escape environmental stress they use developmental solutions to remodel themselves in order to better adapt to the new conditions. The primary site for perception of underground signals is the root cap (RC). Plant roots have positive hydrotropic response and modify their growth direction in search of water. Using a screening system with a water potential gradient, we isolated a no hydrotropic response (nhr) semi-dominant mutant of Arabidopsis that continued to grow downwardly into the medium with the lowest water potential contrary to the positive hydrotropic and negative gravitropic response seen in wild type-roots. The lack of hydrotropic response of nhr1 roots was confirmed in a system with a gradient in air moisture. The root gravitropic response of nhr1 seedlings was significantly faster in comparison with those of wild type. The frequency of the waving pattern in nhr1 roots was increased compared to those of wild type. nhr1 seedlings had abnormal root cap morphogenesis and reduced root growth sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and the polar auxin transport inhibitor N-(1-naphtyl)phtalamic acid (NPA). These results showed that hydrotropism is amenable to genetic analysis and that an ABA signaling pathway participates in sensing water potential gradients through the root cap.

  14. Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Christina; Schroll, Bettina; Zeisler, Viktoria; Waßmann, Friedrich; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Using (14)C-labeled epoxiconazole as a tracer, cuticular permeability of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was quantitatively measured in order to compare different wax and cutin mutants (wax2, cut1, cer5, att1, bdg, shn3 and shn1) to the corresponding wild types (Col-0 and Ws). Mutants were characterized by decreases or increases in wax and/or cutin amounts. Permeances [ms(-1)] of Arabidopsis cuticles either increased in the mutants compared to wild type or were not affected. Thus, genetic changes in wax and cutin biosynthesis in some of the investigated Arabidopsis mutants obviously impaired the coordinated cutin and wax deposition at the outer leaf epidermal cell wall. As a consequence, barrier properties of cuticles were significantly decreased. However, increasing cutin and wax amounts by genetic modifications, did not automatically lead to improved cuticular barrier properties. As an alternative approach to the radioactive transport assay, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored after foliar application of metribuzine, an herbicide inhibiting electron transport in chloroplasts. Since both, half-times of photosynthesis inhibition as well as times of complete inhibition, in fact correlated with (14)C-epoxiconazole permeances, different rates of decline of photosynthetic yield between mutants and wild type must be a function of foliar uptake of the herbicide across the cuticle. Thus, monitoring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, instead of conducting radioactive transport assays, represents an easy-to-handle and fast alternative evaluating cuticular barrier properties of different genotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  15. Cloning and Expression of Gene Responsible for High-Tillering Dwarf Phenotype in Indica Rice Mutant gsor23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-jiang YUAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High-tillering dwarf mutant gsor23 was generated from an indica rice variety Indica9 radiatied by γ-ray. Genetic analysis showed that this phenotype was controlled by one single recessive gene, which was mapped within a physical distance of 386 kb between two insertion-deletion (InDel markers C1-WT2 and C1-WT4 on the long arm of chromosome 1. There is a known gene D10 within this region, the mutation of which causes high-tillering in rice. Sequence analysis of the D10 allele in gsor23 revealed that the base cytosine (C at the 404th position in the coding region was deleted, which would cause frameshift mutation after the 134th amino acids. The mutation site and indica background of gsor23 were different from the previously reported japonica mutants d10-1 and d10-2. Therefore, gsor23 is a novel allelic mutant of D10 which encodes the carotenoid-cleaving dioxygenase 8 (CCD8, a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the new plant hormone strigolactones (SLs. After treatment with GR24, a synthetic analogue of SLs, the high-tillering phenotype of gsor23 was restored to normal. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that D10 expression was high in roots, but low in leaves. Compared with the wild type Indica9, the expression of the SL biosynthesis gene D10 was upregulated, while genes likely involved in the SL signal transduction pathway such as D3 and D14 were down-regulated in the gsor23 mutant.

  16. Characterization of a novel high-tillering dwarf 3 mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bosen Zhang; Feng Tian; Lubin Tan; Daoxin Xie; Chuanqing Sun

    2011-01-01

    Tiller number and culm length are important components of plant architecture and determinate grain production in rice.A line SIL046,derived from an introgression lines population developed by an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and a high-yielding indica cultivar Guichao 2 (Oryza sativa L.).exhibits a higher tiller number and shorter culm length phenotype than the recipient parent Guichao 2 (GC2).Genetic analysis showed that the high-tillering dwarf phenotype was controlled by a novel single recessive gene,referred to as the high-tillering dwarf3 (htd3),which located within the genetic distance of 13.4 cM between SSR makers RM7003 and RM277 on chromosome 12.By means of fine-mapping strategy,we mapped HTD3 gene within the genetic distance of 2.5 cM and the physical distance of 3100 kb in the centromere of chromosome 12.Further identification of HTD3 gene would provide a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism of the development of culm and tiller,two important components of yields in rice.

  17. Disrupting ER-associated protein degradation suppresses the abscission defect of a weak hae hsl2 mutant in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, John; Taylor, Isaiah; Walker, John C.

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the process of abscission, or the shedding of unwanted organs, is mediated by two genes, HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE 2 (HSL2), encoding receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). The double loss-of-function mutant hae-3 hsl2-3 is completely deficient in floral abscission, but, interestingly, the hae-3 hsl2-9 mutant displays a less severe defect. This mutant was chosen for an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) screen to isolate enhancer and suppressor mutants, and two such suppressors are the focus of this study. Pooled DNA from the F2 generation of a parental backcross was analyzed by genome sequencing to reveal candidate genes, two of which complement the suppressor phenotype. These genes, EMS-MUTAGENIZED BRI1 SUPPRESSOR 3 (EBS3) and EBS4, both encode mannosyltransferases involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of proteins. Further analysis of these suppressor lines revealed that suppressor mutations are acting solely on the partially functional hsl2-9 mutant receptor to modify the abscission phenotype. Expressing a hsl2-9–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) transgene in ebs3 mutants yields a higher fluorescent signal than in EBS3/ebs3, suggesting that these mutants restore abscission by disrupting ERAD to allow accumulation of the hsl2-9 receptor, which probably escapes degradation to be trafficked to the plasma membrane to regain signaling. PMID:27566817

  18. Chloroplast Dysfunction Causes Multiple Defects in Cell Cycle Progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf Mutant1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudik, Elodie; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Domenichini, Séverine; Bourge, Mickaël; Soubigout-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Yi, Dalong; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; De Veylder, Lieven; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants. PMID:25037213

  19. Epigenetic remodeling of meiotic crossover frequency in Arabidopsis thaliana DNA methyltransferase mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya E Yelina

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialized eukaryotic cell division that generates haploid gametes required for sexual reproduction. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover (CO. Meiotic CO frequency varies along the physical length of chromosomes and is determined by hierarchical mechanisms, including epigenetic organization, for example methylation of the DNA and histones. Here we investigate the role of DNA methylation in determining patterns of CO frequency along Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes. In A. thaliana the pericentromeric regions are repetitive, densely DNA methylated, and suppressed for both RNA polymerase-II transcription and CO frequency. DNA hypomethylated methyltransferase1 (met1 mutants show transcriptional reactivation of repetitive sequences in the pericentromeres, which we demonstrate is coupled to extensive remodeling of CO frequency. We observe elevated centromere-proximal COs in met1, coincident with pericentromeric decreases and distal increases. Importantly, total numbers of CO events are similar between wild type and met1, suggesting a role for interference and homeostasis in CO remodeling. To understand recombination distributions at a finer scale we generated CO frequency maps close to the telomere of chromosome 3 in wild type and demonstrate an elevated recombination topology in met1. Using a pollen-typing strategy we have identified an intergenic nucleosome-free CO hotspot 3a, and we demonstrate that it undergoes increased recombination activity in met1. We hypothesize that modulation of 3a activity is caused by CO remodeling driven by elevated centromeric COs. These data demonstrate how regional epigenetic organization can pattern recombination frequency along eukaryotic chromosomes.

  20. Genetic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Impaired in Plastid Lipid Import Reveals a Role of Membrane Lipids in Chloroplast Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.

    2011-03-01

    The biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes in plants relies largely on lipid import from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and this lipid transport process is mediated by TGD proteins in Arabidopsis. Such a dependency of chloroplast biogenesis on ER-to-plastid lipid transport was recently exemplified by analyzing double mutants between tgd1-1 or tgd4-3 and fad6 mutants. The fad6 mutants are defective in the desaturation of membrane lipids in chloroplasts and therefore dependent on import of polyunsaturated lipid precursors from the ER for constructing a competent thylakoid membrane system. In support of a critical role of TGD proteins in ER-to-plastid lipid trafficking, we showed that the introduction of the tgd mutations into fad6 mutant backgrounds led to drastic reductions in relative amounts of thylakoid lipids. Moreover, the tgd1-1 fad6 and tgd4-3 fad6 double mutants were deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids in chloroplast membrane lipids, and severely compromised in the biogenesis of photosynthetic membrane systems. Here we report that these double mutants are severely impaired in chloroplast division. The possible role of membrane lipids in chloroplast division is discussed.

  1. Characterization of Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility mutants that are affected in systemically induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Buchala, Anthony; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r triggers jasmonate (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is effective against different pathogens. Arabidopsis genotypes unable to express rhizobacteria-mediated ISR against the bacterial pat

  2. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Kumari; Vishakha Sharma; Vinay Sharma; Sushil Kumar

    2013-12-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants ofMendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein-coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. The mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). The Southern-blot analysis of MspI digested DNAs of mutants probed with centromeric and 5S and 18S rDNA probes indicated that, in comparison to wild type, the mutants were extensively demethylated at cytosine sites. Among the 126 genes investigated for transcriptional expression, 85 were upregulated and 41 were downregulated in mutants. All of the five genes known to be stress responsive had increased expression in mutants. Several miRNA genes showed either increased or decreased expression in mutants. The C. roseus counterparts of CMT3, DRM2 and RDR2 were downregulated in mutants. Among the cell, organ and plant size, photosynthesis and metabolism related traits studied, 28 traits were similarly affected in mutants as compared to wild type. Each of the mutants also expressed some traits distinctively. The egd mutant possessed superior photosynthesis and water retention abilities. Biomass was hyperaccumulated in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the lli mutant. The ill mutant was richest in the pharmaceutical alkaloids catharanthine, vindoline, vincristine and vinblastine. The nature of mutations, origins of mutant phenotypes and evolutionary importance of these mutants are discussed.

  3. Physiological characterization and genetic modifiers of aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis in mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MILDEW LOCUS O genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Noir, Sandra; Shahi, Shermineh; Reinstädler, Anja; Gratkowska, Dominika Marta; Panstruga, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Root architecture and growth patterns are plant features that are still poorly understood. When grown under in vitro conditions, seedlings with mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genes MLO4 or MLO11 exhibit aberrant root growth patterns upon contact with hard surfaces, exemplified as tight root spirals. We used a set of physiological assays and genetic tools to characterize this thigmomorphogenic defect in detail. We observed that the mlo4/mlo11-associated root curling phenotype is not recapitulated in a set of mutants with altered root growth patterns or architecture. We further found that mlo4/mlo11-conditioned root curling is not dependent upon light and endogenous flavonoids, but is pH-sensitive and affected by exogenous calcium levels. Based upon the latter two characteristics, mlo4-associated root coiling appears to be mechanistically different from the natural strong root curvature of the Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg erecta. Gravistimulation reversibly overrides the aberrant thigmomorphogenesis of mlo4 seedlings. Mutants with dominant negative defects in α-tubulin modulate the extent and directionality of mlo4/mlo11-conditioned root coils, whereas mutants defective in polar auxin transport (axr4, aux1) or gravitropism (pgm1) completely suppress the mlo4 root curling phenotype. Our data implicate a joint contribution of calcium signalling, pH regulation, microtubular function, polar auxin transport and gravitropism in root thigmomorphogenesis.

  4. Arabidopsis lonely guy (LOG) multiple mutants reveal a central role of the LOG-dependent pathway in cytokinin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Hiroki; Kojima, Mikiko; Kuroha, Takeshi; Ishida, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play key roles in the maintenance of stem cell activity in plants. Although alternative single-step and two-step activation pathways for cytokinin have been proposed, the significance of the single-step pathway which is catalyzed by LONELY GUY (LOG), is not fully understood. We analyzed the metabolic flow of cytokinin activation in Arabidopsis log multiple mutants using stable isotope-labeled tracers and characterized the mutants' morphological and developmental phenotypes. In tracer experiments, cytokinin activation was inhibited most pronouncedly by log7, while the other log mutations had cumulative effects. Although sextuple or lower-order mutants did not show drastic phenotypes in vegetative growth, the log1log2log3log4log5log7log8 septuple T-DNA insertion mutant in which the LOG-dependent pathway is impaired, displayed severe retardation of shoot and root growth with defects in the maintenance of the apical meristems. Detailed observation of the mutants showed that LOG7 was required for the maintenance of shoot apical meristem size. LOG7 was also suggested to play a role for normal primary root growth together with LOG3 and LOG4. These results suggest a dominant role of the single-step activation pathway mediated by LOGs for cytokinin production, and overlapping but differentiated functions of the members of the LOG gene family in growth and development.

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA Integration and Gene Targeting in Arabidopsis thaliana Non-Homologous End-Joining Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Jia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the role of AtKu70 and AtKu80 in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and gene targeting, plant lines with a T-DNA insertion in AtKu80 or AtKu70 genes were functionally characterized. Such plant lines lacked both subunits, indicating that heterodimer formation between AtKu70 and AtKu80 is needed for the stability of the proteins. Homozygous mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants and were fertile. However, they were hypersensitive to the genotoxic agent bleomycin, resulting in more DSBs as quantified in comet assays. They had lower end-joining efficiency, suggesting that NHEJ is a critical pathway for DSB repair in plants. Both Atku mutants and a previously isolated Atmre11 mutant were impaired in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration via floral dip transformation, indicating that AtKu70, AtKu80, and AtMre11 play an important role in T-DNA integration in Arabidopsis. The frequency of gene targeting was not significantly increased in the Atku80 and Atku70 mutants, but it was increased at least 10-fold in the Atmre11 mutant compared with the wild type.

  6. Defense-Related Calcium Signaling Mutants Uncovered via a Quantitative High-Throughput Screen in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanie Ranf; Julia Grimmer; Yvonne P(o)schl; Pascal Pecher; Delphine Chinchilla; Dierk Scheel; Justin Lee

    2012-01-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger for signaling to a variety of stimuli including MAMPs (Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns),such as flg22 and elf18 that are derived from bacterial flagellin and elongation factor Tu,respectively.Here,Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with changed calcium elevation (cce) in response to fig22 treatment were isolated and characterized.Besides novel mutant alleles of the flg22 receptor,FLS2 (Flagellin-Sensitive 2),and the receptor-associated kinase,BAK1 (Brassinosteroid receptor 1-Associated Kinase 1),the new cce mutants can be categorized into two main groups—those with a reduced or an enhanced calcium elevation.Moreover,cce mutants from both groups show differential phenotypes to different sets of MAMPs.Thus,these mutants will facilitate the discovery of novel components in early MAMP signaling and bridge the gaps in current knowledge of calcium signaling during plant-microbe interactions.Last but not least,the screening method is optimized for speed (covering 384 plants in 3 or 10 h) and can be adapted to genetically dissect any other stimuli that induce a change in calcium levels.

  7. Delayed degradation of chlorophylls and photosynthetic proteins in Arabidopsis autophagy mutants during stress-induced leaf yellowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Ye-Sol; Park, Ohkmae K; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2014-07-01

    Plant autophagy, one of the essential proteolysis systems, balances proteome and nutrient levels in cells of the whole plant. Autophagy has been studied by analysing Arabidopsis thaliana autophagy-defective atg mutants, but the relationship between autophagy and chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown during stress-induced leaf yellowing remains unclear. During natural senescence or under abiotic-stress conditions, extensive cell death and early yellowing occurs in the leaves of atg mutants. A new finding is revealed that atg5 and atg7 mutants exhibit a functional stay-green phenotype under mild abiotic-stress conditions, but leaf yellowing proceeds normally in wild-type leaves under these conditions. Under mild salt stress, atg5 leaves retained high levels of Chls and all photosystem proteins and maintained a normal chloroplast structure. Furthermore, a double mutant of atg5 and non-functional stay-green nonyellowing1-1 (atg5 nye1-1) showed a much stronger stay-green phenotype than either single mutant. Taking these results together, it is proposed that autophagy functions in the non-selective catabolism of Chls and photosynthetic proteins during stress-induced leaf yellowing, in addition to the selective degradation of Chl-apoprotein complexes in the chloroplasts through the senescence-induced STAY-GREEN1/NYE1 and Chl catabolic enzymes.

  8. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  9. Carpel, a new Arabidopsis epi-mutant of the SUPERMAN gene: phenotypic analysis and DNA methylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, A; Grunau, C; De Beck, L; Van Montagu, M; Rosenthal, A; Boerjan, W

    1999-09-01

    The carpel (car) mutation affects the morphology of reproductive organs in Arabidopsis thaliana. car flowers have an increased number of carpels, on average 2.7 +/- 0.8 instead of two in the wild type. Through allelism test with fon1-3 and analysis of the methylation state of the SUPERMAN (SUP) gene in car mutants, we show that car is an epi-mutation of SUP. The methylation pattern of car is clearly distinct from that of fon1-3, another epi-mutation of the SUP gene. Methylation was found predominantly in Cp(A/T)p(A/G) triplets and in CpG pairs. We suggest that the extensive SUP methylation in car has arisen from an abundant methylation of a single CpG site that was already present in abscisic acid-insensitive (abi3-4) mutants, from which car was segregating.

  10. Classical Ethylene Insensitive Mutants of the Arabidopsis EIN2Orthologue Lack the Expected 'hypernodulation' Response in Lotus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pick Kuen Chan; Bandana Biswas; Peter M.Gresshoff

    2013-01-01

    Three independent ethylene insensitive mutants were selected from an EMS-mutagenized population of Lotus japonicus MG-20 (Miyakojima).The mutants,called 'Enigma',were mutated in the LjEIN2a gene from Lotus chromosome 1,sharing significant homology with Arabidopsis EIN2 (ethylene-insensitive2).All three alleles showed classical ethylene insensitivity phenotypes (e.g.,Triple Response),but lacked the increased nodulation phenotype commonly associated with ethylene insensitivity.Indeed,all showed a marginal reduction in nodule number per plant,a phenotype that is enigmatic to sickle,an ethyleneinsensitive EIN2 mutant in Medicago truncatula.In contrast to wild type,but similar to an ETR1-1 ethylene ethylene-insensitive transgenic of L.japonicus,enigma mutants formed nodules in between the protoxylem poles,demonstrating the influence of ethylene on radial positioning.Suppression of nodule numbers by nitrate and colonisation by mycorrhizal fungi in the enigma-1 mutant were indistinguishable from the wild-type MG-20.However,reflecting endogenous ethylene feedback,the enigma-1 mutant released more than twice the wild-type amount of ethylene.enigma-1 had a moderate reduction in growth,greater root mass (and lateral root formation),delayed flowering and ripening,smaller pods and seeds.Expression analysis of ethylene-regulated genes,such as ETR1,NRL1 (neverripe-like 1),and ElL3 in shoots and roots of enigma-1 and MG-20 illustrated that the ethylene-insensitive mutation strongly affected transcriptional responses in the root.These mutants open the possibility that EIN2 in L.japonicus,a determinate nodulating legume,acts in a more complex fashion possibly through the presence of a duplicated copy of LjEIN2.

  11. Classical ethylene insensitive mutants of the Arabidopsis EIN2 orthologue lack the expected 'hypernodulation' response in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pick Kuen; Biswas, Bandana; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    Three independent ethylene insensitive mutants were selected from an EMS- mutagenized population of Lotus japonicus MG-20 (Miyakojima). The mutants, called 'Enigma', were mutated in the LjEIN2a gene from Lotus chromosome 1, sharing significant homology with Arabidopsis EIN2 (ethylene-insensitive2). All three alleles showed classical ethylene insensitivity phenotypes (e.g., Triple Response), but lacked the increased nodulation phenotype commonly associated with ethylene insensitivity. Indeed, all showed a marginal reduction in nodule number per plant, a phenotype that is enigmatic to sickle, an ethylene-insensitive EIN2 mutant in Medicago truncatula. In contrast to wild type, but similar to an ETR1-1 ethylene ethylene-insensitive transgenic of L. japonicus, enigma mutants formed nodules in between the protoxylem poles, demonstrating the influence of ethylene on radial positioning. Suppression of nodule numbers by nitrate and colonisation by mycorrhizal fungi in the enigma-1 mutant were indistinguishable from the wild-type MG-20. However, reflecting endogenous ethylene feedback, the enigma-1 mutant released more than twice the wild-type amount of ethylene. enigma-1 had a moderate reduction in growth, greater root mass (and lateral root formation), delayed flowering and ripening, smaller pods and seeds. Expression analysis of ethylene-regulated genes, such as ETR1, NRL1 (neverripe-like 1), and EIL3 in shoots and roots of enigma-1 and MG-20 illustrated that the ethylene-insensitive mutation strongly affected transcriptional responses in the root. These mutants open the possibility that EIN2 in L. japonicus, a determinate nodulating legume, acts in a more complex fashion possibly through the presence of a duplicated copy of LjEIN2.

  12. Analysis of metabolic flux phenotypes for two Arabidopsis mutants with severe impairment in seed storage lipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonien, J.; Schwender, J.

    2009-11-01

    Major storage reserves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds are triacylglycerols (seed oils) and proteins. Seed oil content is severely reduced for the regulatory mutant wrinkled1 (wri1-1; At3g54320) and for a double mutant in two isoforms of plastidic pyruvate kinase (pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha}; At5g52920 and At3g22960). Both already biochemically well-characterized mutants were now studied by {sup 13}C metabolic flux analysis of cultured developing embryos based on comparison with their respective genetic wild-type backgrounds. For both mutations, in seeds as well as in cultured embryos, the oil fraction was strongly reduced while the fractions of proteins and free metabolites increased. Flux analysis in cultured embryos revealed changes in nutrient uptakes and fluxes into biomass as well as an increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle activity for both mutations. While in both wild types plastidic pyruvate kinase (PK{sub p}) provides most of the pyruvate for plastidic fatty acid synthesis, the flux through PK{sub p} is reduced in pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha} by 43% of the wild-type value. In wri1-1, PK{sub p} flux is even more reduced (by 82%), although the genes PKp{beta}{sub 1} and PKp{alpha} are still expressed. Along a common paradigm of metabolic control theory, it is hypothesized that a large reduction in PK{sub p} enzyme activity in pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha} has less effect on PK{sub p} flux than multiple smaller reductions in glycolytic enzymes in wri1-1. In addition, only in the wri1-1 mutant is the large reduction in PK{sub p} flux compensated in part by an increased import of cytosolic pyruvate and by plastidic malic enzyme. No such limited compensatory bypass could be observed in pkp{beta}{sub 1}pkp{alpha}.

  13. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  14. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D G; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-04-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen PstDC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes.

  15. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf .

  16. Arabidopsis decuple mutant reveals the importance of SnRK2 kinases in osmotic stress responses in vivo

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki

    2011-01-10

    Osmotic stress associated with drought or salinity is a major factor that limits plant productivity. Protein kinases in the SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family are activated by osmotic stress, suggesting that the kinases are involved in osmotic stress signaling. However, due to functional redundancy, their contribution to osmotic stress responses remained unclear. In this report, we constructed an Arabidopsis line carrying mutations in all 10 members of the SnRK2 family. The decuple mutant snrk2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10 grew poorly under hyperosmotic stress conditions but was similar to the wild type in culture media in the absence of osmotic stress. The mutant was also defective in gene regulation and the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), proline, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate under osmotic stress. In addition, analysis of mutants defective in the ABA-activated SnRK2s (snrk2.2/3/6) and mutants defective in the rest of the SnRK2s (snrk2.1/4/5/7/8/9/10) revealed that SnRK2s are a merging point of ABA-dependent and -independent pathways for osmotic stress responses. These results demonstrate critical functions of the SnRK2s in mediating osmotic stress signaling and tolerance.

  17. Dissection of the complex phenotype in cuticular mutants of Arabidopsis reveals a role of SERRATE as a mediator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry Voisin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in LACERATA (LCR, FIDDLEHEAD (FDH, and BODYGUARD (BDG cause a complex developmental syndrome that is consistent with an important role for these Arabidopsis genes in cuticle biogenesis. The genesis of their pleiotropic phenotypes is, however, poorly understood. We provide evidence that neither distorted depositions of cutin, nor deficiencies in the chemical composition of cuticular lipids, account for these features, instead suggesting that the mutants alleviate the functional disorder of the cuticle by reinforcing their defenses. To better understand how plants adapt to these mutations, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. We found that apparent compensatory transcriptional responses in these mutants involve the induction of wax, cutin, cell wall, and defense genes. To gain greater insight into the mechanism by which cuticular mutations trigger this response in the plants, we performed an overlap meta-analysis, which is termed MASTA (MicroArray overlap Search Tool and Analysis, of differentially expressed genes. This suggested that different cell integrity pathways are recruited in cesA cellulose synthase and cuticular mutants. Using MASTA for an in silico suppressor/enhancer screen, we identified SERRATE (SE, which encodes a protein of RNA-processing multi-protein complexes, as a likely enhancer. In confirmation of this notion, the se lcr and se bdg double mutants eradicate severe leaf deformations as well as the organ fusions that are typical of lcr and bdg and other cuticular mutants. Also, lcr does not confer resistance to Botrytis cinerea in a se mutant background. We propose that there is a role for SERRATE-mediated RNA signaling in the cuticle integrity pathway.

  18. A fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein (FLA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, fla1, shows defects in shoot regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs are an enigmatic class of 21 members within the larger family of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Located at the cell surface, in the cell wall/plasma membrane, they are implicated in many developmental roles yet their function remains largely undefined. Fasciclin (FAS domains are putative cell-adhesion domains found in extracellular matrix proteins of organisms from all kingdoms, but the juxtaposition of FAS domains with highly glycosylated AGP domains is unique to plants. Recent studies have started to elucidate the role of FLAs in Arabidopsis development. FLAs containing a single FAS domain are important for the integrity and elasticity of the plant cell wall matrix (FLA11 and FLA12 and FLA3 is involved in microspore development. FLA4/SOS5 with two FAS domains and two AGP domains has a role in maintaining proper cell expansion under salt stressed conditions. The role of other FLAs remains to be uncovered. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the characterisation of a T-DNA insertion mutant in the FLA1 gene (At5g55730. Under standard growth conditions fla1-1 mutants have no obvious phenotype. Based on gene expression studies, a putative role for FLA1 in callus induction was investigated and revealed that fla1-1 has a reduced ability to regenerate shoots in an in vitro shoot-induction assay. Analysis of FLA1p:GUS reporter lines show that FLA1 is expressed in several tissues including stomata, trichomes, the vasculature of leaves, the primary root tip and in lateral roots near the junction of the primary root. CONCLUSION: The results of the developmental expression of FLA1 and characterisation of the fla1 mutant support a role for FLA1 in the early events of lateral root development and shoot development in tissue culture, prior to cell-type specification.

  19. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-González, José A; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin-Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1.

  20. The α-subunit of the rice heterotrimeric G protein, RGA1, regulates drought tolerance during the vegetative phase in the dwarf rice mutant d1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Serrano, Ángel; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-05-01

    Essential in the Green Revolution was the development of high-yielding dwarf varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but their selection was not based on responses to water limitation. We studied physiological responses to progressive drought of the dwarf rice mutant, d1, in which the RGA1 gene, which encodes the GTP-binding α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein, is non-functional. Wild-type (WT) plants cease net carbon fixation 11 days after water is withheld, while d1 plants maintain net photosynthesis for an additional week. During drought, d1 plants exhibit greater stomatal conductance than the WT, but both genotypes exhibit the same transpirational water loss per unit leaf area. This is explained by a smaller driving force for water loss in d1 owing to its lower leaf temperatures, consistent with its more erect architecture. As drought becomes more severe, WT plants show an accelerated decline in photosynthesis, which may be exacerbated by the higher leaf temperatures in the WT. We thus show how a rice mutant with dwarf and erect leaves has a decreased susceptibility to water stress. Accordingly, it may be useful to incorporate RGA1 mutation in breeding or biotechnological strategies for development of drought-resistant rice.

  1. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant air1 implicates SOS3 in the regulation of anthocyanins under salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Van Oosten, Michael James

    2013-08-08

    The accumulation of anthocyanins in plants exposed to salt stress has been largely documented. However, the functional link and regulatory components underlying the biosynthesis of these molecules during exposure to stress are largely unknown. In a screen of second site suppressors of the salt overly sensitive3-1 (sos3-1) mutant, we isolated the anthocyanin-impaired-response-1 (air1) mutant. air1 is unable to accumulate anthocyanins under salt stress, a key phenotype of sos3-1 under high NaCl levels (120 mM). The air1 mutant showed a defect in anthocyanin production in response to salt stress but not to other stresses such as high light, low phosphorous, high temperature or drought stress. This specificity indicated that air1 mutation did not affect anthocyanin biosynthesis but rather its regulation in response to salt stress. Analysis of this mutant revealed a T-DNA insertion at the first exon of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding for a basic region-leucine zipper transcription factor. air1 mutants displayed higher survival rates compared to wild-type in oxidative stress conditions, and presented an altered expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as F3H, F3′H and LDOX in salt stress conditions. The results presented here indicate that AIR1 is involved in the regulation of various steps of the flavonoid and anthocyanin accumulation pathways and is itself regulated by the salt-stress response signalling machinery. The discovery and characterization of AIR1 opens avenues to dissect the connections between abiotic stress and accumulation of antioxidants in the form of flavonoids and anthocyanins. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. Iron-dependent modifications of the flower transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormonal content in an Arabidopsis ferritin mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudre, Damien; Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Gaymard, Frédéric; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Fiehn, Oliver; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Zamarreño, Angel M; Bacaicoa, Eva; Duy, Daniela; García-Mina, Jose-María; Abadía, Javier; Philippar, Katrin; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Briat, Jean-François

    2013-07-01

    Iron homeostasis is an important process for flower development and plant fertility. The role of plastids in these processes has been shown to be essential. To document the relationships between plastid iron homeostasis and flower biology further, a global study (transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormone analysis) was performed of Arabidopsis flowers from wild-type and triple atfer1-3-4 ferritin mutant plants grown under iron-sufficient or excess conditions. Some major modifications in specific functional categories were consistently observed at these three omic levels, although no significant overlaps of specific transcripts and proteins were detected. These modifications concerned redox reactions and oxidative stress, as well as amino acid and protein catabolism, this latter point being exemplified by an almost 10-fold increase in urea concentration of atfer1-3-4 flowers from plants grown under iron excess conditions. The mutant background caused alterations in Fe-haem redox proteins located in membranes and in hormone-responsive proteins. Specific effects of excess Fe in the mutant included further changes in these categories, supporting the idea that the mutant is facing a more intense Fe/redox stress than the wild type. The mutation and/or excess Fe had a strong impact at the membrane level, as denoted by the changes in the transporter and lipid metabolism categories. In spite of the large number of genes and proteins responsive to hormones found to be regulated in this study, changes in the hormonal balance were restricted to cytokinins, especially in the mutant plants grown under Fe excess conditions.

  3. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalatbari Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  4. Analysis of knockout mutants reveals non-redundant functions of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase isoforms in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuong Anh; Wahl, Vanessa; Tohge, Takayuki; de Souza, Laise Rosado; Zhang, Youjun; Do, Phuc Thi; Olas, Justyna J; Stitt, Mark; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) has a dual function being involved both in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and being a constituent of the NAD(+) salvage pathway. To date most studies, both in plant and non-plant systems, have focused on the signaling role of PARP in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation rather than any role that can be ascribed to its metabolic function. In order to address this question we here used a combination of expression, transcript and protein localization studies of all three PARP isoforms of Arabidopsis alongside physiological analysis of the corresponding mutants. Our analyses indicated that whilst all isoforms of PARP were localized to the nucleus they are also present in non-nuclear locations with parp1 and parp3 also localised in the cytosol, and parp2 also present in the mitochondria. We next isolated and characterized insertional knockout mutants of all three isoforms confirming a complete knockout in the full length transcript levels of the target genes as well as a reduced total leaf NAD hydrolase activity in the two isoforms (PARP1, PARP2) that are highly expressed in leaves. Physiological evaluation of the mutant lines revealed that they displayed distinctive metabolic and root growth characteristics albeit unaltered leaf morphology under optimal growth conditions. We therefore conclude that the PARP isoforms play non-redundant non-nuclear metabolic roles and that their function is highly important in rapidly growing tissues such as the shoot apical meristem, roots and seeds.

  5. Use of the "gl1" Mutant and the "CA-rop2" Transgenic Plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in the Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of the "glabrous1 (g11)" mutant and constitutively active "(CA)-rop2" transgenic plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in teaching genetics laboratory for both high school and undergraduate students. The experiments provide students with F[subscript 1] and F[subscript 2] generations within a semester for genetic and…

  6. Arabidopsis onset of leaf death mutants identify a regulatory pathway controlling leaf senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Sturre, Marcel J.G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of leaf senescence is controlled by leaf age and ethylene can promote leaf senescence within a specific age window. We exploited the interaction between leaf age and ethylene and isolated mutants with altered leaf senescence that are named as onset of leaf death (old) mutants. Early leaf

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA Mutants Implicate GAUT Genes in the Biosynthesis of Pectin and Xylan in Cell Walls and Seed Testa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kerry H. Caffall; Sivakumar Pattathil; Sarah E. Phillips; Michael G. Hahn; Debra Mohnen

    2009-01-01

    Galacturonosyltransferase 1 (GAUT1) is an α1,4-D-galacturonosyltransferase that transfers galacturonic acid from uridine 5'-diphosphogalacturonic acid onto the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan (Sterling et al., 2006). The 25-member Arabidopsis thaliana GAUT1-related gene family encodes 15 GAUT and 10 GAUT-like (GATL) proteins with, respectively, 56-84 and 42-53% amino acid sequence similarity to GAUT1. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AtGAUTs indicated three clades: A through C. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis, poplar and rice GAUT families has sub-classified the GAUTs into seven clades: clade A-1 (GAUTs 1 to 3); A-2 (GAUT4); A-3 (GAUTs 5 and 6); A-4 (GAUT7); B-1(GAUTs 8 and 9); B-2 (GAUTs 10 and 11); and clade C (GAUTs 12 to 15). The Arabidopsis GAUTs have a distribution com-parable to the poplar orthologs, with the exception of GAUT2, which is absent in poplar. Rice, however, has no orthologs of GAUTs 2 and 12 and has multiple apparent orthologs of GAUTs 1, 4, and 7 compared with eitherArabidopsis or poplar. The cell wall glycosyl residue compositions of 26 homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for 13 of 15 Arabidopsis GAUTgenes reveal significantly and reproducibly different cell walls in specific tissues of gaut mutants 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 from that of wild-type Arabidopsis walls. Pectin and xylan polysaccharides are affected by the loss of GAUT function, as dem-onstrated by the altered galacturonic acid, xylose, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose composition of distinct gaut mu-tant walls. The wall glycosyl residue compositional phenotypes observed among the gaut mutants suggest that at least six different biosynthetic linkages in pectins and/or xylans are affected by the lesions in these GAUTgenes. Evidence is also presented to support a role for GAUT11 in seed mucilage expansion and in seed wall and mucilage composition.

  8. The impact of PEPC phosphorylation on growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana: molecular and physiological characterization of PEPC kinase mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimoun, Patrice; Gousset-Dupont, Aurélie; Lebouteiller, Bénédicte; Ambard-Bretteville, Françoise; Besin, Evelyne; Lelarge, Caroline; Mauve, Caroline; Hodges, Michael; Vidal, Jean

    2009-05-19

    Two phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) kinase genes (PPCk1 and PPCk2) are present in the Arabidopsis genome; only PPCk1 is expressed in rosette leaves. Homozygous lines of two independent PPCk1 T-DNA-insertional mutants showed very little (dln1), or no (csi8) light-induced PEPC phosphorylation and a clear retard in growth under our greenhouse conditions. A mass-spectrometry-based analysis revealed significant changes in metabolite profiles. However, the anaplerotic pathway initiated by PEPC was only moderately altered. These data establish the PPCk1 gene product as responsible for leaf PEPC phosphorylation in planta and show that the absence of PEPC phosphorylation has pleiotropic consequences on plant metabolism.

  9. The Arabidopsis szl1 mutant reveals a critical role of β-carotene in photosystem I photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Stefano; Li, Zhirong; Niyogi, Krishna K; Bassi, Roberto; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2012-08-01

    Carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives, the xanthophylls, are structural determinants in both photosystems (PS) I and II. They bind and stabilize photosynthetic complexes, increase the light-harvesting capacity of chlorophyll-binding proteins, and have a major role in chloroplast photoprotection. Localization of carotenoid species within each PS is highly conserved: Core complexes bind carotenes, whereas peripheral light-harvesting systems bind xanthophylls. The specific functional role of each xanthophyll species has been recently described by genetic dissection, however the in vivo role of carotenes has not been similarly defined. Here, we have analyzed the function of carotenes in photosynthesis and photoprotection, distinct from that of xanthophylls, by characterizing the suppressor of zeaxanthin-less (szl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) which, due to the decreased activity of the lycopene-β-cyclase, shows a lower carotene content than wild-type plants. When grown at room temperature, mutant plants showed a lower content in PSI light-harvesting complex I complex than the wild type, and a reduced capacity for chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, the rapidly reversible component of nonphotochemical quenching. When exposed to high light at chilling temperature, szl1 plants showed stronger photoxidation than wild-type plants. Both PSI and PSII from szl1 were similarly depleted in carotenes and yet PSI activity was more sensitive to light stress than PSII as shown by the stronger photoinhibition of PSI and increased rate of singlet oxygen release from isolated PSI light-harvesting complex I complexes of szl1 compared with the wild type. We conclude that carotene depletion in the core complexes impairs photoprotection of both PS under high light at chilling temperature, with PSI being far more affected than PSII.

  10. CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Double-Strand Break Repair in Arabidopsis Nonhomologous End-Joining Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexi Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most harmful DNA lesions. Cells utilize two main pathways for DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ. NHEJ can be subdivided into the KU-dependent classical NHEJ (c-NHEJ and the more error-prone KU-independent backup-NHEJ (b-NHEJ pathways, involving the poly (ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. However, in the absence of these factors, cells still seem able to adequately maintain genome integrity, suggesting the presence of other b-NHEJ repair factors or pathways independent from KU and PARPs. The outcome of DSB repair by NHEJ pathways can be investigated by using artificial sequence-specific nucleases such as CRISPR/Cas9 to induce DSBs at a target of interest. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 for DSB induction at the Arabidopsis cruciferin 3 (CRU3 and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO genes. DSB repair outcomes via NHEJ were analyzed using footprint analysis in wild-type plants and plants deficient in key factors of c-NHEJ (ku80, b-NHEJ (parp1 parp2, or both (ku80 parp1 parp2. We found that larger deletions of >20 bp predominated after DSB repair in ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, corroborating with a role of KU in preventing DSB end resection. Deletion lengths did not significantly differ between ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, suggesting that a KU- and PARP-independent b-NHEJ mechanism becomes active in these mutants. Furthermore, microhomologies and templated insertions were observed at the repair junctions in the wild type and all mutants. Since these characteristics are hallmarks of polymerase θ-mediated DSB repair, we suggest a possible role for this recently discovered polymerase in DSB repair in plants.

  11. Mutant analysis in Arabidopsis provides insight into the molecular mode of action of the auxinic herbicide dicamba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gleason

    Full Text Available Herbicides that mimic the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid are widely used in weed control. One common auxin-like herbicide is dicamba, but despite its wide use, plant gene responses to dicamba have never been extensively studied. To further understand dicamba's mode of action, we utilized Arabidopsis auxin-insensitive mutants and compared their sensitivity to dicamba and the widely-studied auxinic herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The mutant axr4-2, which has disrupted auxin transport into cells, was resistant to 2,4-D but susceptible to dicamba. By comparing dicamba resistance in auxin signalling F-box receptor mutants (tir1-1, afb1, afb2, afb3, and afb5, only tir1-1 and afb5 were resistant to dicamba, and this resistance was additive in the double tir1-1/afb5 mutant. Interestingly, tir1-1 but not afb5 was resistant to 2,4-D. Whole genome analysis of dicamba-induced gene expression showed that 10 hours after application, dicamba stimulated many stress-responsive and signalling genes, including those involved in biosynthesis or signalling of auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid (ABA, with TIR1 and AFB5 required for the dicamba-responsiveness of some genes. Research into dicamba-regulated gene expression and the selectivity of auxin receptors has provided molecular insight into dicamba-regulated signalling and could help in the development of novel herbicide resistance in crop plants.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Double-Strand Break Repair in Arabidopsis Nonhomologous End-Joining Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hexi; Strunks, Gary D; Klemann, Bart J P M; Hooykaas, Paul J J; de Pater, Sylvia

    2017-01-05

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most harmful DNA lesions. Cells utilize two main pathways for DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). NHEJ can be subdivided into the KU-dependent classical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) and the more error-prone KU-independent backup-NHEJ (b-NHEJ) pathways, involving the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). However, in the absence of these factors, cells still seem able to adequately maintain genome integrity, suggesting the presence of other b-NHEJ repair factors or pathways independent from KU and PARPs. The outcome of DSB repair by NHEJ pathways can be investigated by using artificial sequence-specific nucleases such as CRISPR/Cas9 to induce DSBs at a target of interest. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 for DSB induction at the Arabidopsis cruciferin 3 (CRU3) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) genes. DSB repair outcomes via NHEJ were analyzed using footprint analysis in wild-type plants and plants deficient in key factors of c-NHEJ (ku80), b-NHEJ (parp1 parp2), or both (ku80 parp1 parp2). We found that larger deletions of >20 bp predominated after DSB repair in ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, corroborating with a role of KU in preventing DSB end resection. Deletion lengths did not significantly differ between ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, suggesting that a KU- and PARP-independent b-NHEJ mechanism becomes active in these mutants. Furthermore, microhomologies and templated insertions were observed at the repair junctions in the wild type and all mutants. Since these characteristics are hallmarks of polymerase θ-mediated DSB repair, we suggest a possible role for this recently discovered polymerase in DSB repair in plants. Copyright © 2017 Shen et al.

  13. Features of the primary wall CESA complex in wild type and cellulose-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Elliott, Janet E; Williamson, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from genetics, co-precipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation suggest that three CESAs implicated in making primary wall cellulose in Arabidopsis thaliana form a complex. This study shows the complex has a M(r) of approximately 840 kDa in detergent extracts and that it has undergone distinctive changes when extracts are prepared from some cellulose-deficient mutants. The mobility of CESAs 1, 3, and 6 in a Triton-soluble microsomal fraction subject to blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was consistent with a M(r) of about 840 kDa. An antibody specific to any one CESA pulled down all three CESAs consistent with their occupying the same 840 kDa complex. In rsw1, a CESA1 missense mutant, extracts of seedlings grown at the permissive temperature have an apparently normal CESA complex that was missing from extracts of seedlings grown at the restrictive temperature where CESAs precipitated independently. In prc1-19, with no CESA6, CESAs 1 and 3 were part of a 420 kDa complex in extracts of light-grown seedlings that was absent from extracts of dark-grown seedlings where the CESAs precipitated independently. Two CESA3 missense mutants retained apparently normal CESA complexes as did four cellulose-deficient mutants defective in proteins other than CESAs. The 840 kDa complex could contain six CESA subunits and, since loss of plasma membrane rosettes accompanies its loss in rsw1, the complex could form one of the six particles which electron microscopy reveals in rosettes.

  14. Genome stability of Arabidopsis atm, ku80 and rad51b mutants: somatic and transgenerational responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youli; Bilichak, Andriy; Titov, Viktor; Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired via two main mechanisms: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Our previous work showed that exposure to abiotic stresses resulted in an increase in point mutation frequency (PMF) and homologous recombination frequency (HRF), and these changes were heritable. We hypothesized that mutants impaired in DSB recognition and repair would also be deficient in somatic and transgenerational changes in PMF and HRF. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the genome stability of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in ATM (communication between DNA strand break recognition and the repair machinery), KU80 (deficient in NHEJ) and RAD51B (deficient in HR repair) genes. We found that all three mutants exhibited higher levels of DSBs. Plants impaired in ATM had a lower spontaneous PMF and HRF, whereas ku80 plants had higher frequencies. Plants impaired in RAD51B had a lower HRF. HRF in wild-type, atm and rad51b plants increased in response to several abiotic stressors, whereas it did not increase in ku80 plants. The progeny of stressed wild-type and ku80 plants exhibited an increase in HRF in response to all stresses, and the increase was higher in ku80 plants. The progeny of atm plants showed an increase in HRF only when the parental generation was exposed to cold or flood, whereas the progeny of rad51b plants completely lacked a transgenerational increase in HRF. Our experiments showed that mutants impaired in the recognition and repair of DSBs exhibited changes in the efficiency of DNA repair as reflected by changes in strand breaks, point mutation and HRF. They also showed that the HR RAD51B protein and the protein ATM that recognized damaged DNA might play an important role in transgenerational changes in HRF.

  15. An Effective Strategy for Reliably Isolating Heritable and Cas9-Free Arabidopsis Mutants Generated by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiuhua; Chen, Jilin; Dai, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Zhao, Yunde

    2016-07-01

    Mutations generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are often somatic and are rarely heritable. Isolation of mutations in Cas9-free Arabidopsis plants can ensure the stable transmission of the identified mutations to next generations, but the process is laborious and inefficient. Here, we present a simple visual screen for Cas9-free T2 seeds, allowing us to quickly obtain Cas9-free Arabidopsis mutants in the T2 generation. To demonstrate this in principle, we targeted two sites in the AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) gene, whose function as a membrane-associated auxin receptor has been challenged recently. We obtained many T1 plants with detectable mutations near the target sites, but only a small fraction of T1 plants yielded Cas9-free abp1 mutations in the T2 generation. Moreover, the mutations did not segregate in Mendelian fashion in the T2 generation. However, mutations identified in the Cas9-free T2 plants were stably transmitted to the T3 generation following Mendelian genetics. To further simplify the screening procedure, we simultaneously targeted two sites in ABP1 to generate large deletions, which can be easily identified by PCR. We successfully generated two abp1 alleles that contained 1,141- and 711-bp deletions in the ABP1 gene. All of the Cas9-free abp1 alleles we generated were stable and heritable. The method described here allows for effectively isolating Cas9-free heritable CRISPR mutants in Arabidopsis.

  16. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of mutations in mutant lineages selected following fast-neutron irradiation mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Belfield, E.J.

    2012-04-12

    Ionizing radiation has long been known to induce heritable mutagenic change in DNA sequence. However, the genome-wide effect of radiation is not well understood. Here we report the molecular properties and frequency of mutations in phenotypically selected mutant lines isolated following exposure of the genetic model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana to fast neutrons (FNs). Previous studies suggested that FNs predominantly induce deletions longer than a kilobase in A. thaliana. However, we found a higher frequency of single base substitution than deletion mutations. While the overall frequency and molecular spectrum of fast-neutron (FN)-induced single base substitutions differed substantially from those of "background" mutations arising spontaneously in laboratory-grown plants, G:C>A:T transitions were favored in both. We found that FN-induced G:C>A:T transitions were concentrated at pyrimidine dinucleotide sites, suggesting that FNs promote the formation of mutational covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine residues. In addition, we found that FNs induced more single base than large deletions, and that these single base deletions were possibly caused by replication slippage. Our observations provide an initial picture of the genome-wide molecular profile of mutations induced in A. thaliana by FN irradiation and are particularly informative of the nature and extent of genome-wide mutation in lines selected on the basis of mutant phenotypes from FN-mutagenized A. thaliana populations.

  18. Elemental concentrations in the seed of mutants and natural variants of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under varying soil conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    Full Text Available The concentrations of mineral nutrients in seeds are critical to both the life cycle of plants as well as human nutrition. These concentrations are strongly influenced by soil conditions, as shown here by quantifying the concentration of 14 elements in seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under four different soil conditions: standard, or modified with NaCl, heavy metals, or alkali. Each of the modified soils resulted in a unique change to the seed ionome (the mineral nutrient content of the seeds. To help identify the genetic networks regulating the seed ionome, changes in elemental concentrations were evaluated using mutants corresponding to 760 genes as well as 10 naturally occurring accessions. The frequency of ionomic phenotypes supports an estimate that as much as 11% of the A. thaliana genome encodes proteins of functional relevance to ion homeostasis in seeds. A subset of mutants were analyzed with two independent alleles, providing five examples of genes important for regulation of the seed ionome: SOS2, ABH1, CCC, At3g14280 and CNGC2. In a comparison of nine different accessions to a Col-0 reference, eight accessions were observed to have reproducible differences in elemental concentrations, seven of which were dependent on specific soil conditions. These results indicate that the A. thaliana seed ionome is distinct from the vegetative ionome, and that elemental analysis is a sensitive approach to identify genes controlling ion homeostasis, including those that regulate gene expression, phospho-regulation, and ion transport.

  19. Transmission electron microscopy and serial reconstructions reveal novel meiotic phenotypes for the ahp2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Nazia; Stronghill, Patti; Hasenkampf, Clare

    2013-03-01

    We have found novel phenotypes for the previously studied Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. meiotic mutant ahp2. These phenotypes were revealed by analysis of reconstructions of normal and ahp2 nuclei that were imaged using transmission electron microscopy. Previous studies of the ahp2 mutant demonstrated that it has a general failure to form synaptonemal complexes, except for the nucleolus organizing regions, and it fails to complete reciprocal genetic exchange. Here, we show that even though the ahp2 chromosome axes have only 5% of the normal amount of synaptonemal complex formation, it nonetheless has slightly more than 40% of the axes involved in close alignment. We also observed two striking nuclear envelope associated abnormalities. Wild type nuclei contain two nucleoli, one nucleolus-like structure, and nuclear envelope associated structures that we refer to as nuclear envelope associated disks. The ahp2 nuclei have the two nucleoli, but they lack the third nucleolus-like structure and instead have a previously uncharacterized structure that spans the nuclear envelope. Additionally, ahp2 meiocytes have nuclear envelope associated disks that are narrower and more numerous (∼2×) than those seen in wild type, and unlike the wild type disks, they are in direct contact with the nuclear envelope.

  20. Reduced immunogenicity of Arabidopsis hgl1 mutant N-glycans caused by altered accessibility of xylose and core fucose epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfürst-Soboll, Heidi; Rips, Stephan; Koiwa, Hisashi; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; von Schaewen, Antje

    2011-07-01

    Arabidopsis N-glycosylation mutants with enhanced salt sensitivity show reduced immunoreactivity of complex N-glycans. Among them, hybrid glycosylation 1 (hgl1) alleles lacking Golgi α-mannosidase II are unique, because their glycoprotein N-glycans are hardly labeled by anti-complex glycan antibodies, even though they carry β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose epitopes. To dissect the contribution of xylose and core fucose residues to plant stress responses and immunogenic potential, we prepared Arabidopsis hgl1 xylT double and hgl1 fucTa fucTb triple mutants by crossing previously established T-DNA insertion lines and verified them by mass spectrometry analyses. Root growth assays revealed that hgl1 fucTa fucTb but not hgl1 xylT plants are more salt-sensitive than hgl1, hinting at the importance of core fucose modification and masking of xylose residues. Detailed immunoblot analyses with anti-β1,2-xylose and anti-α1,3-fucose rabbit immunoglobulin G antibodies as well as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant-specific human immunoglobulin E antibodies (present in sera of allergy patients) showed that xylose-specific reactivity of hgl1 N-glycans is indeed reduced. Based on three-dimensional modeling of plant N-glycans, we propose that xylose residues are tilted by 30° because of untrimmed mannoses in hgl1 mutants. Glycosidase treatments of protein extracts restored immunoreactivity of hgl1 N-glycans supporting these models. Furthermore, among allergy patient sera, untrimmed mannoses persisting on the α1,6-arm of hgl1 N-glycans were inhibitory to immunoreaction with core fucoses to various degrees. In summary, incompletely trimmed glycoprotein N-glycans conformationally prevent xylose and, to lesser extent, core fucose accessibility. Thus, in addition to N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, Golgi α-mannosidase II emerges as a so far unrecognized target for lowering the immunogenic potential of plant-derived glycoproteins.

  1. The influence of matrix attachment regions on transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and gene silencing mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Miguel F C; Butaye, Katleen M J; Goderis, Inge J W M; Wouters, Piet F J; Jacobs, Anni; Delauré, Stijn L; Depicker, Ann; Cammue, Bruno P A

    2007-03-01

    Many studies in both animal and plant systems have shown that matrix attachment regions (MARs) can increase the expression of flanking transgenes. However, our previous studies revealed no effect of the chicken lysozyme MARs (chiMARs) on transgene expression in the first generation transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with a beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) unless gene silencing mutants were used as genetic background for transformation. In the present study, we investigated why chiMARs do not influence transgene expression in transgenic wild-type Arabidopsis plants. We first studied the effect of chiMARs on transgene expression in the progeny of primary transformants harboring chiMAR-flanked T-DNAs. Our data indicate that chiMARs do not affect transgene expression in consecutive generations of wild-type A. thaliana plants. Next, we examined whether these observed results in A. thaliana transformants are influenced by the applied transformation method. The results from in vitro transformed A. thaliana plants are in accordance with those from in planta transformed A. thaliana plants and again reveal no influence of chiMARs on transgene expression in A. thaliana wild-type transformants. The effect of chi-MARs on transgene expression is also examined in in vitro transformed Nicotiana tabacum plants, but as for A. thaliana, the transgene expression in tobacco transformants is not altered by the presence of chi-MARs. Taken together, our results show that the applied method or the plant species used for transformation does not influence whether and how chiMARs have an effect on transgene expression. Finally, we studied the effect of MARs (tabMARs) of plant origin (tobacco) on the transgene expression in A. thaliana wild-type plants and suppressed gene silencing (sgs2) mutants. Our results clearly show that similar to chiMARs, the tobacco-derived MARs do not enhance transgene expression in a wild-type background but can be used to enhance transgene expression

  2. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant dde2-2 is defective in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene encoding one of the key enzymes of the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Malek, Bernadette; van der Graaff, Eric; Schneitz, Kay

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. mutant delayed-dehiscence2-2 (dde2-2) was identified in an En1/Spm1 transposon-induced mutant population screened for plants showing defects in fertility. The dde2-2 mutant allele is defective in the anther dehiscence process and filament elongation and thus...

  3. Stable high-level transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using gene silencing mutants and matrix attachment regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaye, Katleen M J; Goderis, Inge J W M; Wouters, Piet F J; Pues, Jonathan M-T G; Delauré, Stijn L; Broekaert, Willem F; Depicker, Ann; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Bolle, Miguel F C

    2004-08-01

    Basic and applied research involving transgenic plants often requires consistent high-level expression of transgenes. However, high inter-transformant variability of transgene expression caused by various phenomena, including gene silencing, is frequently observed. Here, we show that stable, high-level transgene expression is obtained using Arabidopsis thaliana post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) sgs2 and sgs3 mutants. In populations of first generation (T1) A. thaliana plants transformed with a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) driven by the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (p35S), the incidence of highly expressing transformants shifted from 20% in wild type background to 100% in sgs2 and sgs3 backgrounds. Likewise, when sgs2 mutants were transformed with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 6 gene under control of p35S, all transformants showed a clear phenotype typified by serrated leaves, whereas such phenotype was only observed in about one of five wild type transformants. p35S-driven uidA expression remained high and steady in T2 sgs2 and sgs3 transformants, in marked contrast to the variable expression patterns observed in wild type T2 populations. We further show that T-DNA constructs flanked by matrix attachment regions of the chicken lysozyme gene (chiMARs) cause a boost in GUS activity by fivefold in sgs2 and 12-fold in sgs3 plants, reaching up to 10% of the total soluble proteins, whereas no such boost is observed in the wild type background. MAR-based plant transformation vectors used in a PTGS mutant background might be of high value for efficient high-throughput screening of transgene-based phenotypes as well as for obtaining extremely high transgene expression in plants.

  4. SHORT-ROOT Deficiency Alleviates the Cell Death Phenotype of the Arabidopsis catalase2 Mutant under Photorespiration-Promoting Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczak, Cezary; Kerchev, Pavel I; Mühlenbock, Per; Hoeberichts, Frank A; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Mhamdi, Amna; Willems, Patrick; Denecker, Jordi; Kumpf, Robert P; Noctor, Graham; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can act as a signaling molecule that influences various aspects of plant growth and development, including stress signaling and cell death. To analyze molecular mechanisms that regulate the response to increased H2O2 levels in plant cells, we focused on the photorespiration-dependent peroxisomal H2O2 production in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking CATALASE2 (CAT2) activity (cat2-2). By screening for second-site mutations that attenuate the PSII maximum efficiency (Fv'/Fm') decrease and lesion formation linked to the cat2-2 phenotype, we discovered that a mutation in SHORT-ROOT (SHR) rescued the cell death phenotype of cat2-2 plants under photorespiration-promoting conditions. SHR deficiency attenuated H2O2-dependent gene expression, oxidation of the glutathione pool, and ascorbate depletion in a cat2-2 genetic background upon exposure to photorespiratory stress. Decreased glycolate oxidase and catalase activities together with accumulation of glycolate further implied that SHR deficiency impacts the cellular redox homeostasis by limiting peroxisomal H2O2 production. The photorespiratory phenotype of cat2-2 mutants did not depend on the SHR functional interactor SCARECROW and the sugar signaling component ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4, despite the requirement for exogenous sucrose for cell death attenuation in cat2-2 shr-6 double mutants. Our findings reveal a link between SHR and photorespiratory H2O2 production that has implications for the integration of developmental and stress responses.

  5. Parallel analysis of Arabidopsis circadian clock mutants reveals different scales of transcriptome and proteome regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander; Coman, Diana; Walsh, Sean; Flis, Anna; Stitt, Mark; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates physiological processes central to growth and survival. To date, most plant circadian clock studies have relied on diurnal transcriptome changes to elucidate molecular connections between the circadian clock and observable phenotypes in wild-type plants. Here, we have integrated RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data to comparatively analyse the lhycca1, prr7prr9, gi and toc1 circadian clock mutant rosette at the end of day and end of night. Each mutant affects specific sets of genes and proteins, suggesting that the circadian clock regulation is modular. Furthermore, each circadian clock mutant maintains its own dynamically fluctuating transcriptome and proteome profile specific to subcellular compartments. Most of the measured protein levels do not correlate with changes in their corresponding transcripts. Transcripts and proteins that have coordinated changes in abundance are enriched for carbohydrate- and cold-responsive genes. Transcriptome changes in all four circadian clock mutants also affect genes encoding starch degradation enzymes, transcription factors and protein kinases. The comprehensive transcriptome and proteome datasets demonstrate that future system-driven research of the circadian clock requires multi-level experimental approaches. Our work also shows that further work is needed to elucidate the roles of post-translational modifications and protein degradation in the regulation of clock-related processes. PMID:28250106

  6. Parallel analysis of Arabidopsis circadian clock mutants reveals different scales of transcriptome and proteome regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander; Coman, Diana; Uhrig, R Glen; Walsh, Sean; Flis, Anna; Stitt, Mark; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2017-03-01

    The circadian clock regulates physiological processes central to growth and survival. To date, most plant circadian clock studies have relied on diurnal transcriptome changes to elucidate molecular connections between the circadian clock and observable phenotypes in wild-type plants. Here, we have integrated RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data to comparatively analyse the lhycca1, prr7prr9, gi and toc1 circadian clock mutant rosette at the end of day and end of night. Each mutant affects specific sets of genes and proteins, suggesting that the circadian clock regulation is modular. Furthermore, each circadian clock mutant maintains its own dynamically fluctuating transcriptome and proteome profile specific to subcellular compartments. Most of the measured protein levels do not correlate with changes in their corresponding transcripts. Transcripts and proteins that have coordinated changes in abundance are enriched for carbohydrate- and cold-responsive genes. Transcriptome changes in all four circadian clock mutants also affect genes encoding starch degradation enzymes, transcription factors and protein kinases. The comprehensive transcriptome and proteome datasets demonstrate that future system-driven research of the circadian clock requires multi-level experimental approaches. Our work also shows that further work is needed to elucidate the roles of post-translational modifications and protein degradation in the regulation of clock-related processes. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Leaves of the Arabidopsis maltose exporter1 mutant exhibit a metabolic profile with features of cold acclimation in the warm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Purdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis plants accumulate maltose from starch breakdown during cold acclimation. The Arabidopsis mutant, maltose excess1-1, accumulates large amounts of maltose in the plastid even in the warm, due to a deficient plastid envelope maltose transporter. We therefore investigated whether the elevated maltose level in mex1-1 in the warm could result in changes in metabolism and physiology typical of WT plants grown in the cold. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Grown at 21 °C, mex1-1 plants were much smaller, with fewer leaves, and elevated carbohydrates and amino acids compared to WT. However, after transfer to 4 °C the total soluble sugar pool and amino acid concentration was in equal abundance in both genotypes, although the most abundant sugar in mex1-1 was still maltose whereas sucrose was in greatest abundance in WT. The chlorophyll a/b ratio in WT was much lower in the cold than in the warm, but in mex1-1 it was low in both warm and cold. After prolonged growth at 4 °C, the shoot biomass, rosette diameter and number of leaves at bolting were similar in mex1-1 and WT. CONCLUSIONS: The mex1-1 mutation in warm-grown plants confers aspects of cold acclimation, including elevated levels of sugars and amino acids and low chlorophyll a/b ratio. This may in turn compromise growth of mex1-1 in the warm relative to WT. We suggest that elevated maltose in the plastid could be responsible for key aspects of cold acclimation.

  8. Loss-of-function mutations of retromer large subunit genes suppress the phenotype of an Arabidopsis zig mutant that lacks Qb-SNARE VTI11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Niihama, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Saito, Chieko; Nakano, Akihiko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao

    2010-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana zigzag (zig) is a loss-of-function mutant of Qb-SNARE VTI11, which is involved in membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole. zig-1 exhibits abnormalities in shoot gravitropism and morphology. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutants of the retromer large subunit partially suppress the zig-1 phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that three paralogous VPS35 genes of Arabidopsis have partially overlapping but distinct genetic functions with respect to zig-1 suppression. Tissue-specific complementation experiments using an endodermis-specific SCR promoter show that expression of VPS35B or VPS35C cannot complement the function of VPS35A. The data suggest the existence of functionally specialized paralogous VPS35 genes that nevertheless share common functions.

  9. Loss-of-Function Mutations of Retromer Large Subunit Genes Suppress the Phenotype of an Arabidopsis zig Mutant That Lacks Qb-SNARE VTI11[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Niihama, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Saito, Chieko; Nakano, Akihiko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao

    2010-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana zigzag (zig) is a loss-of-function mutant of Qb-SNARE VTI11, which is involved in membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole. zig-1 exhibits abnormalities in shoot gravitropism and morphology. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutants of the retromer large subunit partially suppress the zig-1 phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that three paralogous VPS35 genes of Arabidopsis have partially overlapping but distinct genetic functions with respect to zig-1 suppression. Tissue-specific complementation experiments using an endodermis-specific SCR promoter show that expression of VPS35B or VPS35C cannot complement the function of VPS35A. The data suggest the existence of functionally specialized paralogous VPS35 genes that nevertheless share common functions. PMID:20086190

  10. Mutants of circadian-associated PRR genes display a novel and visible phenotype as to light responses during de-etiolation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takahiko; Murakami, Masaya; Nakamura, Yuko; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Yamashino, Takafumi; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, it is currently accepted that certain mutants with lesions in clock-associated genes commonly display hallmarked phenotypes with regard to three characteristic biological events: (i) altered rhythmic expression of circadian-controlled genes, (ii) changes in flowering time, and (iii) altered sensitivity to red light in elongation of hypocotyls. During the course of examination of the clock-associated mutants of PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS, PRRs, including TOC1 (PRR1), we found that they commonly show another visible phenotype of anomalous greening responses upon the onset to light exposure of etiolated seedlings. These findings are indicative of a novel link between circadian rhythms and chloroplast development.

  11. Mutants, Overexpressors, and Interactors of Arabidopsis Plastocyanin Isoforms: Revised Roles of Plastocyanin in Photosynthetic Electron Flow and Thylakoid Redox State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Pesaresi; Michael Scharfenberg; Martin Weigel; Irene Granlund; Wolfgang P. Schr(o)der; Giovanni Finazzi; Fabrice Rappaport; Simona Masiero; Antonella Furini; Peter Jahns; Dario Leister

    2009-01-01

    Two homologous plastocyanin isoforms are encoded by the genes PETE1 and PETE2 in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. The PETE2 transcript is expressed at considerably higher levels and the PETE2 protein is the more abundant isoform. Null mutations in the PETE genes resulted in plants, designated pete1 and pete2, with decreased plas-tocyanin contents. However, despite reducing plastocyanin levels by over~90%, a pete2 null mutation on its own affects rates of photosynthesis and growth only slightly, whereas pete1 knockout plants, with about 60-80% of the wild-type plastocyanin level, did not show any alteration. Hence, plastocyanin concentration is not limiting for photosynthetic elec-tron flow under optimal growth conditions, perhaps implying other possible physiological roles for the protein. Indeed, plastocyanin has been proposed previously to cooperate with cytochrome C6A (Cyt C6A) in thylakoid redox reactions, but we find no evidence for a physical interaction between the two proteins, using interaction assays in yeast. We observed homodimerization of Cyt C6A in yeast interaction assays, but also Cyt C6A homodimers failed to interact with plastocyanin. Moreover, phenotypic analysis of atc6-1 pete1 and atc6-1 pete2 double mutants, each lacking Cyt C6A and one of the two plastocyanin-encoding genes, failed to reveal any genetic interaction. Overexpression of either PETE1 or PETE2 in the pete1 pete2 double knockout mutant background results in essentially wild-type photosynthetic performance, excluding the possibility that the two plastocyanin isoforms could have distinct functions in thylakoid electron flow.

  12. A new anaplerotic respiratory pathway involving lysine biosynthesis in isocitrate dehydrogenase-deficient Arabidopsis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard R A; Gauthier, Paul P G; Gilard, Françoise; Hodges, Michael; Tcherkez, Guillaume G B

    2013-08-01

    The cornerstone of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolic interactions - respiration - is presently not well understood in plant cells: the source of the key intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2OG), to which reduced N is combined to yield glutamate and glutamine, remains somewhat unclear. We took advantage of combined mutations of NAD- and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and investigated the associated metabolic effects in Arabidopsis leaves (the major site of N assimilation in this genus), using metabolomics and (13)C-labelling techniques. We show that a substantial reduction in leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase activity did not lead to changes in the respiration efflux rate but respiratory metabolism was reorchestrated: 2OG production was supplemented by a metabolic bypass involving both lysine synthesis and degradation. Although the recycling of lysine has long been considered important in sustaining respiration, we show here that lysine neosynthesis itself participates in an alternative respiratory pathway. Lys metabolism thus contributes to explaining the metabolic flexibility of plant leaves and the effect (or the lack thereof) of respiratory mutations.

  13. Improved Growth and Stress Tolerance in the Arabidopsis oxt1 Mutant Triggered by Altered Adenine Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suchada Sukrong; Kil-Young Yun; Patrizia Stadler; Charan Kumar; Tony Facciuolo; Barbara A.Moffatt; Deane L.Falcone

    2012-01-01

    Plants perceive and respond to environmental stresses with complex mechanisms that are often associated with the activation of antioxidant defenses.A genetic screen aimed at isolating oxidative stress-tolerant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana has identified oxt1,a line that exhibits improved tolerance to oxidative stress and elevated temperature but displays no apparent deleterious growth effects under non-stress conditions.Oxt1 harbors a mutation that arises from the altered expression of a gene encoding adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APT1),an enzyme that converts adenine to adenosine monophosphate (AMP),indicating a link between purine metabolism,whole-plant growth responses,and stress acclimation.The oxt1 mutation results in decreased APT1 expression that leads to reduced enzymatic activity.Correspondingly,oxt1 plants possess elevated levels of adenine.Decreased APT enzyme activity directly correlates with stress resistance in transgenic lines that ectopically express APT1.The metabolic alteration in oxt1 plants also alters the expression of several antioxidant defense genes and the response of these genes to oxidative challenge.Finally,it is shown that manipulation of adenine levels can induce stress tolerance to wild-type plants.Collectively,these results show that alterations in cellular adenine levels can trigger stress tolerance and improve growth,leading to increases in plant biomass.The results also suggest that adenine might play a part in the signals that modulate responses to abiotic stress and plant growth.

  14. A vacuolar carboxypeptidase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is degraded by the ERAD pathway independently of its N-glycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Kawanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoko; Endo, Toshiya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi, E-mail: shuh@biochem.chem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Misfolded proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by a mechanism, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report establishment of the experimental system to analyze the ERAD in plant cells. Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a vacuolar enzyme and its mutant CPY* is degraded by the ERAD in yeast. Since Arabidopsis thaliana has AtCPY, an ortholog of yeast CPY, we constructed and expressed fusion proteins consisting of AtCPY and GFP and of AtCPY*, which carries a mutation homologous to yeast CPY*, and GFP in A. thaliana cells. While AtCPY-GFP was efficiently transported to the vacuole, AtCPY*-GFP was retained in the ER to be degraded in proteasome- and Cdc48-dependent manners. We also found that AtCPY*-GFP was degraded by the ERAD in yeast cells, but that its single N-glycan did not function as a degradation signal in yeast or plant cells. Therefore, AtCPY*-GFP can be used as a marker protein to analyze the ERAD pathway, likely for nonglycosylated substrates, in plant cells.

  15. Stromal protein degradation is incomplete in Arabidopsis thaliana autophagy mutants undergoing natural senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Travis A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degradation of highly abundant stromal proteins plays an important role in the nitrogen economy of the plant during senescence. Lines of evidence supporting proteolysis within the chloroplast and outside the chloroplast have been reported. Two extra-plastidic degradation pathways, chlorophagy and Rubisco Containing Bodies, rely on cytoplasmic autophagy. Results In this work, levels of three stromal proteins (Rubisco large subunit, chloroplast glutamine synthetase and Rubisco activase and one thylakoid protein (the major light harvesting complex protein of photosystem II were measured during natural senescence in WT and in two autophagy T-DNA insertion mutants (atg5 and atg7. Thylakoid-localized protein decreased similarly in all genotypes, but stromal protein degradation was incomplete in the two atg mutants. In addition, degradation of two stromal proteins was observed in chloroplasts isolated from mid-senescence leaves. Conclusions These data suggest that autophagy does contribute to the complete proteolysis of stromal proteins, but does not play a major degenerative role. In addition, support for in organello degradation is provided.

  16. ABA biosynthesis defective mutants reduce some free amino acids accumulation under drought stress in tomato leaves in comparison with Arabidopsis plants tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ali Al.Asbahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plants to tolerate drought conditions is crucial for plant survival and crop production worldwide. The present data confirm previous findings reported existence of a strong relation between abscisic acid (ABA content and amino acid accumulation as response water stress which is one of the most important defense mechanism activated during water stress in many plant species. Therefore, free amino acids were measured to determine any changes in the metabolite pool in relation to ABA content. The ABA defective mutants of Arabidopsis plants were subjected to leaf dehydration for Arabidopsis on Whatman 3 mm filter paper at room temperature while, tomato mutant plants were subjected to drought stresses for tomato plants by withholding water. To understand the signal transduction mechanisms underlying osmotic stress-regulating gene induction and activation of osmoprotectant free amino acid synthesizing genes, we carried out a genetic screen to isolate Arabidopsis mutants defective in ABA biosynthesis under drought stress conditions. The present results revealed an accumulation of specific free amino acid in water stressed tissues in which majority of free amino acids are increased especially those playing an osmoprotectant role such as proline and glycine. Drought stress related Amino acids contents are significantly reduced in the mutants under water stress condition while they are increased significantly in the wild types plants. The exhibited higher accumulation of other amino acids under stressed condition in the mutant plants suggest that, their expressions are regulated in an ABA independent pathways. In addition, free amino acids content changes during water stress condition suggest their contribution in drought toleration as common compatible osmolytes.

  17. Molecular phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals far-reaching consequences on phenylpropanoid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Antje; Morreel, Kris; Ralph, John; Goeminne, Geert; Hostyn, Vanessa; De Rycke, Riet; Kushnir, Sergej; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Van Driessche, Gonzalez; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Messens, Eric; Boerjan, Wout

    2004-10-01

    The first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, Phe ammonia-lyase (PAL), is encoded by four genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas PAL function is well established in various plants, an insight into the functional significance of individual gene family members is lacking. We show that in the absence of clear phenotypic alterations in the Arabidopsis pal1 and pal2 single mutants and with limited phenotypic alterations in the pal1 pal2 double mutant, significant modifications occur in the transcriptome and metabolome of the pal mutants. The disruption of PAL led to transcriptomic adaptation of components of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, revealing complex interactions at the level of gene expression between these pathways. Corresponding biochemical changes included a decrease in the three major flavonol glycosides, glycosylated vanillic acid, scopolin, and two novel feruloyl malates coupled to coniferyl alcohol. Moreover, Phe overaccumulated in the double mutant, and the levels of many other amino acids were significantly imbalanced. The lignin content was significantly reduced, and the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin monomers had increased. Together, from the molecular phenotype, common and specific functions of PAL1 and PAL2 are delineated, and PAL1 is qualified as being more important for the generation of phenylpropanoids.

  18. The skeletal defects and inheritance in dwarf mutants of Xiphophorus helleri%剑尾鱼侏儒突变的骨骼异常及其遗传

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯彬; 刘春; 常藕琴; 王芳; 马必勇; 吴淑勤

    2011-01-01

    Dwarf mutant of Xiphophorus helleri is used as the female parent to cross normal body type male, showing that dwarf individual can be identified in the offspring and such character is inheritable. The body type pattern of offspring exhibits a successive distribution, similar to male or female parent, in addition to intermediate type. It is less likely to discriminate the individual phenotype by using a clear definition. Dwarf mutants of Xiphophorus helleri manifest as short bloated body, clumsy swimming, and significantly altered trunk length-height ratio. This mutation retards fish growth and compromises the reproductivity. The self-cross and back-cross of F1 progenies also result in a successive distribution in body type among various crosses. The dwarf characteristic in X. helleri is not inherited in a simple alternative manner, which affects a group of characters rather than a single character. The consistency with primary feature of quantitative character suggests that such mutation may be controlled by multiple quantitative character genes. The skeletal morphological analysis indicates that the spinal length of X. helleri mutant is significantly shortened, whereas the number of vertebrae is comparable to that of normal individual, ranging from 26 to 29. The dramatically shortened vertebral body in the mutant impairs the longitudinal development of spine. The neural spine and hemal spine are in a tight arrangement,whose development is also significantly retarded. Therefore,the dwarf mutation in X. helleri is caused by the developmental defect in vertebral column, and the vertebral malformation underlies the body type alteration anatomically. As fish is representative of lower-ranking vertebrate,the dwarf swordtail mutant is reproducible,and the character is inheritable and closely associated with spinal development. Such mutant is a potential fish model for the systemical research.%以侏儒剑尾鱼为母本,与正常体型的雄性剑尾鱼进行交配,发

  19. Study on the Dwarf Mechanism of an Upland Cotton (G.hirsutum L.) Dwarf Mutant,Ari1327%陆地棉矮化突变体 Ari1327的矮化机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新坤; 孙君灵; 潘兆娥; 张超; 何守朴; 贾银华; 周忠丽; 唐灿明; 杜雄明

    2012-01-01

    Plant height is an important agronomic trait in upland cotton. Aril327 is a dwarf mutant derived from an American upland cotton variety, Ari971, by 60Co -y-ray irradiation. Aril327 exhibits the dwarf trait during the germination and cotyledon periods. During the budding period, the plant height, internode number and internode length of Ari 1327 were significantly(P < 0.01) smaller or fewer than in the wild type. Therefore, the mutant dwarfism was due to the decrease of average internode length. The longitudinal cell length of mutant internodes was significantly shorter than in the wild type(P < 0.01). The difference in transverse cell diameter between the mutant and the wild type was not significant. Thus, the shorter internodes were induced by inhibition of internode cells. The IAA, GA3 and ABA content of Aril327 was higher than in the wild type. The height of Ari 1327 plants could be restored to wild type levels by exogenous GA3 application. Exogenous BR and IAA had no effect on Aril327. Due to over-expression of genes in the IAA synthetic pathway, the IAA content in Aril327 was remarkably increased. High-density IAA inhibits plant growth; thus, the plant exhibits a dwarf phenotype.%Ari1327是从美国引进的陆地棉种质Ari971经60Coγ射线照射后得到的一个新型矮化突变体.Ari1327在萌发期和子叶期就表现出矮化性状.在现蕾期,突变体的株高、节间数和节间平均长度均小于野生型,差异达到极显著水平,节间平均长度的缩短导致了突变体株高的降低.突变体主茎节间纵向细胞的长度要显著小于野生型,横向细胞的直径与野生型差异不显著,节间细胞伸长受抑制导致了突变体节间平均长度的缩短.突变体中IAA、GA3和ABA含量高于野生型,外施GA3能使其株高恢复至野生型水平,外施BR和IAA不能使其株高恢复到正常水平,较低浓度的IAA对突变体的株高和节间长度就开始产生抑制作用.突变可能导致了IAA合成相

  20. The seed composition of Arabidopsis mutants for the group 3 sulfate transporters indicates a role in sulfate translocation within developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Hélène; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Aubert, Grégoire; Aimé, Delphine; Belghazi, Maya; Lugan, Raphaël; Heintz, Dimitri; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2010-10-01

    Sulfate is required for the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids and numerous other compounds essential for the plant life cycle. The delivery of sulfate to seeds and its translocation between seed tissues is likely to require specific transporters. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the group 3 plasmalemma-predicted sulfate transporters (SULTR3) comprise five genes, all expressed in developing seeds, especially in the tissues surrounding the embryo. Here, we show that sulfur supply to seeds is unaffected by T-DNA insertions in the SULTR3 genes. However, remarkably, an increased accumulation of sulfate was found in mature seeds of four mutants out of five. In these mutant seeds, the ratio of sulfur in sulfate form versus total sulfur was significantly increased, accompanied by a reduction in free cysteine content, which varied depending on the gene inactivated. These results demonstrate a reduced capacity of the mutant seeds to metabolize sulfate and suggest that these transporters may be involved in sulfate translocation between seed compartments. This was further supported by sulfate measurements of the envelopes separated from the embryo of the sultr3;2 mutant seeds, which showed differences in sulfate partitioning compared with the wild type. A dissection of the seed proteome of the sultr3 mutants revealed protein changes characteristic of a sulfur-stress response, supporting a role for these transporters in providing sulfate to the embryo. The mutants were affected in 12S globulin accumulation, demonstrating the importance of intraseed sulfate transport for the synthesis and maturation of embryo proteins. Metabolic adjustments were also revealed, some of which could release sulfur from glucosinolates.

  1. 拟南芥二氧化碳突变体生理特性的分析%Physiological Analysis of Two Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants in Response to CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉伟; 陈家宝; 刘宗才

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose was to seek for the different phenotypes between wild type and Arabidopsis Mutants in response to CO2. [Method] The epidermis bioassays and seed germination test were carried out to analyze the physiological characteristics of two Arabidopsis mutants and their wild type. [Result] There existed distinct differences in stomata apertures, water loss and leaf temperature compared with wild type except for stomata density. In addition, seed germination test on the medium indicated that cdi1 was insensitive to ABA, mannitol and NaCl, but cds1 performed contrary to cdi1. [Conclusion] There are some different physiological characteristics between wild type and mutants.

  2. Expansion and Functional Divergence of AP2 Group Genes in Spermatophytes Determined by Molecular Evolution and Arabidopsis Mutant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkai Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The APETALA2 (AP2 genes represent the AP2 group within a large group of DNA-binding proteins called AP2/EREBP. The AP2 gene is functional and necessary for flower development, stem cell maintenance, and seed development, whereas the other members of AP2 group redundantly affect flowering time. Here we study the phylogeny of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes. Spermatophyte AP2 group genes can be classified into AP2 and TOE types, six clades, and we found that the AP2 group homologs in gymnosperms belong to the AP2 type, whereas TOE types are absent, which indicates the AP2 type gene are more ancient and TOE type was split out of AP2 type and losing the major function. In Brassicaceae, the expansion of AP2 and TOE type lead to the gene number of AP2 group were up to six. Purifying selection appears to have been the primary driving force of spermatophyte AP2 group evolution, although positive selection occurred in the AP2 clade. The transition from exon to intron of AtAP2 in Arabidopsis mutant leads to the loss of gene function and the same situation was found in AtTOE2. Combining this evolutionary analysis and published research, the results suggest that typical AP2 group genes may first appear in gymnosperms and diverged in angiosperms, following expansion of group members and functional differentiation. In angiosperms, AP2 genes (AP2 clade inherited key functions from ancestors and other genes of AP2 group lost most function but just remained flowering time controlling in gene formation. In this study, the phylogenies of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes was analyzed, which supported the evidence for the research of gene functional evolution of AP2 group.

  3. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady V Pogorelko

    Full Text Available The immutans (im variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues and sinks (white tissues early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions.

  4. Analysis of a Partial Male-Sterile Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated from a Low-Energy Argon Ion Beam Mutagenized Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; BIAN Po; WU Yuejin; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    A screen for Arabidopsis fertility mutants, mutagenized by low-energy argon ion beam, yielded two partial male-sterile mutants tc243-1 and tc243-2 which have similar phenotypes. tc243-2 was investigated in detail. The segregation ratio of the mutant phenotypes in the M2 pools suggested that mutation behaved as single Mendelian recessive mutations, tc243 showed a series of mutant phenotypes, among which partial male-sterile was its striking mutant characteristic. Phenotype analysis indicates that there are four factors leading to male sterility, a. Floral organs normally develop inside the closed bud, but the anther filaments do not elongate sufficiently to position the locules above the stigma at anthesis, b. The anther locules do not dehisce at the time of flower opening (although limited dehiscence occurs later), c. Pollens of mutant plants develop into several types of pollens at the trinucleated stage, as determined by staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which shows a variable size, shape and number of nucleus. d. The viability of pollens is lower than that of the wild type on the germination test in vivo and vitro.

  5. Gravity-dependent differentiation and root coils in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and phospholipase-A-I knockdown mutant grown on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, G F E; Pietrzyk, P

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis roots on 45° tilted agar in 1-g grow in wave-like figures. In addition to waves, formation of root coils is observed in several mutants compromised in gravitropism and/or auxin transport. The knockdown mutant ppla-I-1 of patatin-related phospholipase-A-I is delayed in root gravitropism and forms increased numbers of root coils. Three known factors contribute to waving: circumnutation, gravisensing and negative thigmotropism. In microgravity, deprivation of wild type (WT) and mutant roots of gravisensing and thigmotropism and circumnutation (known to slow down in microgravity, and could potentially lead to fewer waves or increased coiling in both WT and mutant). To resolve this, mutant ppla-I-1 and WT were grown in the BIOLAB facility in the International Space Station. In 1-g, roots of both types only showed waving. In the first experiment in microgravity, the mutant after 9 days formed far more coils than in 1-g but the WT also formed several coils. After 24 days in microgravity, in both types the coils were numerous with slightly more in the mutant. In the second experiment, after 9 days in microgravity only the mutant formed coils and the WT grew arcuated roots. Cell file rotation (CFR) on the mutant root surface in microgravity decreased in comparison to WT, and thus was not important for coiling. Several additional developmental responses (hypocotyl elongation, lateral root formation, cotyledon expansion) were found to be gravity-influenced. We tentatively discuss these in the context of disturbances in auxin transport, which are known to decrease through lack of gravity. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Key Components of Different Plant Defense Pathways Are Dispensable for Powdery Mildew Resistance of the Arabidopsis mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 Triple Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kuhn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of function mutations of particular plant MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO genes confer durable and broad-spectrum penetration resistance against powdery mildew fungi. Here, we combined genetic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to explore the defense mechanisms in the fully resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant. We found that this genotype unexpectedly overcomes the requirement for indolic antimicrobials and defense-related secretion, which are critical for incomplete resistance of mlo2 single mutants. Comparative microarray-based transcriptome analysis of mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 mutants and wild type plants upon Golovinomyces orontii inoculation revealed an increased and accelerated accumulation of many defense-related transcripts. Despite the biotrophic nature of the interaction, this included the non-canonical activation of a jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent transcriptional program. In contrast to a non-adapted powdery mildew pathogen, the adapted powdery mildew fungus is able to defeat the accumulation of defense-relevant indolic metabolites in a MLO protein-dependent manner. We suggest that a broad and fast activation of immune responses in mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 plants can compensate for the lack of single or few defense pathways. In addition, our results point to a role of Arabidopsis MLO2, MLO6, and MLO12 in enabling defense suppression during invasion by adapted powdery mildew fungi.

  7. Isolation of a Mutant of Fer1 Gene, Acting Synergistically with the ARF8 Gene to Control Development of the Anther and Filament in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-En TIAN; Yu-Ping ZHOU; Shun-Zhi LIU; Kotaro YAMAMOTO

    2005-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) play a central role in plants as transcriptional factors in response to auxin. The Arabidopsis ARF8 gene is a light-inducible gene and ARF8 protein might control auxin homeostasis in a negative feed-back fashion through regulation of GH3 gene expression. In a double mutant designated infertile line including arf8-1 (a T-DNA insertion mutant of ARF8), we isolatedfertility1-1 (fer1-1), a mutant of Fer1, which acts synergistically with ARF8 to control the development of the anther and filament in Arabidopsis. Genetics analysis has demonstrated thatfer1-1 is a T-DNA insertion line,indicating that Fer1 might be cloned by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or the TAIL-PCR approach.Phenotypic identification and molecular analysis offer1-1 and the infertile line will be helpful to characterize the function of Fer1, to further study the function of ARF8, and to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction of Fer1 and ARF8 in controlling development of the anther and filament.

  8. Endogenous gibberellins in Arabidopsis thaliana and possible steps blocked in the biosynthetic pathways of the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talon, M. Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA)); Koornneef, M. (Agricultural Univ., (Netherlands))

    1990-10-01

    Twenty gibberellins (GAs) have been identified in extracts from shoots of the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis thaliana by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Eight of them are members of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44}, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 17}, GA{sub 20}, GA{sub 1}, GA{sub 29}, and GA{sub 8}), six are members of the early-3-hydroxylation pathway (GA{sub 37}, GA{sub 27}, GA{sub 36}, GA{sub 13}, GA{sub 4}, and GA{sub 34}), and the remaining six are members of the non-3,13-hydroxylation pathway (GA{sub 12}, GA{sub 15}, GA{sub 24}, GA{sub 25}, GA{sub 9}, and GFA{sub 51}). Seven of these GAs were quantified in the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis and in the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) using internal standards. The relative levels of the remaining 13 GAs were compared by the use of ion intensities only. The growth-response data, as well as the accumulation of GA{sub 9} in the ga4 mutant, indicate that GA{sub 9} is not active in Arabidopsis, but it must be 3{beta}-hydroxytlated to GA{sub 4} to become bioactive. It is concluded that the reduced levels of the 3{beta}-hydroxy-GAs, GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 4}, are the cause of the semidwarf growth habit of both mutants.

  9. Protein profiles construction and differential expressed proteins of the Arabidopsis thaliana quadruple mutant phyA phyB cry1 cry2.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Ana Romina; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Mazzella, Agustina; XXVIII Argentinean Reunion of Vegetal Physiology

    2010-01-01

    En Arabidopsis phyA phyB cry1 y cry2, son los cuatro fotorreceptores más importantes que controlan el crecimiento y desarrollo por la luz. La técnica de geles bidimensionales provee información sobre la abundancia de una proteína y sus modificaciones postraduccionales. Con el objetivo de identificar nuevos componentes en la fototrasnducción de señales estudiamos el perfil proteómico del cuádruple mutante phyA phyB cry1 cry2 (tet). Para esto obtuvimos y comparamos los proteomas específicos del...

  10. 一种筛选拟南芥突变体的有效方法%A Efficient Method for Isolation of Arabidopsis Mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵淑清

    2001-01-01

    his paper introduces a root-bending assay for isol ation of Arabidopsis mutants tolerant to nutrition stress. Seeds of wild-ty pe Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Landersberg erecta) were mutagenized wi th ethyl methyl sulfide (EMS),and M2 populations were screened for mutants. Fo ur-day-old seedlings with 1-to 1.5-cm-long roots were transferred from the vertical agar plates onto to a second agar medium that was supplemented with det erminate stress. The seedlings were arranged in rows, and the plates were orient ed vertically with the roots pointing upward. After another 4 days, the root be nding seedlings were selected for putative mutants and transferred to soil to gr ow to maturity.Seeds from the putative mutants were screened again to determine the true mutants.By using this root-bending assay we have isolated a low-K+ -tolerant (lkt1) mutant which is caused by single recessive nuclear mutation. F or lkt1 mutant screening,K+concentration of the medium was 100μmol/L because root growth of wild type seedlings was completely inhibited at or below this con centration.This root-bending assay is also applicable to other type of Arabid opsis mutant isolation.%经甲基磺酸乙酯(EMS)诱变处理的拟南芥种子,接种于MS培养基上,垂直放置培养4天后,将幼苗转移至胁迫培养基中,以倒置幼苗180°所形成的弯曲生长根作为指标筛选拟南芥耐营养胁迫突变体。利用这种方法,成功地筛选到一个耐低钾的隐性单基因拟南芥突变体。本方法同样适用于其他类型突变体的筛选。

  11. Reference: 204 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ified in Arabidopsis based on a growth defect of the dark-grown hypocotyl and an abnormal composition of the non-cellulosic ce...s, the dgl1-1 mutation led to a reduced N-linked glycosylation of the ER-resident protein disulfide isomeras...ntal defects including reduced cell elongation and the collapse and differentiation defects of ce...lls in the central cylinder. These defects were accompanied by changes in the non-cellulosic...her dwarf mutants that are altered in early steps of the N-glycan processing, dgl1-1 did not exhibit a cellu

  12. A KAS2 cDNA complements the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis fab1 mutant that differs in a single residue bordering the substrate binding pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, A.S.; LaBrie, S.T.; Kinney, A.J.;

    2002-01-01

    The fab1 mutant of Arabidopsis is partially deficient in activity of ß-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase II (KAS II). This defect results in increased levels of 16 : 0 fatty acid and is associated with damage and death of the mutants at low temperature. Transformation of fab1 plants with a c...... chain to bend. For functional analysis the equivalent Leu207Phe mutation was introduced into the fabB gene encoding the E. coli KAS I enzyme. Compared to wild-type, the Leu207Phe protein showed a 10-fold decrease in binding affinity for the fatty acid substrate, exhibited a modified behavior during size...

  13. Characterization of a new mutant allele of the Arabidopsis Flowering Locus D (FLD) gene that controls the flowering time by repressing FLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ruiqiang; ZHANG Suzhi; SUN Shulan; CHANG Jianhong; ZUO Jianru

    2005-01-01

    Flowering in higher plants is controlled by both the internal and environmental cues. In Arabidopsis, several major genetic loci have been defined as the key switches to control flowering. The Flowering Locus C (FLC) gene has been shown in the autonomous pathway to inhibit the vegetative-to-reproductive transition. FLC appears to be repressed by Flowering Locus D (FLD), which encodes a component of the histone deacetylase complex. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new mutant allele fld-5. Genetic analysis indicates that fld-5 (in the Wassilewskija background) is allelic to the previously characterized fld-3 and fld-4 (in the Colombia-0 background). Genetic and molecular analyses reveal that fld-5 carries a frame-shift mutation, resulting in a premature termination of the FLD open reading frame. The FLC expression is remarkably increased in fld-5, which presumably attributes to the extremely delayed flowering phenotype of the mutant.

  14. The eta7/csn3-3 auxin response mutant of Arabidopsis defines a novel function for the CSN3 subunit of the COP9 signalosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huang

    Full Text Available The COP9 signalosome (CSN is an eight subunit protein complex conserved in all higher eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the CSN regulates auxin response by removing the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8/RUB1 from the CUL1 subunit of the SCF(TIR1/AFB ubiquitin-ligase (deneddylation. Previously described null mutations in any CSN subunit result in the pleiotropic cop/det/fus phenotype and cause seedling lethality, hampering the study of CSN functions in plant development. In a genetic screen to identify enhancers of the auxin response defects conferred by the tir1-1 mutation, we identified a viable csn mutant of subunit 3 (CSN3, designated eta7/csn3-3. In addition to enhancing tir1-1 mutant phenotypes, the csn3-3 mutation alone confers several phenotypes indicative of impaired auxin signaling including auxin resistant root growth and diminished auxin responsive gene expression. Unexpectedly however, csn3-3 plants are not defective in either the CSN-mediated deneddylation of CUL1 or in SCF(TIR1-mediated degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. These findings suggest that csn3-3 is an atypical csn mutant that defines a novel CSN or CSN3-specific function. Consistent with this possibility, we observe dramatic differences in double mutant interactions between csn3-3 and other auxin signaling mutants compared to another weak csn mutant, csn1-10. Lastly, unlike other csn mutants, assembly of the CSN holocomplex is unaffected in csn3-3 plants. However, we detected a small CSN3-containing protein complex that is altered in csn3-3 plants. We hypothesize that in addition to its role in the CSN as a cullin deneddylase, CSN3 functions in a distinct protein complex that is required for proper auxin signaling.

  15. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 null mutant shows increased sensitivity to abscisic acid, salt, and osmotic stress in germination and postgermination stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eSalas-Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid. The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher abscisic acid sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signalling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance.

  16. Genome-wide Expression Profiling in Seedlings of the Arabidopsis Mutant uro that is Defective in the Secondary Cell Wall Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yuan; Xuan Yao; Dabing Zhang; Yue Sun; Hai Huang

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary growth is of tremendous importance, not only for plant growth and development but also for economic usefulness.Secondary tissues such as xylem and phloem are the conducting tissues in plant vascular systems, essentially for water and nutrient transport, respectively.On the other hand, products of plant secondary growth are important raw materials and renewable sources of energy.Although advances have been recently made towards describing molecular mechanisms that regulate secondary growth, the genetic control for this process is not yet fully understood.Secondary cell wall formation in plants shares some common mechanisms with other plant secondary growth processes.Thus, studies on the secondary cell wall formation using Arabidopsis may help to understand the regulatory mechanisms for plant secondary growth.We previously reported phenotypic characterizations of an Arabidopsis semi-dominant mutant,upright rosette (uro), which is defective in secondary cell wall growth and has an unusually soft stem.Here, we show that lignification in the secondary cell wall in uro is aberrant by analyzing hypocotyl and stem.We also show genome-wide expression profiles of uro seedlings, using the Affymetrix GeneChip that contains approximately 24 000 Arabidopsis genes.Genes identified with altered expression levels include those that function in plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling,cell division and plant secondary tissue growth.These results provide useful information for further characterizations of the regulatory network in plant secondary cell wall formation.

  17. Response of nitrate reductase activity and NIA genes expression in roots of Arabidopsis hxk1 mutant treated with selected carbon and nitrogen metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In plants sugar sensing and signal transduction involves pathways dependent or independent on HXK1 as a glucose sensor. Research was conducted to determine which pathway is responsible for regulation of the nitrate reduction. The effect of selected carbon and nitrogen metabolites on nitrate reductase (NR) activity in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (WT) and hxk1 mutant roots was studied. Exogenously supplied sugar, sucrose (Suc) and organic acid, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) led to an increase in the total and actual activity of NR. It was due to both the increase in expression of NIA genes and NR activation state. The stimulatory effect of Suc and 2-OG on nitrate reduction was less pronounced in hxk1 mutant roots with T-DNA insertion in the AtHXK1 gene encoding hexokinase1 (HXK1) and characterized by reduced hexokinase activity and root level of G6P and F6P. On the other hand, it was shown that exogenous glucose did not mimic Suc-mediated NR activation in Arabidopsis roots. Taken together, this data suggest that the Suc signaling pathway might be independent from hexose's sensor dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatiotemporal modelling of hormonal crosstalk explains the level and patterning of hormones and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Mudge, Anna; Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2015-01-01

    • Patterning in Arabidopsis root development is coordinated via a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip, requiring the regulated expression of specific genes. However, little is known about how hormone and gene expression patterning is generated. • Using a variety of experimental data, we develop a spatiotemporal hormonal crosstalk model that describes the integrated action of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling, the POLARIS protein, and the functions of PIN and AUX1 auxin transporters. We also conduct novel experiments to confirm our modelling predictions. • The model reproduces auxin patterning and trends in wild-type and mutants; reveals that coordinated PIN and AUX1 activities are required to generate correct auxin patterning; correctly predicts shoot to root auxin flux, auxin patterning in the aux1 mutant, the amounts of cytokinin, ethylene and PIN protein, and PIN protein patterning in wild-type and mutant roots. Modelling analysis further reveals how PIN protein patterning is related to the POLARIS protein through ethylene signalling. Modelling prediction of the patterning of POLARIS expression is confirmed experimentally. • Our combined modelling and experimental analysis reveals that a hormonal crosstalk network regulates the emergence of patterns and levels of hormones and gene expression in wild-type and mutants. PMID:25906686

  19. The role of cell wall-based defences in the early restriction of non-pathogenic hrp mutant bacteria in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kathy; Brown, Ian; Knox, Paul; Mansfield, John

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the cause of the restricted multiplication of hrp mutant bacteria in leaves of Arabidopsis. Our focus was on early interactions leading to differentiation between virulent wild-type and non-pathogenic hrpA mutant strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. An initial drop in recoverable bacteria detected 0-4 h after inoculation with either strain was dependent on a functional FLS2 receptor and H2O2 accumulation in challenged leaves. Wild-type bacteria subsequently multiplied rapidly whereas the hrpA mutant was restricted within 6 h. Despite the early restriction, the hrpA mutant was still viable several days after inoculation. Analysis of intercellular washing fluids (IWFs), showed that high levels of nutrients were readily available to bacteria in the apoplast and that no diffusible inhibitors were produced in response to bacterial challenge. Histochemical and immunocytochemical methods were used to detect changes in polysaccharides (callose, two forms of cellulose, and pectin), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), H2O2 and peroxidase. Quantitative analysis showed very similar changes in localisation of AGPs, cellulose epitopes and callose 2 and 4 h after inoculation with either strain. However from 6 to 12 h after inoculation papillae expanded only next to the hrp mutant. In contrast to the similar patterns of secretory activity recorded from mesophyll cells, accumulation of H2O2 and peroxidase was significantly greater around the hrpA mutant within the first 4h after inoculation. A striking differential accumulation of H2O2 was also found in chloroplasts in cells next to the mutant. Ascorbate levels were lower in the IWFs recovered from sites inoculated with the hrp mutant than with wild-type bacteria. The critical response, observed at the right time and place to explain the observed differential behaviour of wild-type and hrpA mutant bacteria was the accumulation of H2O2, probably generated through Type III peroxidase activity and in

  20. Brassinosteroids can regulate cellulose biosynthesis by controlling the expression of CESA genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Liqiong; Yang, Cangjing; Wang, Xuelu

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), play important roles in regulating cell elongation and cell size, and BR-related mutants in Arabidopsis display significant dwarf phenotypes. Cellulose is a biopolymer which has a major contribution to cell wall formation during cell expansion and elongation. However, whether BRs regulate cellulose synthesis, and if so, what the underlying mechanism of cell elongation induced by BRs is, is unknown. The content of cellulose and the expression levels o...

  1. Characterization of the snowy cotyledon 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: the impact of chloroplast elongation factor G on chloroplast development and plant vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Verónica; Ingenfeld, Anke; Apel, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    During seedling development chloroplast formation marks the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. The development and activity of chloroplasts may differ in cotyledons that initially serve as a storage organ and true leaves whose primary function is photosynthesis. A genetic screen was used for the identification of genes that affect selectively chloroplast function in cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several mutants exhibiting pale cotyledons and green true leaves were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). One of the mutants, sco1, was characterized in more detail. The mutated gene was identified using map-based cloning. The mutant contains a point mutation in a gene encoding the chloroplast elongation factor G, leading to an amino acid exchange within the predicted 70S ribosome-binding domain. The mutation results in a delay in the onset of germination. At this early developmental stage embryos still contain undifferentiated proplastids, whose proper function seems necessary for seed germination. In light-grown sco1 seedlings the greening of cotyledons is severely impaired, whereas the following true leaves develop normally as in wild-type plants. Despite this apparent similarity of chloroplast development in true leaves of mutant and wild-type plants various aspects of mature plant development are also affected by the sco1 mutation such as the onset of flowering, the growth rate, and seed production. The onset of senescence in the mutant and the wild-type plants occurs, however, at the same time, suggesting that in the mutant this particular developmental step does not seem to suffer from reduced protein translation efficiency in chloroplasts.

  2. Selection of Arabidopsis mutants overexpressing genes driven by the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, D.A.M. van der; Schuyer, M.; Pinas, J.E.; Zaal, B.J. van der; Hooykaas, P.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants were isolated that contained a T-DNA construct in which the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from tobacco was fused to the kanamycin resistance (nptII) as well as to the β-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene. Subsequently, seeds were tr

  3. X-Ray- and fast neutron induced mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the effect of dithiothreitol upon the mutant spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, L.M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The genetic effects of X-ray and fast neutron seed-irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and the influence of a pre-irradiation treatment with the radio-protector dithiothreitol (DTT), are the main subjects of this thesis.Chapters I and II deal with the effects of radiation - with or with

  4. A Novel fry1 Allele Reveals the Existence of a Mutant Phenotype Unrelated to 5′->3′ Exoribonuclease (XRN) Activities in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Judith; Estavillo, Gonzalo M.; Javot, Hélène; Chiarenza, Serge; Mallory, Allison C.; Maizel, Alexis; Declerck, Marie; Pogson, Barry J.; Vaucheret, Hervé; Crespi, Martin; Desnos, Thierry; Thibaud, Marie-Christine; Nussaume, Laurent; Marin, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations in the FRY1/SAL1 Arabidopsis locus are highly pleiotropic, affecting drought tolerance, leaf shape and root growth. FRY1 encodes a nucleotide phosphatase that in vitro has inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase and 3′,(2′),5′-bisphosphate nucleotide phosphatase activities. It is not clear which activity mediates each of the diverse biological functions of FRY1 in planta. Principal Findings A fry1 mutant was identified in a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants deregulated in the expression of Pi High affinity Transporter 1;4 (PHT1;4). Histological analysis revealed that, in roots, FRY1 expression was restricted to the stele and meristems. The fry1 mutant displayed an altered root architecture phenotype and an increased drought tolerance. All of the phenotypes analyzed were complemented with the AHL gene encoding a protein that converts 3′-polyadenosine 5′-phosphate (PAP) into AMP and Pi. PAP is known to inhibit exoribonucleases (XRN) in vitro. Accordingly, an xrn triple mutant with mutations in all three XRNs shared the fry1 drought tolerance and root architecture phenotypes. Interestingly these two traits were also complemented by grafting, revealing that drought tolerance was primarily conferred by the rosette and that the root architecture can be complemented by long-distance regulation derived from leaves. By contrast, PHT1 expression was not altered in xrn mutants or in grafting experiments. Thus, PHT1 up-regulation probably resulted from a local depletion of Pi in the fry1 stele. This hypothesis is supported by the identification of other genes modulated by Pi deficiency in the stele, which are found induced in a fry1 background. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the 3′,(2′),5′-bisphosphate nucleotide phosphatase activity of FRY1 is involved in long-distance as well as local regulatory activities in roots. The local up-regulation of PHT1 genes transcription in roots likely results from local depletion of Pi

  5. A novel fry1 allele reveals the existence of a mutant phenotype unrelated to 5'->3' exoribonuclease (XRN activities in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Hirsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the FRY1/SAL1 Arabidopsis locus are highly pleiotropic, affecting drought tolerance, leaf shape and root growth. FRY1 encodes a nucleotide phosphatase that in vitro has inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase and 3',(2',5'-bisphosphate nucleotide phosphatase activities. It is not clear which activity mediates each of the diverse biological functions of FRY1 in planta. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A fry1 mutant was identified in a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants deregulated in the expression of Pi High affinity Transporter 1;4 (PHT1;4. Histological analysis revealed that, in roots, FRY1 expression was restricted to the stele and meristems. The fry1 mutant displayed an altered root architecture phenotype and an increased drought tolerance. All of the phenotypes analyzed were complemented with the AHL gene encoding a protein that converts 3'-polyadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP into AMP and Pi. PAP is known to inhibit exoribonucleases (XRN in vitro. Accordingly, an xrn triple mutant with mutations in all three XRNs shared the fry1 drought tolerance and root architecture phenotypes. Interestingly these two traits were also complemented by grafting, revealing that drought tolerance was primarily conferred by the rosette and that the root architecture can be complemented by long-distance regulation derived from leaves. By contrast, PHT1 expression was not altered in xrn mutants or in grafting experiments. Thus, PHT1 up-regulation probably resulted from a local depletion of Pi in the fry1 stele. This hypothesis is supported by the identification of other genes modulated by Pi deficiency in the stele, which are found induced in a fry1 background. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the 3',(2',5'-bisphosphate nucleotide phosphatase activity of FRY1 is involved in long-distance as well as local regulatory activities in roots. The local up-regulation of PHT1 genes transcription in roots likely results from local depletion of

  6. Reactive oxygen species and transcript analysis upon excess light treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana vs a photosensitive mutant lacking zeaxanthin and lutein

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    Roncaglia Enrica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are unavoidable by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis, causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity they are also signalling molecules, priming the acclimatory response to stress stimuli. Results To investigate this role further, we exposed wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the double mutant npq1lut2 to excess light. The mutant does not produce the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, whose key roles include ROS scavenging and prevention of ROS synthesis. Biochemical analysis revealed that singlet oxygen (1O2 accumulated to higher levels in the mutant while other ROS were unaffected, allowing to define the transcriptomic signature of the acclimatory response mediated by 1O2 which is enhanced by the lack of these xanthophylls species. The group of genes differentially regulated in npq1lut2 is enriched in sequences encoding chloroplast proteins involved in cell protection against the damaging effect of ROS. Among the early fine-tuned components, are proteins involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chlorophyll catabolism, protein import, folding and turnover, synthesis and membrane insertion of photosynthetic subunits. Up to now, the flu mutant was the only biological system adopted to define the regulation of gene expression by 1O2. In this work, we propose the use of mutants accumulating 1O2 by mechanisms different from those activated in flu to better identify ROS signalling. Conclusions We propose that the lack of zeaxanthin and lutein leads to 1O2 accumulation and this represents a signalling pathway in the early stages of stress acclimation, beside the response to ADP/ATP ratio and to the redox state of both plastoquinone pool. Chloroplasts respond to 1O2 accumulation by undergoing a significant change in composition and function towards a fast acclimatory response. The physiological implications of this signalling specificity are

  7. 拟南芥抗氧化突变体筛选条件的建立%Establishment of the Screening Conditions of Arabidopsis thaliana Antioxidant Mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋春云

    2011-01-01

    [目的]建立筛选拟南芥抗氧化突变体的条件.[方法] 将灭菌的野生型拟南芥种子播种于MS培养基上,4 ℃层化2 d,并于23 ℃培养室中垂直放置培养4 d后,将幼苗转移至含有不同浓度的甲基紫精(MV)胁迫培养基中,倒置培养,比较不同MV浓度下根的弯曲生长情况,以根停止弯曲生长的MV浓度作为抗氧化胁迫突变体的筛选条件.[结果]野生型拟南芥幼苗的根在MV浓度为0.7 μmol/L时受到明显抑制,停止生长;在MV浓度低于0.7 μmol/L时能正常生长或被轻微抑制.[结论]确定筛选抗氧化突变体的MV浓度为0.7 μmol/L.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to establish the condition for screening the Arabidopsis thaliana antioxidant mutants. [ Method ]The sterilized seeds of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana were sown on MS medium plates. Two days after stratification at 4 ℃, the plates were vertically placed in growth room of 23 ℃. Four days after seed germination, the four-day-old seedlings were transferred to the MS agar medium supplemented with different concentrations of methyl viologen (MV) and the plates were inverted with the roots pointing upward. It identified that the concentration of MV was the condition of screening the mutants, which can inhibited the root growth. [ Result]The growth of the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were significantly inhibited and stopped when the concentration of MV was 0.7 μmol/L, while the concentration was lower than 0.7 μmol/L, the plants can grown normally or slightly inhibited. [ Conclusion]0.7 μmol/L of MV was the concentration for screening antioxidant mutants.

  8. The mysterious rescue of adg1-1/tpt-2 - an Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant impaired in acclimation to high light – by exogenously supplied sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eHeinrichs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (adg1-1/tpt-2 defective in the day- and night-path of photoassimilate export from the chloroplast due to a knockout in the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT; tpt-2 and a lack of starch (mutation in ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase [AGPase]; adg1-1 exhibits severe growth retardation, a decrease in the photosynthetic capacity and a high chlorophyll fluorescence (HCF phenotype under high light conditions. These phenotypes could be rescued when the plants were grown on sucrose (Suc or glucose (Glc. Here we address the question whether Glc-sensing hexokinase1 (HXK1 defective in the Glc insensitiv2 (gin2-1 mutant is involved in the sugar-dependent rescue of adg1-1/tpt-2. Triple mutants defective in the TPT, AGPase and HXK1 (adg1-1/tpt-2/gin2-1 were established as homozygous lines and grown together with Col-0 and Ler wild-type plants, gin2-1, the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant and the adg1-1/tpt-2/gpt2-1 triple mutant (additionally defective in the glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator2 [GPT2] on agar in the presence or absence of 50 mM of each Glc, Suc or fructose (Fru. The growth phenotype of the double mutant and both triple mutants could be rescued to a similar extent only by Glc and Suc, but not by Fru, All three sugars were capable of rescuing the HCF- and photosynthesis phenotype, irrespectively of the presence or absence of HXK1. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of sugar responsive genes revealed that plastidial HXK (pHXK was up-regulated in adg1-1/tpt-2 plants grown on sugars, but showed no response in adg1-1/tpt-2/gin2-1. It appears likely that soluble sugars are directly taken up by the chloroplasts and enter further metabolism, which consumes ATP and NADPH from the photosynthetic light reaction and thereby rescues the photosynthesis phenotype of the double mutant. The implication of sugar turnover and probably signaling inside the chloroplasts for the concept of retrograde signaling is discussed.

  9. Characterization of a NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase mutant of Arabidopsis demonstrates the key role of this enzyme in root carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Armengaud, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Sandra; Catterou, Manuella; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gibon, Yves; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric

    2012-10-01

    The role of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated by studying the physiological impact of a complete lack of enzyme activity in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant deficient in three genes encoding the enzyme. This study was conducted following the discovery that a third GDH gene is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, where all three active GDH enzyme proteins were shown to be present. A gdh1-2-3 triple mutant was constructed and exhibited major differences from the wild type in gene transcription and metabolite concentrations, and these differences appeared to originate in the roots. By placing the gdh triple mutant under continuous darkness for several days and comparing it to the wild type, the evidence strongly suggested that the main physiological function of NADH-GDH is to provide 2-oxoglutarate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The differences in key metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the triple mutant versus the wild type indicated that, through metabolic processes operating mainly in roots, there was a strong impact on amino acid accumulation, in particular alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and aspartate in both roots and leaves. These results are discussed in relation to the possible signaling and physiological functions of the enzyme at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

  10. A role for katanin in plant cell division: microtubule organization in dividing root cells of fra2 and lue1Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Voulgari, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Galini

    2011-07-01

    Severing of microtubules by katanin has proven to be crucial for cortical microtubule organization in elongating and differentiating plant cells. On the contrary, katanin is currently not considered essential during cell division in plants as it is in animals. However, defects in cell patterning have been observed in katanin mutants, implying a role for it in dividing plant cells. Therefore, microtubule organization was studied in detail by immunofluorescence in dividing root cells of fra2 and lue1 katanin mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In both, early preprophase bands consisted of poorly aligned microtubules, prophase spindles were multipolar, and the microtubules of expanding phragmoplasts were elongated, bended toward and connected to the surface of daughter nuclei. Accordingly, severing by katanin seems to be necessary for the proper organization of these microtubule arrays. In both fra2 and lue1, metaphase/anaphase spindles and initiating phragmoplasts exhibited typical organization. However, they were obliquely oriented more frequently than in the wild type. It is proposed that this oblique orientation may be due to prophase spindle multipolarity and results in a failure of the cell plate to follow the predetermined division plane, during cytokinesis, producing oblique cell walls in the roots of both mutants. It is therefore concluded that, like in animal cells, katanin is important for plant cell division, influencing the organization of several microtubule arrays. Moreover, failure in microtubule severing indirectly affects the orientation of the division plane. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Excitation energy transfer and charge separation are affected in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein Lhcb3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Małgorzata; Gibasiewicz, Krzysztof; Luciński, Robert; Giera, Wojciech; Chełminiak, Przemysław; Szewczyk, Sebastian; Sipińska, Weronika; van Grondelle, Rienk; Jackowski, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The composition of LHCII trimers as well as excitation energy transfer and charge separation in grana cores of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking chlorophyll a/b binding protein Lhcb3 have been investigated and compared to those in wild-type plants. In grana cores of lhcb3 plants we observed increased amounts of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 apoproteins per PSII core. The additional copies of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are expected to substitute for Lhcb3 in LHCII trimers M as well as in the LHCII "extra" pool, which was found to be modestly enlarged as a result of the absence of Lhcb3. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements reveal a deceleration of the fast phase of excitation dynamics in grana cores of the mutant by ~15 ps, whereas the average fluorescence lifetime is not significantly altered. Monte Carlo modeling predicts a slowing down of the mean hopping time and an increased stabilization of the primary charge separation in the mutant. Thus our data imply that absence of apoprotein Lhcb3 results in detectable differences in excitation energy transfer and charge separation.

  12. Flavonol-induced changes in PIN2 polarity and auxin transport in the Arabidopsis thaliana rol1-2 mutant require phosphatase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Benjamin M.; Nodzyński, Tomasz; Errafi, Sanae; Bucher, Rahel; Gupta, Shibu; Aryal, Bibek; Dobrev, Petre; Bigler, Laurent; Geisler, Markus; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, Jiří; Ringli, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major determinant and regulatory component important for plant development. Auxin transport between cells is mediated by a complex system of transporters such as AUX1/LAX, PIN, and ABCB proteins, and their localization and activity is thought to be influenced by phosphatases and kinases. Flavonols have been shown to alter auxin transport activity and changes in flavonol accumulation in the Arabidopsis thaliana rol1-2 mutant cause defects in auxin transport and seedling development. A new mutation in ROOTS CURL IN NPA 1 (RCN1), encoding a regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP2A, was found to suppress the growth defects of rol1-2 without changing the flavonol content. rol1-2 rcn1-3 double mutants show wild type-like auxin transport activity while levels of free auxin are not affected by rcn1-3. In the rol1-2 mutant, PIN2 shows a flavonol-induced basal-to-apical shift in polar localization which is reversed in the rol1-2 rcn1-3 to basal localization. In vivo analysis of PINOID action, a kinase known to influence PIN protein localization in a PP2A-antagonistic manner, revealed a negative impact of flavonols on PINOID activity. Together, these data suggest that flavonols affect auxin transport by modifying the antagonistic kinase/phosphatase equilibrium. PMID:28165500

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Different Mutant Genotypes of Arabidopsis Led to the Identification of 11 Proteins Correlating with Adventitious Root Development1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Céline; Negroni, Luc; Balliau, Thierry; Corti, Hélène; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Davanture, Marlène; Sandberg, Göran; Zivy, Michel; Bellini, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings or explants in vitro occurs routinely and is an obstacle for the clonal propagation and rapid fixation of elite genotypes. Adventitious rooting is known to be a quantitative genetic trait. We performed a proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants affected in their ability to develop adventitious roots in order to identify associated molecular markers that could be used to select genotypes for their rooting ability and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Comparison of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein profiles resulted in the identification of 11 proteins whose abundance could be either positively or negatively correlated with endogenous auxin content, the number of adventitious root primordia, and/or the number of mature adventitious roots. One protein was negatively correlated only to the number of root primordia and two were negatively correlated to the number of mature adventitious roots. Two putative chaperone proteins were positively correlated only to the number of primordia, and, interestingly, three auxin-inducible GH3-like proteins were positively correlated with the number of mature adventitious roots. The others were correlated with more than one parameter. The 11 proteins are predicted to be involved in different biological processes, including the regulation of auxin homeostasis and light-associated metabolic pathways. The results identify regulatory pathways associated with adventitious root formation and represent valuable markers that might be used for the future identification of genotypes with better rooting abilities. PMID:16377752

  14. Expression of Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme in an Arabidopsis mutant devoid of endogenous starch branching enzymes induces the synthesis of starch-like polyglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laura; Roussel, Xavier; Courseaux, Adeline; Ndjindji, Ofilia M; Lancelon-Pin, Christine; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J; Pontoire, Bruno; D' Hulst, Christophe; Wattebled, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    Starch synthesis requires several enzymatic activities including branching enzymes (BEs) responsible for the formation of α(1 → 6) linkages. Distribution and number of these linkages are further controlled by debranching enzymes that cleave some of them, rendering the polyglucan water-insoluble and semi-crystalline. Although the activity of BEs and debranching enzymes is mandatory to sustain normal starch synthesis, the relative importance of each in the establishment of the plant storage polyglucan (i.e. water insolubility, crystallinity and presence of amylose) is still debated. Here, we have substituted the activity of BEs in Arabidopsis with that of the Escherichia coli glycogen BE (GlgB). The latter is the BE counterpart in the metabolism of glycogen, a highly branched water-soluble and amorphous storage polyglucan. GlgB was expressed in the be2 be3 double mutant of Arabidopsis, which is devoid of BE activity and consequently free of starch. The synthesis of a water-insoluble, partly crystalline, amylose-containing starch-like polyglucan was restored in GlgB-expressing plants, suggesting that BEs' origin only has a limited impact on establishing essential characteristics of starch. Moreover, the balance between branching and debranching is crucial for the synthesis of starch, as an excess of branching activity results in the formation of highly branched, water-soluble, poorly crystalline polyglucan.

  15. Insight into herbicide resistance of W574L mutant Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase:molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase(AHAS) is the target enzyme of several classes of herbicides,such as sulfonylureas and imidazolinones.Now many mutant AHASs with herbicide resistance have emerged along with extensive use of herbicides,therefore it is imperative to understand the detailed interaction mechanism and resistance mechanism so as to develop new potent inhibitors for wild-type or resistant AHAS.With the aid of available crystal structures of the Arabidopsis thaliana(At) AHAS-inhibitor complex,molecular dynamics(MD) simulations were used to investigate the interaction and resistance mechanism directly and dynamically at the atomic level.Nanosecond-level MD simulations were performed on six systems consisting of wild-type or W574L mutant AtAHAS in the complex with three sulfonylurea inhibitors,separately,and binding free energy was calculated for each system using the MM-GBSA method.Comprehensive analyses from structural and energetic aspects confirmed the importance of residue W574,and also indicated that W574L mutation might alert the structural charactersistic of the substrate access channel and decrease the binding affinity of inhibitors,which cooperatively weaken the effective channel-blocked effect and finally result in weaker inhibitory effect of inhibitor and corresponding herbicide resistance of W574L mutant.To our knowledge,it is the first report about MD simulations study on the AHAS-related system,which will pave the way to study the interactions between herbicides and wild-type or mutant AHAS dynamically,and decipher the resistance mechanism at the atomic level for better designing new potent anti-resistance herbicides.

  16. Analysis of an Arabidopsis heat-sensitive mutant reveals that chlorophyll synthase is involved in reutilization of chlorophyllide during chlorophyll turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Pin; Lee, Tsung-yuan; Tanaka, Ayumi; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-10-01

    Chlorophylls, the most abundant pigments in the photosynthetic apparatus, are constantly turned over as a result of the degradation and replacement of the damage-prone reaction center D1 protein of photosystem II. Results from isotope labeling experiments suggest that chlorophylls are recycled by reutilization of chlorophyllide and phytol, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, by characterization of a heat-sensitive Arabidopsis mutant we provide evidence of a salvage pathway for chlorophyllide a. A missense mutation in CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLG) was identified and confirmed to be responsible for a light-dependent, heat-induced cotyledon bleaching phenotype. Following heat treatment, mutant (chlg-1) but not wild-type seedlings accumulated a substantial level of chlorophyllide a, which resulted in a surge of phototoxic singlet oxygen. Immunoblot analysis suggested that the mutation destabilized the chlorophyll synthase proteins and caused a conditional blockage of esterification of chlorophyllide a after heat stress. Accumulation of chlorophyllide a after heat treatment occurred during recovery in the dark in the light-grown but not the etiolated seedlings, suggesting that the accumulated chlorophyllides were not derived from de novo biosynthesis but from de-esterification of the existing chlorophylls. Further analysis of the triple mutant harboring the CHLG mutant allele and null mutations of CHLOROPHYLLASE1 (CLH1) and CLH2 indicated that the known chlorophyllases are not responsible for the accumulation of chlorophyllide a in chlg-1. Taken together, our results show that chlorophyll synthase acts in a salvage pathway for chlorophyll biosynthesis by re-esterifying the chlorophyllide a produced during chlorophyll turnover.

  17. An UPLC-ESI-MS/MS Assay Using 6-Aminoquinolyl-N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl Carbamate Derivatization for Targeted Amino Acid Analysis: Application to Screening of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Salazar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the large arsenal of methodologies developed for amino acid assessment in complex matrices, their implementation in metabolomics studies involving wide-ranging mutant screening is hampered by their lack of high-throughput, sensitivity, reproducibility, and/or wide dynamic range. In response to the challenge of developing amino acid analysis methods that satisfy the criteria required for metabolomic studies, improved reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-MS methods have been recently reported for large-scale screening of metabolic phenotypes. However, these methods focus on the direct analysis of underivatized amino acids and, therefore, problems associated with insufficient retention and resolution are observed due to the hydrophilic nature of amino acids. It is well known that derivatization methods render amino acids more amenable for reverse phase chromatographic analysis by introducing highly-hydrophobic tags in their carboxylic acid or amino functional group. Therefore, an analytical platform that combines the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC pre-column derivatization method with ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS is presented in this article. For numerous reasons typical amino acid derivatization methods would be inadequate for large scale metabolic projects. However, AQC derivatization is a simple, rapid and reproducible way of obtaining stable amino acid adducts amenable for UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the applicability of the method for high-throughput metabolomic analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana is demonstrated in this study. Overall, the major advantages offered by this amino acid analysis method include high-throughput, enhanced sensitivity and selectivity; characteristics that showcase its utility for the rapid screening of the preselected plant metabolites without compromising the quality of the

  18. Global metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (AtPAO4 loss-of-function mutants exhibiting delayed dark-induced senescence

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    Miren Iranzu Sequera-Mutiozabal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Early and more recent studies have suggested that some polyamines (PAs, and particularly spermine (Spm, exhibit anti-senescence properties in plants. In this work, we have investigated the role of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (PAO4, encoding a PA back-conversion oxidase, during dark-induced senescence. Two independent PAO4 (pao4-1 and pao4-2 loss-of-function mutants have been found that accumulate 10-fold higher Spm, and this associated with delayed entry into senescence under dark conditions. Mechanisms underlying pao4 delayed senescence have been studied using global metabolic profiling by GC-TOF/MS. pao4 mutants exhibit constitutively higher levels of important metabolites involved in redox regulation, central metabolism and signaling that support a priming status against oxidative stress. During senescence, interactions between PAs and oxidative, sugar and nitrogen metabolism have been detected that additively contribute to delayed entry into senescence. Our results indicate the occurrence of metabolic interactions between PAs, particularly Spm, with cell oxidative balance and transport/biosynthesis of amino acids as a strategy to cope with oxidative damage produced during senescence.

  19. Characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants reveals a role for receptor-like kinase SCRAMBLED/STRUBBELIG in coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation during Arabidopsis leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zhong, Si-Hui; Cui, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jianming; He, Zu-Hua

    2012-12-01

    The balance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation is essential for leaf patterning. However, identification of the factors coordinating leaf patterning and cell growth behavior is challenging. Here, we characterized a temperature-sensitive Arabidopsis mutant with leaf blade and venation defects. We mapped the mutation to the sub-2 allele of the SCRAMBLED/STRUBBELIG (SCM/SUB) receptor-like kinase gene whose functions in leaf development have not been demonstrated. The sub-2 mutant displayed impaired blade development, asymmetric leaf shape and altered venation patterning under high ambient temperature (30°C), but these defects were less pronounced at normal growth temperature (22°C). Loss of SCM/SUB function results in reduced cell proliferation and abnormal cell expansion, as well as altered auxin patterning. SCM/SUB is initially expressed throughout leaf primordia and becomes restricted to the vascular cells, coinciding with its roles in early leaf patterning and venation formation. Furthermore, constitutive expression of the SCM/SUB gene also restricts organ growth by inhibiting the transition from cell proliferation to expansion. We propose the existence of a SCM/SUB-mediated developmental stage-specific signal for leaf patterning, and highlight the importance of the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation for leaf morphogenesis.

  20. Mutations in ribosomal proteins, RPL4 and RACK1, suppress the phenotype of a thermospermine-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kakehi

    Full Text Available Thermospermine acts in negative regulation of xylem differentiation and its deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, acaulis5 (acl5, shows excessive xylem formation and severe dwarfism. Studies of two dominant suppressors of acl5, sac51-d and sac52-d, have revealed that SAC51 and SAC52 encode a transcription factor and a ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10, respectively, and these mutations enhance translation of the SAC51 mRNA, which contains conserved upstream open reading frames in the 5' leader. Here we report identification of SAC53 and SAC56 responsible for additional suppressors of acl5. sac53-d is a semi-dominant allele of the gene encoding a receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1 homolog, a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit. sac56-d represents a semi-dominant allele of the gene for RPL4. We show that the GUS reporter activity driven by the CaMV 35S promoter plus the SAC51 5' leader is reduced in acl5 and restored by sac52-d, sac53-d, and sac56-d as well as thermospermine. Furthermore, the SAC51 mRNA, which may be a target of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, was found to be stabilized in these ribosomal mutants and by thermospermine. These ribosomal proteins are suggested to act in the control of uORF-mediated translation repression of SAC51, which is derepressed by thermospermine.

  1. An Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutant of the chloroplast triose phosphate/phosphate translocator is severely compromised only when starch synthesis, but not starch mobilisation is abolished

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Anja; Häusler, Rainer E; Kolukisaoglu, Uner

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana tpt-1 mutant which is defective in the chloroplast triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) was isolated by reverse genetics. It contains a T-DNA insertion 24 bp upstream of the start ATG of the TPT gene. The mutant lacks TPT transcripts and triose phosphate (TP......,6-bisphosphatase. Despite its regulatory role in the feed-forward control of sucrose biosynthesis, variations in the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content upon illumination were similar in the mutant and the wild type. Crosses of tpt-1 with mutants unable to mobilise starch (sex1) or to synthesise starch (adg1......-1) revealed that growth and photosynthesis of the double mutants was severely impaired only when starch biosynthesis, but not its mobilisation, was affected. For tpt-1/sex1 combining a lack in the TPT with a deficiency in starch mobilisation, an additional compensatory mechanism emerged, i.e. the formation...

  2. Rapid metabolism of glucose detected with FRET glucose nanosensors in epidermal cells and intact roots of Arabidopsis RNA-silencing mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Karen; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Okumoto, Sakiko; Lager, Ida; Lalonde, Sylvie; Frommer, Wolf B

    2006-09-01

    Genetically encoded glucose nanosensors have been used to measure steady state glucose levels in mammalian cytosol, nuclei, and endoplasmic reticulum. Unfortunately, the same nanosensors in Arabidopsis thaliana transformants manifested transgene silencing and undetectable fluorescence resonance energy transfer changes. Expressing nanosensors in sgs3 and rdr6 transgene silencing mutants eliminated silencing and resulted in high fluorescence levels. To measure glucose changes over a wide range (nanomolar to millimolar), nanosensors with higher signal-to-noise ratios were expressed in these mutants. Perfusion of leaf epidermis with glucose led to concentration-dependent ratio changes for nanosensors with in vitro K(d) values of 600 microM (FLIPglu-600 microDelta13) and 3.2 mM (FLIPglu-3.2 mDelta13), but one with 170 nM K(d) (FLIPglu-170 nDelta13) showed no response. In intact roots, FLIPglu-3.2 mDelta13 gave no response, whereas FLIPglu-600 microDelta13, FLIPglu-2 microDelta13, and FLIPglu-170 nDelta13 all responded to glucose. These results demonstrate that cytosolic steady state glucose levels depend on external supply in both leaves and roots, but under the conditions tested they are lower in root versus epidermal and guard cells. Without photosynthesis and external supply, cytosolic glucose can decrease to <90 nM in root cells. Thus, observed gradients are steeper than expected, and steady state levels do not appear subject to tight homeostatic control. Nanosensor-expressing plants can be used to assess glucose flux differences between cells, invertase-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in vivo, delivery of assimilates to roots, and glucose flux in mutants affected in sugar transport, metabolism, and signaling.

  3. Isolation of T—DNA flanking plant DNA from T—DNA insertional embryo—lethal mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana by plasmid rescue technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOXIAOLI; JIANGESUN; 等

    1996-01-01

    Three T-DNA insertional embryonic lethal mutants from NASC(The Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Center) were first checked with their segregation ratio of abortive and normal seeds and the copy number of T-DNA insertion.The N4081 mutant has a segregation ratio of 1:3.04 in average and one T-DNA insertion site according to our assay.It was therefore chosen for further analysis.To isolate the joint fragment of T-DNA and plant DNA,the plasmid rescue technique was used.pEL-7,one of plasmids from left border of T-DNA,which contained pBR322 was selected from ampicillin plate.The T-DNA fragment of pEL-7 was checked by restriction enzyme analysis and Southern Blot.Restriction analysis confirmed the presence of known sites of EcoRI,PstI and PvuII on it.For confirming the presence of flanking plant DNA in this plasmid,pEL-7 DNA was labeled and hybridized with wild type and mutant plant DNA.The Southern Blot indicated the hybridization band in both of them.Furthermore,the junction of T-DNA/plant DNA was subcloned into bluescript SK+ and sequenced by Applied Biosystem 373A sequencer.The results showed the 822 bp fragment contained a 274 bp sequence,which is 99.6%homolog(273bp/274bp) to Ti plasmid pTi 15955,DNA.The bp of left 25 bp border repeat were also found in the juction of T-DNA and Plant DNA. Taken together,pEL-7 should coutain a joint fragment of T-DNA and flanking plant DNA.This plasmid DNA could be used for the isolation of plant gene,which will be helpful to elucidate the relationship between gene function and plant embryo development.

  4. Live imaging of chloroplast FtsZ1 filaments, rings, spirals, and motile dot structures in the AtMinE1 mutant and overexpressor of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Sekine, Kohsuke; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Abe, Tomoko; Sato, Naoki; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2009-06-01

    Chloroplast division involves the tubulin-related GTPase FtsZ that assembles into a ring structure (Z-ring) at the mid-chloroplast division site, which is where invagination and constriction of the envelope membranes occur. Z-ring assembly is usually confined to the mid-chloroplast site by a well balanced counteraction of the stromal proteins MinD and MinE. The in vivo mechanisms by which FtsZ nucleates at specific sites, polymerises into a protofilament and organizes a closed ring of filament bundles remain largely unknown. To clarify the dynamic aspects of FtsZ, we developed a living cell system for simultaneous visualisation of various FtsZ configurations, utilising the Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressor and mutant of the MinE (AtMinE1) gene, which were modified to weakly express green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to AtFtsZ1-1. Time-lapse observation in the chloroplasts of both plants revealed disorderly movement of the dots and short filaments of FtsZ. The short filaments often appeared to emanate from the dots and to converge with a long filament, producing a thick cable. In the AtMinE1 overexpressor, we also observed spirals along the longitudinal axis of the organelle that often rolled the closed rings together. In the atminE1 mutant, we visualised the 'isolated' rings with a maximum diameter of approximately 2 mum that did not encircle the organelle periphery, but appeared to be suspended in the stroma. Our observations further demonstrated heterogeneity in chloroplast shapes and concurrently altered configurations of FtsZ in the mutant.

  5. Increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens in the Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 mutant is EDS1 and PAD4-dependent and modulated by environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Maryke; McCrindle, Tyronne K; Adams, Nicolette; Diener, Anastashia; Guzha, Delroy T; Murray, Shane L; Parker, Jane E; Denby, Katherine J; Ingle, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 (cir1) mutant displays salicylic acid (SA)-dependent constitutive expression of defence genes and enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens. To further characterise the role of CIR1 in plant immunity we conducted epistasis analyses with two key components of the SA-signalling branch of the defence network, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4). We demonstrate that the constitutive defence phenotypes of cir1 require both EDS1 and PAD4, indicating that CIR1 lies upstream of the EDS1-PAD4 regulatory node in the immune signalling network. In light of this finding we examined EDS1 expression in cir1 and observed increased protein, but not mRNA levels in this mutant, suggesting that CIR1 might act as a negative regulator of EDS1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Finally, as environmental temperature is known to influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, we analysed cir1 plants grown at 18, 22 or 25°C. We found that susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 is modulated by temperature in cir1. Greatest resistance to this pathogen (relative to PR-1:LUC control plants) was observed at 18°C, while at 25°C no difference in susceptibility between cir1 and control plants was apparent. The increase in resistance to Pst DC3000 at 18°C correlated with a stunted growth phenotype, suggesting that activation of defence responses may be enhanced at lower temperatures in the cir1 mutant.

  6. Increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens in the Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 mutant is EDS1 and PAD4-dependent and modulated by environmental temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke Carstens

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 (cir1 mutant displays salicylic acid (SA-dependent constitutive expression of defence genes and enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens. To further characterise the role of CIR1 in plant immunity we conducted epistasis analyses with two key components of the SA-signalling branch of the defence network, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4. We demonstrate that the constitutive defence phenotypes of cir1 require both EDS1 and PAD4, indicating that CIR1 lies upstream of the EDS1-PAD4 regulatory node in the immune signalling network. In light of this finding we examined EDS1 expression in cir1 and observed increased protein, but not mRNA levels in this mutant, suggesting that CIR1 might act as a negative regulator of EDS1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Finally, as environmental temperature is known to influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, we analysed cir1 plants grown at 18, 22 or 25°C. We found that susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 is modulated by temperature in cir1. Greatest resistance to this pathogen (relative to PR-1:LUC control plants was observed at 18°C, while at 25°C no difference in susceptibility between cir1 and control plants was apparent. The increase in resistance to Pst DC3000 at 18°C correlated with a stunted growth phenotype, suggesting that activation of defence responses may be enhanced at lower temperatures in the cir1 mutant.

  7. A functional EDS1 ortholog is differentially regulated in powdery mildew resistant and susceptible grapevines and complements an Arabidopsis eds1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Shu, Xiaomei; Ali, Mohammad Babar; Howard, Susanne; Li, Nan; Winterhagen, Patrick; Qiu, Wenping; Gassmann, Walter

    2010-04-01

    Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is the most economically important deciduous fruit crop, but cultivated grapevine varieties lack adequate innate immunity to a range of devastating diseases. To identify genetic resources for grapevine innate immunity and understand pathogen defense pathways in a woody perennial plant, we focus in this study on orthologs of the central Arabidopsis thaliana defense regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). The family of EDS1-like genes is expanded in grapevine, and members of this family were previously found to be constitutively upregulated in the resistant variety 'Norton' of the North American grapevine species Vitis aestivalis, while they were induced by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of grapevine powdery mildew (PM), in the susceptible V. vinifera variety 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Here, we determine the responsiveness of individual EDS1-like genes in grapevine to PM and salicylic acid, and find that EDS1-like paralogs are differentially regulated in 'Cabernet Sauvignon', while two are constitutively upregulated in 'Norton'. Sequencing of VvEDS1 and VaEDS1 cDNA and genomic clones revealed high conservation in the protein-encoding sequence and some divergence of the promoter sequence in the two grapevine varieties. Complementation of the Arabidopsis eds1-1 mutant showed that the EDS1-like gene with highest predicted amino acid sequence similarity to AtEDS1 from either grapevine varieties is a functional ortholog of AtEDS1. Together, our analyses show that differential susceptibility to PM is correlated with differences in EDS1 expression, not differences in EDS1 function, between resistant 'Norton' and susceptible 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  8. Characterization of a novel developmentally retarded mutant (drm1) associated with the autonomous flowering pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong ZHU; Hui Fang ZHAO; Guo Dong REN; Xiao Fei YU; Shu Qing CAO; Ben Ke KUAI

    2005-01-01

    A developmentally retarded mutant (drm1) was identified from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized M2 seeds in Columbia (Col-0) genetic background. The drm1 flowers 109 d after sowing, with a whole life cycle of about 160 d.It also shows a pleiotropic phenotype, e.g., slow germination and lower gemination rate, lower growth rate, curling leaves and abnormal floral organs. The drm1 mutation was a single recessive nuclear mutation, which was mapped to the bottom of chromosome 5 and located within a region of 20-30 kb around MXK3.1. There have been no mutants with similar phenotypes reported in the literature, suggesting that DRM1 is a novel flowering promoting locus. The findings that the drm1 flowered lately under all photoperiod conditions and its late flowering phenotype was significantly restored by vernalization treatment suggest that the drm1 is a typical late flowering mutant and most likely associated with the autonomous flowering pathway. The conclusion was further confirmed by the revelation that the transcript level of FLC was constantly upregulated in the drm1 at all the developmental phases examined, except for a very early stage. Moreover, the transcript levels of two other important repressors, EMF and TFL1, were also upregulated in the drm1, implying that the two repressors, along with FLC, seems to act in parallel pathways in the drm1 to regulate flowering as well as other aspects of floral development in a negatively additive way. This helps to explain why the drm1exhibits a much more severe late-flowering phenotype than most late-flowering mutants reported. It also implies that the DRM1 might act upstream of these repressors.

  9. A proteomic approach to analyzing responses of Arabidopsis thaliana root cells to different gravitational conditions using an agravitropic mutant, pin2 and its wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root gravitropsim has been proposed to require the coordinated, redistribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin within the root meristem, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. PIN proteins are membrane transporters that mediate the efflux of auxin from cells. The PIN2 is important for the basipetal transport of auxin in roots and plays a critical role in the transmission of gravity signals perceived in the root cap to the root elongation zone. The loss of function pin2 mutant exhibits a gravity-insensitive root growth phenotype. By comparing the proteomes of wild type and the pin2 mutant root tips under different gravitational conditions, we hope to identify proteins involved in the gravity-related signal transduction. Results To identify novel proteins involved in the gravity signal transduction pathway we have carried out a comparative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis pin2 mutant and wild type (WT roots subjected to different gravitational conditions. These conditions included horizontal (H and vertical (V clinorotation, hypergravity (G and the stationary control (S. Analysis of silver-stained two-dimensional SDS-PAGE gels revealed 28 protein spots that showed significant expression changes in altered gravity (H or G compared to control roots (V and S. Whereas the majority of these proteins exhibited similar expression patterns in WT and pin2 roots, a significant number displayed different patterns of response between WT and pin2 roots. The latter group included 11 protein spots in the H samples and two protein spots in the G samples that exhibited an altered expression exclusively in WT but not in pin2 roots. One of these proteins was identified as annexin2, which was induced in the root cap columella cells under altered gravitational conditions. Conclusions The most interesting observation in this study is that distinctly different patterns of protein expression were found in WT and pin2 mutant

  10. Identification and Studies of a Rice Mutant hya-1 with Semi-dwarf and Aneuploid Traits%一份水稻半矮秆非整倍突变体hya-1的鉴定与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛; 刘永柱; 张建国; 陈志强; 王慧

    2012-01-01

    A semi-dwarfing rice mutant hya-1 , genetically unstable in plant height was obtained through space muta-genesis of Texianzhan 13. Compared to the wild type, hya-1 mutant was featured by semi-dwarfness, fewer tillers, slim culms, reduced grain number per panicle, low seed setting rate and low germination rate. Segregation of plant height in selfed progenies of the mutant was observed. Normal plants of selfed progenies, however, showed genetic stability. Plant height of F, hybrid and F2 progenies generated from the cross between hya-1 mutant and Texianzhan 13 did not follow Mendelian inheritance. Furthermore, selfed-progenies of the mutant had abnormal chromosome numbers (e.g. 2n = 22, 23, 25 and 36 instead of 2n- 24). In addition, there were some pollen mother cells of hya-1 with 11 bivalents at the diakinesis stage of meiosis. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of normal and semi-dwarf plants from selfed progenies of the mutant along with Texianzhan 13 showed equal copy number of chromosome in normal and wild type plants while the copy number of chromosome 8 and 11 differed in hya-1 and semi-dwarf plants from the selfed progenies. It suggested that hya-1 mutant is a new aneuploid in which abnormal phenotype and genetic instability are caused by abnormal chromosome number and/or varying copy number of certain chromosomes.%通过空间诱变得到半矮秆突变体hya-1,该突变体半矮秆性状遗传稳定性丧失.与其野生型特籼占13相比,hya-1株高显著降低、分蘖少、茎秆细弱、每穗粒数减少、结实率降低、发芽率降低.单株收获半矮株hya-1自交种子,对半矮生性状进行连续选择,发现该性状无法纯合稳定,自交群体株高长期分离(半矮秆和野生型);分离群体中的野生型个体自交,其株高性状稳定.利用hya-1与特籼占13配制杂交组合,其F1及F2株高表型不符合孟德尔分离规律.hya-1自交收获种子根尖细胞染色体数目出现了 2n=22、23、24、25、36的变

  11. 一种拟南芥突变体对高浓度CO2反应的研究%Response of an Arabidopsis mutant to elevated CO2 concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝林; 徐昕; 曹军

    2003-01-01

    The study on the response of a mutant and a wild-type of Arabidopsis to 660 μl·L-1 CO2 and ambient CO2 showed that under elevated CO2, the stomatal numbers of the mutant increased, while those of the wild-type de-creased. The chlorophyll content and NR (nitrate reductase) activity of the mutant increased, but those of the wild-type had no obvious response. The mutant was not reproductively mature after the continuous exposure to increased CO2 for five months. The results provided evidence of plant response to the changes of atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the clues to related studies on other plants.

  12. Reference: 539 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dy, we isolated mutants defective in root amino acid uptake by screening Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ...urred, suggesting that LHT1 may fulfill an important function at this developmental stage. Based on the broad and unbiased screening...on of organic N from the soil. Comprehensive screening of Arabidopsis mutants suggests the lysine histidine

  13. Insights into the composition and assembly of the membrane arm of plant complex I through analysis of subcomplexes in Arabidopsis mutant lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Etienne H; Solheim, Cory; Tanz, Sandra K; Bonnard, Géraldine; Millar, A Harvey

    2011-07-22

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I, EC 1.6.5.3) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In eukaryotes, it is composed of more than 40 subunits that are encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Plant Complex I differs from the enzyme described in other eukaryotes, most notably due to the large number of plant-specific subunits in the membrane arm of the complex. The elucidation of the assembly pathway of Complex I has been a long-standing research aim in cellular biochemistry. We report the study of Arabidopsis mutants in Complex I subunits using a combination of Blue-Native PAGE and immunodetection to identify stable subcomplexes containing Complex I components, along with mass spectrometry analysis of Complex I components in membrane fractions and two-dimensional diagonal Tricine SDS-PAGE to study the composition of the largest subcomplex. Four subcomplexes of the membrane arm of Complex I with apparent molecular masses of 200, 400, 450, and 650 kDa were observed. We propose a working model for the assembly of the membrane arm of Complex I in plants and assign putative roles during the assembly process for two of the subunits studied.

  14. Reference: 446 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available are required for pollen separation during normal floral development. In qrt mutants, the four products of mi...rk E et al. 2006 Nov. Plant Physiol. 142(3):1004-13. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) QUARTET (QRT) genes

  15. Reference: 398 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plays attenuated chloroplast movements under intermediate and high light intensitie...hese movements. In this work, we describe plastid movement impaired 2 (pmi2), a mutant in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that dis

  16. Constitutive disease resistance requires EDS1 in the Arabidopsis mutants cpr1 and cpr6 and is partially EDS1-dependent in cpr5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J D; Aarts, N; Feys, B J; Dong, X; Parker, J E

    2001-05-01

    The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response in Arabidopsis is characterized by the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, and enhanced resistance to virulent bacterial and oomycete pathogens. The cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes) mutants express all three SAR phenotypes. In addition, cpr5 and cpr6 induce expression of PDF1.2, a defense-related gene associated with activation of the jasmonate/ethylene-mediated resistance pathways. cpr5 also forms spontaneous lesions. In contrast, the eds1 (enhanced disease susceptibility) mutation abolishes race-specific resistance conferred by a major subclass of resistance (R) gene products in response to avirulent pathogens. eds1 plants also exhibit increased susceptibility to virulent pathogens. Epistasis experiments were designed to explore the relationship between the cpr- and EDS1-mediated resistance pathways. We found that a null eds1 mutation suppresses the disease resistance phenotypes of both cpr1 and cpr6. In contrast, eds1 only partially suppresses resistance in cpr5, leading us to conclude that cpr5 expresses both EDS1-dependent and EDS1-independent components of plant disease resistance. Although eds1 does not prevent lesion formation on cpr5 leaves, it alters their appearance and reduces their spread. This phenotypic difference is associated with increased pathogen colonization of cpr5 eds1 plants compared to cpr5. The data allow us to place EDS1 as a necessary downstream component of cpr1- and cpr6-mediated responses, but suggest a more complex relationship between EDS1 and cpr5 in plant defense.

  17. Identification and characterization of novel defence and PCD signalling components in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Wenjun

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens by activating a defence signalling network. The Arabidopsis double mutant syp121 syp122 is dwarfed and mimics a response as if it was attacked by pathogens. Using EMS as mutagen on syp121 syp122, a suppressor screen was performed. More than 200 partially...... a large protein with at least six domains with predicted functions, and mutations in five of these showed that they are important for the lesion mimic phenotype of syp121 syp122. Subcellular localization showed SSD6 to function on the ER. In the project, a split-GFP Gateway vector system was developed...

  18. Ectopic expression of a phytochrome B gene from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) in Arabidopsis thaliana promotes seedling de-etiolation, dwarfing in mature plants, and delayed flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Pei; Shang, Hong-Zhong; Gu, Hai-Ke; Li, Jing-Juan; Xiao, Yang; Guo, Lin; Su, Liang; Gao, Jian-Wei; Yang, Jian-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB) is an essential red light receptor that predominantly mediates seedling de-etiolation, shade-avoidance response, and flowering time. In this study, we isolate a full-length cDNA of PHYB, designated BrPHYB, from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), and we find that BrphyB protein has high amino acid sequence similarity and the closest evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana phyB (i.e., AtphyB). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicate that the BrPHYB gene is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues under all light conditions. Constitutive expression of the BrPHYB gene in A. thaliana significantly enhances seedling de-etiolation under red- and white-light conditions, and causes dwarf stature in mature plants. Unexpectedly, overexpression of BrPHYB in transgenic A. thaliana resulted in reduced expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes and delayed flowering under short-day conditions, whereas AtPHYB overexpression caused enhanced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and earlier flowering. Our results suggest that BrphyB might play an important role in regulating the development of Chinese cabbage. BrphyB and AtphyB have conserved functions during de-etiolation and vegetative plant growth and divergent functions in the regulation of flowering time.

  19. A quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a β-carotene hydroxylation activity for LUT1/CYP97C1 and a regulatory role of xanthophylls on determination of the PSI/PSII ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Alessia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids playing an essential role as structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophylls contribute to the assembly and stability of light-harvesting complex, to light absorbance and to photoprotection. The first step in xanthophyll biosynthesis from α- and β-carotene is the hydroxylation of ε- and β-rings, performed by both non-heme iron oxygenases (CHY1, CHY2 and P450 cytochromes (LUT1/CYP97C1, LUT5/CYP97A3. The Arabidopsis triple chy1chy2lut5 mutant is almost completely depleted in β-xanthophylls. Results Here we report on the quadruple chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant, additionally carrying the lut2 mutation (affecting lycopene ε-cyclase. This genotype lacks lutein and yet it shows a compensatory increase in β-xanthophylls with respect to chy1chy2lut5 mutant. Mutant plants show an even stronger photosensitivity than chy1chy2lut5, a complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of non-photochemical quenching, and a peculiar organization of the pigment binding complexes into thylakoids. Biochemical analysis reveals that the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant is depleted in Lhcb subunits and is specifically affected in Photosystem I function, showing a deficiency in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes. Moreover, by analyzing a series of single, double, triple and quadruple Arabidopsis mutants in xanthophyll biosynthesis, we show a hitherto undescribed correlation between xanthophyll levels and the PSI-PSII ratio. The decrease in the xanthophyll/carotenoid ratio causes a proportional decrease in the LHCII and PSI core levels with respect to PSII. Conclusions The physiological and biochemical phenotype of the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant shows that (i LUT1/CYP97C1 protein reveals a major β-carotene hydroxylase activity in vivo when depleted in its preferred substrate α-carotene; (ii xanthophylls are needed for normal level of Photosystem I and LHCII accumulation.

  20. Reference: 21 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ication of a number of mutant lines with altered Chl fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of photosynthesis...cation of mutants of Arabidopsis defective in acclimation of photosynthesis to th

  1. Reference: 405 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as previously thought. These mutants will prove to be valuable resources for understanding laccase functions in vivo. Mutant identifi...cation and characterization of the laccase gene family in Arabidopsis. 11 2563-9 16

  2. Brassinosteroids can regulate cellulose biosynthesis by controlling the expression of CESA genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liqiong; Yang, Cangjing; Wang, Xuelu

    2011-08-01

    The phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), play important roles in regulating cell elongation and cell size, and BR-related mutants in Arabidopsis display significant dwarf phenotypes. Cellulose is a biopolymer which has a major contribution to cell wall formation during cell expansion and elongation. However, whether BRs regulate cellulose synthesis, and if so, what the underlying mechanism of cell elongation induced by BRs is, is unknown. The content of cellulose and the expression levels of the cellulose synthase genes (CESAs) was measured in BR-related mutants and their wild-type counterpart. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) experiments and genetic analysis were used to demonstrate that BRs regulate CESA genes. It was found here that the BR-deficient or BR-perceptional mutants contain less cellulose than the wild type. The expression of CESA genes, especially those related to primary cell wall synthesis, was reduced in det2-1 and bri1-301, and was only inducible by BRs in the BR-deficient mutant det2-1. CHIP experiments show that the BR-activated transcription factor BES1 can associate with upstream elements of most CESA genes particularly those related with the primary cell wall. Furthermore, over-expression of the BR receptor BRI1 in CESA1, 3, and 6 mutants can only partially rescue the dwarf phenotypes. Our findings provide potential insights into the mechanism that BRs regulate cellulose synthesis to accomplish the cell elongation process in plant development.

  3. Synthesis of Hydroxylated Sterols in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Alters Growth and Steroid Metabolism1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Lisa; Nahar, Nurun; Dalman, Kerstin; Fujioka, Shozo; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Dutta, Paresh C.; Sitbon, Folke

    2011-01-01

    To explore mechanisms in plant sterol homeostasis, we have here increased the turnover of sterols in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants by overexpressing four mouse cDNA encoding cholesterol hydroxylases (CHs), hydroxylating cholesterol at the C-7, C-24, C-25, or C-27 positions. Compared to the wild type, the four types of Arabidopsis transformant showed varying degrees of phenotypic alteration, the strongest one being in CH25 lines, which were dark-green dwarfs resembling brassinosteroid-related mutants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of extracts from wild-type Arabidopsis plants revealed trace levels of α and β forms of 7-hydroxycholesterol, 7-hydroxycampesterol, and 7-hydroxysitosterol. The expected hydroxycholesterol metabolites in CH7-, CH24-, and CH25 transformants were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additional hydroxysterol forms were also observed, particularly in CH25 plants. In CH24 and CH25 lines, but not in CH7 ones, the presence of hydroxysterols was correlated with a considerable alteration of the sterol profile and an increased sterol methyltransferase activity in microsomes. Moreover, CH25 lines contained clearly reduced levels of brassinosteroids, and displayed an enhanced drought tolerance. Equivalent transformations of potato plants with the CH25 construct increased hydroxysterol levels, but without the concomitant alteration of growth and sterol profiles observed in Arabidopsis. The results suggest that an increased hydroxylation of cholesterol and/or other sterols in Arabidopsis triggers compensatory processes, acting to maintain sterols at adequate levels. PMID:21746809

  4. Characterization of multiple SPS knockout mutants reveals redundant functions of the four Arabidopsis sucrose phosphate synthase isoforms in plant viability, and strongly indicates that enhanced respiration and accelerated starch turnover can alleviate the blockage of sucrose biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaji, Abdellatif; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Ricarte-Bermejo, Adriana; Sánchez-López, Ángela María; Muñoz, Francisco José; Romero, Jose M; Ruiz, María Teresa; Baslam, Marouane; Almagro, Goizeder; Sesma, María Teresa; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2015-09-01

    We characterized multiple knock-out mutants of the four Arabidopsis sucrose phosphate synthase (SPSA1, SPSA2, SPSB and SPSC) isoforms. Despite their reduced SPS activity, spsa1/spsa2, spsa1/spsb, spsa2/spsb, spsa2/spsc, spsb/spsc, spsa1/spsa2/spsb and spsa2/spsb/spsc mutants displayed wild type (WT) vegetative and reproductive morphology, and showed WT photosynthetic capacity and respiration. In contrast, growth of rosettes, flowers and siliques of the spsa1/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsc mutants was reduced compared with WT plants. Furthermore, these plants displayed a high dark respiration phenotype. spsa1/spsb/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsb/spsc seeds poorly germinated and produced aberrant and sterile plants. Leaves of all viable sps mutants, except spsa1/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsc, accumulated WT levels of nonstructural carbohydrates. spsa1/spsc leaves possessed high levels of metabolic intermediates and activities of enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, and accumulated high levels of metabolic intermediates of the nocturnal starch-to-sucrose conversion process, even under continuous light conditions. Results presented in this work show that SPS is essential for plant viability, reveal redundant functions of the four SPS isoforms in processes that are important for plant growth and nonstructural carbohydrate metabolism, and strongly indicate that accelerated starch turnover and enhanced respiration can alleviate the blockage of sucrose biosynthesis in spsa1/spsc leaves.

  5. Reference: 401 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zed T-DNA insertion mutants of the Arabidopsis thaliana UV-DDB2 subunit (atuv-ddb2 mutants) and AtUV-DDB2 RNAi silence...d plants (atuv-ddb2 silenced plants). atuv-ddb2 mutants and atuv-ddb2 silenced plants were both vi... of T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi silenced plants of Arabidopsis thaliana UV-d

  6. Engineering of plants with improved properties as biofuels feedstocks by vessel-specific complementation of xylan biosynthesis mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia; Lau, Jane; Ebert, Berit

    2012-01-01

    complementation of the irx phenotype than the VND6 promoter. Conclusions: Spatial and temporal deposition of xylan in the secondary cell wall of Arabidopsis can be manipulated by using the promoter regions of vessel-specific genes to express xylan biosynthetic genes. The expression of xylan specifically....... Results: Xylan is the major non-cellulosic polysaccharide in secondary cell walls, and the xylan deficient irregular xylem (irx) mutants irx7, irx8 and irx9 exhibit severe dwarf growth phenotypes. The main reason for the growth phenotype appears to be xylem vessel collapse and the resulting impaired...

  7. Vascular development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng-Hua; Freshour, Glenn; Hahn, Michael G; Burk, David H; Zhong, Ruiqin

    2002-01-01

    Vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, form a continuous network throughout the plant body for transport of water, minerals, and food. Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is an ideal system for investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular development. The processes affected in these mutants include initiation or division of procambium or vascular cambium, formation of continuous vascular cell files, differentiation of procambium or vascular cambium into vascular tissues, cell elongation, patterned secondary wall thickening, and biosynthesis of secondary walls. Identification of the genes affected by some of these mutations has revealed essential roles in vascular development for a cytokinin receptor and several factors mediating auxin transport or signaling. Mutational studies have also identified a number of Arabidopsis mutants defective in leaf venation pattern or vascular tissue organization in stems. Genetic evidence suggests that the vascular tissue organization is regulated by the same positional information that determines organ polarity.

  8. Enhanced Abscisic Acid-Mediated Responses in nia1nia2noa1-2 Triple Mutant Impaired in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-Dependent Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. Despite its reported regulatory functions, it remains unclear how NO is synthesized in plants. We have generated a triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant that is impaired in nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and Nitric Oxide-Associated1 (AtNOA1)-mediated NO biosynthetic pathways. NO content in roots of nia1nia2 and noa1-2 plants was lower than in wild-type plants and below the detection limit in nia1nia2noa1-2 plants. NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated biosynthesis of NO were thus active and responsible for most of the NO production in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The nia1nia2noa1-2 plants displayed reduced size, fertility, and seed germination potential but increased dormancy and resistance to water deficit. The increasing deficiency in NO of nia1nia2, noa1-2, and nia1nia2noa1-2 plants correlated with increased seed dormancy, hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) in seed germination and establishment, as well as dehydration resistance. In nia1nia2noa1-2 plants, enhanced drought tolerance was due to a very efficient stomata closure and inhibition of opening by ABA, thus uncoupling NO from ABA-triggered responses in NO-deficient guard cells. The NO-deficient mutants in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated pathways in combination with the triple mutant will be useful tools to functionally characterize the role of NO and the contribution of both biosynthetic pathways in regulating plant development and defense. PMID:20007448

  9. Enhanced abscisic acid-mediated responses in nia1nia2noa1-2 triple mutant impaired in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-dependent nitric oxide biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José

    2010-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. Despite its reported regulatory functions, it remains unclear how NO is synthesized in plants. We have generated a triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant that is impaired in nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and Nitric Oxide-Associated1 (AtNOA1)-mediated NO biosynthetic pathways. NO content in roots of nia1nia2 and noa1-2 plants was lower than in wild-type plants and below the detection limit in nia1nia2noa1-2 plants. NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated biosynthesis of NO were thus active and responsible for most of the NO production in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The nia1nia2noa1-2 plants displayed reduced size, fertility, and seed germination potential but increased dormancy and resistance to water deficit. The increasing deficiency in NO of nia1nia2, noa1-2, and nia1nia2noa1-2 plants correlated with increased seed dormancy, hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) in seed germination and establishment, as well as dehydration resistance. In nia1nia2noa1-2 plants, enhanced drought tolerance was due to a very efficient stomata closure and inhibition of opening by ABA, thus uncoupling NO from ABA-triggered responses in NO-deficient guard cells. The NO-deficient mutants in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated pathways in combination with the triple mutant will be useful tools to functionally characterize the role of NO and the contribution of both biosynthetic pathways in regulating plant development and defense.

  10. Arabidopsis RecQsim, a plant-specific member of the RecQ helicase family, can suppress the MMS hypersensitivity of the yeast sgs1 mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherieh-Najjar, MB; de Vries, OMH; Kroon, JTM; Wright, EL; Elborough, KM; Hille, J; Dijkwel, PP

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome contains seven genes that belong to the RecQ family of ATP-dependent DNA helicases. RecQ members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGS1) and man (WRN, BLM and RecQL4) are involved in DNA recombination, repair and genome stability maintenance, but little is known about the function

  11. Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Cell Death in Arabidopsis : Transcriptional and Mutant Analysis Reveals a Role of an Oxoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenase Gene in the Cell Death Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S.; Minkov, Ivan N.; Hille, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a major regulator of plant programmed cell death (PCD) but little is known about the downstream genes from the H2O2-signaling network that mediate the cell death. To address this question, a novel system for studying H2O2-induced programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana was

  12. Defective chloroplast development inhibits maintenance of normal levels of abscisic acid in a mutant of the Arabidopsis RH3 DEAD-box protein during early post-germination growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jiyoung; Williams, Donna S; Xiong, Yuqing; Hwang, Inhwan; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    The plastid has its own translation system, and its ribosomes are assembled through a complex process in which rRNA precursors are processed and ribosomal proteins are inserted into the rRNA backbone. DEAD-box proteins have been shown to play roles in multiple steps in ribosome biogenesis. To investigate the cellular and physiological roles of an Arabidopsis DEAD-box protein, RH3, we examined its expression and localization and the phenotypes of rh3-4, a T-DNA insertion mutant allele of RH3. The promoter activity of RH3 is strongest in the greening tissues of 3-day and 1-week-old seedlings but reduced afterwards. Cotyledons were pale and seedling growth was retarded in the mutant. The most obvious abnormality in the mutant chloroplasts was their lack of normal ribosomes. Electron tomography analysis indicated that ribosome density in the 3-day-old mutant chloroplasts is only 20% that of wild-type chloroplasts, and the ribosomes in the mutant are smaller. These chloroplast defects in rh3-4 were alleviated in 2-week-old cotyledons and true leaves. Interestingly, rh3-4 seedlings have lower amounts of abscisic acid prior to recovery of their chloroplasts, and were more sensitive to abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that nuclear genes for chloroplast proteins are down-regulated, and proteins mediating chloroplast-localized steps of abscisic acid biosynthesis are expressed to a lower extent in 1-week-old rh3-4 seedlings. Taken together, these results suggest that conversion of eoplasts into chloroplasts in young seedlings is critical for the seedlings to start carbon fixation as well as for maintenance of abscisic acid levels for responding to environmental challenges.

  13. Isolation and characterization of the Arabidopsis heat-intolerant 2 (hit2) mutant reveal the essential role of the nuclear export receptor EXPORTIN1A (XPO1A) in plant heat tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shin-Jye; Wang, Lian-Chin; Yeh, Ching-Hui; Lu, Chun-An; Wu, Shaw-Jye

    2010-06-01

    *The Arabidopsis heat-intolerant 2 (hit2) mutant was isolated on the basis of its impaired ability to withstand moderate heat stress (37 degrees C). Determination of the genetic mutation that underlies the hit2 thermosensitive phenotype allowed better understanding of the mechanisms by which plants cope with heat stress. *Genetic analysis revealed that hit2 is a single recessive mutation. Map-based cloning was used to identify the hit2 locus. The response of hit2 to other types of heat stress was also investigated to characterize the protective role of HIT2. *hit2 was defective in basal but not in acquired thermotolerance. hit2 was sensitive to methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress, and the survival of hit2 seedlings in response to heat stress was affected by light conditions. The mutated locus was located at the EXPORTIN1A (XPO1A) gene, which encodes a nuclear transport receptor. Two T-DNA insertion lines, xpo1a-1 and xpo1a-3, exhibited the same phenotypes as hit2. *The results provide evidence that Arabidopsis XPO1A is dispensable for normal plant growth and development but is essential for thermotolerance, in part by mediating the protection of plants against heat-induced oxidative stress.

  14. CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 characterized from Solanum tuberosum oxidize fatty acids in vitro and partially restore the wild phenotype in an Arabidopsis thaliana cutin mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausem, B; Widemann, E; Verdier, G; Nosbüsch, D; Aubert, Y; Beisson, F; Schreiber, L; Franke, R; Pinot, F

    2014-09-01

    Cutin and suberin represent lipophilic polymers forming plant/environment interfaces in leaves and roots. Despite recent progress in Arabidopsis, there is still a lack on information concerning cutin and suberin synthesis, especially in crops. Based on sequence homology, we isolated two cDNA clones of new cytochrome P450s, CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). Both enzymes hydroxylated lauric acid (C12:0) on position ω-1 to ω-5. They oxidized fatty acids with chain length ranging from C12 to C18 and catalysed hydroxylation of 16-hydroxypalmitic acid leading to dihydroxypalmitic (DHP) acids, the major C16 cutin and suberin monomers. CYP77A19 also produced epoxides from linoleic acid (C18:2). Exploration of expression pattern in potato by RT-qPCR revealed the presence of transcripts in all tissues tested with the highest expression in the seed compared with leaves. Water stress enhanced their expression level in roots but not in leaves. Application of methyl jasmonate specifically induced CYP77A19 expression. Expression of either gene in the Arabidopsis null mutant cyp77a6-1 defective in flower cutin restored petal cuticular impermeability. Nanoridges were also observed in CYP77A20-expressing lines. However, only very low levels of the major flower cutin monomer 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate and no C18 epoxy monomers were found in the cutin of the complemented lines.

  15. The plastid redox insensitive 2 mutant of Arabidopsis is impaired in PEP activity and high light-dependent plastid redox signalling to the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindgren, Peter; Kremnev, Dmitry; Blanco, Nicolás E

    2012-01-01

    involved in redox-mediated retrograde signalling. The allelic mutants prin2-1 and prin2-2 demonstrated a misregulation of photosynthesis-associated nuclear gene expression in response to excess light, and an inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport. As a consequence of the misregulation of LHCB1...... is required for full expression of genes transcribed by the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP). Similarly to the prin2 mutants, the ys1 mutant with impaired PEP activity also demonstrated a misregulation of LHCB1.1 and LHCB2.4 expression in response to excess light, suggesting a direct role for PEP activity...

  16. Synergistic activation of defense responses in Arabidopsis by simultaneous loss of the GSL5 callose synthase and the EDR1 protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzynska, Anna; Rodibaugh, Natalie L; Innes, Roger W

    2010-05-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the EDR1 gene of Arabidopsis confer enhanced resistance to Golovinomyces cichoracearum (powdery mildew). Disease resistance mediated by the edr1 mutation is dependent on an intact salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, but edr1 mutant plants do not constitutively express the SA-inducible gene PR-1 and are not dwarfed. To identify other components of the EDR1 signaling network, we screened for mutations that enhanced the edr1 mutant phenotype. Here, we describe an enhancer of edr1 mutant, eed3, which forms spontaneous lesions in the absence of pathogen infection, constitutively expresses both SA- and methyl jasmonate (JA)-inducible defense genes, and is dwarfed. Positional cloning of eed3 revealed that the mutation causes a premature stop codon in GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE 5 (GSL5, also known as POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4), which encodes a callose synthase required for pathogen-induced callose production. Significantly, gsl5 single mutants do not constitutively express PR-1 or AtERF1 (a JA-inducible gene) and are not dwarfed. Thus, loss of both EDR1 and GSL5 function has a synergistic effect. Our data suggest that EDR1 and GSL5 negatively regulate SA and JA production or signaling by independent mechanisms and that negative regulation of defense signaling by GSL5 may be independent of callose production.

  17. Reference: 22 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eath. To understand the molecular mechanism of cell death in lesion mimic mutants, we isolated a lesion init...iation 1 (len1) mutant by a T-DNA tagging method. The len1 mutant develops lesions on its leaves and express...h in Arabidopsis. Deletion of a chaperonin 60 beta gene leads to cell death in the Arabidopsis lesion initia

  18. Constitutive salicylic acid accumulation in pi4kIIIβ1β2 Arabidopsis plants stunts rosette but not root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sašek, Vladimír; Janda, Martin; Delage, Elise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Guivarc'h, Anne; López Maseda, Encarnación; Dobrev, Petre I; Caius, José; Bóka, Károly; Valentová, Olga; Burketová, Lenka; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Phospholipids have recently been found to be integral elements of hormone signalling pathways. An Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant in two type III phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases (PI4Ks), pi4kIIIβ1β2, displays a stunted rosette growth. The causal link between PI4K activity and growth is unknown. Using microarray analysis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and multiple phytohormone analysis by LC-MS we investigated the mechanism responsible for the pi4kIIIβ1β2 phenotype. The pi4kIIIβ1β2 mutant accumulated a high concentration of salicylic acid (SA), constitutively expressed SA marker genes including PR-1, and was more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae. pi4kIIIβ1β2 was crossed with SA signalling mutants eds1 and npr1 and SA biosynthesis mutant sid2 and NahG. The dwarf phenotype of pi4kIIIβ1β2 rosettes was suppressed in all four triple mutants. Whereas eds1 pi4kIIIβ1β2, sid2 pi4kIIIβ1β2 and NahG pi4kIIIβ1β2 had similar amounts of SA as the wild-type (WT), npr1pi4kIIIβ1β2 had more SA than pi4kIIIβ1β2 despite being less dwarfed. This indicates that PI4KIIIβ1 and PI4KIIIβ2 are genetically upstream of EDS1 and need functional SA biosynthesis and perception through NPR1 to express the dwarf phenotype. The slow root growth phenotype of pi4kIIIβ1β2 was not suppressed in any of the triple mutants. The pi4kIIIβ1β2 mutations together cause constitutive activation of SA signalling that is responsible for the dwarf rosette phenotype but not for the short root phenotype.

  19. Strangelet dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Alford, Mark G; Reddy, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    If the surface tension of quark matter is low enough, quark matter is not self bound. At sufficiently low pressure and temperature, it will take the form of a crystal of positively charged strangelets in a neutralizing background of electrons. In this case there will exist, in addition to the usual family of strange stars, a family of low-mass large-radius objects analogous to white dwarfs, which we call "strangelet dwarfs". Using a generic parametrization of the equation of state of quark matter, we calculate the mass-radius relationship of these objects.

  20. Sequence and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs isolated by functional complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, H N; Caboche, M; Daniel-Vedele, F

    1997-06-30

    We have isolated two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs by complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 strain that is affected in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism. The two clones (RGA1 and RGA2) are homologous to each other and to the SCARECROW (SCR) gene that is involved in regulating an asymmetric cell division in plants. RGA1, RGA2 and SCR share several structural features and may define a new family of genes. RGA1 and RGA2 have been mapped, respectively, to chromosome II and I, and their expression in plant is constitutive.

  1. Expression of Caenorhabditis elegans PCS in the AtPCS1-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana cad1-3 mutant separates the metal tolerance and non-host resistance functions of phytochelatin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Westphal, Lore; Schmidt, Holger; Scheel, Dierk; Clemens, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Phytochelatin synthases (PCS) play key roles in plant metal tolerance. They synthesize small metal-binding peptides, phytochelatins, under conditions of metal excess. Respective mutants are strongly cadmium and arsenic hypersensitive. However, their ubiquitous presence and constitutive expression had long suggested a more general function of PCS besides metal detoxification. Indeed, phytochelatin synthase1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPCS1) was later implicated in non-host resistance. The two different physiological functions may be attributable to the two distinct catalytic activities demonstrated for AtPCS1, that is the dipeptidyl transfer onto an acceptor molecule in phytochelatin synthesis, and the proteolytic deglycylation of glutathione conjugates. In order to test this hypothesis and to possibly separate the two biological roles, we expressed a phylogenetically distant PCS from Caenorhabditis elegans in an AtPCS1 mutant. We confirmed the involvement of AtPCS1 in non-host resistance by showing that plants lacking the functional gene develop a strong cell death phenotype when inoculated with the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, we found that the C. elegans gene rescues phytochelatin synthesis and cadmium tolerance, but not the defect in non-host resistance. This strongly suggests that the second enzymatic function of AtPCS1, which remains to be defined in detail, is underlying the plant immunity function.

  2. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Bie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1 is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1 was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  3. The 'Green Revolution' dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, R J; Gosman, N; Burt, C J; Makepeace, J; Steed, A; Corbitt, M; Chandler, E; Brown, J K M; Boulton, M I; Nicholson, P

    2012-02-01

    The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function (LoF) lines, the role of DELLA in response to biotic stress was investigated in pathosystems representing contrasting trophic styles (biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic). GoF mutant alleles in wheat and barley confer a resistance trade-off with increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens and increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens whilst the converse was conferred by a LoF mutant allele. The polyploid nature of the wheat genome buffered the effect of single Rht GoF mutations relative to barley (diploid), particularly in respect of increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens. A role for DELLA in controlling cell death responses is proposed. Similar to Arabidopsis, a resistance trade-off to pathogens with contrasting pathogenic lifestyles has been identified in monocotyledonous cereal species. Appreciation of the pleiotropic role of DELLA in biotic stress responses in cereals has implications for plant breeding.

  4. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  5. The Chloroplast Import Receptor Toc90 Partially Restores the Accumulation of Toc159 Client Proteins in the Arabidopsis thaliana ppi2 Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibylle Infanger; Sylvain Bischof; Andreas Hiltbrunner; Birgit Agne; Sacha Baginsky; Felix Kessler

    2011-01-01

    Successful import of hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. The import of cytosolic precursor proteins relies on the Toc- (translocon at the outer chloroplast membrane) and Tic- (translocon at the inner chloroplast membrane) complexes. In Arabidopsis thaliana,precursor recognition is mainly mediated by outer membrane receptors belonging to two gene families: Toc34/33 and Toc159/132/120/90. The role in import and precursor selectivity of these receptors has been intensively studied,but the function of Toc90 still remains unclear. Here,we report the ability of Toc90 to support the import of Toc159 client proteins. We show that the overexpression of Toc90 partially complements the albino knockout of Toc159 and restores photoautotrophic growth. Several lines of evidence including proteome profiling demonstrate the import and accumulation of proteins essential for chloroplast biogenesis and functionality.

  6. Drought and salt stress tolerance of an Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase U17 knockout mutant are attributed to the combined effect of glutathione and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Hung; Jiang, Han-Wei; Hsieh, En-Jung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chien, Ching-Te; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2012-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are thought to play major roles in oxidative stress metabolism, little is known about the regulatory functions of GSTs. We have reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE U17 (AtGSTU17; At1g10370) participates in light signaling and might modulate various aspects of development by affecting glutathione (GSH) pools via a coordinated regulation with phytochrome A. Here, we provide further evidence to support a negative role of AtGSTU17 in drought and salt stress tolerance. When AtGSTU17 was mutated, plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stresses compared with wild-type plants. In addition, atgstu17 accumulated higher levels of GSH and abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibited hyposensitivity to ABA during seed germination, smaller stomatal apertures, a lower transpiration rate, better development of primary and lateral root systems, and longer vegetative growth. To explore how atgstu17 accumulated higher ABA content, we grew wild-type plants in the solution containing GSH and found that they accumulated ABA to a higher extent than plants grown in the absence of GSH, and they also exhibited the atgstu17 phenotypes. Wild-type plants treated with GSH also demonstrated more tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Furthermore, the effect of GSH on root patterning and drought tolerance was confirmed by growing the atgstu17 in solution containing l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis. In conclusion, the atgstu17 phenotype can be explained by the combined effect of GSH and ABA. We propose a role of AtGSTU17 in adaptive responses to drought and salt stresses by functioning as a negative component of stress-mediated signal transduction pathways.

  7. 一个新的水稻半矮化小穗突变体的遗传分析与基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a New Semi-Dwarf and Small Panicle Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪庆; 汪得凯; 陶跃之

    2011-01-01

    A semi-dwarf and small panicle mutant was obtained from a japonica rice variety Zhonghua 11 through T-DNA transformation. The mutant, characterized by semi-dwarf plant, abnormal small and semi-enclosed panicle* and poor growth potential was designated as sd-sp2(semi-dwarf and small panicle 2). Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene. A genetic linkage map was constructed using an Fz mapping population derived from a cross between the sd-sp2 mutant and an indica variety Longtefu B on chromosome 6. The gene was finally located on a 116-kb region between the STS markers RH6-32 and RH6-40.where 14 ORFs were predicted based on Rice Genome Annotation.%从粳稻中花11转基因后代中发现了一个半矮化小穗突变体,表现为植株半矮化、生长势弱、半包茎穗、穗型变小等特点,将其命名为sd-sp2(semi-dwarf and small panicle 2).遗传分析显示,该突变体表型受1对隐性核基因控制.以sd-sp2突变体为母本与龙特甫B杂交构建F2分离群体,将该基因定位在水稻第6染色体的RH6-32和RH6-40之间的116 kb的物理距离内.通过水稻基因组注释系统在此区域预测到14个开放阅读框,未发现与已报道穗型发育相关基因的同源基因.

  8. Two Arabidopsis orthologs of the transcriptional coactivator ADA2 have distinct biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Amy T; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Pavangadkar, Kanchan A; Rao, Sumana; Gordon, Hillary; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis; Kaldis, Athanasios; Thomashow, Michael F; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2009-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an example of covalent modification of chromatin structure that has the potential to regulate gene expression. Gcn5 is a prototypical histone acetyltransferase that associates with the transcriptional coactivator Ada2. In Arabidopsis, two genes encode proteins that resemble yeast ADA2 and share approximately 45% amino acid sequence identity. We previously reported that plants harboring a T-DNA insertion in the ADA2b gene display a dwarf phenotype with developmental defects in several organs. Here we describe T-DNA insertion alleles in the ADA2a gene, which result in no dramatic growth or developmental phenotype. Both ADA2a and ADA2b are expressed in a variety of plant tissues; moreover, expression of ADA2a from a constitutive promoter fails to complement the ada2b-1 mutant phenotype, consistent with the hypothesis that the two proteins have distinct biochemical roles. To further probe the cellular roles of ADA2a and ADA2b, we studied the response of the transcriptional coactivator mutants to abiotic stress. Although ada2b seedlings display hypersensitivity to salt and abscisic acid and altered responses to low temperature stress, the responses of ada2a seedlings to abiotic stress generally parallel those of wildtype plants. Intriguingly, ada2a;ada2b double mutant plants display an intermediate, gcn5-like phenotype, suggesting that ADA2a and ADA2b each work independently with GCN5 to affect genome function in Arabidopsis.

  9. The Cooperative Activities of CSLD2, CSLD3, and CSLD5 Are Required for Normal Arabidopsis Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yina; William G.T. Willats; Henrik Vibe Scheller; Yves Verhertbruggen; Ai Oikawa; Chithra Manisseri; Bernhard Knierim; Lina Prak; Jacob Krüger Jensen; J. Paul Knoxi; Manfred Auer

    2011-01-01

    Glycosyltransferases of the Cellulose Synthase Like D (CSLD) subfamily have been reported to be involved in tip growth and stem development in Arabidopsis.The csld2 and csld3 mutants are root hair defective and the csld5 mutant has reduced stem growth.In this study,we produced double and triple knockout mutants of CSLD2,CSLD3,and CSLD5.Unlike the single mutants and the csld2/csld3 double mutant,the csld2/csld5,csld3/csld5,and csld2/csld3/csld5 mutants were dwarfed and showed severely reduced viability.This demonstrates that the cooperative activities of CSLD2,CSLD3,and CSLD5 are required for normal Arabidopsis development,and that they are involved in important processes besides the specialized role in tip growth.The mutant phenotypes indicate that CSLD2 and CSLD3 have overlapping functions with CSLD5 in early plant development,whereas the CSLD2 and CSLD3 proteins are non-redundant.To determine the biochemical function of CSLD proteins,we used transient expression in tobacco leaves.Microsomes containing heterologously expressed CSLD5 transferred mannose from GDP-mannose onto endogenous acceptors.The same activity was detected when CSLD2 and CSLD3 were co-expressed but not when they were expressed separately.With monosaccharides as exogenous acceptors,microsomal preparations from CSLD5-expressing plants mediated the transfer of mannose from GDP-mannose onto mannose.These results were supported by immunodetection studies that showed reduced levels of a mannan epitope in the cell walls of stem interfascicular fibers and xvlem vessels of the csld2/csld3/csld5 mutant.

  10. Elevated salicylic acid levels conferred by increased expression of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1 contribute to hyperaccumulation of SUMO1 conjugates in the Arabidopsis mutant early in short days 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; Elrouby, Nabil; Nordström, Karl; Griebel, Thomas; Bachmair, Andreas; Coupland, George

    2014-07-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is essential for plant growth and development. Mutations in the SUMO protease early in short days 4 (ESD4) cause hyperaccumulation of conjugates formed between SUMO and its substrates, and phenotypically are associated with extreme early flowering and impaired growth. We performed a suppressor mutagenesis screen of esd4 and identified a series of mutants called suppressor of esd4 (sed), which delay flowering, enhance growth and reduce hyperaccumulation of SUMO conjugates. Genetic mapping and genome sequencing indicated that one of these mutations (sed111) is in the gene salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 (SID2), which encodes ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE I, an enzyme required for biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA). Analyses showed that compared with wild-type plants, esd4 contains higher levels of SID2 mRNA and about threefold more SA, whereas sed111 contains lower SA levels. Other sed mutants also contain lower SA levels but are not mutant for SID2, although most reduce SID2 mRNA levels. Therefore, higher SA levels contribute to the small size, early flowering and elevated SUMO conjugate levels of esd4. Our results support previous data indicating that SUMO homeostasis influences SA biosynthesis in wild-type plants, and also demonstrate that elevated levels of SA strongly increase the abundance of SUMO conjugates.

  11. Loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines of the Arabidopsis cyclin CYCA1;2/Tardy Asynchronous Meiosis exhibit different defects in prophase-i meiocytes but produce the same meiotic products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing Wang

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, loss-of-function mutations in the A-type cyclin CYCA1;2/Tardy Asynchronous Meiosis (TAM gene lead to the production of abnormal meiotic products including triads and dyads. Here we report that overexpression of TAM by the ASK1:TAM transgene also led to the production of triads and dyads in meiosis, as well as shriveled seeds, in a dominant fashion. However, the partial loss-of-function mutant tam-1, an ASK1:TAM line, and the wild type differed in dynamic changes in chromosome thread thickness from zygotene to diplotene. We also found that the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in male meiocytes in tam-1 and tam-2 (a null allele frequently formed a tight cluster at the pachytene and diplotene stages, in contrast to the infrequent occurrences of such clusters in the wild type and the ASK1:TAM line. Immunolocalization studies of the chromosome axial component ASY1 revealed that ASY1 was highly expressed at the appropriate male meiotic stages but not localized to the chromosomes in tam-2. The level of ASY1, however, was greatly reduced in another ASK1:TAM line with much overexpressed TAM. Our results indicate that the reduction and increase in the activity of TAM differentially affect chromosomal morphology and the action of ASY1 in prophase I. Based on these results, we propose that either the different meiotic defects or a common defect such as missing ASY1 on the chromosomal axes triggers a hitherto uncharacterized cell cycle checkpoint in the male meiocytes in the tam mutants and ASK1:TAM lines, leading to the production of the same abnormal meiotic products.

  12. Is the cost of herbicide resistance expressed in the breakdown of the relationships between characters? A case study using synthetic-auxin-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Reboud, Xavier

    2005-04-01

    A mutation endowing herbicide resistance is often found to induce a parallel morphological or fitness penalty. To test whether such 'cost' of resistance to herbicides is expressed through lower resource acquisition, changes in resource allocation, or both, is of ecological significance. Here, we analysed 12 morphological traits in 900 plants covering three herbicide resistance mutations at genes AUX1 , AXR1 and AXR2 in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana . Comparing these 2,4-D herbicide-resistant homozygous (RR) and heterozygous (RS) plants to homozygous susceptible (SS) plants, this analysis estimates the dominance level of the resistance allele on morphology. We also demonstrated that the herbicide resistance cost was primarily expressed as a change in resource acquisition (62.1-94% of the analysed traits). Although AUX1 , AXR1 and AXR2 genes act in the same metabolic pathway of auxin response, each resistance factor was found to have its own unique signature in the way the cost was expressed. Furthermore, no link was observed between the absolute fitness penalty and the respective modifications of resource acquisition and/or resource allocation in the resistant plants. These results and their implications for herbicide resistance spread and establishment are discussed.

  13. Isolation and gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with constitutive expression of ATL2, an early elicitor-response RING-H2 zinc-finger gene.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Genes with unstable transcripts often encode proteins that play important regulatory roles. ATL2 is a member of a multigene family coding highly related RING-H2 zinc-finger proteins that may function as E3 ubiquitin ligases. ATL2 mRNA accumulation occurs rapidly and transiently after incubation with elicitors of pathogen response. We screened 50,000 M(2) families from a line that carries a fusion of pATL2 to the GUS reporter gene and isolated five mutants, which we named eca (expresión consti...

  14. Reference: 417 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available act redundantly to control cotyledon separation in Arabidopsis. In order to identify novel regulators of th...nction cuc1 and cuc3 mutants, suggesting a general requirement for this ATPase in cotyledon separation

  15. Reference: 789 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylakoid membranes. Microarray analysis of the chl27-t mutant showed repression of numerous nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis...d CHL27 proteins. Role of Arabidopsis CHL27 protein for photosynthesis, chloroplast development and gene exp

  16. Reference: 343 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the characterization of a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Arabidopsis CAP-C gene. Analysis of the progeny of selfe...matin was observed between segregating mitotic chromosomes in pollen produced by selfed heterozygotes. Addit

  17. Reference: 30 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponse to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However the physiological role of t...his pathway remains obscure. To elucidate its role in plants, we analyzed Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout mutants

  18. Reduction of the cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in Arabidopsis reveals impact on plant growth, seed and root development, and carbohydrate partitioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Malinova

    Full Text Available Phosphoglucomutase (PGM catalyses the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate (G1P and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P and exists as plastidial (pPGM and cytosolic (cPGM isoforms. The plastidial isoform is essential for transitory starch synthesis in chloroplasts of leaves, whereas the cytosolic counterpart is essential for glucose phosphate partitioning and, therefore, for syntheses of sucrose and cell wall components. In Arabidopsis two cytosolic isoforms (PGM2 and PGM3 exist. Both PGM2 and PGM3 are redundant in function as single mutants reveal only small or no alterations compared to wild type with respect to plant primary metabolism. So far, there are no reports of Arabidopsis plants lacking the entire cPGM or total PGM activity, respectively. Therefore, amiRNA transgenic plants were generated and used for analyses of various parameters such as growth, development, and starch metabolism. The lack of the entire cPGM activity resulted in a strongly reduced growth revealed by decreased rosette fresh weight, shorter roots, and reduced seed production compared to wild type. By contrast content of starch, sucrose, maltose and cell wall components were significantly increased. The lack of both cPGM and pPGM activities in Arabidopsis resulted in dwarf growth, prematurely die off, and inability to develop a functional inflorescence. The combined results are discussed in comparison to potato, the only described mutant with lack of total PGM activity.

  19. 台盼蓝染色鉴定拟南芥sdl1突变体的细胞死亡%Identification of Cell Death of Arabidopsis Thaliana Mutant sdl1 by Trypan Blue Staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支添添; 周舟; 韩成云; 任春梅

    2013-01-01

    Phenomenon of leaves wilting and albinism of the Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant sdl1 seedlings was observed when grew for 5-8 days under 16 hours dark/8 hours light condition.The death status was studied by Trypan blue staining,and the results showed that sdl1 leaves couldn' t be stained when totally whitened,so Trypan blue staining could identify sdll cell death just in the early stage of cell death.%拟南芥突变体sdl1在光周期为16 h黑暗/8 h光照条件下生长叶片出现先萎蔫后白化现象,采用台盼蓝染色的方法研究萎蔫及白化苗的死亡情况,结果证实突变体sdl1萎蔫处发生细胞死亡,但细胞完全死亡(完全白化)后不能被染色,所以台盼蓝染色只能对突变体sdl1细胞死亡的早期进行鉴定.

  20. Naming Disney's Dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Disney's version of the folkloric dwarfs in his production of "Snow White" and weighs the Disney rendition of the dwarf figure against the corpus of traits and behaviors pertaining to dwarfs in traditional folklore. Concludes that Disney's dwarfs are "anthropologically true." (HOD)

  1. 水稻矮杆多分蘖突变体CA648的光合生理特性分析%Photosynthetic Physiological Analysis on Dwarf Multi-Tillering Rice Mutant CA648

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓鹏; 朱允华; 刘清; 史齐; 李合松

    2015-01-01

    The chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, sugar and sucrose contents, POD enzyme activity of rice mutant (CA648, performing a dwarf and multi-tillering phenotype) and wild type ZH11 were preliminary studied. The results showed that the chlorophyll content of ZH11 was higher than that of CA648 at tillering stage. At the early stage of tillering, the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of CA648 were lower than those of ZH11, but intercellular CO2 concentration in CA648 was higher than that in ZH11. At the top tillering stage (20 d after tillering stage), the significant difference of the net photosynthetic rates of two kinds of material was found. The net photosynthetic rate of ZH11 was about 17.5% higher than CA648. Meanwhile, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration of ZH11 were also higher than those of CA648. At the late tillering stage, the net photosynthetic rates of ZH11 and CA648 were almost the same. At the top tillering stage, reducing sugar content in CA648 leaf was significantly higher than the control, while there was no difference of reducing sugar content in the two kinds of stems. The sucrose content of leaf in CA648 was lower than the control, about 77.5% of ZH11, while the sucrose content in the stem was 30.7% higher than ZH11. There were obvious differences of POD enzyme activity between two kinds of material. At the mid-tillering stage, the POD activities in leaf and stem of CA648 were 73.0% and 16.8% higher than those in ZH11, respectively.%本研究分析了水稻矮杆多分蘖突变体丛矮648(CA648)及对照中花11(ZH11)在分蘖期叶片的叶绿素含量、光合速率,还原糖、蔗糖含量以及POD酶活力。结果表明,分蘖期ZH11剑叶中叶绿素含量高于CA648。水稻分蘖前期,CA648的净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率都低于ZH11,胞间CO 2浓度高于ZH11;而在分蘖盛期(分蘖期后20 d)两种材料的净

  2. Brown Dwarf Companions to White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burleigh, M R; Dobbie, P D; Farihi, J; Napiwotzki, R; Maxted, P F L; Barstow, M A; Jameson, R F; Casewell, S L; Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R

    2011-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions to white dwarfs are rare, but recent infra-red surveys are slowly reveal- ing examples. We present new observations of the post-common envelope binary WD0137-349, which reveals the effects of irradiation on the ~ 0.05M* secondary, and new observations of GD 1400 which show that it too is a close, post-comon envelope system. We also present the lat- est results in a near-infrared photometric search for unresolved ultracool companions and to white dwarfs with UKIDSS. Twenty five DA white dwarfs were identified as having photometric excesses indicative of a low mass companion, with 8-10 of these having a predicted mass in the range asso- ciated with brown dwarfs. The results of this survey show that the unresolved (< 2") brown dwarf companion fraction to DA white dwarfs is 0.3 \\leq fWD+BD \\leq 1.3%.

  3. 水稻多分蘖矮秆突变体d63的遗传分析与基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a New Multi-tiller and Dwarf Mutant d63 in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 吴绍华; 张红宇; 徐培洲; 吴先军

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-tiller and dwarf mutant d63 was a spontaneous mutation of the twin-seedling progenies, which were derived from the cross between diploid SAR fl[ and Minghui 63. Compared with the wild type, the d63 mutant showed multiple abnormal phenotypes, such as dwarfism, more tillers, smaller flag leaf, reduced seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene on chromosome 8. The gene was finally located on the short arm of chromosome 8, 0. 4 cM from RM22195, where 14 ORFs were predicted based on Rice Genome Annotation. Do3 might be a new gene as there was no dwarf genes reported on the short arm of chromosome 8.%多分蘖矮秆突变体d63来源于SARⅢ二倍体与明恢63杂交得到的双胚苗株系的自然突变.与野生型相比,其株高显著下降,分蘖明显增多,剑叶变细变短,结实率和千粒重均大幅下降.遗传分析表明,该突变性状受一对隐性单基因控制.该基因位于水稻第8染色体短臂上距离RM22195约0.4 cM的位置.用水稻基因组注释软件Rice Genome Annotation预测,发现从端粒区至RM22195间共有14个注释基因,未发现已经报道的与株高、分蘖相关的同源基因.因此,推测D63可能是一个未被报道的新基因.

  4. Characterization of the Arabidopsis clb6 mutant illustrates the importance of posttranscriptional regulation of the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-García, Arturo; San Román, Carolina; Arroyo, Analilia; Cortés, María Elena; de la Luz Gutiérrez-Nava, María; León, Patricia

    2005-02-01

    The biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, the two building blocks for isoprenoid biosynthesis, occurs by two independent pathways in plants. The mevalonic pathway operates in the cytoplasm, and the methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway operates in plastids. Plastidic isoprenoids play essential roles in plant growth and development. Plants must regulate the biosynthesis of isoprenoids to fulfill metabolic requirements in specific tissues and developmental conditions. The regulatory events that modulate the plant MEP pathway are not well understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the CHLOROPLAST BIOGENESIS6 (CLB6) gene, previously shown to be required for chloroplast development, encodes 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase, the last-acting enzyme of the MEP pathway. Comparative analysis of the expression levels of all MEP pathway gene transcripts and proteins in the clb6-1 mutant background revealed that posttranscriptional control modulates the levels of different proteins in this central pathway. Posttranscriptional regulation was also found during seedling development and during fosmidomycin inhibition of the pathway. Our results show that the first enzyme of the pathway, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, is feedback regulated in response to the interruption of the flow of metabolites through the MEP pathway.

  5. The Phenotype of a Dwarf Mutant in Indica Rice Tm049 and Its Responses to Gibberellin%籼稻矮杆突变体Tm049的表型分析及其对外源赤霉素的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀芝; 丁海东; 梁建生

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A rice dwarf mutant Tm049 from Indica rice 9311 was obtained in the progeny after 60Co-rays inducement, and the phenotype, internode cell structure and physiological characteristics of Tm049 were investigated. The results showed that Tm049 exhibited dwarf, little dark green and short and wide leaves, fewer tillers, spike erect, small and round grains, and belonging to the dn-type dwarf. The volume and number of cellsin 1st and 2nd internodes were changed. The sensitivity of the second leaf sheaths Tm049 to exogenous gibberellin (GA3) was reduced. The endogenous GA3 levels of Tm049 was slightly higher than that of wild--type 9311. It could be speculated that the mutant may be related to the deletion of the GA signaling pathway. These results will lay a foundation for positional cloning the dwarf gene, functional analysis and molecular marker- assisted selection of new varieties.%利用60Coγ射线辐照籼稻93-11,获得一个性状稳定的矮化突变体材料Tm049,对其表型、节间细胞结构及生理特性方面进行了分析。研究结果表明,Tm049植株矮化、叶色略深且短而宽、分蘖少、穗型直立状、籽粒小而圆、属于dn型矮杆;第一节间和第二节间细胞体积和数目发生变化;第二叶鞘对外源赤霉素(GA3)敏感性降低;内源GA3水平略高于野生型.推测该突变体可能与GA的信号途径缺失有关.研究结果为今后该基因的定位克隆、功能分析及分子标记辅助培育理想株型的新品种奠定了研究基础.

  6. Circadian Clock-Regulated Phosphate Transporter PHT4;1 Plays an Important Role in Arabidopsis Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ying Wang; Jiang-Li Shi; Gina Ng; Stephanie L. Battle; Chong Zhang; Hua Lu

    2011-01-01

    T The Arabidopsis accelerated cell death 6-1 (acd6-1) mutant shows constitutive defense, cell death, and extreme dwarf phenotypes. In a screen for acd6-1 suppressors, we identified a mutant that was disrupted by a T-DNA in the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 4;1 (PHT4;1) gene. The suppressor mutant pht4;1-1 is dominant, expresses truncated PHT4;1 transcripts, and is more susceptible to virulent Pseudomonas syringae strains but not to several avirulent strains. Treatment with a salicylic acid (SA) agonist induced a similar level of resistance in Col-0 and pht4;1-1, suggesting that PHT4;1 acts upstream of the SA pathway. Genetic analysis further indicates that PHT4;1 contributes to S/D2-dependent and -independent pathways. Transgenic expression of the DNA fragment containing the PHT4;1-1 region or the full-length PHT4;1 gene in wild-type conferred enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas infection. Interestingly, expression of PHT4;1 is regulated by the circadian clock. Together, these data suggest that the phosphate transporter PHT4;1 is critical for basal defense and also implicate a potential role of the circadian clock in regulating innate immunity of Arabidopsis.

  7. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  8. A Non-canonical Transferred DNA Insertion at the BRI 1 Locus in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Zhao; Yan Zhu; Mathieu Erhardt; Ying Ruan; Wen-Hui Shen

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used in transgenic plant englnserlng and has been proven to be a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis of the plant genome.The transferred DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterlum is Integrated into the plant genome through illegitimate recombination between the T-DNA and the plant DNA.Contrasting to the canonical insertion,here we report on a locus showing a complex mutation associated with T-DNA insertion at the BRI 1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.We obtained a mutant line,named salade for its phenotype of dwarf stature and proliferating rosette,Molecular charactedzation of this mutant revealed that in addition to T-DNA a non.T.DNA-Iocalized transposon from bacteda was inserted in the Arabidopsis genome and that a region of more than 11.5 kb of the Arebidopsis genome was deleted at the insertion site.The deleted region contains the brassinosteroid receptor gene BRI 1 and the transcdption factor gene WRKY13.Our finding reveals non-canonical T-DNA insertion,implicating horizontal gene transfer and cautioning the use of T-DNA as mutagen in transgenic research.

  9. Characterization of Arabidopsis 6-phosphogluconolactonase T-DNA insertion mutants reveals an essential role for the oxidative section of the plastidic pentose phosphate pathway in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuqing; DeFraia, Christopher; Williams, Donna; Zhang, Xudong; Mou, Zhonglin

    2009-07-01

    Arabidopsis PGL1, PGL2, PGL4 and PGL5 are predicted to encode cytosolic isoforms of 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL), whereas PGL3 is predicted to encode a 6PGL that has been shown to localize in both plastids and peroxisomes. Therefore, 6PGL may exist in the cytosol, plastids and peroxisomes. However, the function of 6PGL in these three subcellular locations has not been well defined. Here we show that PGL3 is essential, whereas PGL1, PGL2 and PGL5 are individually dispensable for plant growth and development. Knockdown of PGL3 in the pgl3 mutant leads to a dramatic decrease in plant size, a significant increase in total glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and a marked decrease in cellular redox potential. Interestingly, the pgl3 plants exhibit constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2. We found that although pgl3 does not spontaneously accumulate elevated levels of free salicylic acid (SA), the constitutive defense responses in pgl3 plants are almost completely suppressed by the npr1 and sid2/eds16/ics1 mutations, suggesting that the pgl3 mutation activates NPR1- and SID2/EDS16/ICS1-dependent defense responses. We demonstrate that plastidic (not peroxisomal) localization and 6PGL activity of the PGL3 protein are essential for complementing all pgl3 phenotypes, indicating that the oxidative section of the plastidic pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is required for plant normal growth and development. Thus, pgl3 provides a useful tool not only for defining the role of the PPP in different subcellular compartments, but also for dissecting the SA/NPR1-mediated signaling pathway.

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase 2 is constitutively active in vivo and can rescue the growth defect of the PCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant on Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Schmidt, Holger; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Clemens, Stephan

    2014-08-01

    Phytochelatins play a key role in the detoxification of metals in plants and many other eukaryotes. Their formation is catalysed by phytochelatin synthases (PCS) in the presence of metal excess. It appears to be common among higher plants to possess two PCS genes, even though in Arabidopsis thaliana only AtPCS1 has been demonstrated to confer metal tolerance. Employing a highly sensitive quantification method based on ultraperformance electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we detected AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin formation. Overexpression of AtPCS2 resulted in constitutive phytochelatin accumulation, i.e. in the absence of metal excess, both in planta and in a heterologous system. This indicates distinct enzymatic differences between AtPCS1 and AtPCS2. Furthermore, AtPCS2 was able to partially rescue the Cd hypersensitivity of the AtPCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant in a liquid seedling assay, and, more importantly, when plants were grown on soil spiked with Cd to a level that is close to what can be found in agricultural soils. No rescue was found in vertical-plate assays, the most commonly used method to assess metal tolerance. Constitutive AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin synthesis suggests a physiological role of AtPCS2 other than metal detoxification. The differences observed between wild-type plants and cad1-3 on Cd soil demonstrated: (i) the essentiality of phytochelatin synthesis for tolerating levels of Cd contamination that can naturally be encountered by plants outside of metal-rich habitats, and (ii) a contribution to Cd accumulation under these conditions.

  11. A novel chloroplast-localized protein EMB1303 is required for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhen Huang; Xiaoyan Zhang; Shuhua Yang

    2009-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying chloroplast development, we isolated and characterized the albino mutant emb1303-1 in Arabidopsis. The mutant displayed a severe dwarf phenotype with small albino rosette leaves and short roots on a synthetic medium containing sucrose. It is pigment-deficient and seedling lethal when grown in soil. Embryo development was delayed in the mutant, although seed germination was not significantly im-paired. The plastids of emb1303-1 were arrested in early developmental stages without the classical stack of thylakoid membrane. Genetic and molecular analyses uncovered that the EMB1303 gene encodes a novel chloroplast-localized protein. Mieroarray and RT-PCR analyses revealed that a number of nuclear-and plastid-encoded genes involved in photosynthesis and chloroplast biogenesis were substantially downregulated in the mutant. Moreover, the accu-mulation of several major chloroplast proteins was severely compromised in emb1303-1. These results suggest that EMBI303 is essential for chloroplast development.

  12. Arabidopsis PIZZA has the capacity to acylate brassinosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katja; Breuer, Christian; Kawamura, Ayako; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Hanada, Atsushi; Fujioka, Shozo; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kondou, Youichi; Matsui, Minami; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Sugimoto, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) affect a wide range of developmental processes in plants and compromised production or signalling of BRs causes severe growth defects. To identify new regulators of plant organ growth, we searched the Arabidopsis FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene) collection for mutants with altered organ size and isolated two overexpression lines that display typical BR deficient dwarf phenotypes. The phenotype of these lines, caused by an overexpression of a putative acyltransferase gene PIZZA (PIZ), was partly rescued by supplying exogenous brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS), indicating that endogenous BR levels are rate-limiting for the growth of PIZ overexpression lines. Our transcript analysis further showed that PIZ overexpression leads to an elevated expression of genes involved in BR biosynthesis and a reduced expression of BR inactivating hydroxylases, a transcriptional response typical to low BR levels. Taking the advantage of relatively high endogenous BR accumulation in a mild bri1-301 background, we found that overexpression of PIZ results in moderately reduced levels of BL and CS and a strong reduction of typhasterol (TY) and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS), suggesting a role of PIZ in BR metabolism. We tested a set of potential substrates in vitro for heterologously expressed PIZ and confirmed its acyltransferase activity with BL, CS and TY. The PIZ gene is expressed in various tissues but as reported for other genes involved in BR metabolism, the loss-of-function mutants did not display obvious growth phenotypes under standard growth conditions. Together, our data suggest that PIZ can modify BRs by acylation and that these properties might help modulating endogenous BR levels in Arabidopsis.

  13. Arabidopsis PIZZA has the capacity to acylate brassinosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schneider

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs affect a wide range of developmental processes in plants and compromised production or signalling of BRs causes severe growth defects. To identify new regulators of plant organ growth, we searched the Arabidopsis FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene collection for mutants with altered organ size and isolated two overexpression lines that display typical BR deficient dwarf phenotypes. The phenotype of these lines, caused by an overexpression of a putative acyltransferase gene PIZZA (PIZ, was partly rescued by supplying exogenous brassinolide (BL and castasterone (CS, indicating that endogenous BR levels are rate-limiting for the growth of PIZ overexpression lines. Our transcript analysis further showed that PIZ overexpression leads to an elevated expression of genes involved in BR biosynthesis and a reduced expression of BR inactivating hydroxylases, a transcriptional response typical to low BR levels. Taking the advantage of relatively high endogenous BR accumulation in a mild bri1-301 background, we found that overexpression of PIZ results in moderately reduced levels of BL and CS and a strong reduction of typhasterol (TY and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS, suggesting a role of PIZ in BR metabolism. We tested a set of potential substrates in vitro for heterologously expressed PIZ and confirmed its acyltransferase activity with BL, CS and TY. The PIZ gene is expressed in various tissues but as reported for other genes involved in BR metabolism, the loss-of-function mutants did not display obvious growth phenotypes under standard growth conditions. Together, our data suggest that PIZ can modify BRs by acylation and that these properties might help modulating endogenous BR levels in Arabidopsis.

  14. Reference: 25 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tion of the free Met pool by excess Ado-Met synthesis or to regulate Ado-Met level and hence...olated insertional mmt mutants of Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays). Both mutants lacked the capacity to produce... SMM and thus had no SMM cycle. They nevertheless grew and reproduced normally

  15. NUCLEAR FACTOR Y, Subunit C (NF-YC Transcription Factors Are Positive Regulators of Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Myers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest that NF-Y transcription factors are positive regulators of skotomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Three NF-YC genes (NF-YC3, NF-YC4, and NF-YC9 are known to have overlapping functions in photoperiod dependent flowering and previous studies demonstrated that they interact with basic leucine zipper (bZIP transcription factors. This included ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5, which has well-demonstrated roles in photomorphogenesis. Similar to hy5 mutants, we report that nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 triple mutants failed to inhibit hypocotyl elongation in all tested light wavelengths. Surprisingly, nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 hy5 mutants had synergistic defects in light perception, suggesting that NF-Ys represent a parallel light signaling pathway. As with other photomorphogenic transcription factors, nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 triple mutants also partially suppressed the short hypocotyl and dwarf rosette phenotypes of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (cop1 mutants. Thus, our data strongly suggest that NF-Y transcription factors have important roles as positive regulators of photomorphogenesis, and in conjunction with other recent reports, implies that the NF-Y are multifaceted regulators of early seedling development.

  16. Reference: 471 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available decays, with decreased Hsps during recovery. AT of sufficient duration is critical for sessile organisms suc... C, the mutant line was more sensitive to severe heat stress than the wild type after long but not short recovery...observed in HsfA2 knockout plants after 4 h recovery or 2 h prolonged heat stress. Immunoblot analysis showe...d that Hsa32 and class I small Hsp were less abundant in the mutant than in the wild type after long recov...ach by screening for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) T-DNA insertion mutants that show decreased thermotolerance after a long reco

  17. Reference: 380 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available na et al. 2006 Jul. Plant Physiol. 141(3):870-8. Pale yellow green7-1 (pyg7-1) is a photosystem I (PSI)-defi...cient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant. PSI subunits are synthesized in the mutant, but do not asse...h photosystems accumulate in the mutant. Deletion of Pyg7 results in severely reduced growth rates, alterati...ons in leaf coloration, and plastid ultrastructure. Pyg7 was isolated by map-based cloning and encodes a tetratrico peptide re...dent pyg7 T-DNA insertion line, pyg7-2, exhibits the same phenotype. pyg7 gene expression is light regulated

  18. Reference: 759 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available at participate in these processes are still not well known. Here, we report that a new gene, RUPTURED POLLEN GRAIN1 (RPG... in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The rpg1 mutant exhibits severely reduced.... In addition, microspore rupture and cytoplasmic leakage were evident in the rpg1 mutant, which indicates i...mpaired cell integrity of the mutant microspores. RPG1 encodes an MtN3/saliva fam...ily protein that is integral to the plasma membrane. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that RPG1 is st

  19. Investigating Dwarf Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Sachithra; Dunn, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have proposed that dwarf elliptical / spheroidal galaxies form through the transformation of dwarf irregular galaxies. Early and late type dwarfs resemble each other in terms of their observed colors and light distributions (each can often be represented by exponential disks), providing reason to propose an evolutionary link between the two types. The existence of dwarf spirals has been largely debated. However, more and more recent studies are using the designation of dwarf spiral to describe their targets of interest. This project seeks to explore where dwarf spirals fit into the above mentioned evolutionary sequence, if at all. Optical colors will be compared between a sample of dwarf irregular, dwarf elliptical, and dwarf spiral galaxies. The dwarf irregular and dwarf elliptical samples have previously been found to overlap in both optical color and surface brightness profile shape when limiting the samples to their fainter members. A preliminary comparison including the dwarf spiral sample will be presented here, along with a comparison of available ultraviolet and near-infrared data. Initial results indicate a potential evolutionary link that merits further investigation.

  20. In vitro expression and determination of phosphorylation activity of point mutants of the PKS5 kinase in Arabidopsis%拟南芥 PKS5激酶点突变体外表达与磷酸化测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菲佚; 焦成瑾; 陈荃; 马伟超; 安建平; 呼丽萍

    2015-01-01

    PKS5(protein kinase SOS2-like 5)虽为拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana )中介导植物响应外界高 pH的蛋白激酶,但其关键功能结构域尚未被确定.该研究用 PCR 对 PKS5不同位置点突变形式进行克隆,并在原核系统中进行表达,得到 PKS5不同的点突变蛋白;使用激酶通用底物 MBP(myelin basic protein)及 PKS5体内特异底物 AHA2(A .thaliana isoform of the PM H +-ATPase,拟南芥质膜质子泵等位形式之一)对 PKS5点突变蛋白磷酸化活性进行了测试.结果表明:点突变 PKS5-2失去了激酶活性,PKS5-4、PKS5-5、PKS5-9自磷酸化与 MBP 磷酸化活性与 PKS5相比无差异;而与 PKS5相比,点突变 PKS5-6和 PKS5-7自磷酸化及对AHA2的磷酸化活性升高,且 PKS5-7活性高于 PKS5-6.说明 PKS5特定位置点突变改变 PKS5的自磷酸化及底物磷酸化活性水平,不同位置的点突变对其磷酸化活性的影响存在差异.研究结果可为确定 PKS5功能结构域及体内作用机理提供依据.%In Arabidopsis ,PKS5 (protein kinase SOS2-like 5),a serine-threonine kinase,involves in the response to the external high pH stress based on the study of its loss-of-function mutant.Whereas,the fine functions of the do-mains resided in PKS5 are not currently well determined.We report here the dissection of domains of PKS5 in the ac-tivity of phosphorylation against MBP(myelin basic protein)and AHA2(one of the Arabidopsis thaliana isoform of PM H+-ATPases ),which is the specific substrate of PKS5 in vivo ,using the assay of phosphorlation in vitro via expressing the distinct PKS5 mutant versions in bacteria using the PKS5 cloning from plants employing PCR ap-proach.The results showed that the point mutated PKS5-2 lost its activity,PKS5-4,PKS5-5 and PKS5-9 displayed no difference in autophosphorylation and the MBP phosphorylation.Moreover,autophosphorylation and the AHA2 phosphorylation of the point mutated PKS5-6 and PKS5-7 increased compared with PKS5 and the PKS5

  1. Three novel rice genes closely related to the Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes and their roles in xylan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn eChiniquy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide on Earth, and represents a major component of both dicot wood and the cell walls of grasses. Much knowledge has been gained from studies of xylan biosynthesis in the model plant, Arabidopsis. In particular, the irregular xylem (irx mutants, named for their collapsed xylem cells, have been essential in gaining a greater understanding of the genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. In contrast, xylan biosynthesis in grass cell walls is poorly understood. We identified three rice genes Os07g49370 (OsIRX9, Os01g48440 (OsIRX9L, and Os06g47340 (OsIRX14, from glycosyltransferase family 43 as putative orthologs to the putative β-1,4-xylan backbone elongating Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes, respectively. We demonstrate that the overexpression of the closely related rice genes, in full or partly complement the two well-characterized Arabidopsis irregular xylem (irx mutants: irx9 and irx14. Complementation was assessed by measuring dwarfed phenotypes, irregular xylem cells in stem cross sections, xylose content of stems, xylosyltransferase activity of stems, and stem strength. The expression of OsIRX9 in the irx9 mutant resulted in xylosyltransferase activity of stems that was over double that of wild type plants, and the stem strength of this line increased to 124% above that of wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that OsIRX9/OsIRX9L, and OsIRX14, have similar functions to the Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14 genes, respectively. Furthermore, our expression data indicate that OsIRX9 and OsIRX9L may function in building the xylan backbone in the secondary and primary cell walls, respectively. Our results provide insight into xylan biosynthesis in rice and how expression of a xylan synthesis gene may be modified to increase stem strength.

  2. Reference: 497 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hal albino phenotype. Rescue of tha2 mutants and tha1 tha2 double mutants by overproduction of feedback-inse...-specific expression of feedback-insensitive Thr deaminase in both tha1 and tha2 Thr aldolase mutants greatl...nsitive Thr deaminase (OMR1) shows that Gly formation by THA1 and THA2 is not essential in Arabidopsis. Seed

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana natural variation reveals connections between UV radiation stress and plant pathogen-like defense responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piofczyk, Thomas; Jeena, Ganga; Pecinka, Ales

    2015-08-01

    UV radiation is a ubiquitous component of solar radiation that affects plant growth and development. Here we studied growth related traits of 345 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in response to UV radiation stress. We analyzed the genetic basis of this natural variation by genome-wide association studies, which suggested a specific candidate genomic region. RNA-sequencing of three sensitive and three resistant accessions combined with mutant analysis revealed five large effect genes. Mutations in PHE ammonia lyase 1 (PAL1) and putative kinase At1g76360 rendered Arabidopsis hypersensitive to UV stress, while loss of function from putative methyltransferase At4g22530, novel plant snare 12 (NPSN12) and defense gene activated disease resistance 2 (ADR2) conferred higher UV stress resistance. Three sensitive accessions showed strong ADR2 transcriptional activation, accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and dwarf growth upon UV stress, while these phenotypes were much less affected in resistant plants. The phenotype of sensitive accessions resembles autoimmune reactions due to overexpression of defense related genes, and suggests that natural variation in response to UV radiation stress is driven by pathogen-like responses in Arabidopsis.

  4. Reference: 666 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clarified. The cyo1 mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana has albino cotyledons but normal gre...en true leaves. Chloroplasts develop abnormally in cyo1 mutant plants grown in the light, but etioplasts are... normal in mutants grown in the dark. We isolated CYO1 by T-DNA tagging and verified that the mutant allele was re... has a C(4)-type zinc finger domain similar to that of Escherichia coli DnaJ. CYO1 is expressed mainly in yo...1 mutation, but the level of photosynthetic proteins is decreased in cyo1 mutants. Recombinant CYO1 accelerates disulfide bond re

  5. Construction and compression of Dwarf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Long-gang; FENG Yu-cai; GUI Hao

    2005-01-01

    There exists an inherent difficulty in the original algorithm for the construction of Dwarf, which prevents it from constructing true Dwarfs. We explained when and why it introduces suffix redundancies into the Dwarf structure. To solve this problem, we proposed a completely new algorithm called PID. It bottom-up computes partitions of a fact table, and inserts them into the Dwarf structure. Ifa partition is an MSV partition, coalesce its sub-Dwarf; otherwise create necessary nodes and cells. Our performance study showed that PID is efficient. For further condensing of Dwarf, we proposed Condensed Dwarf, a more compressed structure, combining the strength of Dwarf and Condensed Cube. By eliminating unnecessary stores of "ALL" cells from the Dwarf structure, Condensed Dwarf could effectively reduce the size of Dwarf, especially for Dwarfs of the real world, which was illustrated by our experiments. Its query processing is still simple and, only two minor modifications to PID are required for the construction of Condensed Dwarf.

  6. BRAHMA ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex acts as a positive regulator of gibberellin-mediated responses in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Archacki

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways.

  7. Identification of a Long Rice Spikelet Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-jun; WANG Bin; HAN Zan-ping; XIE Zhao-hui; MOU Chun-hong; WANG Xu-dong

    2004-01-01

    A spontaneously occurring rice (Oryza sativa L. ) mutant, characterized by homeotic conversion in glumes and stamens, was found in the progeny of a cross. The mutant showed long glumes and glumaceous lodicules and morphological transformation of stamens into pistils. Mutant florets consisted of 1 to 3 completely developed pistils, some pistilloid stamens with filaments, but tipped by bulged tissue and 0 to 3 stigmas. It seens that the mutant phenotype of the homeotic conversions in glumes and stamens is similar to that of the B loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum. The mutant is controlled by a single recessive gene as a segregation ratio of 3:1 (wild type to mutant plants) was observed in the F2 generation.

  8. Misexpression of a Chloroplast Aspartyl Protease Leads to Severe Growth Defects and Alters Carbohydrate Metabolism in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparelli, Eleonora; Gonzali, Silvia; Parlanti, Sandro; Novi, Giacomo; Giorgi, Federico M.; Licausi, Francesco; Kosmacz, Monika; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E.; Brust, Henrike; van Dongen, Joost T.; Steup, Martin; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    The crucial role of carbohydrate in plant growth and morphogenesis is widely recognized. In this study, we describe the characterization of nana, a dwarf Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant impaired in carbohydrate metabolism. We show that the nana dwarf phenotype was accompanied by altered leaf morphology and a delayed flowering time. Our genetic and molecular data indicate that the mutation in nana is due to a transfer DNA insertion in the promoter region of a gene encoding a chloroplast-located aspartyl protease that alters its pattern of expression. Overexpression of the gene (oxNANA) phenocopies the mutation. Both nana and oxNANA display alterations in carbohydrate content, and the extent of these changes varies depending on growth light intensity. In particular, in low light, soluble sugar levels are lower and do not show the daily fluctuations observed in wild-type plants. Moreover, nana and oxNANA are defective in the expression of some genes implicated in sugar metabolism and photosynthetic light harvesting. Interestingly, some chloroplast-encoded genes as well as genes whose products seem to be involved in retrograde signaling appear to be down-regulated. These findings suggest that the NANA aspartic protease has an important regulatory function in chloroplasts that not only influences photosynthetic carbon metabolism but also plastid and nuclear gene expression. PMID:22987884

  9. Reference: 445 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uncontrolled water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It is composed o...ER4, a wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4 mutants exhibit major...se eight genes, At4g33790, encoded the FAR required for cuticular wax production. Expression of CER4 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces ce...revisiae) resulted in the accumulation of C24:0 and C26:0 primary alcohols. Fully functional green fluoresce...lasmic reticulum in yeast cells by confocal microscopy. Analysis of gene expression by reverse transcription

  10. Reference: 327 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 327 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16415206i Shen Wenyun et al. 2006 Fe...peration of such a shuttle in Arabidopsis thaliana. We studied Arabidopsis mutants defective in a cytosolic ...bolites concerning intracellular redox exchange. The impairment in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis was manife... a significantly augmented hydrogen peroxide production under stress. Loss of GPDHc1 affected mitochondrial ...ttle in Arabidopsis. 2 422-41 16415206 2006 Feb The Plant cell Dauk Melanie|Selvaraj Gopalan|Shen Wenyun|Tan Yifang|Taylor David C|Wei Yangdou|Zou Jitao

  11. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.; Brodersen, P.; Naested, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) revels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...

  12. Genetic analysis of photoreceptor action pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The specific strategies and long-term goals of this proposal remain intact relative to the original proposal. We continue to isolate and characterize photomorphogenic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. The molecular and biochemical characterization of one of these mutants, det1, has led to one publication of original data and to one Society for Experimental Biology Symposium paper (see below). The phenotype of a second mutant, det2, has also been studied during this funding period. In addition, we have continued work on a general strategy to isolate mutations in trans-acting regulatory factors that mediate light-regulated gene expression, and have identified several potentially interesting regulatory mutants. In the third funding period, we will concentrate on the genetical, biochemical, and molecular characterization of these new mutants. Construction of double mutants between the new mutants and the previously characterized morphological mutants should allow us to construct a pathway for light-regulated seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  13. Genetic Analysis and Fine Mapping of a Novel Semidominant Dwarfing Gene LB4D in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Liang; Xiaoyun Xin; Zejun Hu; Jiandi Xu; Gang Wei; Xiaoyin Qian; Jinshui Yang; Haohua He; Xiaojin Luo

    2011-01-01

    tA dwarf mutant, designated LB4D, was obtained among the progeny of backcrosses to a wild rice introgression line. Genetic analysis of LB4D indicated that the dwarf phenotype was controlled by a single semidominant dwarfing gene, which was named LB4D. The mutants were categorized as dn-type dwarf mutants according to the pattern of internode reduction. In addition, gibberellin (GA) response tests showed that LB4D plants were neither deficient nor insensitive to GA. This study found that tiller formation by LB4D plants was decreased by 40% compared with the wild type, in contrast to other dominant dwarf mutants that have been identified, indicating that a different dwarfing mechanism might be involved in the LB4D dominant mutant. The reduction of plant height in F1 plants ranged from 27.9% to 38.1% in different genetic backgrounds, showing that LB4D exerted a stronger dominant dwarfing effect.Using large F2 and F3 populations derived from a cross between heterozygous LB4D and the japonica cultivar Nipponbare, the LB4D gene was localized to a 46 kb region between the markers Indel 4 and Indel G on the short arm of chromosome 11, and four predicted genes were identified as candidates in the target region.

  14. Reference: 505 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utant library for selenate resistance enabled us to isolate a selenate-resistant mutant line (sel1-11). Mole...gene among 13 mutated genes of the Arabidopsis sulfate transporter family whose mutation conferred selenate resistance... to Arabidopsis. The selenate resistance phenotype of the sel1-11 mutan...t was mirrored by an 8-fold increase of root growth in the presence of selenate as shown by the calculated lethal conce...ntration values. The impairment of SULTR1;2 activity in sel1-11 resulted in a reduced (35)S-sulfa

  15. Reference: 490 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tration. The heterologous expression in yeast was utilized to verify that the AtP...TR3 protein transports di-and tripeptides. The T-DNA insert in the Atptr3-1 mutant in the Arabidopsis ecotype C24 re...tr3-2 mutant of the Col-0 ecotype. The AtPTR3 expression was shown to be regulated by several signalling com...d in the SA and JA signalling mutants. The Atptr3 mutant plants had increased susceptibility to virulent pat...hogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and produced more re

  16. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  17. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  18. Expression of HMA4 cDNAs of the zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens from endogenous NcHMA4 promoters does not complement the zinc-deficiency phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana hma2hma4 double mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.; Nawaz, I.; Hassan, Z.; Hakvoort, H.W.J.; Bliek, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (Nc) exhibits a very high constitutive expression of the heavy metal transporting ATPase, HMA4, as compared to the non-hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana (At), due to copy number expansion and altered cis-regulation. We screened a BAC library for HMA4 and found that HMA4 is

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is a salicylic acid-independent regulator of growth but not of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, Piotr; Witoń, Damian; Vashutina, Kateryna; Bederska, Magdalena; Betliński, Błażej; Rusaczonek, Anna; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate signal transduction from different cellular compartments and from the extracellular environment to the nucleus in all eukaryotes. One of the best-characterized MAPKs in Arabidopsis thaliana is MPK4, which was shown to be a negative regulator of systemic-acquired resistance. The mpk4 mutant accumulates salicylic acid (SA), possesses constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, and has an extremely dwarf phenotype. We show that suppression of SA and phylloquinone synthesis in chloroplasts by knocking down the ICS1 gene (by crossing it with the ics1 mutant) in the mpk4 mutant background did not revert mpk4-impaired growth. However, it did cause changes in the photosynthetic apparatus and severely impaired the quantum yield of photosystem II. Transmission microscopy analysis revealed that the chloroplasts' structure was strongly altered in the mpk4 and mpk4/ics1 double mutant. Analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes expression showed that suppression of SA and phylloquinone synthesis in the chloroplasts of the mpk4 mutant caused imbalances in ROS homeostasis which were more pronounced in mpk4/ics1 than in mpk4. Taken together, the presented results strongly suggest that MPK4 is an ROS/hormonal rheostat hub that negatively, in an SA-dependent manner, regulates immune defenses, but at the same time positively regulates photosynthesis, ROS metabolism, and growth. Therefore, we concluded that MPK4 is a complex regulator of chloroplastic retrograde signaling for photosynthesis, growth, and immune defenses in Arabidopsis.

  20. Reference: 468 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available five NPR1 paralogs in Arabidopsis. Here we report knockout analysis of two of these, NPR3 and NPR4. npr3 single mutants have elevated...t complemented by either wild-type NPR3 or NPR4, and is not associated with an elevated...with our previous finding that basal PR-1 levels are also elevated in the tga2 tga5 tga6 triple mutant, we p

  1. LEAFY controls floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Weigel, Detlef; Alvarez, John; Smyth, David R.; Yanofsky, Martin F.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    1992-01-01

    The first step in flower development is the generation of a floral meristem by the inflorescence meristem. We have analyzed how this process is affected by mutant alleles of the Arabidopsis gene LEAFY. We show that LEAFY interacts with another floral control gene, APETALA1, to promote the transition from inflorescence to floral meristem. We have cloned the LEAFY gene, and, consistent with the mutant phenotype, we find that LEAFY RNA is expressed strongly in young flower primordia. LEAFY expre...

  2. Reference: 341 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available owth. Despite the physiological importance of this process, the molecular mechanism is unknown. Here..., a genetic screen has been used to identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that exhibit a ...postgerminative growth arrest phenotype, which can be rescued by providing sugar. Seventeen sugar-dependent (sdp) mutants were... isolated, and six represent new loci. Triacylglycerol hydrolas...e assays showed that sdp1, sdp2, and sdp3 seedlings are deficient specifically in the lipase activity that i

  3. The thanatos mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana cellulose synthase 3 (AtCesA3) has a dominant-negative effect on cellulose synthesis and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daras, Gerasimos; Rigas, Stamatis; Penning, Bryan; Milioni, Dimitra; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C; Fasseas, Constantinos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2009-01-01

    Genetic functional analyses of mutants in plant genes encoding cellulose synthases (CesAs) have suggested that cellulose deposition requires the activity of multiple CesA proteins. Here, a genetic screen has led to the identification of thanatos (than), a semi-dominant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with impaired growth of seedlings. Homozygous seedlings of than germinate and grow but do not survive. In contrast to other CesA mutants, heterozygous plants are dwarfed and display a radially swollen root phenotype. Cellulose content is reduced by approximately one-fifth in heterozygous and by two-fifths in homozygous plants, showing gene-dosage dependence. Map-based cloning revealed an amino acid substitution (P578S) in the catalytic domain of the AtCesA3 gene, indicating a critical role for this residue in the structure and function of the cellulose synthase complex. Ab initio analysis of the AtCesA3 subdomain flanking the conserved proline residue predicted that the amino acid substitution to serine alters protein secondary structure in the catalytic domain. Gene dosage-dependent expression of the AtCesA3 mutant gene in wild-type A. thaliana plants resulted in a than dominant-negative phenotype. We propose that the incorporation of a mis-folded CesA3 subunit into the cellulose synthase complex may stall or prevent the formation of functional rosette complexes.

  4. Transgenerational stability of the Arabidopsis epigenome is coordinated by CG methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Olivier; Reinders, Jon; Caikovski, Marian; Smathajitt, Chotika; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2007-09-01

    Maintenance of CG methylation ((m)CG) patterns is essential for chromatin-mediated epigenetic regulation of transcription in plants and mammals. However, functional links between (m)CG and other epigenetic mechanisms in vivo remain obscure. Using successive generations of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant deficient in maintaining (m)CG, we find that (m)CG loss triggers genome-wide activation of alternative epigenetic mechanisms. However, these mechanisms, which involve RNA-directed DNA methylation, inhibiting expression of DNA demethylases, and retargeting of histone H3K9 methylation, act in a stochastic and uncoordinated fashion. As a result, new and aberrant epigenetic patterns are progressively formed over several plant generations in the absence of (m)CG. Interestingly, the unconventional redistribution of epigenetic marks is necessary to "rescue" the loss of (m)CG, since mutant plants impaired in rescue activities are severely dwarfed and sterile. Our results provide evidence that (m)CG is a central coordinator of epigenetic memory that secures stable transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  5. Reference: 691 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ants. Nine genomic sequences encode putative Bsas proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The physiological roles ...thione in the bsas mutants indicated that cytosolic Bsas1;1, plastidic Bsas2;1, and mitochondrial Bsas2;2 play major roles...ucial role of Bsas3;1 in beta-cyano-Ala metabolism in vivo. Physiological roles o

  6. Reference: 616 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Disruption of AtOCT1 in an Arabidopsis oct1-1 knockout mutant affected both the expression of carnitine-rela... exhibited a higher degree of root branching than the wild-type, showing that the disruption of AtOCT1 affected

  7. Reference: 749 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available former mutant had decreased electron transport rates, a lower DeltapH gradient across the grana membranes, r...the PSII particles of these plants were organized in unusual two-dimensional arrays in the grana membranes. ...d the electron transport rate in grana membranes of Arabidopsis. 4 1012-28 18381925 2008 Apr The Plant cell

  8. Reference: 234 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 234 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15980261i Stepanova ...ion of two root-specific ethylene-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis. 8 2230-42 15980261 2005 Aug The Plant cell Alonso Jose M|Hamilton Alexandra A|Hoyt Joyce M|Stepanova Anna N

  9. Reference: 428 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on was delayed in the psb27 mutant, suggesting that Psb27 is required for efficient...icient repair of photodamaged photosystem II. 4-5 567-75...he involvement of this lumenal protein in the recovery process of PSII. A Psb27 homologue in Arabidopsis thaliana is required for eff

  10. Reference: 223 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 223 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15923347i Dohmann Es... cause the cop/det/fus mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis. 7 1967-78 15923347 2005 Jul The Plant cell Dohmann Esther M N|Kuhnle Carola|Schwechheimer Claus

  11. Reference: 218 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rpenes found in the Arabidopsis floral volatile blend. Two independent mutant lines with T-DNA insertions in...version of farnesyl diphosphate into over 15 sesquiterpenes in similar proportions to those found in the floral volatile blend

  12. Reference: 396 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ht to be encoded in Arabidopsis by the ATS1 locus. A number of genetic mutants deficient in this activity have been described. How...hosphatidylglycerol raised the question of whether an alternative pathway of phosphatidylglycerol assembly in the plastid exists. How

  13. Reference: 71 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ific functions among family members. Type-A Arabidopsis response regulators are partially...ary response to cytokinin is affected. Spatial patterns of ARR gene expression were consistent with partia...lly redundant function of these genes in cytokinin signaling. The arr mutants show

  14. Reference: 567 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ith findings that noxy2 and mutants with defective 9-LOX activity showed increased numbers of lateral roots,...or of lateral root formation. Histochemical and molecular analyses revealed that 9-HOT activated events comm...in Arabidopsis regulate lateral root development and defense responses through a specific signaling cascade.

  15. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  16. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  17. A Golgi-localized MATE transporter mediates iron homoeostasis under osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Jungmin; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-03-15

    Iron is an essential micronutrient that acts as a cofactor in a wide variety of pivotal metabolic processes, such as the electron transport chain of respiration, photosynthesis and redox reactions, in plants. However, its overload exceeding the cellular capacity of iron binding and storage is potentially toxic to plant cells by causing oxidative stress and cell death. Consequently, plants have developed versatile mechanisms to maintain iron homoeostasis. Organismal iron content is tightly regulated at the steps of uptake, translocation and compartmentalization. Whereas iron uptake is fairly well understood at the cellular and organismal levels, intracellular and intercellular transport is only poorly understood. In the present study, we show that a MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, designated BCD1 (BUSH-AND-CHLOROTIC-DWARF 1), contributes to iron homoeostasis during stress responses and senescence in Arabidopsis. The BCD1 gene is induced by excessive iron, but repressed by iron deficiency. It is also induced by cellular and tissue damage occurring under osmotic stress. The activation-tagged mutant bcd1-1D exhibits leaf chlorosis, a typical symptom of iron deficiency. The chlorotic lesion of the mutant was partially recovered by iron feeding. Whereas the bcd1-1D mutant accumulated a lower amount of iron, the iron level was elevated in the knockout mutant bcd1-1. The BCD1 protein is localized to the Golgi complex. We propose that the BCD1 transporter plays a role in sustaining iron homoeostasis by reallocating excess iron released from stress-induced cellular damage.

  18. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Christopher M.; Chapple, Clint

    2011-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway serves as a rich source of metabolites in plants, being required for the biosynthesis of lignin, and serving as a starting point for the production of many other important compounds, such as the flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans. In spite of the fact that the phenylpropanoids and their derivatives are sometimes classified as secondary metabolites, their relevance to plant survival has been made clear via the study of Arabidopsis and other plant species. As a model system, Arabidopsis has helped to elucidate many details of the phenylpropanoid pathway, its enzymes and intermediates, and the interconnectedness of the pathway with plant metabolism as a whole. These advances in our understanding have been made possible in large part by the relative ease with which mutations can be generated, identified, and studied in Arabidopsis. Herein, we provide an overview of the research progress that has been made in recent years, emphasizing both the genes (and gene families) associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis, and the end products that have contributed to the identification of many mutants deficient in the phenylpropanoid metabolism: the sinapate esters. PMID:22303276

  19. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...... in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...

  20. Molecular characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana glycosyltransferase mutants, rra1 and rra2, which have a reduced residual arabinose content in a polymer tightly associated with the cellulosic wall residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jack; Obel, Nicolai; Ulvskov, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Two putative glycosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana, designated reduced residual arabinose-1 and -2 (RRA1 and RRA2), are characterized at the molecular level. Both genes are classified in CAZy GT-family-77 and are phylogenetically related to putative glycosyltranferases of Chlamydomonas...... identified and characterized at the molecular and biochemical level. Monosaccharide compositional analyses of cell wall material isolated from the meristematic region showed a ca. 20% reduction in the arabinose content in the insoluble/undigested cell wall residue after enzymatic removal of xyloglucan...... and pectic polysaccharides. These data indicate that both RRA-1 and -2 play a role in the arabinosylation of cell wall component(s)....

  1. Reference: 333 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ron A et al. 2006 Mar. Plant J. 45(5):752-64. The WAG1 and WAG2 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana encode protein-serine/thre...onine kinases that are closely related to PINOID. In order to determine what roles WAG1 and WAG2... play in seedling development, we used a reverse genetics approach to study the w...ag1, wag2 and wag1/wag2 mutant phenotypes for clues. Although the wag mutants do not contain detectable amounts of the corre...sponding mRNA, they are wild type in most respects. However, wag1/wag2 double mutants exhibi

  2. Reference: 186 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nce rooting during propagation. To better understand the role of IBA, we isolated Arabidopsis IBA-response (ibr) mutants that display...t, whereas acx1 acx3 and acx1 acx5 double mutants display enhanced IBA resistance...cx1 acx2 double mutants display enhanced IBA resistance and are sucrose dependent during seedling developmen...tive in ACX1, ACX3, or ACX4 have reduced fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity on specific substrates. Moreover, a

  3. Reference: 682 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available complex is a multiheme protein. Two b-type hemes are bound non-covalently to the protein, whereas the third ...hanesulfonate-induced nuclear mutant hcf208. This Arabidopsis mutant shows a high chlorophyll fluorescence p...nscript levels and patterns of the four major polypeptides of the complex are equal to those of the wild typ...e. The mutant cytochrome b(6) polypeptide shows a faster migration behavior in SDS-PAGE compared with the wi...ne was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that HCF208 is a homolog of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CCB2 pro

  4. Preliminary Analysis of Genes Involved in Wood Formation Using Arabidopsis thaliana Microarray and Mutants%利用拟南芥基因芯片和突变体对木材形成相关基因的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海峰; 王敏杰; 赵树堂; 唐芳; 卢孟柱

    2011-01-01

    木材形成是木本植物特有的生物学过程,拟南芥在适当的诱导条件下也能形成类似“木材”的维管组织,因而可以借助拟南芥丰富的基因资源研究木材形成的分子机制.利用前期建立的毛白杨次生维管系统再生实验体系,通过拟南芥表达谱芯片分析再生过程中的基因表达变化,获得149个差异表达基因.选择其中转录因子等调控基因及功能未知基因共89个基因的总计151个拟南芥突变体,经次生诱导培养发现,20个突变体的发芽率或成活率降低,10个突变体表型变化明显,出现维管系统次生生长发育受到抑制、生长速度减慢等,推测这些基因参与调控拟南芥的次生生长.将木本植物与草本植物的研究体系相结合,利用拟南芥次生生长诱导体系研究木材发育相关基因功能,为木材发育的基因功能研究提供一条可行、有效,快速解析基因功能的新途径.%Wood formation is unique biological process in woody plants. However, Arabidopsis thaliana can also develop certain amount of " wood tissues" under the appropriate induced conditions. Since its rich online genetic resources and information are available, A. Thaliana could serve as a model used to study wood formation. Using the previously established platform of regeneration of secondary vascular system in poplar, gene expression profiles were analyzed through the Arabidopsis cDNA microarray. One hundred and forty-nine genes showed transcript-level differences at the different regeneration stages. Eighty-nine genes, including transcriptional factors and function unknown genes, were selected as candidates for investigating Arabidopsis mutants under the induced secondary growth condition to check their morphology and structure. The results showed that 20 mutants had low germination or survival rates, while 10 mutants had various morphological and anatomical changes caused through the inhibition of the secondary vascular

  5. Functional characterization of the Arabidopsis eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-2 that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development by regulating cell division, cell growth, and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haizhong; Chen, Qingguo; Feng, Jian; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Xiaohui; Zuo, Jianru

    2007-07-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is a highly conserved protein found in all eukaryotic organisms. Although originally identified as a translation initiation factor, recent studies in mammalian and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells suggest that eIF-5A is mainly involved in RNA metabolism and trafficking, thereby regulating cell proliferation, cell growth, and programmed cell death. In higher plants, the physiological function of eIF-5A remains largely unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant fumonisin B(1)-resistant12 (fbr12). The fbr12 mutant shows an antiapoptotic phenotype and has reduced dark-induced leaf senescence. Moreover, fbr12 displays severe defects in plant growth and development. The fbr12 mutant plant is extreme dwarf with substantially reduced size and number of all adult organs. During reproductive development, fbr12 causes abnormal development of floral organs and defective sporogenesis, leading to the abortion of both female and male germline cells. Microscopic studies revealed that these developmental defects are associated with abnormal cell division and cell growth. Genetic and molecular analyses indicated that FBR12 encodes a putative eIF-5A-2 protein. When expressed in a yeast mutant strain carrying a mutation in the eIF-5A gene, FBR12 cDNA is able to rescue the lethal phenotype of the yeast mutant, indicating that FBR12 is a functional eIF-5A. We propose that FBR12/eIF-5A-2 is fundamental for plant growth and development by regulating cell division, cell growth, and cell death.

  6. A Truncated Arabidopsis NUCLEOSOME ASSEMBLY PROTEIN 1,AtNAP1;3T,Alters Plant Growth Responses to Abscisic Acid and Salt in the Atnap 1;3-2 Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Qiang Liu; Juan Gao; Ai-Wu Dong

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling is thought to have crucial roles in plant adaptive response to environmental stimulus.Here,we report that,in Arebidopsis,the evolutionarily conserved histone chaperone,NUCLEOSOME ASSEMBLY PROTEIN 1 (NAP1),is involved in plant response to abscisic acid (ABA),a phytohormone important in stress adaptation.We show that simultaneous loss-of-function of AtNAP1;1,AtNAP1;2,and AtNAP1;3 (the triple mutant m123-1) caused a slight hypersensitive response to ABA in seedling growth.Strikingly,the other triple mutant m123-2 containing a different mutant allele of AtNAP1;3,the Atnap1;3-2 allele,showed a hyposensitive response to ABA and a decreased tolerance to salt stress.This ABAhyposensitive and salt response phenotype specifically associated with the Atnap1;3-2 mutant allele.We show that this mutant allele produced a truncated protein,AtNAP1;3T,which lacks 34 amino acids at the C-terminus compared to the wild-type protein AtNAP1;3.We further show that the heterozygous plants containing the Atnap1;3-2 mutant allele as well as transgenic plants overexpressing AtNAP1;3T exhibit ABA-hyposensitive phenotype.It thus indicates that AtNAP1;3T functions as a dominant negative factor in ABA response.The expression of some ABA-responsive genes,including genes encoding protein kinases and transcription regulators,was found perturbed in the mutant and in the AtNAP1;3T transgenic plants.Taken together,our study uncovered AtNAP1 proteins as positive regulators and AtNAP1;3T as a negative regulator in ABA signaling pathways,providing a novel link of chromatin remodeling to hormonal and stress responses.

  7. Image of Arabidopsis phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rabidopsis phenotype DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01509-002 Description of data contents Mutant images in Observat...ion of Arabidopsis phenotype Data file File name: piam_image.tar.gz File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/arc...hive/arabid_pheno/LATEST/piam_image.tar.gz File size: 8.4 GB Simple search URL -

  8. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  9. Reference: 443 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hang et al. 2006 Nov. Plant Physiol. 142(3):1180-92. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) WRKY7 gene is induce...molecules with the W-box (TTGAC) elements, and functions as a transcriptional repressor in plant cells. To s...dopsis. The T-DNA insertion and RNAi mutant plants displayed enhanced resistance to a virulent strain of the...mptom development as compared to those in wild-type plants. The enhanced resistance...P. syringae and developed more severe disease symptoms than wild-type plants. The enhanced susceptibility of

  10. Axions and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use them as laboratories to test new ideas of physics. In this contribution we discuss the robustness of the method and its application to the axion case.

  11. Forward genetic screen for auxin-deficient mutants by cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Luo, Pan; Di, Dong-Wei; Wang, Li; Wang, Ming; Lu, Cheng-Kai; Wei, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Zi; Amakorová, Petra; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-07-06

    Identification of mutants with impairments in auxin biosynthesis and dynamics by forward genetic screening is hindered by the complexity, redundancy and necessity of the pathways involved. Furthermore, although a few auxin-deficient mutants have been recently identified by screening for altered responses to shade, ethylene, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) or cytokinin (CK), there is still a lack of robust markers for systematically isolating such mutants. We hypothesized that a potentially suitable phenotypic marker is root curling induced by CK, as observed in the auxin biosynthesis mutant CK-induced root curling 1 / tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 (ckrc1/taa1). Phenotypic observations, genetic analyses and biochemical complementation tests of Arabidopsis seedlings displaying the trait in large-scale genetic screens showed that it can facilitate isolation of mutants with perturbations in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. However, unlike transport/signaling mutants, the curled (or wavy) root phenotypes of auxin-deficient mutants were significantly induced by CKs and could be rescued by exogenous auxins. Mutants allelic to several known auxin biosynthesis mutants were re-isolated, but several new classes of auxin-deficient mutants were also isolated. The findings show that CK-induced root curling provides an effective marker for discovering genes involved in auxin biosynthesis or homeostasis.

  12. Reference: 655 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on is a fundamental requirement of eukaryotic cell function. Members of the ORBIT/MAST/CLASP family of micro... microtubule-associated protein that is involved in both cell division and cell expansion. Green fluorescent... in stabilizing mitotic arrays. clasp-1 plants are dwarf, have significantly reduced cell numbers in the roo...t division zone, and have defects in directional cell expansion. We discuss possible mechanisms of CLASP fun...ction in higher plants. The Arabidopsis CLASP gene encodes a microtubule-associat

  13. Ethylene Response Factor6 acts as a central regulator of leaf growth under water-limiting conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Marieke; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Claeys, Hannes; Maleux, Katrien; Dhondt, Stijn; De Bodt, Stefanie; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Milde, Liesbeth; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-05-01

    Leaf growth is a complex developmental process that is continuously fine-tuned by the environment. Various abiotic stresses, including mild drought stress, have been shown to inhibit leaf growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the redundant Arabidopsis transcription factors ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR5 (ERF5) and ERF6 as master regulators that adapt leaf growth to environmental changes. ERF5 and ERF6 gene expression is induced very rapidly and specifically in actively growing leaves after sudden exposure to osmotic stress that mimics mild drought. Subsequently, enhanced ERF6 expression inhibits cell proliferation and leaf growth by a process involving gibberellin and DELLA signaling. Using an ERF6-inducible overexpression line, we demonstrate that the gibberellin-degrading enzyme GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE6 is transcriptionally induced by ERF6 and that, consequently, DELLA proteins are stabilized. As a result, ERF6 gain-of-function lines are dwarfed and hypersensitive to osmotic stress, while the growth of erf5erf6 loss-of-function mutants is less affected by stress. Besides its role in plant growth under stress, ERF6 also activates the expression of a plethora of osmotic stress-responsive genes, including the well-known stress tolerance genes STZ, MYB51, and WRKY33. Interestingly, activation of the stress tolerance genes by ERF6 occurs independently from the ERF6-mediated growth inhibition. Together, these data fit into a leaf growth regulatory model in which ERF5 and ERF6 form a missing link between the previously observed stress-induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid accumulation and DELLA-mediated cell cycle exit and execute a dual role by regulating both stress tolerance and growth inhibition.

  14. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  15. On the substrate specificity of the rice strigolactone biosynthesis enzyme DWARF27

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2016-03-05

    Main conclusion: The β-carotene isomerase OsDWARF27 is stereo- and double bond-specific. It converts bicyclic carotenoids with at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring. OsDWARF27 may contribute to the formation of α-carotene-based strigolactone-like compounds.Strigolactones (SLs) are synthesized from all-trans-β-carotene via a pathway involving the β-carotene isomerase DWARF27, the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 and 8 (CCD7, CCD8), and cytochrome P450 enzymes from the 711 clade (MAX1 in Arabidopsis). The rice enzyme DWARF27 was shown to catalyze the reversible isomerization of all-trans- into 9-cis-β-carotene in vitro. β-carotene occurs in different cis-isomeric forms, and plants accumulate other carotenoids, which may be substrates of DWARF27. Here, we investigated the stereo and substrate specificity of the rice enzyme DWARF27 in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains and in in vitro assays performed with heterologously expressed and purified enzyme. Our results suggest that OsDWARF27 is strictly double bond-specific, solely targeting the C9–C10 double bond. OsDWARF27 did not introduce a 9-cis-double bond in 13-cis- or 15-cis-β-carotene. Substrates isomerized by OsDWARF27 are bicyclic carotenoids, including β-, α-carotene and β,β-cryptoxanthin, that contain at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring. Accordingly, OsDWARF27 did not produce the abscisic acid precursors 9-cis-violaxanthin or -neoxanthin from the corresponding all-trans-isomers, excluding a direct role in the formation of this carotenoid derived hormone. The conversion of all-trans-α-carotene yielded two different isomers, including 9′-cis-α-carotene that might be the precursor of strigolactones with an ε-ionone ring, such as the recently identified heliolactone. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  16. White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Möhler, S

    2008-01-01

    We review empirical and theoretical findings concerning white dwarfs in Galactic globular clusters. Since their detection is a critical issue we describe in detail the various efforts to find white dwarfs in globular clusters. We then outline the advantages of using cluster white dwarfs to investigate the formation and evolution of white dwarfs and concentrate on evolutionary channels that appear to be unique to globular clusters. We also discuss the usefulness of globular cluster white dwarfs to provide independent information on the distances and ages of globular clusters, information that is very important far beyond the immediate field of white dwarf research. Finally, we mention possible future avenues concerning globular cluster white dwarfs, like the study of strange quark matter or plasma neutrinos.

  17. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  18. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  19. 拟南芥组蛋白甲基化SDG26基因突变体抗旱生理生化研究%Physiological and biochemical studies on Arabidopsis mutant with the loss ofSDG26 gene function under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠; 刘博宇; 阮颖; 刘春林

    2012-01-01

    SOD, MDA and the content of soluble sugar and proline in Arabidopsis mutant plant sdg26 and wild-type plant Col under drought condition were investigated. The results showed that SOD, MDA, the content of soluble sugar and proline increased with increasing period of drought stress (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20 d), the increases were significantly greater in mutant plant sdg26 than those in wild type plant Col. In addition, water in leaves of wild-type plant Col gradually evaporated until death but mutant plant sdg26 still grew well after 20 days of drought stress. These results suggested that mutant plant sdg26 enhanced drought tolerance because of the loss of SDG26 gene function, which also indicated that histone methylation played an important role in drought stress tolerance in plants.%对拟南芥SDG26基因功能缺失突变体sdg26植株和对照野生型Col植株在干旱条件下的SOD活性和MDA、可溶性糖、脯氨酸含量进行测定.结果显示:随着干旱时间(5、8、11、14、17、20 d)持续,sdg26植株中的SOD活性和MDA、可溶性糖、脯氨酸含量都表现出明显提高的趋势,上升水平显著高于对照野生型Col植株;在持续干早20 d条件下,Col植株的叶片逐渐失水干枯及至死亡,但sdg26植株能正常生长,表现出良好的生长势,推测SDG26基因功能的丧失可以增强拟南芥的抗旱能力,说明植物的抗旱能力与组蛋白的甲基化修饰密切相关.

  20. Inheritance of the dwarf plant type in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Singh, D P

    1985-07-01

    The inheritance of the dwarf plant type was studied in blackgram (V. mungo (L.) Hepper). 'Type 9' has erect plant type with normal internode length. The mutant line, 'EMSD' has reduced internode length. The F1, F2 and F3 generations of a cross between 'Type 9' and 'EMSD' and its reciprocal were studied. The extreme dwarf plant type appeared to be governed by a single recessive gene, dw 1 dw 1 with no cytoplasmic effect.

  1. C-23 hydroxylation by Arabidopsis CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 reveals a novel shortcut in brassinosteroid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Szatmari, Anna-Maria; Watanabe, Bunta; Fujita, Satomi; Bancos, Simona; Koncz, Csaba; Lafos, Marcel; Shibata, Kyomi; Yokota, Takao; Sakata, Kanzo; Szekeres, Miklos; Mizutani, Masaharu

    2006-11-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are biosynthesized from campesterol via several cytochrome P450 (P450)-catalyzed oxidative reactions. We report the functional characterization of two BR-biosynthetic P450s from Arabidopsis thaliana: CYP90C1/ROTUNDIFOLIA3 and CYP90D1. The cyp90c1 cyp90d1 double mutant exhibits the characteristic BR-deficient dwarf phenotype, although the individual mutants do not display this phenotype. These data suggest redundant roles for these P450s. In vitro biochemical assays using insect cell-expressed proteins revealed that both CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 catalyze C-23 hydroxylation of various 22-hydroxylated BRs with markedly different catalytic efficiencies. Both enzymes preferentially convert 3-epi-6-deoxocathasterone, (22S,24R)-22-hydroxy-5alpha-ergostan-3-one, and (22S,24R)-22-hydroxyergost-4-en-3-one to 23-hydroxylated products, whereas they are less active on 6-deoxocathasterone. Likewise, cyp90c1 cyp90d1 plants were deficient in 23-hydroxylated BRs, and in feeding experiments using exogenously supplied intermediates, only 23-hydroxylated BRs rescued the growth deficiency of the cyp90c1 cyp90d1 mutant. Thus, CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 are redundant BR C-23 hydroxylases. Moreover, their preferential substrates are present in the endogenous Arabidopsis BR pool. Based on these results, we propose C-23 hydroxylation shortcuts that bypass campestanol, 6-deoxocathasterone, and 6-deoxoteasterone and lead directly from (22S,24R)-22-hydroxy-5alpha-ergostan-3-one and 3-epi-6-deoxocathasterone to 3-dehydro-6-deoxoteasterone and 6-deoxotyphasterol.

  2. C-23 Hydroxylation by Arabidopsis CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 Reveals a Novel Shortcut in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Szatmari, Anna-Maria; Watanabe, Bunta; Fujita, Satomi; Bancos, Simona; Koncz, Csaba; Lafos, Marcel; Shibata, Kyomi; Yokota, Takao; Sakata, Kanzo; Szekeres, Miklos; Mizutani, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are biosynthesized from campesterol via several cytochrome P450 (P450)–catalyzed oxidative reactions. We report the functional characterization of two BR-biosynthetic P450s from Arabidopsis thaliana: CYP90C1/ROTUNDIFOLIA3 and CYP90D1. The cyp90c1 cyp90d1 double mutant exhibits the characteristic BR-deficient dwarf phenotype, although the individual mutants do not display this phenotype. These data suggest redundant roles for these P450s. In vitro biochemical assays using insect cell-expressed proteins revealed that both CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 catalyze C-23 hydroxylation of various 22-hydroxylated BRs with markedly different catalytic efficiencies. Both enzymes preferentially convert 3-epi-6-deoxocathasterone, (22S,24R)-22-hydroxy-5α-ergostan-3-one, and (22S,24R)-22-hydroxyergost-4-en-3-one to 23-hydroxylated products, whereas they are less active on 6-deoxocathasterone. Likewise, cyp90c1 cyp90d1 plants were deficient in 23-hydroxylated BRs, and in feeding experiments using exogenously supplied intermediates, only 23-hydroxylated BRs rescued the growth deficiency of the cyp90c1 cyp90d1 mutant. Thus, CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 are redundant BR C-23 hydroxylases. Moreover, their preferential substrates are present in the endogenous Arabidopsis BR pool. Based on these results, we propose C-23 hydroxylation shortcuts that bypass campestanol, 6-deoxocathasterone, and 6-deoxoteasterone and lead directly from (22S,24R)-22-hydroxy-5α-ergostan-3-one and 3-epi-6-deoxocathasterone to 3-dehydro-6-deoxoteasterone and 6-deoxotyphasterol. PMID:17138693

  3. A novel chloroplast-localized protein EMB1303 is required for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhen Huang; Xiaoyan Zhang; Shuhua Yang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The corresponding author is sorry for the following errors. 1. The first sentence of the Results section is corrected to read: The albino mutant (SALK_016097) was obtained from Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC).

  4. Genetic identification of a dwarf mutant in cucumber (Cucumis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    madam mine

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... 2State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, .... The cell sizes and shapes were examined under a .... function of the mean number of cells per rank and the.

  5. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. The white dwarf luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Oswalt, Terry D.

    2016-06-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for ∼ 10 Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other relevant ingredients are needed to compare theory and observations. In this review we summarize the recent attempts to empirically determine the white dwarf luminosity function for the different Galactic populations. We also discuss the biases that may affect its interpretation. Finally, we elaborate on the theoretical ingredients needed to model the white dwarf luminosity function, paying special attention to the remaining uncertainties, and we comment on some applications of the white dwarf cooling theory. Astrophysical problems for which white dwarf stars may provide useful leverage in the near future are also discussed.

  7. Genetic analysis of photoreceptor action pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The specific strategies and long-term goals of this proposal remain intact relative to the original proposal. We continue to isolate and characterize photomorphogenic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. The molecular and biochemical characterization of one of these mutants, det1, has led to one publication of original data and to one Society for Experimental Biology Symposium paper (see below). The phenotype of a second mutant, det2, has also been studied during this funding period. In addition, we have continued work on a general strategy to isolate mutations in trans-acting regulatory factors that mediate light-regulated gene expression, and have identified several potentially interesting regulatory mutants. In the third funding period, we will concentrate on the genetical, biochemical, and molecular characterization of these new mutants. Construction of double mutants between the new mutants and the previously characterized morphological mutants should allow us to construct a pathway for light-regulated seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  8. Lifting DELLA Repression of Arabidopsis Seed Germination by Nonproteolytic Gibberellin Signaling1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariizumi, Tohru; Hauvermale, Amber L.; Nelson, Sven K.; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Steber, Camille M.

    2013-01-01

    DELLA repression of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed germination can be lifted either through DELLA proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or through proteolysis-independent gibberellin (GA) hormone signaling. GA binding to the GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation, which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiquitination and proteolysis via the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and 26S proteasome. Although DELLA cannot be destroyed in the sleepy1-2 (sly1-2) F-box mutant, long dry after-ripening and GID1 overexpression can relieve the strong sly1-2 seed dormancy phenotype. It appears that sly1-2 seed dormancy results from abscisic acid (ABA) signaling downstream of DELLA, since dormant sly1-2 seeds accumulate high levels of ABA hormone and loss of ABA sensitivity rescues sly1-2 seed germination. DELLA positively regulates the expression of XERICO, an inducer of ABA biosynthesis. GID1b overexpression rescues sly1-2 germination through proteolysis-independent DELLA down-regulation associated with increased expression of GA-inducible genes and decreased ABA accumulation, apparently as a result of decreased XERICO messenger RNA levels. Higher levels of GID1 overexpression are associated with more efficient sly1 germination and increased GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation, suggesting that GID1 down-regulates DELLA through protein binding. After-ripening results in increased GA accumulation and GID1a-dependent GA signaling, suggesting that after-ripening triggers GA-stimulated GID1-GA-DELLA protein complex formation, which in turn blocks DELLA transcriptional activation of the XERICO inhibitor of seed germination. PMID:23818171

  9. M Dwarf Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Irwin, Jonathan; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, Charlie T.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; Winters, Jennifer; RECONS Team

    2017-01-01

    During RECONS' 17-year (so far) astrometry/photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m, we have observed thousands of the ubiquitous red dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. During this reconnaissance, a few mysterious characters have emerged ...The Case of the Mercurial Stars: One M dwarf has been fading steadily for more than a decade, at last measure 6% fainter than when it was first observed. Another has grown brighter by 7% over 15 years. Are these brightness changes part of extremely long stellar cycles, or something else entirely?The Case of Identical Stellar Twins that Aren't: Two M dwarfs seem at first to be identical siblings traveling together through the Galaxy. They have virtually identical spectra at optical wavelengths and identical colors throughout the VRIJHK bands. Long-term astrometry indicates that they are, indeed, at the same distance via parallax measurements, and their proper motions match precisely. Yet, one of the twins is FOUR times brighter than the other. Followup work has revealed that the brighter component is a very close spectroscopic double, but no other stars are seen. So, the mystery may be half solved, but why do the close stars remain twice as bright as their widely-separated twin?The Case of the Great Kaboom!: After more than 1000 nights of observing on the reliable 0.9m telescope, with generally routine frames reading out upon the screen, one stellar system comprised of five red dwarfs flared in stunning fashion. Of the two distinct sources, the fainter one (an unresolved double) surpassed the brightness of the brighter one (an unresolved triple), increasing by more than three full magnitudes in the V filter. Which component actually flared? Is this magnificent outburst an unusual event, or in fact typical for this system and other M dwarfs?At the AAS meeting, we hope to probe the cognoscenti who study the Sun's smaller cousins to solve these intriguing M Dwarf Mysteries.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants

  10. Arabidopsis R-SNARE proteins VAMP721 and VAMP722 are required for cell plate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis is facilitated by SNARE complex-mediated vesicle fusion at the cell-division plane. However, our knowledge regarding R-SNARE components of membrane fusion machinery for cell plate formation remains quite limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the in vivo function of Arabidopsis VAMP721 and VAMP722, two closely sequence-related R-SNAREs, in cell plate formation. Double homozygous vamp721vamp722 mutant seedlings showed lethal dwarf phenotypes and were characterized by rudimentary roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. Furthermore, cell wall stubs and incomplete cytokinesis were frequently observed in vamp721vamp722 seedlings. Confocal images revealed that green fluorescent protein-tagged VAMP721 and VAMP722 were preferentially localized to the expanding cell plates in dividing cells. Drug treatments and co-localization analyses demonstrated that punctuate organelles labeled with VAMP721 and VAMP722 represented early endosomes overlapped with VHA-a1-labeled TGN, which were distinct from Golgi stacks and prevacuolar compartments. In addition, protein traffic to the plasma membrane, but not to the vacuole, was severely disrupted in vamp721vamp722 seedlings by subcellular localization of marker proteins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that VAMP721 and VAMP722 are involved in secretory trafficking to the plasma membrane via TGN/early endosomal compartment, which contributes substantially to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

  11. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  12. Dwarf Spheroidals in MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Garry W

    2008-01-01

    We take the line of sight velocity dispersions as functions of radius for 8 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies and use Jeans analysis to calculate the mass-to-light ratios (M/L) in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Using the latest structural parameters, distances and variable velocity anisotropy, we find 6/8 dwarfs have sensible M/L using only the stellar populations. Sextans and Draco, however, have M/L=9.2_{-3.0}^{+5.3} and 43.9_{-19.3}^{+29.0} respectively, which poses a problem. Apart from the need for Sextans' integrated magnitude to be reviewed, we propose tidal effects intrinsic to MOND, testable with numerical simulations, but fully orbit dependant, which are disrupting Draco. The creation of the Magellanic Stream is also re-addressed in MOND, the scenario being the stream is ram pressure stripped from the SMC as it crosses the LMC.

  13. Reference: 432 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available east nine mitochondrial matrix flavoprotein dehydrogenases. Electrons accepted by... ETF are further transferred to the main respiratory chain via the ETF ubiquinone oxide reductase (ETFQO). Sequence...dependent T-DNA insertional Arabidopsis mutants of the ETFbeta gene revealed accelerated senescence and earl... and phytanoyl CoA during dark-induced carbohydrate deprivation. These phenotypic characteristics of etfb mu...lorophyll degradation pathway activated during dark-induced carbohydrate deprivation. The mitochondrial elec

  14. Reference: 794 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rt was not completely eliminated in the NRT1.5 knockout mutant, and reduction of NRT1.5 in the nrt1.1 background did not affe... step. Mutation of the Arabidopsis NRT1.5 nitrate transporter causes defective root-to-shoot nitrate transpo...rt. 9 2514-28 18780802 2008 Sep The Plant cell Canivenc Geneviève|Gojon Alain|Hsu Po-Kai|Kuo Hui-Fe

  15. Reference: 551 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 551 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17329563i Liu Yongxiu et al. 2007 Fe...in the Arabidopsis hub1 (rdo4) mutant reveals a role for chromatin remodeling in seed dormancy. 2 433-44 17329563 2007 Feb The Plant cell Koornneef Maarten|Liu Yongxiu|Soppe Wim J J

  16. Reference: 34 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al gene in different tissues, under normal growth conditions, and when the plants were subjected to anoxia or other environmental...e1 gene of Arabidopsis is required during anoxia but not other environmental stre...ronmental stresses. We also characterize the expression of the aldehyde dehydrogena...ed under oxygen limitation among the PDC1 gene family and that a pdc1 null mutant is comprised in anoxia tolerance but not other envi

  17. Reference: 463 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ,in Arabidopsis. To further examine the role of the LNG genes, we characterized lng1 and lng...2-1 rot3-1 triple mutant and of a lng1-1D rot3-1 double mutant indicated that LNG1 and LNG2 p...s, we identified a dominant mutant, which we designated longifolia1-1D (lng1-1D). lng1-1D plants were charac... this phenotype was caused by overexpression of the novel gene LNG1, which was found to have a homolog, LNG2...2 loss-of-function mutant lines. In contrast to the elongated leaves of lng1-1D plants, the lng1 and lng

  18. Reference: 586 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available and to identify auxiliary factors required for this process, we characterized the mutant hcf173 of Arabidop...sis thaliana. The mutant shows a high chlorophyll fluorescence phenotype (hcf) an...ally decreased synthesis of the reaction center protein D1. Polysome association experiments suggest that th...is is primarily caused by reduced translation initiation of the corresponding psb...A mRNA. Comparison of mRNA steady state levels indicated that the psbA mRNA is significantly reduced in hcf1

  19. Reference: 706 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available et al. 2008 Jan. Plant Cell Physiol. 49(1):2-10. To understand better the plant response to ozone, we isola...ted and characterized an ozone-sensitive (ozs1) mutant strain from a set of T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis thalian...a ecotype Columbia. The mutant plants show enhanced sensitivity to ozone, desicca...vels. The T-DNA was inserted at a single locus which is linked to ozone sensitivity. Identification of the g...h either of two different T-DNA insertions in this gene were also sensitive to ozone, and these plants faile

  20. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  1. Reference: 469 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eol et al. 2006 Dec. Development 133(23):4699-707. The floral inhibitor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a crucial re...gulator of flowering time in Arabidopsis, and is positively regulated by the FRIGIDA (FRI) gene in late-f...lowering winter-annual accessions. In rapid-cycling accessions, FLC expression is suppre...ssed by the autonomous floral-promotion pathway (AP); thus AP mutants contain high levels of FLC and are late flowering. Pre...vious work has shown that the upregulation of FLC in FRI- or AP-mutant backgrounds is correlated to an incre

  2. Reference: 776 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urice et al. 2008 Jun. Plant Cell 20(6):1652-64. Glycosyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of li... localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast and in plants. A homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant, alg3-2,... was identified in Arabidopsis with residual levels of wild-type ALG3, derived fr... complex-glycan-less mutant background, which lacks N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase I activity, reveals tha...t when ALG3 activity is strongly reduced, almost all N-glycans transferred to proteins are

  3. Reference: 625 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available he ABA-insensitive phenotype of the sdir1-1 mutant, whereas SDIR1 could not rescue the abi5-1 mutant. This suggests that SDI...ansduction. We show that the RING finger E3 ligase, Arabidopsis thaliana SALT- AND DROUGHT-INDUCED RING FINGER1 (SDI...R1), is involved in abscisic acid (ABA)-related stress signal transduction. SDI...y ABA. Plants expressing the ProSDIR1-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct confirmed strong induction... stress. The green fluorescent protein-SDIR1 fusion protein is colocalized with intracellular membranes. We demonstrate that SDI

  4. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  5. Dwarf Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pierre; Valenzuela, O; Gottlöber, S

    2003-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to study properties of dwarf halos with virial masses in the range 10^7-10^9 Msun/h. Unlike recent reported results, we find that the density profiles of relaxed dwarf halos are well fitted by the NFW profile and do not have cores. We estimate the distribution of concentrations for halos in mass range that covers six orders of magnitude from 10^7 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h, and find that the data are well reproduced by the model of Bullock et al. (2001). We predict that present-day isolated dwarf halos should have a very large median concentration of ~ 35. For halos with masses that range from 4.6 x 10^9 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h we measure the subhalo circular velocity function and find that they are similar when normalized to the circular velocity of the parent halo. We compute the halo mass function and the halo spin parameter distribution and find that the former is very well reproduced by the Sheth and Tormen model while the latter is well fitted by a lognormal distribution with lambda...

  6. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia--Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  7. Taste of Super-Dwarf Rice Cultured in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    The interest of food production for lunar base and manned Mars mission has increased recently. So far, plants cultured long duration in space were leafy vegetables, arabidopsis, wheat, barley and so on. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. Rice symbolizes the rice-eating culture of Japan, is extremely useful as a specific cultured plant candidate of Japan in space. In the previous report, 'Kozo-no-sumika' found from seedlings in raising of seedling was introduced as a super-dwarf rice to culture in space. Considering this rice as food in space, we investigate the taste characteristics of this rice. At present, waxy 'Kozo-no-sumika' and nonwaxy 'Hosetsu dwarf' of super-dwarf rice and 'Nipponbare' of previous standard rice for sensory test are cultured in paddy field. Hereafter, we will harvest rice, investigate yield, evaluate taste.

  8. Analysis and Identification of Two CBF2 Gene Mutants in Arabidopsis%两种拟南芥 CBF2基因突变体的鉴定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 刘超; 焦彬彬; 代培红; 苏秀娟; 李月

    2016-01-01

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stress,which limits the geographical distribution and yield of crops.CBF regulon plays a major role in freezing tolerance.CBF2,one of the components of the CBF regulon,has a negative role in freezing tolerance.In this study,two SALK mutants whose T-DNA insertion are both within the pro-moter of CBF2 gene,cbf2-1 and cbf2-2 were identified by qRT-PCR method.Results showed that the level of CBF2 gene expression in the two mutants reduced.CBF2 gene expression was induced by low temperature in cbf2-1 mut-nat.However,the degree of induction was lower in cbf2-1compared with the control.The effect of induction by low temperature was lost in cbf2-2.Analysis of freezing tolerance showed that the less degree of induction,the stronger freezing tolerance of plants and the higher the expression of downstream cold-responsive genes.More important thing was that although freezing resistance of the two CBF2 gene mutants were improved,their flowering time and seed yield per plant did not change significantly compared with the wild type plants.All the results indicate that CBF2 may be an ideal candidate target gene for crop breeding of freezing tolerance by genome editing technology.%低温是主要的逆境胁迫之一,限制了作物的地理分布和产量。筛选理想的抗冻靶基因用于分子育种对于稳定农业生产具有重要意义。CBF 调节子在植物抗冻反应中扮演主要的角色,CBF2是 CBF 调节子的组成成分之一,在抗冻反应中扮演负调控的作用。采用 qRT-PCR 和常规农艺性状测定法对2种 CBF2基因突变体 cbf2-1和 cbf2-2进行了多项指标的鉴定,结果发现在这2种突变体中 CBF2基因的表达存在不同程度的缺陷,cbf2-1中 CBF2基因受低温诱导表达,但表达量与对照相比,明显下降;而 cbf2-2中 CBF2基因诱导表达的效应完全丧失。抗冻性检测结果显示 CBF2基因的表达量越低,其突变体植株的抗冻性越强

  9. Cell fate and cell differentiation status in the Arabidopsis root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.; Berg, C. van den; Weisbeek, P.

    1998-01-01

    Post-embryonic development in plants is mainly achieved by its meristems. Within the Arabidopsis root meristem, both the fate and origin of its cells can be predicted with high accuracy. Mutants defective in the determination of root cell fates show that the corresponding genes are first required

  10. Diversity of TITAN function in Arabidopsis Seed Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzafrir, I.; McElver, J.A.; Liu, C.M.; Yang, L.J.; Wu, J.Q.; Martinez, A.; Patton, D.A.; Meinke, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    The titan mutants of Arabidopsis exhibit striking defects in seed development. The defining feature is the presence of abnormal endosperm with giant polyploid nuclei. Several TTN genes encode structural maintenance of chromosome proteins (condensins and cohesins) required for chromosome function at

  11. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and si

  12. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  13. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bdwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  14. Condensin and cohesin knockouts in Arabidopsis exhibit a titan seed phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.M.; McElver, J.; Tzafrir, I.; Joosen, R.; Wittich, P.; Patton, D.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Meinke, D.

    2002-01-01

    The titan (ttn) mutants of Arabidopsis exhibit striking alterations in chromosome dynamics and cell division during seed development. Endosperm defects include aberrant mitoses and giant polyploid nuclei. Mutant embryos differ in cell size, morphology and viability, depending on the locus involved.

  15. Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM9 involvement in cuticle formation and maintenance of plant water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique set of allelic Arabidopsis mutants are described that exhibit either suppressed or completely inhibited expression of a gene designated ECERIFERUM9 (CER9). These mutants exhibit a dramatic elevation in the total amount of leaf cutin monomers, and a dramatic shift in the leaf cuticular wax p...

  16. The genetics of some planthormones and photoreceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the isolation and characterization in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. of induced mutants, deficient for gibberellins (GA's), abscisic acid (ABA) and photoreceptors.These compounds are known to regulate various facets of plant growth and differentiation, so mutants lacking one

  17. Morphogenesis of rice and Arabidopsis seedlings in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T; Soga, K; Mori, R; Saiki, M; Wakabayashi, K; Kamisaka, S; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Mukai, C; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K; Yamashita, M

    1999-12-01

    Seedlings of rice (Oryza saliva L.) and Arabidopsis (A. thaliana L.) were cultivated for 68.5 hr in the RICE experiment on board during Space Shuttle STS 95 mission, and changes in their growth and morphology were analyzed. Microgravity in space stimulated elongation growth of both rice coleoptiles and Arabidopsis hypocotyls by making their cell walls extensible. In space, rice coleoptiles showed an inclination toward the caryopsis in the basal region and also a spontaneous curvature in the same direction in the elongating region. These inclinations and curvatures were more prominent in the Koshihikari cultivar compared to a dwarf cultivar, Tan-ginbozu. Rice roots elongated in various directions including into the air on orbit, but two thirds of the roots formed a constant angle with the axis of the caryopsis. In space, Arabidopsis hypocotyls also elongated in a variety of directions and about 10% of the hypocotyls grew into the agar medium. No clear curvatures were observed in the elongating region of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Such a morphology of both types of seedlings was fundamentally similar to that observed on a 3 D clinostat. Thus, it was confirmed by the RICE experiment that rice and Arabidopsis seedlings perform an automorphogenesis under not only simulated but also true microgravity conditions.

  18. Throwing Icebergs at White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Where do the metals come from that pollute the atmospheres of many white dwarfs? Close-in asteroids may not be the only culprits! A new study shows that distant planet-size and icy objects could share some of the blame.Pollution ProblemsArtists impression of rocky debris lying close around a white dwarf star. [NASA/ESA/STScI/G. Bacon]When a low- to intermediate-mass star reaches the end of its life, its outer layers are blown off, leaving behind its compact core. The strong gravity of this white dwarf causes elements heavier than hydrogen and helium to rapidly sink to its center in a process known as sedimentation, leaving an atmosphere that should be free of metallic elements.Therefore its perhaps surprising that roughly 2550% of all white dwarfs are observed to have atmospheric pollution by heavy elements. The short timescales for sedimentation suggest that these elements were added to the white dwarf recently but how did they get there?Bringing Ice InwardIn the generally accepted theory, pre-existing rocky bodies or an orbiting asteroid belt survive the stars evolution, later accreting onto the final white dwarf. But this scenario doesnt explain a few observations that suggest white dwarfs might be accreting larger planetary-size bodies and bodies with ices and volatile materials.Dynamical evolution of a Neptune-like planet (a) and a Kuiper belt analog object (b) in wide binary star systems. Both have large eccentricity excitations during the white dwarf phase. [Stephan et al. 2017]How might you get large or icy objects which would begin on very wide orbits close enough to a white dwarf to become disrupted and accrete? Led by Alexander Stephan, a team of scientists at UCLA now suggest that the key is for the white dwarf to be in a binary system.Influence of a CompanionIn the authors model, the white-dwarf progenitor is orbited by both a distant stellar companion (a common occurrence) and a number of large potential polluters, which could have masses between that

  19. PROPERTIES OF THE COOLEST DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAUMON, DIDIER [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LEGGETT, SANDY K. [NON LANL; FREEDMAN, RICHARD S. [NON LANL; GEBALLE, THOMAS R. [NON LANL; GOLIMOWSKI, DAVID A. [NON LANL; LODIEU, NICOLAS [NON LANL; MARLEY, MARK S. [NON LANL; STEPHENS, DENISE [NON LANL; PINFIELD, DAVID J. [NON LANL; WARREN, STEPHEN J. [NON LANL

    2007-01-18

    Eleven years after the discovery of the first T dwarf, we have a population of ultracool L and T dwarfs that is large enough to show a range of atmospheric properties, as well as model atmospheres advanced enough to study these properties in detail. Since the last Cool Stars meeting, there have been observational developments which aid in these studies. they present recent mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope which confirms the prevalence of vertical mixing in the atmospheres of L and T dwarfs. Hence, the 700 K to 2200 K L and t dwarf photspheres require a large number of parameters for successful modeling: effective temperature, gravity, metallicity, grain sedimentation and vertical mixing efficiency. They also describe initial results of a search for ultracool dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and present the latest T dwarf found to date. They conclude with a discussion of the definition of the later-than-T spectral type, the Y dwarf.

  20. Pluto and other dwarf planets

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    The reclassification of Pluto in 2006 not only decreased the number of planets in our solar system by one but also introduced the new category of dwarf planet. Readers will come to understand what separates a dwarf planet from a planet-or for that matter from any of the other bodies found within the solar system. They'll learn about Pluto itself, as well as its fellow dwarf planets, Ceres, Makemake, Haumea, and Eris. Full of recent information, this title is sure to inspire an interest in space science among young readers.

  1. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  2. 拟南芥突变体uro的表型分析表明URO基因参与生长素调节的植物发育过程%Characterizations of the uro Mutant Suggest that the URO Gene Is Involved in the Auxin Action in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过莹立; 袁政; 孙越; 刘兢; 黄海

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene UPRIGHT ROSETTE(URO) was previously identified as a leaf developmental regulator, as all rosette leaves of the semi-dominant upright rosette (uro) mutant grow uprightly at seedling stages. Here, we report more detailed phenotypic characterizations of the uro mutant and show that the URO gene has multiple functions in plant development. In addition to its aberrant leaf-growing pattern, the ufo mutant displayed pleiotropic phenotypes. Both uro/+ and uro/uro plants showed a loss of apical dominance, while such a phenotype in the uro/uro plants appeared more severe. Some secondary branches of the uro/uro plants were replaced by leaves, for which petioles were attached to the abaxial side of leaves. Flowers often exhibited varying abnormalities, with altered numbers of petals and stamens and abnormally fused organs. Stems of the uro mutant were soft, which was caused by lacking interfascicular fiber. In addition, vascular differentiation in mutant stem was delayed. The loss of apical dominance and the defects in vascular development and interfascicular fiber formation suggest that the UROfunction might be associated with auxin-mediated plant development. To provide more direct evidence whether the URO is involved in auxin action, we examined the URO function in auxin polar transportation pathway by analyzing pinforrmedi(pin1) uro double mutant. Phenotypes of the double mutant suggest that URO and PINFORMED1 (PIN1) have partial genetic interactions in plant development, which further supports the hypothesis that the URO gene may play an important role in the auxin regulatory pathway.%在筛选拟南芥(Arabidopsisthaliana L.)叶突变体的过程中获得拟南芥upright rosette(uro)突变体.uro为半显性突变体,因突变体在幼苗生长期莲座叶竖直生长而得名.对uro突变体的表型进行了详细的分析,结果表明:uro突变不仅造成叶生长模式的改变,还出现多种其他异常表型.uro杂合和纯合突变体都表

  3. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  4. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety ‘BioR-231’ and ‘Hooghly Local’, respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  5. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety 'BioR-231' and 'Hooghly Local', respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  6. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity of white dwarfs can be inferred from spectroscopy, the internal structure of these compact stars can be unveiled only by means of asteroseismology, an approach based on the comparison between the observed pulsation periods of variable stars and the periods of appropriate theoretical models. In this communication, we first briefly describe the physical properties of white dwarf stars and the various families of pulsating white dwarfs known up to the present day, and then we present two recent analysis carried out by the La...

  7. Isolation of new gravitropic mutants under hypergravity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Mori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upwards. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes. In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1 mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1 mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

  8. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

  9. Singing and dancing white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S; Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gaensicke, Boris T [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nitta, Atsuko, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.ed [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Accreting white dwarfs have recently been shown to exhibit non-radial pulsations similar to their non-interacting counterparts. This allows us to probe the interior of the accreting white dwarf using seismology, and may be the only way to determine masses for non-eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Improving our understanding of accreting white dwarfs will have implications for models of supernovae Type Ia. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables are also useful in establishing the effects of accretion on pulsations. A search for nonradial pulsations among suitable candidates has led to the discovery of twelve such systems known to date. With the goal of establishing an instability strip (or strips) for these pulsating accretors, we acquired HST ultra-violet time-series spectroscopy of six pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables in 2007 and 2008. This approach enables us to measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf using the co-added spectrum, and to simultaneously characterize the pulsations. We also intended to constrain the pulsation mode identification by comparing the ultra-violet amplitudes to those from near-simultaneous ground-based photometry. Our preliminary results indicate a broad instability strip in the temperature range of 10500-15400 K.

  10. Using Arabidopsis to study shoot branching in biomass willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sally P; Salmon, Jemma; Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela; Leyser, Ottoline

    2013-06-01

    The success of the short-rotation coppice system in biomass willow (Salix spp.) relies on the activity of the shoot-producing meristems found on the coppice stool. However, the regulation of the activity of these meristems is poorly understood. In contrast, our knowledge of the mechanisms behind axillary meristem regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has grown rapidly in the past few years through the exploitation of integrated physiological, genetic, and molecular assays. Here, we demonstrate that these assays can be directly transferred to study the control of bud activation in biomass willow and to assess similarities with the known hormone regulatory system in Arabidopsis. Bud hormone response was found to be qualitatively remarkably similar in Salix spp. and Arabidopsis. These similarities led us to test whether Arabidopsis hormone mutants could be used to assess allelic variation in the cognate Salix spp. hormone genes. Allelic differences in Salix spp. strigolactone genes were observed using this approach. These results demonstrate that both knowledge and assays from Arabidopsis axillary meristem biology can be successfully applied to Salix spp. and can increase our understanding of a fundamental aspect of short-rotation coppice biomass production, allowing more targeted breeding.

  11. White dwarfs, red dwarfs and halo dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Berro, E; Torres, S; Camacho, J [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. del Canal Olimpic, s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Isern, J, E-mail: garcia@fa.upc.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    The nature of the microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the LMC still remains controversial. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than approx 1M{sub o-dot} have been ruled out, while stars of approx 0.5 M{sub o-dot} are the most probable candidates. This means that the microlenses should be either red or white dwarfs. Consequently, we assess jointly the relative contributions of both types of stars to the mass budget of the Galactic halo. We use a Monte Carlo code that incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of both red dwarfs and white dwarfs as well as detailed descriptions of both our Galaxy and the LMC and we compare the synthetic populations obtained with our simulator with the results obtained by the MACHO and EROS experiments. We find that the contribution of the red dwarf population is not enough to explain the number of events measured by the MACHO team. Even though, the optical depth obtained in our simulations almost doubles that obtained when taking into account the white dwarf population alone. Finally, we also find that the contribution to the halo dark matter of the entire population under study is smaller than 10%, at the 95% confidence level.

  12. Reference: 503 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hingolipid biosynthesis. In yeast and mammalian cells, SPT is a heterodimer that consists of LCB1 and LCB2 s...g-chain base auxotrophy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT mutants when coexpressed with Arabidopsis LCB2. In a... viability was restored by complementation with the wild-type At LCB1 gene. Furthermore, partial RNA interference... (RNAi) suppression of At LCB1 expression was accompanied by a marked reduction in plant size that resu...lted primarily from reduced cell expansion. Sphingolipid content on a weight basi

  13. Reference: 662 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chelle L et al. 2007. Nucleic Acids Res. 35(19):6490-500. In the absence of the telomerase, telomeres underg...that fusion of critically shortened telomeres in Arabidopsis proceeds with approximately the same efficiency in the presence... or absence of KU70, a key component of NHEJ. Here we report that DNA ligase IV (LIG4) is al...) in the frequency of chromosome fusions in triple tert ku70 lig4 mutants versus tert ku70 or tert. Sequence

  14. Reference: 56 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ollen mother cell wall during microspore development. Microspore separation in the quartet 3 mutants of Arab...Y et al. 2003 Nov. Plant Physiol. 133(3):1170-80. Mutations in the QUARTET loci in Arabidopsis result in failure of microspore separa...cell wall during late stages of pollen development. Mutations in a new locus required for microspore separ...ation, QRT3, were isolated, and the corresponding gene was cloned by T-DNA tagging....tion during pollen development due to a defect in degradation of the pollen mother

  15. Reference: 502 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t al. 2006 Dec. Plant Cell 18(12):3535-47. Seed storage proteins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as pre...cursors and then transported to protein storage vacuoles, where they are processed into mature forms. Here..., we isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, maigo2 (mag2), that accumulated the pre...ells contained many novel structures, with an electron-dense core that was composed of the precursor forms o...f 2S albumin. 12S globulins were segregated from 2S albumin and were localized in the matrix re

  16. Reference: 391 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -ha et al. 2006 Jul. Plant Cell 18(7):1736-49. In plants, many gene transcripts are very unstable, which is ...important for the tight control of their temporal and spatial expression patterns. To identify cellular fact...ging in Arabidopsis thaliana to isolate a recessive mutant, stabilized1-1 (sta1-1), with enhanced stability ...dogenous gene transcripts and has a range of developmental and stress response ph...rotein and to the yeast pre-mRNA splicing factors Prp1p and Prp6p. STA1 expression is upregulated by cold stre

  17. Reference: 78 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available astids. The Arabidopsis genome encodes two homologues of Toc34, designated atToc3...utants, plastid protein import 3-1 (ppi3-1) and ppi3-2. Aerial tissues of the ppi3 mutants appeared similar ...to the wild type throughout development, and contained structurally normal chloroplasts that were... able to efficiently import the Rubisco small subunit precursor (prSS) in vitro. The absence... of an obvious ppi3 phenotype in green tissues presumably reflects the ability of atToc33 to substitute for

  18. Reference: 9 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available female gametophyte (FG) development and function, and few FG-expressed genes have been identified. We report...These mutants have defects throughout development, indicating that FG-expressed genes govern essentially eve.... Of the J-domain-containing proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast)...Arabidopsis ortholog of yeast Mdj1p. These data suggest a role for mitochondria in cell death in plants. Mitochondrial GFA2 is re...15516 2002 Sep The Plant cell Brown Jessica|Brown Ryan H|Christensen Cory A|Drews Gary N|Gorsich Steven W|Jones Linda G|Shaw Janet M

  19. Reference: 148 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nori et al. 2004 Jul. Plant Mol. Biol. 55(4):567-77. 4-Hydroxybenzoate polyprenyl diphosphate transferase (4...HPT) is the key enzyme that transfers the prenyl side chain to the benzoquione frame in ubiquinone (UQ) bios...ynthesis. The Arabidopsis AtPPT1 cDNA encoding 4HPT was cloned by reverse transcr...the function of the gene was determined. Heterologous expression of the AtPPT1 gene enabled restoration of the re...HPT activity. The mitochondrial fraction that was prepared from the yeast mutant, which expressed the AtPPT1

  20. Reference: 12 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne [Met]) into gaseous Se forms (e.g. dimethylselenide), is a potentially important means of re...moving Se from contaminated environments. Before attempting to genetically enhance the efficie...ts rate-limiting steps. The present research tested the hypothesis that S-adenosy...l-L-Met:L-Met S-methyltransferase (MMT) is the enzyme responsible for the methylation of Se-Met to Se-methyl...he lack of MMT in the Arabidopsis T-DNA mutant plant resulted in an almost comple

  1. Reference: 101 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 101 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15295074i Sorensen A...nna-Marie et al. 2004 Jul. Plant Cell Physiol. 45(7):905-13. Screening a T-DNA mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana for re...duced seed set and segregation distortion led to the isolation of the ABNORMAL GAMET...OPHYTES (AGM) mutant. Homozygous plants were never recovered, but heterozygous pl...ants showed mitotic defects during gametogenesis resulting in approximately 50% abortion of both the male an

  2. Reference: 288 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ly of integral membrane transporters function in cellular detoxification, cell-to-cell signaling, and channel regulation. More re...cently, members of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (...n in both monocots and dicots. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana MDR/PGP PGP4 functions in the basipetal redire...ction of auxin from the root tip. Reporter gene studies showed tha...l as lateral root formation were reduced in pgp4 mutants compared with the wild type. pgp4 exhibited re

  3. Reference: 183 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available athan et al. 2005 Mar. Dev. Cell 8(3):443-9. The plant shoot body plan is highly variable, depending on the degre...e of branching. Characterization of the max1-max4 mutants of Arabidopsis demonstrates that branching is re...gulated by at least one carotenoid-derived hormone. Here we show that all four...n perception. We propose that MAX1 acts on a mobile substrate, downstream of MAX3 and MAX4, which have immob...ile substrates. These roles for MAX3, MAX4, and MAX2 are consistent with their kn

  4. Reference: 651 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available naud et al. 2007 Sep. EMBO J. 26(18):4126-37. The initiation of meiotic recombination by the formation of DNA double-strand bre...aks (DSBs) catalysed by the Spo11 protein is strongly evolutionary conserved. In Saccharomyces cere...visiae, Spo11 requires nine other proteins for meiotic DSB formation, b...ut, unlike Spo11, few of these proteins seem to be conserved across kingdoms. In order to investigate this re...in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Atprd1 mutants, meiotic recombination rates fall dramatically, early re

  5. Reference: 3 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t al. 2001 Jul. Plant J. 27(2):89-99. We isolated an Arabidopsis lesion initiation 2 (lin2) mutant, which develops lesion...droxylase (nahG) gene. This suggests that the lesion formation triggered in lin2 plants is determined prior ...to or independently of the accumulation of SA but that the accumulation is required to limit the spread of lesion...s in lin2 plants. A deficiency of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase causes lesion...s, usually activated by pathogen infection. These results demonstrate that a porphyrin pathway impairment is responsible for the lesi

  6. Brown dwarfs as close companions to white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Black, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the radiation flux emitted by a white dwarf primary on the evolution of a closely orbiting brown dwarf (BD) companion is investigated. Full stellar evolutionary calculations are presented for both isolated and thermal bath cases, including effects of large variations in the atmospheric grain opacities. High grain opacities significantly increase the radii of the BDs, but the thermal bath does not. The major influence of the thermal bath is to increase substantially the surface temperature and luminosity of the BD at a given age. These results are compared with the observational properties of the possible BD companion of the white dwarf G29-38. Inclusion of both physical effects, high grain opacities and thermal bath, increases the mass range (0.034-0.063 solar masses) of viable models significantly, yet the final determination of whether the object is indeed a BD requires improvements in the observations of the system's properties.

  7. GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors coordinate the tolerance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xue-Ying; Li, Peng-Xu; Zou, Li-Juan; Tan, Wen-rong; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Da-Wei, E-mail: yuanmiao1892@163.com; Lin, Hong-Hui, E-mail: hhlin@scu.edu.cn

    2016-09-02

    Arabidopsis thaliana GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLKs) transcription factors play important roles in regulation of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes, as well as participate in chloroplast development. However, the involvement of GLKs in plants resistance to virus remains largely unknown. Here, the relationship between GLKs and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) stress response was investigated. Our results showed that the Arabidopsis glk1glk2 double-mutant was more susceptible to CMV infection and suffered more serious damages (such as higher oxidative damages, more compromised in PSII photochemistry and more reactive oxygen species accumulation) when compared with the wild-type plants. Interestingly, there was little difference between single mutant (glk1 or glk2) and wild-type plants in response to CMV infection, suggesting GLK1 and GLK2 might function redundant in virus resistance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the induction of antioxidant system and defense-associated genes expression in the double mutant were inhibited when compared with single mutant or wild-type plants after CMV infection. Further evidences showed that salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) might be involved in GLKs-mediated virus resistance, as SA or JA level and synthesis-related genes transcription were impaired in glk1glk2 mutant. Taken together, our results indicated that GLKs played a positively role in virus resistance in Arabidopsis. - Highlights: • GLKs play a positive role in CMV resistance in Arabidopsis. • Defective of GLKs suffered more ROS accumulation. • Arabidopsis lacking GLKs have damaged photosynthesis. • Arabidopsis lacking GLKs show low SA and JA accumulation.

  8. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Panei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  9. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  10. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  11. Faint Dwarfs in Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to $\\Delta m_r \\equiv ({m}_{r,\\, {\\rm sat}} -\\, {m}_{r,\\, {\\rm main}}) \\sim 6$-$8$, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs, and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down...

  12. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  13. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  14. Satellite Dwarf Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe: The Prevalence of Dwarf-Dwarf Major Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, Alis; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea

    2014-01-01

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ~10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M_star > 10^6 M_sun that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased towards larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger ...

  15. Reference: 509 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oproteins, occur throughout the plant kingdom. The lysine-rich classical AGP subfamily in Arabidopsis consists of thre...e members, AtAGP17, 18 and 19. In this study, AtAGP19 was examined in terms of its gene expre...n flowers and roots and low levels in leaves. AtAGP19 promoter-controlled GUS activity was high in the vasculature...l T-DNA knockout mutant of AtAGP19 was obtained and compared to wild-type (WT) plants. The atagp19 mutant ha...d: (i) smaller, rounder and flatter rosette leaves, (ii) lighter-green leaves containing less chlorophyll, (

  16. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR) is a hallmark of plant innate immunity. HR PCD is triggered upon recognition of pathogen effector molecules by host immune receptors either directly or indirectly via effector modulation of host targets....... However, it has been unclear by which molecular mechanisms plants execute PCD during innate immune responses. We recently examined HR PCD in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg) and find that PCD conditioned by one class of plant innate immune receptors is suppressed in atg mutants....... Intriguingly, HR triggered by another class of immune receptors with different genetic requirements is not compromised, indicating that only a specific subset of immune receptors engage the autophagy pathway for HR execution. Thus, our work provides a primary example of autophagic cell death associated...

  17. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double...... differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls......., triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development...

  18. An Arabidopsis ctpA homologue is involved in the repair of photosystem Ⅱ under high light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN ShuMing; SUN XuWu; ZHANG LiXin

    2008-01-01

    A T-DNA insertion mutant AtctpA 1 was identified to study the physiological roles of a carboxyl-terminal processing protease (CtpA) homologue in Arabidopsis. Under normal growth conditions, disruption of AtctpA1 did not result in any apparent alterations in growth rate and thylakoid membrane protein components. However the mutant plants exhibited increased sensitivity to high irradiance. Degradation of PSII reaction center protein D1 was accelerated in the mutant during photoinhibition. These results demostrated that AtctpA1 was required for efficient repair of PSII in Arabidopsis under high irradiance.

  19. [Imprinting genes and it's expression in Arabidopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Xu, Pei-Zhou; Yang, Hua; Wu, Xian-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to the phenomenon that the expression of a gene copy depends on its parent of origin. The Arabidopsis imprinted FIS (Fertilisation-independent seed) genes, mea, fis2, and fie, play essential roles in the repression of central cell and the regulation of early endosperm development. fis mutants display two phenotypes: autonomous diploid endosperm development when fertilization is absent and un-cellularised endosperm formation when fertilization occurs. The FIS Polycomb protein complex including the above three FIS proteins catalyzes histone H3 K27 tri-methylation on target loci. DME (DEMETER), a DNA glycosylase, and AtMET1 (Methyltransferase1), a DNA methyltransferase, are involved in the regulation of imprinted expression of both mea and fis2. This review summarizes the studies on the Arabidopsis imprinted FIS genes and other related genes. Recent works have shown that the insertion of transposons may affect nearby gene expression, which may be the main driving force behind the evolution of genomic imprinting. This summary covers the achievements on Arabidopsis imprinted genes will provide important information for studies on genomic imprinting in the important crops such as rice and maize.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase in family GT14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    of glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT 14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14...... in the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database (CAZy; www.cazy.org), in which a total of 11 proteins, including AtGLCAT 14A, are classified from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report the enzyme activities for the rest of the Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, analyzed in the same way as for AtGlcAT 14A. Evidently, two...... other Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, At5g15050 and At2g37585, also possess the glucuronosyltransferase activity adding glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans. Therefore, we named At5g15050 and At2g37585 as AtGlcAT 14B and AtGlcAT 14C, respectively. © 2014 Landes Bioscience....

  1. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  2. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization.

  3. A substitution mutation in OsCCD7 cosegregates with dwarf and increased tillering phenotype in rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishnanand P. Kulkarni; Chandrapal Vishwakarma; Sarada P. Sahoo; John M. Lima; Manoj Nath; Prasad Dokku; Rajesh N. Gacche; Trilochan Mohapatra; S. Robin; N. Sarla; M. Seshashayee; Ashok K. Singh; Kuldeep Singh; Nagendra K. Singh; R. P. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Dwarf plant height and tillering ability are two of the most important agronomic traits that determine the plant architecture, and have profound influence on grain yield in rice. To understand the molecular mechanism controlling these two traits, an EMS-induced recessive dwarf and increased tillering1 (dit1) mutant was characterized. The mutant showed proportionate reduction in each internode as compared to wild type revealing that it belonged to the category of dn-type of dwarf mutants. Besides, exogenous application of GA3 and 24-epibrassinolide, did not have any effect on the phenotype of the mutant. The gene was mapped on the long arm of chromosome 4, identified through positional candidate approach and verified by cosegregation analysis. It was found to encode carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase7 (CCD7) and identified as an allele of htd1. The mutant carried substitution of two nucleotides CC to AA in the sixth exon of the gene that resulted in substitution of serine by a stop codon in the mutant, and thus formation of a truncated protein, unlike amino acid substitution event in htd1. The new allele will facilitate further functional characterization of this gene, which may lead to unfolding of newer signalling pathways involving plant development and architecture.

  4. Arabidopsis YAK1 regulates abscisic acid response and drought resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2016-06-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that controls several plant processes such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress response. Here, we report that AtYak1 plays an important role in ABA signaling and postgermination growth in Arabidopsis. AtYak1 knockout mutant plants were hyposensitive to ABA inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening, seedling growth, and stomatal movement. atyak1-1 mutant plants display reduced drought stress resistance, as evidenced by water loss rate and survival rate. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that AtYak1 deficiency led to elevated expression of stomatal-related gene, MYB60, and down-regulation of several stress-responsive genes. Altogether, these results indicate that AtYak1 plays a role as a positive regulator in ABA-mediated drought response in Arabidopsis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) provide excellent laboratories to study the effect that the accretion of matter, energy and angular momentum has on the structure of white dwarfs, with important implications on the evolution of these compact binaries, the ignition of thermonuclear surface burning, and potentially their explosion as SNIa. I will provide an overview of our current understanding of CV white dwarfs, with a particular emphasis on the results of a recent large HST program. I will review our knowledge regarding the mass distribution of CV white dwarfs, as well as the secular mean accretion rates that can be inferred from their effective temperatures, and compare those statistics with predictions from CV population models. I will also discuss a sub-set of CVs which underwent thermal-time scale mass transfer, one of the channels that is often discussed as a pathway to SN Ia, and I will illustrate how the study of these "failed SNIa" can contribute to the discussion of SNIa progenitors. Finally, I will discuss the occurrence of non-radial pulsations in white dwarfs, both in CVs and their detached progenitors.

  6. Manganese in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    North, P.; Cescutti, G.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Lemasle, B.; Venn, K. A.; Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Primas, F.; Francois, P.

    We provide manganese abundances (corrected for the effect of the hyperfine structure) for a large number of stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Sculptor and Fornax, and for a smaller number in the Carina and Sextans dSph galaxies. Abundances had already been determined for a number of other

  7. A suite of Lotus japonicus starch mutants reveals both conserved and novel features of starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriet, Cécile; Welham, Tracey; Brachmann, Andreas; Pike, Marilyn; Pike, Jodie; Perry, Jillian; Parniske, Martin; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Smith, Alison M; Wang, Trevor L

    2010-10-01

    The metabolism of starch is of central importance for many aspects of plant growth and development. Information on leaf starch metabolism other than in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is scarce. Furthermore, its importance in several agronomically important traits exemplified by legumes remains to be investigated. To address this issue, we have provided detailed information on the genes involved in starch metabolism in Lotus japonicus and have characterized a comprehensive collection of forward and TILLING (for Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) reverse genetics mutants affecting five enzymes of starch synthesis and two enzymes of starch degradation. The mutants provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glucan, water dikinase1 in particular. Analyses of the mutant phenotypes indicate that the pathways of leaf starch metabolism in L. japonicus and Arabidopsis are largely conserved. However, the importance of these pathways for plant growth and development differs substantially between the two species. Whereas essentially starchless Arabidopsis plants lacking plastidial phosphoglucomutase grow slowly relative to wild-type plants, the equivalent mutant of L. japonicus grows normally even in a 12-h photoperiod. In contrast, the loss of GLUCAN, WATER DIKINASE1, required for starch degradation, has a far greater effect on plant growth and fertility in L. japonicus than in Arabidopsis. Moreover, we have also identified several mutants likely to be affected in new components or regulators of the pathways of starch metabolism. This suite of mutants provides a substantial new resource for further investigations of the partitioning of carbon and its importance for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legume seed development, and perenniality and vegetative regrowth.

  8. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Nicholas M. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007 (India); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2012-10-01

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 Multiplication-Sign faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R{sub Sun} (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M{sub Sun }. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R{sub Sun} (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%{sub -0.05%}{sup +0.10%} (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at

  9. Arabidopsis map kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, P; Johansen, Bo; Petersen, M;

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) levels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  10. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, John L.; Sakai, Hajime; Jack, Thomas; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Ulrike; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially a...

  11. Adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase is essential for Arabidopsis viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugford, Sarah G; Matthewman, Colette A; Hill, Lionel; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2010-01-04

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase (APK) provides activated sulfate for sulfation of secondary metabolites, including the glucosinolates. We have successfully isolated three of the four possible triple homozygous mutant combinations of this family. The APK1 isoform alone was sufficient to maintain WT levels of growth and development. Analysis of apk1 apk2 apk3 and apk1 apk3 apk4 mutants suggests that APK3 and APK4 are functionally redundant, despite being located in cytosol and plastids, respectively. We were, however, unable to isolate apk1 apk3 apk4 mutants, most probably because the apk1 apk3 apk4 triple mutant combination is pollen lethal. Therefore, we conclude that APS kinase is essential for plant reproduction and viability.

  12. BODYGUARD is required for the biosynthesis of cutin in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Liina; Lindgren, Leif Ove; Verdier, Gaëtan; Laanemets, Kristiina; Brosché, Mikael; Beisson, Fred; Kollist, Hannes

    2016-07-01

    The cuticle plays a critical role in plant survival during extreme drought conditions. There are, however, surprisingly, many gaps in our understanding of cuticle biosynthesis. An Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant library was screened for mutants with enhanced transpiration using a simple condensation spot method. Five mutants, named cool breath (cb), were isolated. The cb5 mutant was found to be allelic to bodyguard (bdg), which is affected in an α/β-hydrolase fold protein important for cuticle structure. The analysis of cuticle components in cb5 (renamed as bdg-6) and another T-DNA mutant allele (bdg-7) revealed no impairment in wax synthesis, but a strong decrease in total cutin monomer load in young leaves and flowers. Root suberin content was also reduced. Overexpression of BDG increased total leaf cutin monomer content nearly four times by affecting preferentially C18 polyunsaturated ω-OH fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids. Whole-plant gas exchange analysis showed that bdg-6 had higher cuticular conductance and rate of transpiration; however, plant lines overexpressing BDG resembled the wild-type with regard to these characteristics. This study identifies BDG as an important component of the cutin biosynthesis machinery in Arabidopsis. We also show that, using BDG, cutin can be greatly modified without altering the cuticular water barrier properties and transpiration.

  13. Methylation of Gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varbanova,M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yang, Y.; McKelvey, K.; Hanada, A.; Borochov, R.; Yu, F.; Jikumaru, Y.; Ross, J.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana GAMT1 and GAMT2 encode enzymes that catalyze formation of the methyl esters of gibberellins (GAs). Ectopic expression of GAMT1 or GAMT2 in Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and petunia (Petunia hybrida) resulted in plants with GA deficiency and typical GA deficiency phenotypes, such as dwarfism and reduced fertility. GAMT1 and GAMT2 are both expressed mainly in whole siliques (including seeds), with peak transcript levels from the middle until the end of silique development. Within whole siliques, GAMT2 was previously shown to be expressed mostly in developing seeds, and we show here that GAMT1 expression is also localized mostly to seed, suggesting a role in seed development. Siliques of null single GAMT1 and GAMT2 mutants accumulated high levels of various GAs, with particularly high levels of GA1 in the double mutant. Methylated GAs were not detected in wild-type siliques, suggesting that methylation of GAs by GAMT1 and GAMT2 serves to deactivate GAs and initiate their degradation as the seeds mature. Seeds of homozygous GAMT1 and GAMT2 null mutants showed reduced inhibition of germination, compared with the wild type, when placed on plates containing the GA biosynthesis inhibitor ancymidol, with the double mutant showing the least inhibition. These results suggest that the mature mutant seeds contained higher levels of active GAs than wild-type seeds.

  14. Genetic Analysis and Mapping of the Dominant Dwarfing Gene D-53 in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dwarfing gene D-53 is one of a few dominant genes for dwarfing in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, our genetic analysis confirmed that mutant characteristics including dwarfing, profuse tillering, thin stems and small panicles are all controlled by the dominant D-53 gene. We measured the length of each internode of KL908, a D-53-carrying line, and classified the dwarfism of KL908 into the dn-type. In addition, we measured elongation of the second sheath and α-amylase activity in the endosperm, and we characterized KL908 as a dwarf mutant that was neither gibberellic acid-deficient nor gibberellic acid-insensitive. Using a large F2 population obtained by crossing KL908 with a wild-type variety, NJ6, the D-53 gene was mapped to the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 11, with one simple sequence repeat marker, Ds3, co-segregating, and the other, K81114, located 0.6 cM away.

  15. AR Sco: A White Dwarf Synchronar

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2016-01-01

    The emission of the white dwarf-M dwarf binary AR Sco is driven by the rapid synchronization of its white dwarf, rather than by accretion. This requires a comparatively large magnetic field $\\sim 100$ gauss at the M dwarf and $\\sim 10^8$ gauss on the white dwarf, larger than the fields of most intermediate polars but within the range of fields of known magnetic white dwarfs. The spindown power is dissipated in the atmosphere of the M dwarf by magnetic reconnection, accelerating particles that produce the observed synchrotron radiation. The displacement of the optical maximum from conjunction may be explained either by dissipation in a bow wave as the white dwarf's magnetic field sweeps past the M dwarf or by a misaligned white dwarf's rotation axis and oblique magnetic moment. In the latter case the rotation axis precesses with a period of decades, predicting a drift in the orbital phase of maximum. Binaries whose emission is powered by synchronization may be termed synchronars, in analogy to magnetars.

  16. Plant genetics: increased outcrossing in hothead mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Chan, Simon W-L; Shah, Govind A; Jacobsen, Steve E

    2006-09-28

    Arising from: S. J. Lolle, J. L. Victor, J. M. Young & R. E. Pruitt 434, 505-509 (2005); Lolle et al. reply. Lolle et al. report that loss-of-function alleles of the HOTHEAD (HTH) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana are genetically unstable, giving rise to wild-type revertants. On the basis of the reversion of many other genetic markers in hth plants, they suggested a model in which a cache of extragenomic information could cause genes to revert to the genotype of previous generations. In our attempts to reproduce this phenomenon, we discovered that hth mutants show a marked tendency to outcross (unlike wild-type A. thaliana, which is almost exclusively self-fertilizing). Moreover, when hth plants are grown in isolation, their genetic inheritance is completely stable. These results may provide an alternative explanation for the genome wide non-mendelian inheritance reported by Lolle et al.

  17. Analysis of Stomatal Patterning in Selected Mutants of MAPK Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Abrar

    2016-05-01

    Stomata are cellular valves in plants that play an essential role in the regulation of gas exchange and are distributed in the epidermis of aerial organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, stomatal production and development are coordinated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, which modulates a variety of other processes, including cell proliferation, regulation of cytokinesis, programed cell death, and response to abiotic and biotic stress. The environment also plays a role in stomatal development, by influencing the frequency at which stomata develop in leaves. This thesis presents an analysis of stomatal development in Arabidopsis mutants in two MAPK pathways: MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4, and MAP3K17/18-MKK3. Obtained results demonstrate the effect of stress conditions on stomatal development and specify the involvement of analysed MAPK in stomatal patterning. First, both analysed pathways modulate stomatal patterning in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Second, plant growth-promoting bacteria tested enhance stomatal density and affect guard cell morphology. Third, the sucrose or mannitol treatment increases defects in stomatal patterning. Finally, salt stress or high temperature can suppress stomatal defects in mutants of the MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4 pathway.

  18. Function analysis of a semi-dwarf sdg in rice with near isogenic lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaobo; LIANG Guohua; LI Xiazhen; LI Hongchang; XU Jichen; ZHU Lihuang

    2004-01-01

    The physiological phenotype of the rice semi-dwarf mutant,sdg,was characterized in details using a pair of near isogenic .Neither gibberellin*deficient nor gibberellin-insensitive is characteristic of the sdgphenotype.Byanalyzing the secretion of aamylas and the promotion of stem growth caused by eogenous gibberellin(GA),the sdg plant was found to have decreased sensitivity to the GA at the seedling stage. The dwarfism stature of the sdg mutant can be attributed to the shortened internodes. Increase of the cell sults indicate the protein encded by the wild type gene of sdg may be a regulator for cell elogation.

  19. Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars

    CERN Document Server

    Chyzy, Krzysztof T; Beck, Rainer; Bomans, Dominik J

    2011-01-01

    We clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and what is the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 and 4.85GHz. Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are three times weaker than in the normal spirals (6muG) are observed only in dwarfs of extreme characteristics while typical LG dwarfs are not suitable objects for efficient supply of magnetic fields to the intergalactic medium.

  20. Database Description - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n accumulated, which is an indispensable resource to improve plant omics studies both on basic and applied research...mutant lines to the phenome to improve experimental research. Inconstancy among them however has inhibited t...s. One is the “RIKEN Phenome Integration of Arabidopsis Mutants”, that allows researchers to search mutants ...seful materials for their experimental research. The other, the “Database of Curated Plant Phenome” focusing

  1. Suppression of Arabidopsis flowering by near-null magnetic field is affected by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Li, Yue; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Yuxia; Wei, Shufeng

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that a near-null magnetic field suppressed Arabidopsis flowering in white light, which might be related to the function modification of cryptochrome (CRY). To further demonstrate that the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering is associated with CRY, Arabidopsis wild type and CRY mutant plants were grown in the near-null magnetic field under blue or red light with different light cycle and photosynthetic photon flux density. We found that Arabidopsis flowering was significantly suppressed by near-null magnetic field in blue light with lower intensity (10 µmol/m(2) /s) and shorter cycle (12 h period: 6 h light/6 h dark). However, flowering time of CRY1/CRY2 mutants did not show any difference between plants grown in near-null magnetic field and in local geomagnetic field under detected light conditions. In red light, no significant difference was shown in Arabidopsis flowering between plants in near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field under detected light cycles and intensities. These results suggest that changes of blue light cycle and intensity alter the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering, which is mediated by CRY.

  2. P-proteins in Arabidopsis are heteromeric structures involved in rapid sieve tube sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan B Jekat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural phloem proteins (P-proteins are characteristic components of the sieve elements in all dicotyledonous and many monocotyledonous angiosperms. Tobacco P-proteins were recently evidenced to be encoded by the widespread SEO gene family, and tobacco SEO proteins were shown to be directly involved in sieve tube sealing thus preventing the loss of photosynthate. Analysis of the two Arabidopsis SEO proteins (AtSEOa and AtSEOb indicated that the corresponding P-protein subunits do not act in a redundant manner. However, there are still pending questions regarding the interaction properties and specific functions of AtSEOa and AtSEOb as well as the general function of structural P-proteins in Arabidopsis. In this study, we characterized the Arabidopsis P-proteins in more detail. We used in planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the predicted heteromeric interactions between AtSEOa and AtSEOb. Arabidopsis mutants depleted for one or both AtSEO proteins lacked the typical P-protein structures normally found in sieve elements, underlining the identity of AtSEO proteins as P-proteins and furthermore providing the means to determine the role of Arabidopsis P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore developed an assay based on phloem exudation. Mutants with reduced AtSEO expression levels lost twice as much photosynthate following injury as comparable wild-type plants, confirming that Arabidopsis P-proteins are indeed involved in sieve tube sealing. 

  3. Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Luz; Scholl, Randy; Holomuzki, Nicholas; Crist, Deborah; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Growing healthy plants is essential for the advancement of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) research. Over the last 20 years, the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) has collected and developed a series of best-practice protocols, some of which are presented in this chapter. Arabidopsis can be grown in a variety of locations, growth media, and environmental conditions. Most laboratory accessions and their mutant or transgenic derivatives flower after 4-5 weeks and set seeds after 7-8 weeks, under standard growth conditions (soil, long day, 23 ºC). Some mutant genotypes, natural accessions, and Arabidopsis relatives require strict control of growth conditions best provided by growth rooms, chambers, or incubators. Other lines can be grown in less-controlled greenhouse settings. Although the majority of lines can be grown in soil, certain experimental purposes require utilization of sterile solid or liquid growth media. These include the selection of primary transformants, identification of homozygous lethal individuals in a segregating population, or bulking of a large amount of plant material. The importance of controlling, observing, and recording growth conditions is emphasized and appropriate equipment required to perform monitoring of these conditions is listed. Proper conditions for seed harvesting and preservation, as well as seed quality control, are also described. Plant transformation and genetic crosses, two of the methods that revolutionized Arabidopsis genetics, are introduced as well.

  4. Parametric Dwarf Spheroidal Tidal Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fleck, J J; Fleck, Jean-Julien; Kuhn, Jeff R.

    2003-01-01

    The time dependent tidal interaction of the Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal (dS) Galaxies with the Milky Way (MW) can fundamentally affect their dynamical properties. The model developed here extends earlier numerical descriptions of dS-MW tidal interactions. We explore the dynamical evolution of dS systems in circular or elliptical MW orbits in the framework of a parametric oscillator. An analytic model is developed and compared with more general numerical solutions and N-body simulation experiments.

  5. Dark matter in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Matts

    2017-01-01

    Although the cusp-core controversy for dwarf galaxies is seen as a problem, I argue that the cored central profiles can be explained by flattened cusps because they suffer from conflicting measurements and poor statistics and because there is a large number of conventional processes that could have flattened them since their creation, none of which requires new physics. Other problems, such as "too big to fail", are not discussed.

  6. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  7. Magnetars and White Dwarf Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lobato, Ronaldo V; Coelho, Jaziel G

    2016-01-01

    The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field $B\\sim 10^{7}-10^{10}$ G and rotate very fast with frequencies $\\Omega\\sim 1$ rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods $P\\sim (2-12)$ s.

  8. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  9. Lopsidedness in dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, A B; Almoznino, E; Van Zee, L; Salzer, J J; Heller, Ana B.; Brosch, Noah; Almoznino, Elchanan; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.

    2000-01-01

    We quantify the amplitude of the lopsidedness, the azimuthal angular asymmetry index, and the concentration of star forming regions, as represented by the distribution of the H$\\alpha$ emission, in a sample of 78 late-type irregular galaxies. We bin the observed galaxies in two groups representing blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and low surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBs). The light distribution is analysed with a novel algorithm, which allows detection of details in the light distribution pattern. We find that while the asymmetry of the underlying continuum light, representing the older stellar generations, is relatively small, the H$\\alpha$ emission is very asymmetric and is correlated in position angle with the continuum light. We test a model of random star formation over the extent of a galaxy by simulating HII regions in artificial dwarf galaxies. The implication is that random star formation over the full extent of a galaxy may be generated in LSB dwarf-irregular galaxies but not in BCD galaxies.

  10. White Dwarf Critical Tests for Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2015-01-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity can lead to modifications of the gravitational force inside astrophysical objects. We exhibit that compact stars such as white dwarfs provide a unique set-up to test such deviations from Newtonian gravitational physics inside the stars. We obtain stringent and independent constraints on the parameter $\\Upsilon$ characterizing the deviations from gravity using the mass-radius relation, the Chandrasekhar mass limit and the maximal rotational frequency of white dwarfs. We find that white dwarfs impose stronger constraints on $\\Upsilon$ than the red and brown dwarfs.

  11. White dwarf cooling sequences and cosmochronology

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This means that their luminosity function, i.e. the number of white dwarfs per unit bolometric magnitude and unit volume as a function of bolometric magnitude, is a monotonically increasing function that decreases abruptly as a consequence of the finite age of the Galaxy. The precision and the accuracy of the white dwarf luminosity functions obtained with the recent large surveys together with the improved quality of the theoretical models of evolution of white dwarfs allow to feed the hope that in a near future it will be possible to reconstruct the history of the different Galactic populations.

  12. The Blue Straggler Population in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Momany, Yazan

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter I review the recent developments regarding the study of Blue Stragglers (BSS) in dwarf galaxies. The loose density environment of dwarf galaxies resembles that of the Galactic Halo, hence it is natural to compare their common BSS properties. At the same time, it is unescapable to compare with the BSS properties in Galactic Globular clusters, which constitute the reference point for BSS studies. Admittedly, the literature on BSS in dwarf galaxies is not plentiful. The limitation is mostly due to the large distance to even the closest dwarf galaxies. Nevertheless, recent studies have allowed a deeper insight on the BSS photometric properties that are worth examining.

  13. Dynamical Masses of Accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, A. F.; Gänsckie, B. T.

    2017-03-01

    The mass retention efficiency is a key question in both the theoretical and observational study of accreting white dwarfs in interacting binaries, with important implications for their potential as progenitors for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Canonical wisdom is that classical nova eruptions erode the white dwarf mass, and consequently, cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been excluded from the SN Ia progenitor discussion. However the average mass of white dwarfs in CVs is substantially higher (≃ 0.83 M⊙) than that of single white dwarfs (≃ 0.64 M ⊙), in stark contrast to expectations based on current classical nova models. This finding is based on a sample of ≃ 30 CV white dwarfs with accurate mass measurements, most of them in eclipsing systems. Given the fundamental importance of the mass evolution of accreting white dwarfs, it is necessary to enlarge this sample and to diversify the methods used for measuring masses. We have begun a systematic study of 27 CVs to almost double the number of CV white dwarfs with an accurate mass measurement. Using VLT/X-shooter phase-resolved observations, we can measure the white dwarf masses to a few percent, and will be able to answer the question whether accreting CV white dwarfs grow in mass.

  14. Analysis of Arabidopsis glutathione-transferases in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Matthias P; Kanawati, Basem; Fekete, Agnes; Kowalski, Natalie; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grill, Erwin

    2013-07-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 54 functional glutathione transferases (GSTs), classified in seven clades. Although plant GSTs have been implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as herbicides, extensive redundancy within this large gene family impedes a functional analysis in planta. In this study, a GST-deficient yeast strain was established as a system for analyzing plant GSTs that allows screening for GST substrates and identifying substrate preferences within the plant GST family. To this end, five yeast genes encoding GSTs and GST-related proteins were simultaneously disrupted. The resulting yeast quintuple mutant showed a strongly reduced conjugation of the GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl). Consistently, the quintuple mutant was hypersensitive to CDNB, and this phenotype was complemented by the inducible expression of Arabidopsis GSTs. The conjugating activity of the plant GSTs was assessed by in vitro enzymatic assays and via analysis of exposed yeast cells. The formation of glutathione adducts with dinitrobenzene was unequivocally verified by stable isotope labeling and subsequent accurate ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (ICR-FTMS). Analysis of Arabidopsis GSTs encompassing six clades and 42 members demonstrated functional expression in yeast by using CDNB and NBD-Cl as model substrates. Subsequently, the established yeast system was explored for its potential to screen the Arabidopsis GST family for conjugation of the fungicide anilazine. Thirty Arabidopsis GSTs were identified that conferred increased levels of glutathionylated anilazine. Efficient anilazine conjugation was observed in the presence of the phi, tau, and theta clade GSTs including AtGSTF2, AtGSTF4, AtGSTF6, AtGSTF8, AtGSTF10, and AtGSTT2, none of which had previously been known to contribute to fungicide detoxification. ICR-FTMS analysis of yeast extracts allowed the simultaneous detection and

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC) acts systemically to inhibit floral initiation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nien-Chen; Jane, Wann-Neng; Chen, Jychian; Yu, Tien-Shin

    2012-10-01

    Floral initiation is orchestrated by systemic floral activators and inhibitors. This remote-control system may integrate environmental cues to modulate floral initiation. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen. However, the identity of systemic floral inhibitor or anti-florigen remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC), an Arabidopsis FT homologue, may act in a non-cell autonomous manner to inhibit floral initiation. Analysis of the ATC null mutant revealed that ATC is a short-day-induced floral inhibitor. Cell type-specific expression showed that companion cells and apex that express ATC are sufficient to inhibit floral initiation. Histochemical analysis showed that the promoter activity of ATC was mainly found in vasculature but under the detection limit in apex, a finding that suggests that ATC may move from the vasculature to the apex to influence flowering. Consistent with this notion, Arabidopsis seedling grafting experiments demonstrated that ATC moved over a long distance and that floral inhibition by ATC is graft transmissible. ATC probably antagonizes FT activity, because both ATC and FT interact with FD and affect the same downstream meristem identity genes APETALA1, in an opposite manner. Thus, photoperiodic variations may trigger functionally opposite FT homologues to systemically influence floral initiation.

  16. The Simultaneous Repression of CCR and CAD, Two Enzymes of the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway, Results in Sterility and Dwarfism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanne Thévenin; Brigitte Pollet; Bruno Letarnec; Luc Saulnier; Lionel Gissot; Alessandra Maia-Grondard; Catherine Lapierre; Lise Jouanina

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase(CCR)and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase(CAD)catalyze the last steps of monolignol biosynthesis.In Arabidopsis,one CCR gene(CCR1,At1g15950)and two CAD genes(CAD C At3g19450 and CAD D At4g34230)are involved in this pathway.A triple cad c cad d ccr1 mutant,named ccc,was obtained.This mutant displays a severe dwarf phenotype and male sterility.The lignin content in ccc mature stems is reduced to 50% of the wild-type level.In addition,stem lignin structure is severely affected,as shown by the dramatic enrichment in resistant inter-unit bonds and incorporation into the polymer of monolignol precursors such as coniferaldehyde,sinapaldehyde,and ferulic acid.Male sterility is due to the lack of lignification in the anther endothecium,which causes the failure of anther dehiscence and of pollen release.The ccc hypolignified stems accumulate higher amounts of flavonol glycosides,sinapoyl malate and feruloyl malate,which suggests a redirection of the phenolic pathway.Therefore,the absence of CAD and CCR,key enzymes of the monolignol pathway,has more severe consequences on the phenotype than the individual absence of each of them.Induction of another CCR(CCR2,At1g80820)and another CAD(CAD1,At4g39330)does not compensate the absence of the main CCR and CAD activities.This lack of CCR and CAD activities not only impacts lignification,but also severely affects the development of the plants.These consequences must be carefully considered when trying to reduce the lignin content of plants in order to facilitate the lignocellulose-to-bioethanol conversion process.

  17. Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase I Is Involved in Specific Aspects of Abscisic Acid and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia D.; Chary, S. Narasimha; Chernoff, Ellen A.; Zeng, Qin; Running, Mark P.; Crowell, Dring N.

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking a functional ERA1 gene, which encodes the β-subunit of protein farnesyltransferase (PFT), exhibit pleiotropic effects that establish roles for protein prenylation in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and meristem development. Here, we report the effects of T-DNA insertion mutations in the Arabidopsis GGB gene, which encodes the β-subunit of protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (PGGT I). Stomatal apertures of ggb plants were smaller than those of wild-type plants at all concentrations of ABA tested, suggesting that PGGT I negatively regulates ABA signaling in guard cells. However, germination of ggb seeds in response to ABA was similar to the wild type. Lateral root formation in response to exogenous auxin was increased in ggb seedlings compared to the wild type, but no change in auxin inhibition of primary root growth was observed, suggesting that PGGT I is specifically involved in negative regulation of auxin-induced lateral root initiation. Unlike era1 mutants, ggb mutants exhibited no obvious developmental phenotypes. However, era1 ggb double mutants exhibited more severe developmental phenotypes than era1 mutants and were indistinguishable from plp mutants lacking the shared α-subunit of PFT and PGGT I. Furthermore, overexpression of GGB in transgenic era1 plants partially suppressed the era1 phenotype, suggesting that the relatively weak phenotype of era1 plants is due to partial redundancy between PFT and PGGT I. These results are discussed in the context of Arabidopsis proteins that are putative substrates of PGGT I. PMID:16183844

  18. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  19. Pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes in the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Hammad, I.; Zwaal, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in an experiment with mutant lines. The pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes on morphology and reproductive yield were assessed under three levels of nutrient supply. At all nutrient levels flowering time and number of rosette le

  20. Carbon monoxide interacts with auxin and nitric oxide to cope with iron deficiency in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    To clarify the roles of CO, NO and auxin in the plant response to iron deficiency and to establish how the signaling molecules interact to enhance Fe acquisition, we conducted physiological, genetic, and molecular analyses that compared the responses of various Arabidopsis mutants, including hy1 (CO...

  1. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang;

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that promote a wide range of developmental processes. While GA signalling is well understood, little is known about how GA is transported or how GA distribution is regulated. Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants...

  2. An En/Spm based transposable element system for gene isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    At the start of the research described in this thesis, the main aim was to develop, study and apply an efficient En/Spm-I/dSpm based transposon tagging system in Arabidopsis thaliana to generate tagged mutants and to provide insights in the possibilities for future applications of such a transposon

  3. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Ferrario, Silvia; Angenent, Gerco C; Kobayashi, Akira; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the stamen number and ovule development phenotypes of the Arabidopsis sup mutant. Two P. hybrida lines of transposon (dTph1) insertion mutants of PhSUP1 exhibited increased stamen number at the cost of normal carpel development, and ovule development was defective owing to aberrant growth of the integument. Unlike Arabidopsis sup mutants, phsup1 mutants also showed extra tissues connecting stamens, a petal tube and an ovary, and aberrancies in the development of anther and placenta. PhSUP1 transcripts occurred in the basal region of wild-type flowers around developing organ primordia in whorls 2 and 3 as well as in the funiculus of the ovule, concave regions of the placenta, and interthecal regions of developing anthers. Overexpression of PhSUP1 in P. hybrida resulted in size reduction of petals, leaves, and inflorescence stems. The shortening of inflorescence stems and petal tubes was primarily attributable to suppression of cell elongation, whereas a decrease in cell number was mainly responsible for the size reduction of petal limbs.

  4. Putrescine regulating by stress-responsive MAPK cascade contributes to bacterial pathogen defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Yoo, Seung-Jin; Min, Kwang-Hyun; Nam, Seung-Hee; Cho, Baik Ho; Yang, Kwang-Yeol

    2013-08-09

    Polyamines in plants are involved in various physiological and developmental processes including abiotic and biotic stress responses. We investigated the expression of ADCs, which are key enzymes in putrescine (Put) biosynthesis, and roles of Put involving defense response in Arabidopsis. The increased expression of ADC1 and ADC2, and the induction of Put were detected in GVG-NtMEK2(DD) transgenic Arabidopsis, whereas, their performance was partially compromised in GVG-NtMEK2(DD)/mpk3 and GVG-NtMEK2(DD)/mpk6 mutant following DEX treatment. The expression of ADC2 was highly induced by Pst DC3000 inoculation, while the transcript levels of ADC1 were slightly up-regulated. Compared to the WT plant, Put content in the adc2 knock-out mutant was reduced after Pst DC3000 inoculation, and showed enhanced susceptibility to pathogen infection. The adc2 mutant exhibited reduced expression of PR-1 after bacterial infection and the growth of the pathogen was about 4-fold more than that in the WT plant. Furthermore, the disease susceptibility of the adc2 mutant was recovered by the addition of exogenous Put. Taken together, these results suggest that Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 play a positive role in the regulation of Put biosynthesis, and that Put contributes to bacterial pathogen defense in Arabidopsis.

  5. Reference: 517 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d isolated aleurone layers of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used in experiments designed to iden...tify components of the Arabidopsis seed that contribute to seed dormancy and to lea

  6. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important r

  7. Accumulation of coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Kosuke; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Watanabe, Ken; Sakata, Kanzo

    2006-02-01

    The biosynthesis of coumarins in plants is not well understood, although these metabolic pathways are often found in the plant kingdom. We report here the occurrence of coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia. Considerably high levels of scopoletin and its beta-d-glucopyranoside, scopolin, were found in the wild-type roots. The scopolin level in the roots was approximately 1200nmol/gFW, which was approximately 180-fold of that in the aerial parts. Calli accumulated scopolin at a level of 70nmol/gFW. Scopoletin and scopolin formation were induced in shoots after treatment with either 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (at 100microM) or a bud-cell suspension of Fusarium oxysporum. In order to gain insight into the biosynthetic pathway of coumarins in A. thaliana, we analyzed coumarins in the mutants obtained from the SALK Institute collection that carried a T-DNA insertion within the gene encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP98A3, which catalyzes 3'-hydroxylation of p-coumarate units in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The content of scopoletin and scopolin in the mutant roots greatly decreased to approximately 3% of that in the wild-type roots. This observation suggests that scopoletin and scopolin biosynthesis in A. thaliana are strongly dependent on the 3'-hydroxylation of p-coumarate units catalyzed by CYP98A3. We also found that the level of skimmin, a beta-d-glucopyranoside of umbelliferone, was slightly increased in the mutant roots.

  8. NFXL2 modifies cuticle properties in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisso, Janina; Schröder, Florian; Schippers, Jos H M; Müssig, Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Loss of the Arabidopsis NFX1-LIKE2 (NFXL2) gene (At5g05660) results in elevated ABA levels, elevated hydrogen peroxide levels, reduced stomatal aperture, and enhanced drought stress tolerance. Introduction of the NFXL2-78 isoform into the nfxl2-1 mutant is largely sufficient for complementation of the phenotype. We show here that cuticular properties are altered in the nfxl2-1 mutant. The NFXL2-78 protein binds to the SHINE1 (SHN1), SHN2, SHN3, and BODYGUARD1 (BDG1) promoters and mediates weaker expression of these genes. The SHN AP2 domain transcription factors influence cuticle properties. Stronger SHN1, SHN2, and SHN3 expression in the nfxl2-1 mutant may cause altered cuticle properties including reduced stomatal density, and partly explain the enhanced drought stress tolerance. The BDG1 protein also controls cuticle development and is essential for osmotic stress regulation of ABA biosynthesis. Stronger BDG1 expression in nfxl2-1 plants may allow elevated ABA accumulation under drought stress. We conclude that the NFXL2-78 protein is part of a regulatory network that integrates the biosynthesis and action of ABA, ROS, and cuticle components.

  9. Arabidopsis CHL27, located in both envelope and thylakoid membranes, is required for the synthesis of protochlorophyllide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottey, Stephen; Block, Maryse A; Allen, Michael; Westergren, Tomas; Albrieux, Catherine; Scheller, Henrik V; Merchant, Sabeeha; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2003-12-23

    CHL27, the Arabidopsis homologue to Chlamydomonas Crd1, a plastid-localized putative diiron protein, is required for the synthesis of protochlorophyllide and therefore is a candidate subunit of the aerobic cyclase in chlorophyll biosynthesis. delta-Aminolevulinic acid-fed antisense Arabidopsis plants with reduced amounts of Crd1/CHL27 accumulate Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester, the substrate of the cyclase reaction. Mutant plants have chlorotic leaves with reduced abundance of all chlorophyll proteins. Fractionation of Arabidopsis chloroplast membranes shows that Crd1/CHL27 is equally distributed on a membrane-weight basis in the thylakoid and inner-envelope membranes.

  10. A brown dwarf orbiting an M-dwarf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachelet, E.; Fouqué, P.; Albrow, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    -Collaboration. Alerted as a high-magnification event, it was sensitive to planets. Suspected anomalies in the light curve were not confirmed by a real-time model, but further analysis revealed small deviations from a single lens extended source fit. Methods. Thanks to observations by all the collaborations, this event...... gives two local minima, which correspond to the theoretical degeneracy s ≡ s-1. We find that the lens is composed of a brown dwarf secondary of mass MS = 0.05 M⊙ orbiting a primary M-star of mass MP = 0.18 M⊙. We also reveal a new mass-ratio degeneracy for the central caustics of close binaries...

  11. Differences of Free Salicylic Acid Content and Root Morphology in Arabidopsis Wild-type and Mutant sex1 under Environmental Stresses%逆境下拟南芥野生型和突变体sex1游离态水杨酸含量及根形态差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵培臣; 贺殿

    2011-01-01

    Changes on free salicylic acid (SA) were researched in 10 different growth-stages of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (WT). Differences of free SA and seedling root morphology in WT and mutant sexl upon treatments with Pst. DC3000 (Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000) , H2O2 , MV (methyl violo-gen) and SA were analyzed by HPLC and microscope methods. The results showed that the level of free SA in WT was the lowest in flower production (6. 30 and 6. 50) and silique ripening (8. 0) growth-stages. After 2 mmol · L-1 SA treatment,we found that free SA levels both in sexl and in WT were higher than that of other treatments. However,free SA content in sexl was higher than in WT and it was about 10 times compared with other treatments. Under MV and H2O2 stresses,there were no significant differences in themain root growth. Treated by low concentration of MV,it showed that sexl seedlings had longer root hairs than WT seedlings,whereas there were no differences in the root hair density between WT seedlings and sexl seedlings. While treated by low concentration of H2O2 , the differences of the root hair in WT and sexl seedlings were similar to control group. However, upon different concentrations of SA treatments, the differences of the main root growth between WT and sexl seedlings became more prominent, especially when seedlings grew on 10 jumol · L-1 SA media in Petri plates. Interestingly, the root hair of WT and sexl seedlings gradually missed from high concentration of SA treatment to low concentration of SA treatment, but it was more distinct in sexl seedlings. Therefore,these results suggested that maybe it had some relationships between plant flowering,seed harvesting and SA-dependent pathway. Exogenous SA could accelerate more free SA production in sexl which compared with other treatments by Pst. DC3000,H2O2 and MV. Root development of sexl seedlings was more sensitive on growth environment than that of WT seedlings. In addition,root morphology of sexl

  12. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype: 10351 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria143i/cria143u1ria143u6149i ... 11-0841-1: Flowering... and Growth - dwarf or small (Ds tagging line) Flowering and Growth - dwarf or small (line id:11-0841-1)

  13. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype: 12291 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria143i/cria143u1ria143u7897i ... 15-3777-1: Flowering... and Growth - dwarf or small (Ds tagging line) Flowering and Growth - dwarf or small (line id:15-3777-1)

  14. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype: 5770 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria143i/cria143u1ria143u2025i ... 15-5467-1: Flowering... and Growth - dwarf or small (Ds tagging line) Flowering and Growth - dwarf or small (line id:15-5467-1)

  15. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype: 4635 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria143i/cria143u1ria143u14172i ... 15-1899-1: Flowering... and Growth - dwarf or small (Ds tagging line) Flowering and Growth - dwarf or small (line id:15-1899-1)

  16. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype: 7487 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria143i/cria143u1ria143u3571i ... 12-3613-1: Flowering... and Growth - dwarf or small (Ds tagging line) Flowering and Growth - dwarf or small (line id:12-3613-1)

  17. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype: 10448 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria143i/cria143u1ria143u6236i ... 13-4048-1: Flowering... and Growth - dwarf or small (Ds tagging line) Flowering and Growth - dwarf or small (line id:13-4048-1)

  18. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype: 3901 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria143i/cria143u1ria143u13511i ... 13-3024-1: Flowering... and Growth - dwarf or small (Ds tagging line) Flowering and Growth - dwarf or small (line id:13-3024-1)

  19. AR Sco: A Precessing White Dwarf Synchronar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    2017-02-01

    The emission of the white dwarf–M dwarf binary AR Sco is driven by the rapid synchronization of its white dwarf, rather than by accretion. Synchronization requires a magnetic field ∼100 Gauss at the M dwarf and ∼ {10}8 Gauss at the white dwarf, larger than the fields of most intermediate polars but within the range of fields of known magnetic white dwarfs. The spindown power is dissipated in the atmosphere of the M dwarf, within the near zone of the rotating white dwarf’s field, by magnetic reconnection, accelerating particles that produce the observed synchrotron radiation. The displacement of the optical maximum from conjunction may be explained either by dissipation in a bow wave as the white dwarf’s magnetic field sweeps past the M dwarf or by a misaligned white dwarf rotation axis and oblique magnetic moment. In the latter case the rotation axis precesses with a period of decades, predicting a drift in the orbital phase of the optical maximum. Binaries whose emission is powered by synchronization may be termed synchronars, in analogy to magnetars.

  20. Stars at Low Metallicity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Cole, Andrew; Hunt, LK; Madden, S; Schneider, R

    2008-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies offer an opportunity to understand the properties of low metallicity star formation both today and at the earliest times at the, epoch of the formation of the first stars. Here we concentrate on two galaxies in the Local Group: the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A, which has been the rece