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Sample records for arabidopsis dcr encoding

  1. The Arabidopsis DCR encoding a soluble BAHD acyltransferase is required for cutin polyester formation and seed hydration properties.

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    Panikashvili, David; Shi, Jian Xin; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2009-12-01

    The cuticle covering every plant aerial organ is largely made of cutin that consists of fatty acids, glycerol, and aromatic monomers. Despite the huge importance of the cuticle to plant development and fitness, our knowledge regarding the assembly of the cutin polymer and its integration in the complete cuticle structure is limited. Cutin composition implies the action of acyltransferase-type enzymes that mediate polymer construction through ester bond formation. Here, we show that a member of the BAHD family of acyltransferases (DEFECTIVE IN CUTICULAR RIDGES [DCR]) is required for incorporation of the most abundant monomer into the polymeric structure of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) flower cutin. DCR-deficient plants display phenotypes that are typically associated with a defective cuticle, including altered epidermal cell differentiation and postgenital organ fusion. Moreover, levels of the major cutin monomer in flowers, 9(10),16-dihydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, decreased to an almost undetectable amount in the mutants. Interestingly, dcr mutants exhibit changes in the decoration of petal conical cells and mucilage extrusion in the seed coat, both phenotypes formerly not associated with cutin polymer assembly. Excessive root branching displayed by dcr mutants and the DCR expression pattern in roots pointed to the function of DCR belowground, in shaping root architecture by influencing lateral root emergence and growth. In addition, the dcr mutants were more susceptible to salinity, osmotic, and water deprivation stress conditions. Finally, the analysis of DCR protein localization suggested that cutin polymerization, possibly the oligomerization step, is partially carried out in the cytoplasmic space. Therefore, this study extends our knowledge regarding the functionality of the cuticular layer and the formation of its major constituent the polymer cutin.

  2. Defective in cuticular ridges (DCR) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene associated with surface cutin formation, encodes a soluble diacylglycerol acyltransferase.

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    Rani, Sapa Hima; Krishna, T H Anantha; Saha, Saikat; Negi, Arvind Singh; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2010-12-03

    A key step in the triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthetic pathway is the final acylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG acyltransferase. In silico analysis has revealed that the DCR (defective in cuticular ridges) (At5g23940) gene has a typical HX(4)D acyltransferase motif at the N-terminal end and a lipid binding motif VX(2)GF at the middle of the sequence. To understand the biochemical function, the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein was found to acylate DAG specifically in an acyl-CoA-dependent manner. Overexpression of At5g23940 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae quadruple mutant deficient in DAG acyltransferases resulted in TAG accumulation. At5g23940 rescued the growth of this quadruple mutant in the oleate-containing medium, whereas empty vector control did not. Lipid particles were localized in the cytosol of At5g23940-transformed quadruple mutant cells, as observed by oil red O staining. There was an incorporation of 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid into TAG in At5g23940-transformed cells of quadruple mutant. Here we report a soluble acyl-CoA-dependent DAG acyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Taken together, these data suggest that a broad specific DAG acyltransferase may be involved in the cutin as well as in the TAG biosynthesis by supplying hydroxy fatty acid.

  3. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

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    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.

  4. Developmentally distinct MYB genes encode functionally equivalent proteins in Arabidopsis.

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    Lee, M M; Schiefelbein, J

    2001-05-01

    The duplication and divergence of developmental control genes is thought to have driven morphological diversification during the evolution of multicellular organisms. To examine the molecular basis of this process, we analyzed the functional relationship between two paralogous MYB transcription factor genes, WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABROUS1 (GL1), in Arabidopsis. The WER and GL1 genes specify distinct cell types and exhibit non-overlapping expression patterns during Arabidopsis development. Nevertheless, reciprocal complementation experiments with a series of gene fusions showed that WER and GL1 encode functionally equivalent proteins, and their unique roles in plant development are entirely due to differences in their cis-regulatory sequences. Similar experiments with a distantly related MYB gene (MYB2) showed that its product cannot functionally substitute for WER or GL1. Furthermore, an analysis of the WER and GL1 proteins shows that conserved sequences correspond to specific functional domains. These results provide new insights into the evolution of the MYB gene family in Arabidopsis, and, more generally, they demonstrate that novel developmental gene function may arise solely by the modification of cis-regulatory sequences.

  5. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome

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    Reddy, Vaka S.; Ali, Gul S.; Reddy, Anireddy S N.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  6. NOF1 encodes an Arabidopsis protein involved in the control of rRNA expression.

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    Erwana Harscoët

    Full Text Available The control of ribosomal RNA biogenesis is essential for the regulation of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the characterization of NOF1 that encodes a putative nucleolar protein involved in the control of rRNA expression in Arabidopsis. The gene has been isolated by T-DNA tagging and its function verified by the characterization of a second allele and genetic complementation of the mutants. The nof1 mutants are affected in female gametogenesis and embryo development. This result is consistent with the detection of NOF1 mRNA in all tissues throughout plant life's cycle, and preferentially in differentiating cells. Interestingly, the closely related proteins from zebra fish and yeast are also necessary for cell division and differentiation. We showed that the nof1-1 mutant displays higher rRNA expression and hypomethylation of rRNA promoter. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrated that NOF1 is an Arabidopsis gene involved in the control of rRNA expression, and suggested that it encodes a putative nucleolar protein, the function of which may be conserved in eukaryotes.

  7. Deriving consistent GSM schemas from DCR graphs

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    Eshuis, Rik; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    Case Management (CM) is a BPM technology for supporting flexible services orchestration. CM approaches like CMMN, an OMG standard, and GSM, one of CMMN’s core influences, use Event- Condition-Action rules, which can be inconsistent due to cyclic interdependencies between the rules; repairing...... such an inconsistent case management schema is difficult. To avoid the problem of inconsistencies altogether, we provide a technique for automatically deriving consistent GSM case management schemas from higher-level business policies defined as DCR graphs, an alternative CM approach. Concretely, we define a behaviour......-preserving mapping that (1) removes the burden from the modeller of GSM schemas to prove consistency and define the ordering of rules, (2) provides high-level patterns for modelling GSM schemas, and (3) gives a way to define a notion of progress (liveness) and acceptance for GSM instances. The mapping is illustrated...

  8. Arabidopsis TRANSCURVATA1 encodes NUP58, a component of the nucleopore central channel.

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    Almudena Ferrández-Ayela

    Full Text Available The selective trafficking of proteins and RNAs through the nuclear envelope regulates nuclear-cytoplasmic segregation of macromolecules and is mediated by nucleopore complexes (NPCs, which consist of about 400 nucleoporins (Nups of about 30 types. Extensive studies of nucleoporin function in yeast and vertebrates showed that Nups function in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and other processes. However, limited studies of plant Nups have identified only a few mutations, which cause pleiotropic phenotypes including reduced growth and early flowering. Here, we describe loss-of-function alleles of Arabidopsis TRANSCURVATA1 (TCU1; these mutations cause increased hypocotyl and petiole length, reticulate and asymmetrically epinastic leaf laminae of reduced size, and early flowering. TCU1 is transcribed in all of the organs and tissues examined, and encodes the putative ortholog of yeast and vertebrate Nup58, a nucleoporin of the Nup62 subcomplex. Nup58 forms the central channel of the NPC and acts directly in translocation of proteins through the nuclear envelope in yeast and vertebrates. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assays identified physical interactions between TCU1/NUP58 and 34 proteins, including nucleoporins, SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box ubiquitin ligase complex components and other nucleoplasm proteins. Genetic interactions were also found between TCU1 and genes encoding nucleoporins, soluble nuclear transport receptors and components of the ubiquitin-proteasome and auxin signaling pathways. These genetic and physical interactions indicate that TCU1/NUP58 is a member of the Nup62 subcomplex of the Arabidopsis NPC. Our findings also suggest regulatory roles for TCU1/NUP58 beyond its function in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, a hypothesis that is supported by the Y2H and genetic interactions that we observed.

  9. Arabidopsis TRANSCURVATA1 Encodes NUP58, a Component of the Nucleopore Central Channel

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    Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Alonso-Peral, María Magdalena; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Micol, José Luis; Ponce, María Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The selective trafficking of proteins and RNAs through the nuclear envelope regulates nuclear-cytoplasmic segregation of macromolecules and is mediated by nucleopore complexes (NPCs), which consist of about 400 nucleoporins (Nups) of about 30 types. Extensive studies of nucleoporin function in yeast and vertebrates showed that Nups function in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and other processes. However, limited studies of plant Nups have identified only a few mutations, which cause pleiotropic phenotypes including reduced growth and early flowering. Here, we describe loss-of-function alleles of Arabidopsis TRANSCURVATA1 (TCU1); these mutations cause increased hypocotyl and petiole length, reticulate and asymmetrically epinastic leaf laminae of reduced size, and early flowering. TCU1 is transcribed in all of the organs and tissues examined, and encodes the putative ortholog of yeast and vertebrate Nup58, a nucleoporin of the Nup62 subcomplex. Nup58 forms the central channel of the NPC and acts directly in translocation of proteins through the nuclear envelope in yeast and vertebrates. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays identified physical interactions between TCU1/NUP58 and 34 proteins, including nucleoporins, SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) ubiquitin ligase complex components and other nucleoplasm proteins. Genetic interactions were also found between TCU1 and genes encoding nucleoporins, soluble nuclear transport receptors and components of the ubiquitin-proteasome and auxin signaling pathways. These genetic and physical interactions indicate that TCU1/NUP58 is a member of the Nup62 subcomplex of the Arabidopsis NPC. Our findings also suggest regulatory roles for TCU1/NUP58 beyond its function in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, a hypothesis that is supported by the Y2H and genetic interactions that we observed. PMID:23840761

  10. Identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis gene encoding the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase.

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    Tan, Fui-Ching; Cheng, Qi; Saha, Kaushik; Heinemann, Ilka U; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Smith, Alison G

    2008-03-01

    UROS (uroporphyrinogen III synthase; EC 4.2.1.75) is the enzyme responsible for the formation of uroporphyrinogen III, the precursor of all cellular tetrapyrroles including haem, chlorophyll and bilins. Although UROS genes have been cloned from many organisms, the level of sequence conservation between them is low, making sequence similarity searches difficult. As an alternative approach to identify the UROS gene from plants, we used functional complementation, since this does not require conservation of primary sequence. A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed in which the HEM4 gene encoding UROS was deleted. This mutant was transformed with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library in a yeast expression vector and two colonies were obtained that could grow in the absence of haem. The rescuing plasmids encoded an ORF (open reading frame) of 321 amino acids which, when subcloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector, was able to complement an E. coli hemD mutant defective in UROS. Final proof that the ORF encoded UROS came from the fact that the recombinant protein expressed with an N-terminal histidine-tag was found to have UROS activity. Comparison of the sequence of AtUROS (A. thaliana UROS) with the human enzyme found that the seven invariant residues previously identified were conserved, including three shown to be important for enzyme activity. Furthermore, a structure-based homology search of the protein database with AtUROS identified the human crystal structure. AtUROS has an N-terminal extension compared with orthologues from other organisms, suggesting that this might act as a targeting sequence. The precursor protein of 34 kDa translated in vitro was imported into isolated chloroplasts and processed to the mature size of 29 kDa. Confocal microscopy of plant cells transiently expressing a fusion protein of AtUROS with GFP (green fluorescent protein) confirmed that AtUROS was targeted exclusively to chloroplasts in vivo.

  11. Transcription factors that directly regulate the expression of CSLA9 encoding mannan synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Kim, Won-Chan; Reca, Ida-Barbara; Kim, Yongsig; Park, Sunchung; Thomashow, Michael F; Keegstra, Kenneth; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that have a structural role and serve as storage reserves during plant growth and development. Previous studies led to the conclusion that mannan synthase enzymes in several plant species are encoded by members of the cellulose synthase-like A (CSLA) gene family. Arabidopsis has nine members of the CSLA gene family. Earlier work has shown that CSLA9 is responsible for the majority of glucomannan synthesis in both primary and secondary cell walls of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. Little is known about how expression of the CLSA9 gene is regulated. Sequence analysis of the CSLA9 promoter region revealed the presence of multiple copies of a cis-regulatory motif (M46RE) recognized by transcription factor MYB46, leading to the hypothesis that MYB46 (At5g12870) is a direct regulator of the mannan synthase CLSA9. We obtained several lines of experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis. First, the expression of CSLA9 was substantially upregulated by MYB46 overexpression. Second, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to demonstrate the direct binding of MYB46 to the promoter of CSLA9 in vitro. This interaction was further confirmed in vivo by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, over-expression of MYB46 resulted in a significant increase in mannan content. Considering the multifaceted nature of MYB46-mediated transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis, we reasoned that additional transcription factors are involved in the CSLA9 regulation. This hypothesis was tested by carrying out yeast-one hybrid screening, which identified ANAC041 and bZIP1 as direct regulators of CSLA9. Transcriptional activation assays and EMSA were used to confirm the yeast-one hybrid results. Taken together, we report that transcription factors ANAC041, bZIP1 and MYB46 directly regulate the expression of CSLA9.

  12. Expression pattern of a nuclear encoded mitochondrial arginine-ornithine translocator gene from Arabidopsis

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    Schneider Anja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine and citrulline serve as nitrogen storage forms, but are also involved in biosynthetic and catabolic pathways. Metabolism of arginine, citrulline and ornithine is distributed between mitochondria and cytosol. For the shuttle of intermediates between cytosol and mitochondria transporters present on the inner mitochondrial membrane are required. Yeast contains a mitochondrial translocator for ornithine and arginine, Ort1p/Arg11p. Ort1p/Arg11p is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF essential for ornithine export from mitochondria. The yeast arg11 mutant, which is deficient in Ort1p/Arg11p grows poorly on media lacking arginine. Results High-level expression of a nuclear encoded Arabidopsis thaliana homolog (AtmBAC2 of Ort1p/Arg11p was able to suppress the growth deficiency of arg11. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated expression of AtmBAC2 in all tissues with highest levels in flowers. Promoter-GUS fusions showed preferential expression in flowers, i.e. pollen, in the vasculature of siliques and in aborted seeds. Variable expression was observed in leaf vasculature. Induction of the promoter was not observed during the first two weeks in seedlings grown on media containing NH4NO3, arginine or ornithine as sole nitrogen sources. Conclusion AtmBAC2 was isolated as a mitochondrial transporter for arginine in Arabidopsis. The absence of expression in developing seeds and in cotyledons of seedlings indicates that other transporters are responsible for storage and mobilization of arginine in seeds.

  13. Global expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis

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    St Clair Dina A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR-encoding genes comprise the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes and the 58 related genes that do not encode LRRs represent approximately 0.8% of all ORFs so far annotated in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Despite their prevalence in the genome and functional importance, there was little information regarding expression of these genes. Results We analyzed the expression patterns of ~170 NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis Col-0 using multiple analytical approaches: expressed sequenced tag (EST representation, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS, microarray analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE PCR, and gene trap lines. Most of these genes were expressed at low levels with a variety of tissue specificities. Expression was detected by at least one approach for all but 10 of these genes. The expression of some but not the majority of NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes was affected by salicylic acid (SA treatment; the response to SA varied among different accessions. An analysis of previously published microarray data indicated that ten NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes exhibited increased expression in wild-type Landsberg erecta (Ler after flagellin treatment. Several of these ten genes also showed altered expression after SA treatment, consistent with the regulation of R gene expression during defense responses and overlap between the basal defense response and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Enhancer trap analysis indicated that neither jasmonic acid nor benzothiadiazole (BTH, a salicylic acid analog, induced detectable expression of the five NBS-LRR-encoding genes and one TIR-NBS-encoding gene tested; however, BTH did induce detectable expression of the other TIR-NBS-encoding gene analyzed. Evidence for alternative mRNA polyadenylation sites was observed for many of the tested genes. Evidence for

  14. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester.

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    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E K; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-02-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C(16) and C(18) unsubstituted, ω-hydroxy, and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm.

  15. Analysis of essential Arabidopsis nuclear genes encoding plastid-targeted proteins.

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    Linda J Savage

    Full Text Available The Chloroplast 2010 Project (http://www.plastid.msu.edu/ identified and phenotypically characterized homozygous mutants in over three thousand genes, the majority of which encode plastid-targeted proteins. Despite extensive screening by the community, no homozygous mutant alleles were available for several hundred genes, suggesting that these might be enriched for genes of essential function. Attempts were made to generate homozygotes in ~1200 of these lines and 521 of the homozygous viable lines obtained were deposited in the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (http://abrc.osu.edu/. Lines that did not yield a homozygote in soil were tested as potentially homozygous lethal due to defects either in seed or seedling development. Mutants were characterized at four stages of development: developing seed, mature seed, at germination, and developing seedlings. To distinguish seed development or seed pigment-defective mutants from seedling development mutants, development of seeds was assayed in siliques from heterozygous plants. Segregating seeds from heterozygous parents were sown on supplemented media in an attempt to rescue homozygous seedlings that could not germinate or survive in soil. Growth of segregating seeds in air and air enriched to 0.3% carbon dioxide was compared to discover mutants potentially impaired in photorespiration or otherwise responsive to CO2 supplementation. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements identified CO2-responsive mutants with altered photosynthetic parameters. Examples of genes with a viable mutant allele and one or more putative homozygous-lethal alleles were documented. RT-PCR of homozygotes for potentially weak alleles revealed that essential genes may remain undiscovered because of the lack of a true null mutant allele. This work revealed 33 genes with two or more lethal alleles and 73 genes whose essentiality was not confirmed with an independent lethal mutation, although in some cases second leaky alleles

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana GYRB3 does not encode a DNA gyrase subunit.

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    Katherine M Evans-Roberts

    Full Text Available DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that control the topology of DNA in all cells. DNA gyrase is unique among the topoisomerases in that it is the only enzyme that can actively supercoil DNA using the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Until recently gyrase was thought to be unique to bacteria, but has now been discovered in plants. The genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, is predicted to encode four gyrase subunits: AtGyrA, AtGyrB1, AtGyrB2 and AtGyrB3.We found, contrary to previous data, that AtGyrB3 is not essential to the survival of A. thaliana. Bioinformatic analysis suggests AtGyrB3 is considerably shorter than other gyrase B subunits, lacking part of the ATPase domain and other key motifs found in all type II topoisomerases; but it does contain a putative DNA-binding domain. Partially purified AtGyrB3 cannot bind E. coli GyrA or support supercoiling. AtGyrB3 cannot complement an E. coli gyrB temperature-sensitive strain, whereas AtGyrB2 can. Yeast two-hybrid analysis suggests that AtGyrB3 cannot bind to AtGyrA or form a dimer.These data strongly suggest that AtGyrB3 is not a gyrase subunit but has another unknown function. One possibility is that it is a nuclear protein with a role in meiosis in pollen.

  17. Arabidopsis TH2 Encodes the Orphan Enzyme Thiamin Monophosphate Phosphatase[OPEN

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    Niehaus, Thomas D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Gidda, Satinder K.; Nguyen, Thuy N.D.; Anderson, Erin M.; Brown, Greg; Yakunin, Alexander F.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize the cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), plants must first hydrolyze thiamin monophosphate (ThMP) to thiamin, but dedicated enzymes for this hydrolysis step were unknown and widely doubted to exist. The classical thiamin-requiring th2-1 mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana was shown to reduce ThDP levels by half and to increase ThMP levels 5-fold, implying that the THIAMIN REQUIRING2 (TH2) gene product could be a dedicated ThMP phosphatase. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicated that TH2 corresponds to At5g32470, encoding a HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) family phosphatase fused to a TenA (thiamin salvage) family protein. Like the th2-1 mutant, an insertional mutant of At5g32470 accumulated ThMP, and the thiamin requirement of the th2-1 mutant was complemented by wild-type At5g32470. Complementation tests in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays with recombinant proteins confirmed that At5g32470 and its maize (Zea mays) orthologs GRMZM2G148896 and GRMZM2G078283 are ThMP-selective phosphatases whose activity resides in the HAD domain and that the At5g32470 TenA domain has the expected thiamin salvage activity. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that alternative translation start sites direct the At5g32470 protein to the cytosol and potentially also to mitochondria. Our findings establish that plants have a dedicated ThMP phosphatase and indicate that modest (50%) ThDP depletion can produce severe deficiency symptoms. PMID:27677881

  18. Exformatics Declarative Case Management Workflows as DCR Graphs

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    Slaats, Tijs; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    with researchers at IT University of Copenhagen (ITU) to create tools for the declarative workflow language Dynamic Condition Response Graphs (DCR Graphs) and incorporate them into their products and in teaching at ITU. In this paper we give a status report over the work. We start with an informal introduction...

  19. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF FAILED ENDONASAL DCR OPERATIONS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

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    Mohammed Naveed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic Intra nasal approach to by-pass the obstruction of lacrimal apparatus is a simple and commonly practiced surgery among the ENT Surgeons. Various modifications in the form of usage of micro drill, application of Mitomycin C and preserving the nasal flap to line the opening in the sac to name a few are being used. Recurrence of epiphora and closure of the neo opening is described and observed are labeled as failed endonasal DCR. This study makes an attempt to review retrospectively and prospectively to evaluate the degree of recurrence and causes of failure. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: This study also attempts to determine the causes of failure of endonasal DCR and its subsequent management. Thus this study precludes the role of revision DCR. Materials and Methods: 50 patients who underwent endonasal DCR surgery at GGH Kurnool and reported with symptoms of returning of epiphora, purulent discharge from the eye were included. A detailed history taking and endoscopic examination done to find the cause of failure. An attempt is made to classify the causes and find suitable remedy.RESULTS:36% of the patients showed tendency to form synaechiae, 18.6% of patients presented with thick lacrimal crest, 9% of them showed formation of a thin veil like membrane over the neo-ostium. All the patients were subjected to revision surgery and subjective improvement in 92% of the patients reported at the time of reporting of the study.

  20. Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY1 encodes a PHD-type transcription factor and regulates pollen and tapetum development.

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    Ito, Takuya; Nagata, Noriko; Yoshiba, Yoshu; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Ma, Hong; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana MALE STERILITY1 (MS1) gene encodes a nuclear protein with Leu zipper-like and PHD-finger motifs and is important for postmeiotic pollen development. Here, we examined MS1 function using both cell biological and molecular biological approaches. We introduced a fusion construct of MS1 and a transcriptional repression domain (MS1-SRDX) into wild-type Arabidopsis, and the transgenic plants showed a semisterile phenotype similar to that of ms1. Since the repression domain can convert various kinds of transcriptional activators to dominant repressors, this suggested that MS1 functioned as a transcriptional activator. The Leu zipper-like region and the PHD motif were required for the MS1 function. Phenotypic analysis of the ms1 mutant and the MS1-SRDX transgenic Arabidopsis indicated that MS1 was involved in formation of pollen exine and pollen cytosolic components as well as tapetum development. Next, we searched for MS1 downstream genes by analyzing publicly available microarray data and identified 95 genes affected by MS1. Using a transgenic ms1 plant showing dexamethasone-inducible recovery of fertility, we further examined whether these genes were immediately downstream of MS1. From these results, we discuss a role of MS1 in pollen and tapetum development and the conservation of MS1 function in flowering plants.

  1. The Early-Acting Peroxin PEX19 Is Redundantly Encoded, Farnesylated, and Essential for Viability in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Margaret M McDonnell

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single-membrane bound organelles that are essential for normal development in plants and animals. In mammals and yeast, the peroxin (PEX proteins PEX3 and PEX19 facilitate the early steps of peroxisome membrane protein (PMP insertion and pre-peroxisome budding from the endoplasmic reticulum. The PEX3 membrane protein acts as a docking site for PEX19, a cytosolic chaperone for PMPs that delivers PMPs to the endoplasmic reticulum or peroxisomal membrane. PEX19 is farnesylated in yeast and mammals, and we used immunoblotting with prenylation mutants to show that PEX19 also is fully farnesylated in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We examined insertional alleles disrupting either of the two Arabidopsis PEX19 isoforms, PEX19A or PEX19B, and detected similar levels of PEX19 protein in the pex19a-1 mutant and wild type; however, PEX19 protein was nearly undetectable in the pex19b-1 mutant. Despite the reduction in PEX19 levels in pex19b-1, both pex19a-1 and pex19b-1 single mutants lacked notable peroxisomal β-oxidation defects and displayed normal levels and localization of peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins. The pex19a-1 pex19b-1 double mutant was embryo lethal, indicating a redundantly encoded critical role for PEX19 during embryogenesis. Expressing YFP-tagged versions of either PEX19 isoform rescued this lethality, confirming that PEX19A and PEX19B act redundantly in Arabidopsis. We observed that pex19b-1 enhanced peroxisome-related defects of a subset of peroxin-defective mutants, supporting a role for PEX19 in peroxisome function. Together, our data indicate that Arabidopsis PEX19 promotes peroxisome function and is essential for viability.

  2. The GA5 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a multifunctional gibberellin 20-oxidase: Molecular cloning and functional expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yun-Ling; Li, Li; Wu, Keqiang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-03

    The biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) after GA{sub 12}-aldehyde involves a series of oxidative steps that lead to the formation of bioactive GAs. Previously, a cDNA clone encoding a GA 20-oxidase [gibberellin, 2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (20-hydroxylating, oxidizing), EC 1.14.11-] was isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library from liquid endosperm of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) with antibodies against partially purified GA 20-oxidase. Here, we report isolation of a genomic clone for GA 20-oxidase from a genomic library of the long-day species Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh., strain Columbia, by using the pumpkin cDNA clone as a heterologous probe. This genomic clone contains a GA 20-oxidase gene that consists of three exons and two introns. The three exons are 1131-bp long and encode 377 amino acid residues. A cDNA clone corresponding to the putative GA 20-oxidase genomic sequence was constructed with the reverse transcription-PCR method, and the identity of the cDNA clone was confirmed by analyzing the capability of the fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli to convert GA{sub 53} to GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19} to GA{sub 20}. The Arabidopsis GA 20-oxidase shares 55% identity and >80% similarity with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase at the derived amino acid level. Both GA 20-oxidases share high homology with other 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs), but the highest homology was found between the two GA 20-oxidases. Mapping results indicated tight linkage between the cloned GA 20-oxidase and the GA locus of Arabidopsis. The ga5 semidwarf mutant contains a G {yields} A point mutation that inserts a translational stop codon in the protein-coding sequence, thus confirming that the GA5 locus encodes GA 20-oxidase. Expression of the GA5 gene in Arabidopsis leaves was enhanced after plants were transferred from short to long days; it was reduced by GA{sub 4} treatment, suggesting end-product repression in the GA biosynthetic pathway. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  4. LUX ARRHYTHMO encodes a nighttime repressor of circadian gene expression in the Arabidopsis core clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Anne; Nusinow, Dmitri A; Chow, Brenda Y; Gehrke, Andrew R; Bulyk, Martha L; Kay, Steve A

    2011-01-25

    Circadian clocks provide an adaptive advantage by allowing organisms to anticipate daily and seasonal environmental changes [1, 2]. Eukaryotic oscillators rely on complex hierarchical networks composed of transcriptional and posttranslational regulatory circuits [3]. In Arabidopsis, current representations of the circadian clock consist of three or four interlocked transcriptional feedback loops [3, 4]. Although molecular components contributing to different domains of these circuits have been described, how the loops are connected at the molecular level is not fully understood. Genetic screens previously identified LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) [5], also known as PHYTOCLOCK1 (PCL1) [6], an evening-expressed putative transcription factor essential for circadian rhythmicity. We determined the in vitro DNA-binding specificity for LUX by using universal protein binding microarrays; we then demonstrated that LUX directly regulates the expression of PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), a major component of the morning transcriptional feedback circuit, through association with the newly discovered DNA binding site. We also show that LUX binds to its own promoter, defining a new negative autoregulatory feedback loop within the core clock. These novel connections between the archetypal loops of the Arabidopsis clock represent a significant advance toward defining the molecular dynamics underlying the circadian network in plants and provide the first mechanistic insight into the molecular function of the previously orphan clock factor LUX.

  5. ZCN8 encodes a potential orthologue of Arabidopsis FT florigen that integrates both endogenous and photoperiod flowering signals in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazakis, Chloë M; Coneva, Viktoriya; Colasanti, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Higher plants use multiple perceptive measures to coordinate flowering time with environmental and endogenous cues. Physiological studies show that florigen is a mobile factor that transmits floral inductive signals from the leaf to the shoot apex. Arabidopsis FT protein is widely regarded as the archetype florigen found in diverse plant species, particularly in plants that use inductive photoperiods to flower. Recently, a large family of FT homologues in maize, the Zea CENTRORADIALIS (ZCN) genes, was described, suggesting that maize also contains FT-related proteins that act as a florigen. The product of one member of this large family, ZCN8, has several attributes that make it a good candidate as a maize florigen. Mechanisms underlying the floral transition in maize are less well understood than those of other species, partly because flowering in temperate maize is dependent largely on endogenous signals. The maize indeterminate1 (id1) gene is an important regulator of maize autonomous flowering that acts in leaves to mediate the transmission or production of florigenic signals. This study finds that id1 acts upstream of ZCN8 to control its expression, suggesting a possible new link to flowering in day-neutral maize. Moreover, in teosinte, a tropical progenitor of maize that requires short-day photoperiods to induce flowering, ZCN8 is highly up-regulated in leaves under inductive photoperiods. Finally, vascular-specific expression of ZCN8 in Arabidopsis complements the ft-1 mutation, demonstrating that leaf-specific expression of ZCN8 can induce flowering. These results suggest that ZCN8 may encode a florigen that integrates both endogenous and environmental signals in maize.

  6. Cloning and expression of AtPLC6, a gene encoding a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaojing; CAO Zhixiang; LIU Guoqin; Madan K. Bhattacharrya; REN Dongtao

    2004-01-01

    A full-length eDNA clone corresponding to a putative phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana by screening a cDNA library and using RT-PCR strategy. The cDNA, designated AtPLC6, encodes a putative polypeptide of 578 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 66251.84 D and a pI of 7.24. The sequence analysis indicates that the polypeptide contains X, Y, EF-hand and C2 domains. The overall structure of putative AtPLC6 protein, like other plant PI-PLCs, is most similar to that of mammalian PLC& The recombinant AtPLC6 protein expressed in E. coli was able to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biophosphate (PIP2) to generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). The protein hydrolyzes PIP2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner and the optimum concentration of Ca2+ is 10 μmol/L.These results suggested that AtPLC6 gene encodes a genuine PI-PLC. Northern blot analysis showed that the AtPLC6 gene is expressed at low level in all examined tissues, such as roots,stems, leaves, flowers, siliques and seedlings under normal growth conditions. The gene is strongly induced under low temperature and weakly induced under various stresses,such as ABA, high-salt stress and heat. These results suggested that AtPLC6 might be involved in the signal-transduction pathways of cold responses of the plants.

  7. The AtNFS2 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a NifS-like plastidial cysteine desulphurase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Sébastien; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Lobréaux, Stéphane

    2002-09-01

    NifS-like proteins are cysteine desulphurases required for the mobilization of sulphur from cysteine. They are present in all organisms, where they are involved in iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis. In eukaryotes, these enzymes are present in mitochondria, which are the major site for Fe-S cluster assembly. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains two putative NifS-like proteins. A cDNA corresponding to one of them was cloned by reverse-transcription PCR, and named AtNFS2. The corresponding transcript is expressed in many plant tissues. It encodes a protein highly related (75% similarity) to the slr0077-gene product from Synechocystis PCC 6803, and is predicted to be targeted to plastids. Indeed, a chimaeric AtNFS2-GFP fusion protein, containing one-third of AtNFS2 from its N-terminal end, was addressed to chloroplasts. Overproduction in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtNFS2 protein enabled one to demonstrate that it bears a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent cysteine desulphurase activity in vitro, thus being the first NifS homologue characterized to date in plants. The putative physiological functions of this gene are discussed, including the attractive hypothesis of a possible role in Fe-S cluster assembly in plastids.

  8. RABBIT EARS, encoding a SUPERMAN-like zinc finger protein, regulates petal development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Seiji; Matsumoto, Noritaka; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2004-01-01

    Floral organs usually initiate at fixed positions in concentric whorls within a flower. Although it is understood that floral homeotic genes determine the identity of floral organs, the mechanisms of position determination and the development of each organ have not been clearly explained. We isolated a novel mutant, rabbit ears (rbe), with defects in petal development. In rbe, under-developed petals are formed at the correct position in a flower, and the initiation of petal primordia is altered. The rbe mutation affects the second whorl organ shapes independently of the organ identity. RBE encodes a SUPERMAN-like protein and is located in the nucleus, and thus may be a transcription factor. RBE transcripts are expressed in petal primordia and their precursor cells, and disappeared at later stages. When cells that express RBE are ablated genetically, no petal primordia arise. RBE is not expressed in ap1-1 and ptl-1 mutants, indicating that RBE acts downstream of AP1 and PTL genes. These characteristics suggest that RBE is required for the early development of the organ primordia of the second whorl.

  9. The ACR11 encodes a novel type of chloroplastic ACT domain repeat protein that is coordinately expressed with GLN2 in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chih-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACT domain, named after bacterial aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase and TyrA (prephenate dehydrogenase, is a regulatory domain that serves as an amino acid-binding site in feedback-regulated amino acid metabolic enzymes. We have previously identified a novel type of ACT domain-containing protein family, the ACT domain repeat (ACR protein family, in Arabidopsis. Members of the ACR family, ACR1 to ACR8, contain four copies of the ACT domain that extend throughout the entire polypeptide. Here, we describe the identification of four novel ACT domain-containing proteins, namely ACR9 to ACR12, in Arabidopsis. The ACR9 and ACR10 proteins contain three copies of the ACT domain, whereas the ACR11 and ACR12 proteins have a putative transit peptide followed by two copies of the ACT domain. The functions of these plant ACR proteins are largely unknown. Results The ACR11 and ACR12 proteins are predicted to target to chloroplasts. We used protoplast transient expression assay to demonstrate that the Arabidopsis ACR11- and ACR12-green fluorescent fusion proteins are localized to the chloroplast. Analysis of an ACR11 promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS fusion in transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that the GUS activity was mainly detected in mature leaves and sepals. Interestingly, coexpression analysis revealed that the GLN2, which encodes a chloroplastic glutamine synthetase, has the highest mutual rank in the coexpressed gene network connected to ACR11. We used RNA gel blot analysis to confirm that the expression pattern of ACR11 is similar to that of GLN2 in various organs from 6-week-old Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression of ACR11 and GLN2 is highly co-regulated by sucrose and light/dark treatments in 2-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings. Conclusions This study reports the identification of four novel ACT domain repeat proteins, ACR9 to ACR12, in Arabidopsis. The ACR11 and ACR12 proteins are localized to the chloroplast, and the expression

  10. Mutations in the Arabidopsis Lst8 and Raptor genes encoding partners of the TOR complex, or inhibition of TOR activity decrease abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alena; Citerne, Sylvie; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Bersimbaev, Rakhmetkazhi I; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian; Leprince, Anne-Sophie

    2015-11-27

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates essential processes in plant growth and development by modulation of metabolism and translation in response to environmental signals. In this study, we show that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism is also regulated by the TOR kinase. Indeed ABA hormone level strongly decreases in Lst8-1 and Raptor3g mutant lines as well as in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants treated with AZD-8055, a TOR inhibitor. However the growth and germination of these lines are more sensitive to exogenous ABA. The diminished ABA hormone accumulation is correlated with lower transcript levels of ZEP, NCED3 and AAO3 biosynthetic enzymes, and higher transcript amount of the CYP707A2 gene encoding a key-enzyme in abscisic acid catabolism. These results suggest that the TOR signaling pathway is implicated in the regulation of ABA accumulation in Arabidopsis.

  11. The DCR protein TTC3 affects differentiation and Golgi compactness in neurons through specific actin-regulating pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Elena Berto

    Full Text Available In neuronal cells, actin remodeling plays a well known role in neurite extension but is also deeply involved in the organization of intracellular structures, such as the Golgi apparatus. However, it is still not very clear which mechanisms may regulate actin dynamics at the different sites. In this report we show that high levels of the TTC3 protein, encoded by one of the genes of the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DCR, prevent neurite extension and disrupt Golgi compactness in differentiating primary neurons. These effects largely depend on the capability of TTC3 to promote actin polymerization through signaling pathways involving RhoA, ROCK, CIT-N and PIIa. However, the functional relationships between these molecules differ significantly if considering the TTC3 activity on neurite extension or on Golgi organization. Finally, our results reveal an unexpected stage-dependent requirement for F-actin in Golgi organization at different stages of neuronal differentiation.

  12. NUCLEAR FUSION DEFECTIVE1 encodes the Arabidopsis RPL21M protein and is required for karyogamy during female gametophyte development and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portereiko, Michael F; Sandaklie-Nikolova, Linda; Lloyd, Alan; Dever, Chad A; Otsuga, Denichiro; Drews, Gary N

    2006-07-01

    Karyogamy, or nuclear fusion, is essential for sexual reproduction. In angiosperms, karyogamy occurs three times: twice during double fertilization of the egg cell and the central cell and once during female gametophyte development when the two polar nuclei fuse to form the diploid central cell nucleus. The molecular mechanisms controlling karyogamy are poorly understood. We have identified nine female gametophyte mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), nuclear fusion defective1 (nfd1) to nfd9, that are defective in fusion of the polar nuclei. In the nfd1 to nfd6 mutants, failure of fusion of the polar nuclei is the only defect detected during megagametogenesis. nfd1 is also affected in karyogamy during double fertilization. Using transmission electron microscopy, we showed that nfd1 nuclei fail to undergo fusion of the outer nuclear membranes. nfd1 contains a T-DNA insertion in RPL21M that is predicted to encode the mitochondrial 50S ribosomal subunit L21, and a wild-type copy of this gene rescues the mutant phenotype. Consistent with the predicted function of this gene, an NFD1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to mitochondria and the NFD1/RPL21M gene is expressed throughout the plant. The nfd3, nfd4, nfd5, and nfd6 mutants also contain T-DNA insertions in genes predicted to encode proteins that localize to mitochondria, suggesting a role for this organelle in nuclear fusion.

  13. [Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with Transcanalicular Endoillumination (TCE) of the Saccus Lacrimalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, J; Klask, J; Gerding, H

    2016-04-01

    Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) has been established as a standard procedure of lacrimal surgery, since it causes much less tissue damage than ab externo procedures. Diffiulties in visualization of the target area has been a limitation to the transnasal approach. An improvement of the classical endonasal DCR was achieved by the introduction of a transcanalicular endoillumination (TCE) of the lacrimal sac using a 23-Gauge vitreoretinal light probe, which can easily be intubated into the cannaliculi and advanced into the the lacrimal sac. Illumination of the lacrimal sac guides the endonasal approach and facilitates the creation of a lacrimal bypass. In our standard procedure a bicanalicular silicone intubation through the osteotomy is finally placed. Due to the introduction of TCE of the lacrimal sac, the surgical procedure of endonasal DCR became less traumatic and needed a significantly reduced operating time.

  14. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants.

  15. Survey of the rubber tree genome reveals a high number of cysteine protease-encoding genes homologous to Arabidopsis SAG12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianting; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12, a senescence-specific gene encoding a cysteine protease, is widely used as a molecular marker for the study of leaf senescence. To date, its potential orthologues have been isolated from several plant species such as Brassica napus and Nicotiana tabacum. However, little information is available in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family. This study presents the identification of SAG12-like genes from the rubber tree genome. Results showed that an unexpected high number of 17 rubber orthologues with a single intron were found, contrasting the single copy with two introns in Arabidopsis. The gene expansion was also observed in another two Euphorbiaceae plants, castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), both of which contain 8 orthologues. In accordance with no occurrence of recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, most duplicates in castor and physic nut were resulted from tandem duplications. In contrast, the duplicated HbSAG12H genes were derived from tandem duplications as well as the recent WGD. Expression analysis showed that most HbSAG12H genes were lowly expressed in examined tissues except for root and male flower. Furthermore, HbSAG12H1 exhibits a strictly senescence-associated expression pattern in rubber tree leaves, and thus can be used as a marker gene for the study of senescence mechanism in Hevea. PMID:28166280

  16. GAMT2 Encodes a Methyltransferase of Gibberellic Acid That is Involved in Seed Maturation and Germination in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufan Xing; Genji Qin; Yan Shi; Zhiqiang Ma; Zhangliang Chen; Hongya Gu; Li-Jia Qu

    2007-01-01

    Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT), benzoic acid methyltransferase (BAMT) and theobromine methyltransferase (TH) (henceforth, SABATH) family proteins belong to a unique class of methyltransferase that can methylate small molecular compounds including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), in plants. Here we report that the GAMT2 protein, which has 34.2% similarity with IAMT1 in the amino acid sequence, can methylate gibberellic acid (GA). Bioinformatics analysis suggests that GAMT2 may be able to methylate one molecule larger than SA. GAMT2 is predominantly expressed in the developing seed embryo and endosperm in Arabidopsis.During seed germination, the expression of GAMT2 decreases until the cotyledons expand out of the seed coat.Overexpression of GAMT2 in Arabidopsis resulted in multiple phenotypes, including dwarfism, retarded growth,late flowering, and reduced fertility, which are similar to the phenotypes of GA-deficient mutants. Seed germination assay showed that GAMT2 overexpression in plants was hypersensitive to GA biosynthesis inhibitor (ancymidol)and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, whereas the GAMT2 null mutant (SALK_075450) was slightly insensitive to such treatments, suggesting that GAMT2 may methylate GA or ABA. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that GAMT2 was able to methylate GA3 into Methyl-GA3 in vitro, but could not methylate ABA. Microarray analysis on GAMT2overexpression plants suggested that Methyl-GA may be an inactive form of GA in Arabidopsis. These data suggest that GAMT2 is involved in seed maturation and germination by modulating GA activity.

  17. H2O2-Activated Up-Regulation of Glutathione in Arabidopsis Involves Induction of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Cysteine Synthesis in the Chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillaume Queval; Dorothée Thominet; Hélène Vanacker; Myroslawa Miginiac-Maslow; Bertrand Gakière; Graham Noctor

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione is a key player in cellular redox homeostasis and, therefore, in the response to H2O2, but the factors regulating oxidation-activated glutathione synthesis are still unclear. We investigated H2O2-induced glutathione synthesis in a conditional Arabidopsis catalase-deficient mutant (cat2). Plants were grown from seed at elevated CO2 for 5 weeks, then transferred to air in either short-day or long-day conditions. Compared to cat2 at elevated CO2 or wild-type plants in any condition, transfer of cat2 to air in both photoperiods caused measurable oxidation of the leaf glutathione pool within hours. Oxidation continued on subsequent days and was accompanied by accumulation of glutathione. This effect was stronger in cat2 transferred to air in short days, and was not linked to appreciable increases in the extractable activities of or transcripts encoding enzymes involved in the committed pathway of glutathione synthesis. In contrast, it was accompanied by increases in serine, O-acetylserine, and cysteine. These changes in metabolites were accompanied by induction of genes encoding adenosine phosphosulfate reductase (APR), particularly APR3, as well as a specific serine acetyltransferase gene (SAT2.1) encoding a chloroplastic SAT. Marked induction of these genes was only observed in cat2 transferred to air in short-day conditions, where cysteine and glutathione accumulation was most dramatic. Unlike other SAT genes, which showed negligible induction in cat2, the relative abundance of APR and SAT2.1 transcripts was closely correlated with marker transcripts for H2O2 signaling. Together, the data underline the importance of cysteine synthesis in oxidant-induced up-regulation of glutathione synthesis and suggest that the chloroplast makes an important contribution to cysteine production under these circumstances.

  18. Functional and evolutionary analysis of DXL1, a non-essential gene encoding a 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase like protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Cairó, Albert; Talavera, David; Saura, Andreu; Imperial, Santiago; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Campos, Narciso; Boronat, Albert

    2013-07-15

    The synthesis of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), catalyzed by the enzyme DXP synthase (DXS), represents a key regulatory step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. In plants DXS is encoded by small multigene families that can be classified into, at least, three specialized subfamilies. Arabidopsis thaliana contains three genes encoding proteins with similarity to DXS, including the well-known DXS1/CLA1 gene, which clusters within subfamily I. The remaining proteins, initially named DXS2 and DXS3, have not yet been characterized. Here we report the expression and functional analysis of A. thaliana DXS2. Unexpectedly, the expression of DXS2 failed to rescue Escherichia coli and A. thaliana mutants defective in DXS activity. Coherently, we found that DXS activity was negligible in vitro, being renamed as DXL1 following recent nomenclature recommendation. DXL1 is targeted to plastids as DXS1, but shows a distinct expression pattern. The phenotypic analysis of a DXL1 defective mutant revealed that the function of the encoded protein is not essential for growth and development. Evolutionary analyses indicated that DXL1 emerged from DXS1 through a recent duplication apparently specific of the Brassicaceae lineage. Divergent selective constraints would have affected a significant fraction of sites after diversification of the paralogues. Furthermore, amino acids subjected to divergent selection and likely critical for functional divergence through the acquisition of a novel, although not yet known, biochemical function, were identified. Our results provide with the first evidences of functional specialization at both the regulatory and biochemical level within the plant DXS family.

  19. PHH1, a novel gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a protein similar to plant blue-light photoreceptors and microbial photolyases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P D; Batschauer, A; Hays, J B

    1996-11-27

    A cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana similar to microbial photolyase genes, and designated AT-PHH1, was isolated using a photolyase-like cDNA from Sinapsis alba (SA-PHR1) as a probe. Multiple isolations yielded only PHH1 cDNAs, and a few blue-light-receptor CRY1 (HY4) cDNAs (also similar to microbial photolyase genes), suggesting the absence of any other highly similar Arabidopsis genes. The AT-PHH1 and SA-PHR1 cDNA sequences predict 89% identity at the protein level, except for an AT-PHH1 C-terminal extension (111 amino acids), also not seen in microbial photolyases. AT-PHH1 and CRY1 show less similarity (54% p4erein identity), including respective C-terminal extensions that are themselves mostly dissimilar. Analysis of fifteen AT-PHH1 genomic isolates reveals a single gene, with three introns in the coding sequence and one in the 5'-untranslated leader. Full-length AT-PHH1, and both AT-PHH1 and AT-PHH1 delta C-513 (truncated to be approximately the size of microbial photolyase genes) cDNAs, were overexpressed, respectively, in yeast and Escherichia coli mutants hypersensitive to ultraviolet light. The absence of significant effects on resistance suggests either that any putative AT-PHH1 DNA repair activity requires cofactors/chromophores not present in yeast or E. coli, or that AT-PHH1 encodes a blue-light/ultraviolet-A receptor rather than a DNA repair protein.

  20. Hd18, Encoding Histone Acetylase Related to Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D, is Involved in the Control of Flowering Time in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibaya, Taeko; Hori, Kiyosumi; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Yamanouchi, Utako; Shu, Koka; Kitazawa, Noriyuki; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ando, Tsuyu; Ebana, Kaworu; Wu, Jianzhong; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.), because it defines harvest seasons and cultivation areas, and affects yields. We used a map-based strategy to clone Heading date 18 (Hd18). The difference in flowering time between the Japanese rice cultivars Koshihikari and Hayamasari was due to a single nucleotide polymorphism within the Hd18 gene, which encodes an amine oxidase domain-containing protein and is homologous to Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD). The Hayamasari Hd18 allele and knockdown of Hd18 gene expression delayed the flowering time of rice plants regardless of the day-length condition. Structural modeling of the Hd18 protein suggested that the non-synonymous substitution changed protein stability and function due to differences in interdomain hydrogen bond formation. Compared with those in Koshihikari, the expression levels of the flowering-time genes Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and Rice flowering locus T1 (RFT1) were lower in a near-isogenic line with the Hayamasari Hd18 allele in a Koshihikari genetic background. We revealed that Hd18 acts as an accelerator in the rice flowering pathway under both short- and long-day conditions by elevating transcription levels of Ehd1 Gene expression analysis also suggested the involvement of MADS-box genes such as OsMADS50, OsMADS51 and OsMADS56 in the Hd18-associated regulation of Ehd1 These results suggest that, like FLD, its rice homolog accelerates flowering time but is involved in rice flowering pathways that differ from the autonomous pathways in Arabidopsis.

  1. MYB56 Encoding a R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Seed Size in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjie Zhang; Wanqi Liang; Jianxin Shi; Jie Xu; Dabing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Plant seed size is tightly regulated by the development of seed coat, embryo, and endosperm;however, currently, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we revealed a regulatory role of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor MYB56 in controlling seed size specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Loss-of-function or knock-down of MYB56 yielded smaller seeds as compared with the wild type. Conversely, overexpression of MYB56 produced larger seeds. Further observation using semi-thin sections showed that myb56 developed smaller contracted endothelial cells and reduced cell number in the outer integument layer of the seed coat during the seed development;by contrast, MYB56 overexpressing lines had expanded endothelial cells and increased cell number in the outer integument layer of the seed coat, suggesting the essential role of MYB56 in regulating seed development. In addition, reciprocal cross-analysis showed that MYB56 affected the seed development maternally. MYB56 was shown to be dominantly expressed in developing seeds, consistently with its function in seed development. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that MYB56 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism such as cell division and expansion. Altogether, our results demonstrated that MYB56 represents an unknown pathway for positively controlling the seed size.

  2. EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF PRESERVING THE MUCOSAL FLAP IN ENDONASAL DCR

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    Koteswar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Endoscopic DCR is routinely performed by otolaryngologists for the treatment of chronic dacryocystitis. However, postoperative stenosis and failure rates are common. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study is to evaluate the role of preserving the mucosal flap in maintaining the patency of neo ostium. The surgical technique involved the creation of nasal mucosal and large posterior lacrimal flaps at the medial lacrimal sac wall and the two flaps were placed in close apposition. Success was defined as complete resolution of epiphora and a patent lacrimal system, evaluated by lacrimal irrigation and endoscopy followed upto 1 year postoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prosective study was conducted in 60 patients and followed for a duration of 1 year in ENT department,KMC,Guntur RESULTS In our study, Symptomatic and anatomic success was seen in 59 out of 60 operations that is 98% success in syringing patency was seen with this technique, which is comparable to external DCR and better than other endoscopic techniques. CONCLUSION Mucosal flap preservation appears to be the single most important innovation in endoscopic DCR surgery, which makes it comfortable for both the surgeon and patient, apart from providing a 98% success rate in our study.

  3. INCURVATA2 Encodes the Catalytic Subunit of DNA Polymerase α and Interacts with Genes Involved in Chromatin-Mediated Cellular Memory in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, José María; González-Bayón, Rebeca; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Cell type–specific gene expression patterns are maintained by the stable inheritance of transcriptional states through mitosis, requiring the action of multiprotein complexes that remodel chromatin structure. Genetic and molecular interactions between chromatin remodeling factors and components of the DNA replication machinery have been identified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, indicating that some epigenetic marks are replicated simultaneously to DNA with the participation of the DNA replication complexes. This model of epigenetic inheritance might be extended to the plant kingdom, as we report here with the positional cloning and characterization of INCURVATA2 (ICU2), which encodes the putative catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase α of Arabidopsis thaliana. The strong icu2-2 and icu2-3 insertional alleles caused fully penetrant zygotic lethality when homozygous and incompletely penetrant gametophytic lethality, probably because of loss of DNA polymerase activity. The weak icu2-1 allele carried a point mutation and caused early flowering, leaf incurvature, and homeotic transformations of sepals into carpels and of petals into stamens. Further genetic analyses indicated that ICU2 interacts with TERMINAL FLOWER2, the ortholog of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 of animals and yeasts, and with the Polycomb group (PcG) gene CURLY LEAF. Another PcG gene, EMBRYONIC FLOWER2, was found to be epistatic to ICU2. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that a number of regulatory genes were derepressed in the icu2-1 mutant, including genes associated with flowering time, floral meristem, and floral organ identity. PMID:17873092

  4. INCURVATA2 encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA Polymerase alpha and interacts with genes involved in chromatin-mediated cellular memory in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, José María; González-Bayón, Rebeca; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2007-09-01

    Cell type-specific gene expression patterns are maintained by the stable inheritance of transcriptional states through mitosis, requiring the action of multiprotein complexes that remodel chromatin structure. Genetic and molecular interactions between chromatin remodeling factors and components of the DNA replication machinery have been identified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, indicating that some epigenetic marks are replicated simultaneously to DNA with the participation of the DNA replication complexes. This model of epigenetic inheritance might be extended to the plant kingdom, as we report here with the positional cloning and characterization of INCURVATA2 (ICU2), which encodes the putative catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase alpha of Arabidopsis thaliana. The strong icu2-2 and icu2-3 insertional alleles caused fully penetrant zygotic lethality when homozygous and incompletely penetrant gametophytic lethality, probably because of loss of DNA polymerase activity. The weak icu2-1 allele carried a point mutation and caused early flowering, leaf incurvature, and homeotic transformations of sepals into carpels and of petals into stamens. Further genetic analyses indicated that ICU2 interacts with TERMINAL FLOWER2, the ortholog of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 of animals and yeasts, and with the Polycomb group (PcG) gene CURLY LEAF. Another PcG gene, EMBRYONIC FLOWER2, was found to be epistatic to ICU2. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that a number of regulatory genes were derepressed in the icu2-1 mutant, including genes associated with flowering time, floral meristem, and floral organ identity.

  5. Dacryocystorhinostomy ostium: parameters to evaluate and DCR ostium scoring

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    Ali MJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali,1 Alkis James Psaltis,2 Peter John Wormald2 1Dacryology Service, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India; 2Department of Surgery–Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: This study aims to provide a systematic protocol for the evaluation of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR ostium and to propose a scoring system to standardize the assessment.Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 125 consecutive lacrimal ostia post-DCR was performed. Medical records were screened, and photographs and videos were assessed to note the details of various ostial parameters. The major time points in evaluation were 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months post-DCR. The ostia were defined and parameters like shape, size, location, and evolution of ostium were noted. Evaluation parameters were defined for internal common opening (ICO, ostium stents, and ostium granulomas. Ostium cicatrix and synechiae were graded based on their significance. Surgical success rates were computed and ostium characteristics in failed cases were studied.Results: A total of 125 ostia were evaluated on the aforementioned ostium parameters. Because five ostia showed a complete cicatricial closure with no recognizable features, the remaining 120 ostia were studied. The ostium location was anterior to the axilla of middle turbinate in 85.8% (103/120 of the cases. Moreover, 76.6% (92/120 of the ostia were circular to oval in shape, with a shallow base. The ostium size was >8×5 mm in 78.3% (94/120 of the cases. The ICO was found to be located in the central or paracentral basal area in 75.8% (91/120. The anatomical and functional success rates achieved were 96% and 93.6%, respectively. All the five cases with anatomical failures showed a complete cicatrization and the ICO movements were poor in all the three cases of functional failure.Conclusion: The article attempts to standardize the postoperative

  6. The OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is a critical modulator of carbon and nitrogen nutrient balance response in Arabidopsis.

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    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available The balance between carbon (C and nitrogen (N nutrients must be tightly coordinated so that cells can optimize their opportunity for metabolism, growth and development. However, the C and N nutrient balance perception and signaling mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two allelic oversensitive to sugar 1 mutants (osu1-1, osu1-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the cotyledon anthocyanin accumulation and root growth inhibition assays, we show that the osu1 mutants are more sensitive than wild-type to both of the imbalanced C/N conditions, high C/low N and low C/high N. However, under the balanced C/N conditions (low C/low N or high C/high N, the osu1 mutants have similar anthocyanin levels and root lengths as wild-type. Consistently, the genes encoding two MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and MYB90 and an Asn synthetase isoform (ASN1 are strongly up-regulated by the OSU1 mutation in response to high C/low N and low C/high N, respectively. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity of osu1-1 to high C/low N with respect to anthocyanin accumulation but not root growth inhibition can be suppressed by co-suppression of MYB75, indicating that MYB75 acts downstream of OSU1 in the high C/low N imbalance response. Map-based cloning reveals that OSU1 encodes a member of a large family of putative methyltransferases and is allelic to the recently reported QUA2/TSD2 locus identified in genetic screens for cell-adhesion-defective mutants. Accumulation of OSU1/QUA2/TSD2 transcript was not regulated by C and N balance, but the OSU1 promoter was slightly more active in the vascular system. Taken together, our results show that the OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is required for normal C/N nutrient balance response in plants.

  7. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  8. Arabidopsis SOI33/AtENT8 Gene Encodes a Putative Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter That Is Involved in Cytokinin Transport In Planta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqiang SUN; Naoya HIROSE; Xingchun WANG; Pei WEN; Li XUE; Hitoshi SAKAKIBARA; Jianru ZUO

    2005-01-01

    The plant phytohormone cytokinin plays an important role in many facets of plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation. Recent studies have shed significant light into the mechanisms of cytokinin metabolism and signaling. However, little is known about how the hormone is transported in planta, although it has been proposed that the hormone is presumably transported in nucleoside-conjugated forms. Here, we report the identification and characterization of cytokinin transport ers in Arabidopsis. We previously reported that a gain-of-function mutation in the PGA22/AtIPT8 gene caused overproduction of cytokinins in planta. In an effort to screen for suppressor of pga22/atipt8 (soi) mutants, we identified a mutant soi33-1. Molecular and genetic analyses indicated that SOI33 encodes a putative equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT), previously designated as AtENT8. Members of this small gene family are presumed to be involved in the transport of nucleosides in eukaryotic cells. Under conditions of nitrogen starvation, loss-of-function mutations in SOI33/AtENT8 or in a related gene AtENT3 cause a reduced sensitivity to the nucleoside-type cytokinins isopentenyladenine riboside (iPR) and trans zeatin riboside (tZR), but display a normal response to the free base-type cytokinins isopentenyladenine (iP) and trans-zeatin (tZ). Conversely, overexpression of SOI33/AtENT8 renders transgenic plants hyper sensitive to iPR but not to iP. An in planta measurement experiment indicated that uptake efficiency of 3H labeled iPR was reduced more than 40% in soi33 and atent3 mutants. However, a mutation inAtENT1 had no substantial effect on the cytokinin response and iPR uptake efficiency. Our results suggest that SOI33/ AtENT8 and AtENT3 are involved in the transport of nucleoside-type cytokinins in Arabidopsis.

  9. VAN4 encodes a putative TRS120 that is required for normal cell growth and vein development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naramoto, Satoshi; Nodzyłski, Tomasz; Dainobu, Tomoko; Takatsuka, Hirotomo; Okada, Teruyo; Friml, Jiři; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-04-01

    Leaf venation develops complex patterns in angiosperms, but the mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing vein pattern formation, we previously isolated vascular network defective (van) mutants that displayed venation discontinuities. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of van4 mutants, and we identify and characterize the VAN4 gene. Detailed phenotypic analysis shows that van4 mutants are defective in procambium cell differentiation and subsequent vascular cell differentiation. Reduced shoot and root cell growth is observed in van4 mutants, suggesting that VAN4 function is important for cell growth and the establishment of venation continuity. Consistent with these phenotypes, the VAN4 gene is strongly expressed in vascular and meristematic cells. VAN4 encodes a putative TRS120, which is a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab GTPase involved in regulating vesicle transport, and a known tethering factor that determines the specificity of membrane fusion. VAN4 protein localizes at the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE). Aberrant recycling of the auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins is observed in van4 mutants. These results suggest that VAN4-mediated exocytosis at the TGN plays important roles in plant vascular development and cell growth in shoot and root. Our identification of VAN4 as a putative TRS120 shows that Rab GTPases are crucial (in addition to ARF GTPases) for continuous vascular development, and provides further evidence for the importance of vesicle transport in leaf vascular formation.

  10. A TIR-NBS protein encoded by Arabidopsis Chilling Sensitive 1 (CHS1) limits chloroplast damage and cell death at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Porfirova, Svetlana; Griebel, Thomas; Melzer, Michael; Parker, Jane E; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Survival of plants at low temperature depends on mechanisms for limiting physiological damage and maintaining growth. We mapped the chs1-1 (chilling sensitive1-1) mutation in Arabidopsis accession Columbia to the TIR-NBS gene At1g17610. In chs1-1, a single amino acid exchange at the CHS1 N-terminus close to the conserved TIR domain creates a stable mutant protein that fails to protect leaves against chilling stress. The sequence of another TIR-NBS gene (At5g40090) named CHL1 (CHS1-like 1) is related to that of CHS1. Over-expression of CHS1 or CHL1 alleviates chilling damage and enhances plant growth at moderate (24°C) and chilling (13°C) temperatures, suggesting a role for both proteins in growth homeostasis. chs1-1 mutants show induced salicylic acid production and defense gene expression at 13°C, indicative of autoimmunity. Genetic analysis of chs1-1 in combination with defense pathway mutants shows that chs1-1 chilling sensitivity requires the TIR-NBS-LRR and basal resistance regulators encoded by EDS1 and PAD4 but not salicylic acid. By following the timing of metabolic, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural changes in chs1-1 leaves during chilling, we have established that alterations in photosynthetic complexes and thylakoid membrane integrity precede leaf cell death measured by ion leakage. At 24°C, the chs1-1 mutant appears normal but produces a massive necrotic response to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection, although this does not affect bacterial proliferation. Our results suggest that CHS1 acts at an intersection between temperature sensing and biotic stress pathway activation to maintain plant performance over a range of conditions.

  11. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

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    Zhifeng eWen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw., a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084, increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.

  12. DcR3 binds to ovarian cancer via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates tumor cells response to platinum with corresponding alteration in the expression of BRCA1

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    Connor Joseph P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overcoming platinum resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC. In our previous work Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3 was found to be related to platinum resistance. The major objective of this work was to define the cellular interaction of DcR3 with EOC and to explore its effects on platinum responsiveness. Methods We studied cell lines and primary cultures for the expression of and the cells ability to bind DcR3. Cells were cultured with DcR3 and then exposed to platinum. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Finally, the cells molecular response to DcR3 was studied using real time RT-PCR based differential expression arrays, standard RT-PCR, and Western blot. Results High DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity of women with EOC is associated with significantly shorter time to first recurrence after platinum based therapy (p = 0.02. None-malignant cells contribute DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity. The cell lines studied do not secrete DcR3; however they all bind exogenous DcR3 to their surface implying that they can be effected by DcR3 from other sources. DcR3s protein binding partners are minimally expressed or negative, however, all cells expressed the DcR3 binding Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs Syndecans-2, and CD44v3. DcR3 binding was inhibited by heparin and heparinase. After DcR3 exposure both SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 became more resistant to platinum with 15% more cells surviving at high doses. On the contrary CaOV3 became more sensitive to platinum with 20–25% more cell death. PCR array analysis showed increase expression of BRCA1 mRNA in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 and decreased BRCA1 expression in CaOV-3 after exposure to DcR3. This was confirmed by gene specific real time PCR and Western blot analysis. Conclusions Non-malignant cells contribute to the high levels of DcR3 in ovarian cancer. DcR3 binds readily to EOC cells via HSPGs and alter their responsiveness to platinum chemotherapy. The

  13. Crystal Structure of the Complex of Human FasL and Its Decoy Receptor DcR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Ramagopal, Udupi; Cheng, Huiyong; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Toro, Rafael; Bhosle, Rahul; Zhan, Chenyang; Almo, Steven C

    2016-11-01

    The apoptotic effect of FasL:Fas signaling is disrupted by DcR3, a unique secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which also binds and neutralizes TL1A and LIGHT. DcR3 is highly elevated in patients with various tumors and contributes to mechanisms by which tumor cells to evade host immune surveillance. Here we report the crystal structure of FasL in complex with DcR3. Comparison of FasL:DcR3 structure with our earlier TL1A:DcR3 and LIGHT:DcR3 structures supports a paradigm involving the recognition of invariant main-chain and conserved side-chain functionalities, which is responsible for the recognition of multiple TNF ligands exhibited by DcR3. The FasL:DcR3 structure also provides insight into the FasL:Fas recognition surface. We demonstrate that the ability of recombinant FasL to induce Jurkat cell apoptosis is significantly enhanced by native glycosylation or by structure-inspired mutations, both of which result in reduced tendency to aggregate. All of these activities are efficiently inhibited by recombinant DcR3.

  14. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  15. mCSF1, a nucleus-encoded CRM protein required for the processing of many mitochondrial introns, is involved in the biogenesis of respiratory complexes I and IV in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudjak, Michal; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; Keren, Ido; Shaya, Felix; Belausov, Eduard; Small, Ian; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren

    2013-07-01

    The coding regions of many mitochondrial genes in plants are interrupted by intervening sequences that are classified as group II introns. Their splicing is essential for the expression of the genes they interrupt and hence for respiratory function, and is facilitated by various protein cofactors. Despite the importance of these cofactors, only a few of them have been characterized. CRS1-YhbY domain (CRM) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain that is present in several characterized splicing factors in plant chloroplasts. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 16 CRM proteins, but these are largely uncharacterized. Here, we analyzed the intracellular location of one of these hypothetical proteins in Arabidopsis, mitochondrial CAF-like splicing factor 1 (mCSF1; At4 g31010), and analyzed the growth phenotypes and organellar activities associated with mcsf1 mutants in plants. Our data indicated that mCSF1 resides within mitochondria and its functions are essential during embryogenesis. Mutant plants with reduced mCSF1 displayed inhibited germination and retarded growth phenotypes that were tightly associated with reduced complex I and IV activities. Analogously to the functions of plastid-localized CRM proteins, analysis of the RNA profiles in wildtype and mcsf1 plants showed that mCSF1 acts in the splicing of many of the group II intron RNAs in Arabidopsis mitochondria.

  16. Specific elevation of DcR3 in sera of sepsis patients and its potential role as a clinically important biomarker of sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Mi, Lijun; Zhang, Lurong

    2012-01-01

    Because of its potentially important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis, the expression of soluble decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) was investigated in sera of sepsis patients. The serum levels of DcR3 and its TNF-like ligand TL1A and homologous decoy receptor OPG were quantified by ELISA. The values of DcR3 to diagnose sepsis were analyzed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The results showed that DcR3 was significantly elevated in sepsis compared to SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome), a condition similar to sepsis but resulting from noninfectious insults. DcR3 showed superior area under the ROC curve (AUC, 0.958) compared to poor AUCs of TL1A and OPG. At a cut-off of 3.24 ng/ml, DcR3 predicted sepsis from SIRS with 96% sensitivity and 82.6% specificity. DcR3 also predicted sepsis from cancer and inflammatory bowel disease with equally excellent values. Therefore, DcR3 serum level has the potential to serve as a reliable biomarker of sepsis. PMID:22647538

  17. Correlation between Expression of DcR3 on Tumor Cells and Sensitivity to FasL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzhu Li; Changgong Zhang; Caixia Chen; Guohong Zhuang

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between sensitivity to Fas ligand (FasL) and expression level of decoy receptor 3(DcR3) on tumor cell surface, Fas/DcR3 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. Anti-DcR3 mAb was used to detect expression level of DcR3 on surface of tumor cells by flow cytometry. Caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2expressions were analyzed by Western blot, respectively. Sensitivity to apoptosis induced by FasL was determined by Annexin V apoptosis kit. The expressions of DcR3 on the surface of tumor cells from high to low were approximately 35.3% in BGC823 cells, and 21.6% in MCF-7 cells, respectively. The apoptotic rates induced by FasL from low to high were 15.6% in BGC823 cells, and 58.2% in MCF-7 cells, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the expression levels of DcR3 with FasL-inducing apoptosis.

  18. The TRANSPARENT TESTA12 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a multidrug secondary transporter-like protein required for flavonoid sequestration of the seed coat endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debeaujon, I.; Peeters, A.J.M.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Koornneef, M.

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic compounds that are present in the testa interfere with the physiology of seed dormancy and germination. We isolated a recessive Arabidopsis mutant with pale brown seeds, transparent testa12 (tt12), from a reduced seed dormancy screen. Microscopic analysis of tt12 developing and mature testa

  19. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  20. Decoy Receptor DcR1 Is Induced in a p50/Bcl3-Dependent Manner and Attenuates the Efficacy of Temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nassir M; Bernal, Giovanna M; Wu, Longtao; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Voce, David J; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Zhang, Wei; Spretz, Ruben; Nunez, Luis; Larsen, Gustavo F; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2015-05-15

    Temozolomide is used widely to treat malignant glioma, but the overall response to this agent is generally poor. Resistance to DNA-damaging drugs such as temozolomide has been related to the induction of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor NF-κB has been suggested to participate in promoting the survival of cells exposed to chemotherapy. To identify factors that modulate cytotoxicity in the setting of DNA damage, we used an unbiased strategy to examine the NF-κB-dependent expression profile induced by temozolomide. By this route, we defined the decoy receptor DcR1 as a temozolomide response gene induced by a mechanism relying upon p50/NF-κB1. A conserved NF-κB-binding sequence (κB-site) was identified in the proximal promoter and was demonstrated to be required for DcR1 induction by temozolomide. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies reveal that the atypical IκB protein, Bcl3, is also required for induction of DcR1 by temozolomide. Mechanistically, DcR1 attenuates temozolomide efficacy by blunting activation of the Fas receptor pathway in p53(+/+) glioma cells. Intracranial xenograft studies show that DcR1 depletion in glioma cells enhances the efficacy of temozolomide. Taken together, our results show how DcR1 upregulation mediates temozolomide resistance and provide a rationale for DcR1 targeting as a strategy to sensitize gliomas to this widely used chemotherapy.

  1. Expression of BvGLP-1 encoding a germin-like protein from sugar beet in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Katrin; Seyffarth, Monique; Desel, Christine; Thurau, Tim; Sherameti, Irena; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Cai, Daguang

    2010-04-01

    Nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is controlled by a single dominant resistance gene, Hs1(pro-1). BvGLP-1 was cloned from resistant sugar beet. The BvGLP-1 messenger (m)RNA is highly upregulated in the resistant plants after nematode infection, suggesting its role in the Hs1(pro-1) mediated resistance. BvGLP-1 exhibits sequence homology to a set of plant germin-like proteins (GLP), from which several have proved to be functional in plant basal or defense resistance against fungal pathogens. To test whether BvGLP-1 is also involved in the plant-fungus interaction, we transferred BvGLP-1 into Arabidopsis and challenged the transgenic plants with the pathogenic fungi Verticillium longisporum and Rhizoctonia solani as well as with the beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The expression of BvGLP-1 in Arabidopsis elevated the H(2)O(2) content and conferred significant resistance to V. longisporum and R. solani but did not affect the beneficial interaction with P. indica in seedlings. Microscopic observations revealed a dramatic reduction in the amount of hyphae of the pathogenic fungi on the root surface as well as of fungal mycelium developed inside the roots of transgenic Arabidopsis compared with wild-type plants. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the BvGLP-1 expression in Arabidopsis constitutively activates the expression of a subset of plant defense-related proteins such as PR-1 to PR-4 and PDF1.2 but not PDF2.1 and PDF2.3. In contrast, the PDF2.1 mRNA level was downregulated. These data suggest an important role of BvGLP-1 in establishment of plant defense responses, which follow specific signaling routes that diverge from those induced by the beneficial fungus.

  2. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  3. Does DcR1 (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing-ligand Receptor 3) have any role in human AMD pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Akshay; Sharma, Neel K; Singh, Ramandeep; Gupta, Amod; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Jindal, Neeru; Bhatt, Arvind K; Sharma, Suresh K; Gupta, Pawan K

    2014-02-18

    It has been postulated that there is a link between age related degenerative diseases and cancer. The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to selectively kill tumor cells by binding to pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic receptors. Our aim was to study the levels of anti-apoptotic receptor (DcR1) in age related macular degeneration (AMD) and controls. AMD patients (115) were classified into two groups: Dry and Wet AMD. Wet AMDs were further classified into occult, predominant classic and minimal classic. 61 healthy individuals were recruited as normal controls. After normalization with total protein, DcR1 levels were analyzed by ELISA. Mann Whitney U-statistic was used for analysis of DcR1 ELISA results. We have observed DcR1 levels in serum sample which were significantly lower in AMD patients as compared to controls (p = 0.001). On the other hand, we did not find difference in DcR1 levels between wet and dry AMD. The present study defines the plausible role of DcR1 in AMD pathology signifying a new therapeutic target for AMD.

  4. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shumei Jin; Dan Sun; Ji Wang; Ying Li; Xinwang Wang; Shenkui Liu

    2014-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 M CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 M CuCl2, 220 M FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors.

  5. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana AtUTr7 Encodes a Golgi-Localized UDP-Glucose/UDP-Galactose Transporter that Affects Lateral Root Emergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Handford; Cecilia Rodríguez-Furlán; Lorena Marchant; Marcelo Segura; Daniela Gómez; Elena Alvarez-Buyll; Guang-Yan Xiong; Markus Pauly; Ariel Orellana

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are antiporters comprising a gene family that plays a fundamental role in the biosynthesis of complex cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins in plants.However,due to the limited number of related mutants that have observable phenotypes,the biological function(s) of most NSTs in cell wall biosynthesis and assembly have remained elusive.Here,we report the characterization of AtUTr7 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.),which is homologous to multi-specific UDP-sugar transporters from Drosophila melanogaster,humans,and Caenorhabditis elegans.We show that AtUTr7 possesses the common structural characteristics conserved among NSTs.Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged version,we demonstrate that AtUTr7 is localized in the Golgi apparatus.We also show that AtUTr7 is widely expressed,especially in the roots and in specific floral organs.Additionally,the results of an in vitro nucleotide sugar transport assay carried out with a tobacco and a yeast expression system suggest that AtUTr7 is capable of transferring UDP-Gal and UDP-GIc,but not a range of other UDP-and GDP-sugars,into the Golgi lumen.Mutants lacking expression of AtUTr7 exhibited an early proliferation of lateral roots as well as distorted root hairs when cultivated at high sucrose concentrations.Furthermore,the distribution of homogalacturonan with a low degree of methyl esterification differed in lateral root tips of the mutant compared to wild-type plants,although additional analytical procedures revealed no further differences in the composition of the root cell walls.This evidence suggests that the transport of UDP-Gal and UDP-GIc into the Golgi under conditions of high root biomass production plays a role in lateral root and root hair development.

  7. nana plant2 Encodes a Maize Ortholog of the Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Gene DWARF1, Identifying Developmental Interactions between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Norman B; Hartwig, Thomas; Budka, Josh; Fujioka, Shozo; Johal, Gurmukh; Schulz, Burkhard; Dilkes, Brian P

    2016-08-01

    A small number of phytohormones dictate the pattern of plant form affecting fitness via reproductive architecture and the plant's ability to forage for light, water, and nutrients. Individual phytohormone contributions to plant architecture have been studied extensively, often following a single component of plant architecture, such as plant height or branching. Both brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) affect plant height, branching, and sexual organ development in maize (Zea mays). We identified the molecular basis of the nana plant2 (na2) phenotype as a loss-of-function mutation in one of the two maize paralogs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BR biosynthetic gene DWARF1 (DWF1). These mutants accumulate the DWF1 substrate 24-methylenecholesterol and exhibit decreased levels of downstream BR metabolites. We utilized this mutant and known GA biosynthetic mutants to investigate the genetic interactions between BR and GA. Double mutants exhibited additivity for some phenotypes and epistasis for others with no unifying pattern, indicating that BR and GA interact to affect development but in a context-dependent manner. Similar results were observed in double mutant analyses using additional BR and GA biosynthetic mutant loci. Thus, the BR and GA interactions were neither locus nor allele specific. Exogenous application of GA3 to na2 and d5, a GA biosynthetic mutant, also resulted in a diverse pattern of growth responses, including BR-dependent GA responses. These findings demonstrate that BR and GA do not interact via a single inclusive pathway in maize but rather suggest that differential signal transduction and downstream responses are affected dependent upon the developmental context.

  8. Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3) as a Biomarker of Tumor Deterioration in Female Reproductive Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengtong; Lin, Xiaomiao; He, Rongquan; Lin, Xinggu; Liang, Lu; Tang, Ruixue; Xiong, Dandan; Wei, Kanglai; Dang, Yiwu; Feng, Zhenbo; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND DcR3 (decoy receptor 3) has been proposed be involved in development and prognosis of female reproductive cancers, including cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the evidence for the correlation between DcR3 and the clinicopathological characteristics, as well as the overall survival time, in female reproductive cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Ovid, LILACS, Chinese CNKI, Chong Qing VIP, Wan Fang, and China Biology Medicine disc up to 30 September 2015. Data on the relationship between DcR3 expression and TNM stage, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, age, and overall survival time were extracted. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs (confidence intervals) were estimated by forest plot. RESULTS Twelve studies with 1127 patients met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Overexpression of DcR3 was significantly related to the risk of female reproductive cancers (OR=10.69, 95% CI: 6.33-18.05), TNM stage (OR=5.51, 95% CI: 2.83-10.71), differentiation (OR=4.16, 95% CI: 2.28-7.60), lymph node metastasis (OR=5.89, 95% CI: 3.16-10.9), age (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.51-1.44), and overall survival time (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 0.58-5.83). Subgroup analyses showed that overexpression of DcR3 in cervical, ovarian, and breast cancer all had similar relationships with these clinicopathological parameters. CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis suggests that overexpression of DcR3 may play vital roles in the tumorigenesis and deterioration of female reproductive cancers. However, the relationship between DcR3 expression and prognosis needs further investigation.

  9. The arabidopsis wall associated kinase-like 10 gene encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase and is co-expressed with pathogen defense related genes

    KAUST Repository

    Meier, Stuart

    2010-01-26

    Background: Second messengers have a key role in linking environmental stimuli to physiological responses. One such messenger, guanosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), has long been known to be an essential signaling molecule in many different physiological processes in higher plants, including biotic stress responses. To date, however, the guanylyl cyclase (GC) enzymes that catalyze the formation of cGMP from GTP have largely remained elusive in higher plants. Principal Findings: We have identified an Arabidopsis receptor type wall associated kinase-like molecule (AtWAKL10) as a candidate GC and provide experimental evidence to show that the intracellular domain of AtWAKL10431-700 can generate cGMP in vitro. Further, we also demonstrate that the molecule has kinase activity indicating that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain catalytic protein. A co-expression and stimulus-specific expression analysis revealed that AtWAKL10 is consistently coexpressed with well characterized pathogen defense related genes and along with these genes is induced early and sharply in response to a range of pathogens and their elicitors. Conclusions: We demonstrate that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain, kinase-GC signaling molecule that may function in biotic stress responses that are critically dependent on the second messenger cGMP. © 2010 Meier et al.

  10. The Arabidopsis wall associated kinase-like 10 gene encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase and is co-expressed with pathogen defense related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Meier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Second messengers have a key role in linking environmental stimuli to physiological responses. One such messenger, guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP, has long been known to be an essential signaling molecule in many different physiological processes in higher plants, including biotic stress responses. To date, however, the guanylyl cyclase (GC enzymes that catalyze the formation of cGMP from GTP have largely remained elusive in higher plants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified an Arabidopsis receptor type wall associated kinase-like molecule (AtWAKL10 as a candidate GC and provide experimental evidence to show that the intracellular domain of AtWAKL10(431-700 can generate cGMP in vitro. Further, we also demonstrate that the molecule has kinase activity indicating that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain catalytic protein. A co-expression and stimulus-specific expression analysis revealed that AtWAKL10 is consistently co-expressed with well characterized pathogen defense related genes and along with these genes is induced early and sharply in response to a range of pathogens and their elicitors. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain, kinase-GC signaling molecule that may function in biotic stress responses that are critically dependent on the second messenger cGMP.

  11. Transformation of tobacco and Arabidopsis plants with Stellaria media genes encoding novel hevein-like peptides increases their resistance to fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Shukurov, Rahim; D Voblikova, Vera; Nikonorova, Alexandra K; Komakhin, Roman A; V Komakhina, Vera; A Egorov, Tsezi; V Grishin, Eugene; V Babakov, Alexey

    2012-04-01

    Two novel antifungal hevein-like peptides, SmAMP1.1a and SmAMP2.2a, were previously isolated from seeds of Stellaria media. It has been established that these peptides accumulate in this weed as a result of proteolysis of two propeptides, pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2. The primary structure of these propeptides is unique; in addition to having a signal peptide and negatively charged C-terminus, each of these structures consists of two hevein-like peptides of different length separated by a space rather than a single peptide. In this work, we demonstrated that the expression of the pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2 genes was tissue-specific and increased substantially under exposure to fungal infection. To elucidate whether S. media has any advantages in defending against phytopathogens due to its unusual structure of pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2, on the basis of the pro-SmAMP1 gene, we created three genetic constructs. Arabidopsis and tobacco plants were subsequently transformed with these constructs. Transgenic plants bearing the full-length pro-SmAMP1 gene exhibited the best resistance to the phytopathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana and Thielaviopsis basicola. The resistance of S. media plants to phytopathogenic fungi was likely due to the fungal-inducible expression of pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2 genes, and due to the specific features of the primary structure of the corresponding propeptides. As a result of the processing of these propeptides, two different antimicrobial peptides were released simultaneously. Based on our results, we conclude that the genes for antimicrobial peptides from S. media may be promising genetic tools for the improvement of plant resistance to fungal diseases.

  12. Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shiyou; Song, Tao; Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Rowland, Owen; Jenks, Matthew A

    2009-08-01

    Plant cuticle is an extracellular lipid-based matrix of cutin and waxes, which covers aerial organs and protects them from many forms of environmental stress. We report here the characterization of CER8/LACS1, one of nine Arabidopsis long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases thought to activate acyl chains. Mutations in LACS1 reduced the amount of wax in all chemical classes on the stem and leaf, except in the very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) class wherein acids longer than 24 carbons (C(24)) were elevated more than 155%. The C(16) cutin monomers on lacs1 were reduced by 37% and 22%, whereas the C(18) monomers were increased by 28% and 20% on stem and leaf, respectively. Amounts of wax and cutin on a lacs1-1 lacs2-3 double mutant were much lower than on either parent, and lacs1-1 lacs2-3 had much higher cuticular permeability than either parent. These additive effects indicate that LACS1 and LACS2 have overlapping functions in both wax and cutin synthesis. We demonstrated that LACS1 has synthetase activity for VLCFAs C(20)-C(30), with highest activity for C(30) acids. LACS1 thus appears to function as a very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase in wax metabolism. Since C(16) but not C(18) cutin monomers are reduced in lacs1, and C(16) acids are the next most preferred acid (behind C(30)) by LACS1 in our assays, LACS1 also appears to be important for the incorporation of C(16) monomers into cutin polyester. As such, LACS1 defines a functionally novel acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially modifies both VLCFAs for wax synthesis and long-chain (C(16)) fatty acids for cutin synthesis.

  13. The effect of Adernalinated lidpcaine on Blood Pressure, Heart rate and Bleeding during DCR surgery in General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shakhrezaee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : NLD obstraction causes chronic or acute Dacryiocytits resistant epiphora. Current treatment is DCR for persistent conection between lscrimal sac and nasal cavity. Vasocontrictor drugs are used facilitasing the operation.Materials and methods : Being approved in the ethics committee of the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences the study performed on 57 patients ASAL, II whom were divided in to two groups; Adrenaline group, no=23 and non adrenaline group no= 34. 10-15-ml adrenalin 1/200000 was injected at surgical area, before surgery in AG. BP, PR and bleeding were recorded during before and 1, 3, 5, 10,… min during the surgery. The results were analysed using t-test, and paired t-test at a significance level of< 0.05.Results : Maximum BP was measured at 3 minuts after adrenaline injection. The average of bleeding in adrenaline group was 38.3 ml and in nonadernaline group was 49.16 ml(P=0.007. The time of surgery in adrenalin group is shorter than non adrenaline group(P=0.003.Conclusion : Althragh adrenaline decreased the bleeding during surgery and facilitated the procedure, it is potentially dangerous for patients with cardiovascular disease during DCR syrgery.

  14. Connecting the Molecular Structure of Cutin to Ultrastructure and Physical Properties of the Cuticle in Petals of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Sylwester; Garroum, Imène; Daraspe, Jean; De Bellis, Damien; Olsson, Vilde; Mucciolo, Antonio; Butenko, Melinka A; Humbel, Bruno M; Nawrath, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    The plant cuticle is laid down at the cell wall surface of epidermal cells in a wide variety of structures, but the functional significance of this architectural diversity is not yet understood. Here, the structure-function relationship of the petal cuticle of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was investigated. Applying Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, the cutin mutants long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase2 (lacs2), permeable cuticle1 (pec1), cyp77a6, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase6 (gpat6), and defective in cuticular ridges (dcr) were grouped in three separate classes based on quantitative differences in the ν(C=O) and ν(C-H) band vibrations. These were associated mainly with the quantity of 10,16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid, a monomer of the cuticle polyester, cutin. These spectral features were linked to three different types of cuticle organization: a normal cuticle with nanoridges (lacs2 and pec1 mutants); a broad translucent cuticle (cyp77a6 and dcr mutants); and an electron-opaque multilayered cuticle (gpat6 mutant). The latter two types did not have typical nanoridges. Transmission electron microscopy revealed considerable variations in cuticle thickness in the dcr mutant. Different double mutant combinations showed that a low amount of C16 monomers in cutin leads to the appearance of an electron-translucent layer adjacent to the cuticle proper, which is independent of DCR action. We concluded that DCR is not only essential for incorporating 10,16-dihydroxy C16:0 into cutin but also plays a crucial role in the organization of the cuticle, independent of cutin composition. Further characterization of the mutant petals suggested that nanoridge formation and conical cell shape may contribute to the reduction of physical adhesion forces between petals and other floral organs during floral development.

  15. Connecting the Molecular Structure of Cutin to Ultrastructure and Physical Properties of the Cuticle in Petals of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Sylwester; Garroum, Imène; Daraspe, Jean; De Bellis, Damien; Olsson, Vilde; Butenko, Melinka A.; Humbel, Bruno M.

    2017-01-01

    The plant cuticle is laid down at the cell wall surface of epidermal cells in a wide variety of structures, but the functional significance of this architectural diversity is not yet understood. Here, the structure-function relationship of the petal cuticle of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was investigated. Applying Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, the cutin mutants long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase2 (lacs2), permeable cuticle1 (pec1), cyp77a6, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase6 (gpat6), and defective in cuticular ridges (dcr) were grouped in three separate classes based on quantitative differences in the ν(C=O) and ν(C-H) band vibrations. These were associated mainly with the quantity of 10,16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid, a monomer of the cuticle polyester, cutin. These spectral features were linked to three different types of cuticle organization: a normal cuticle with nanoridges (lacs2 and pec1 mutants); a broad translucent cuticle (cyp77a6 and dcr mutants); and an electron-opaque multilayered cuticle (gpat6 mutant). The latter two types did not have typical nanoridges. Transmission electron microscopy revealed considerable variations in cuticle thickness in the dcr mutant. Different double mutant combinations showed that a low amount of C16 monomers in cutin leads to the appearance of an electron-translucent layer adjacent to the cuticle proper, which is independent of DCR action. We concluded that DCR is not only essential for incorporating 10,16-dihydroxy C16:0 into cutin but also plays a crucial role in the organization of the cuticle, independent of cutin composition. Further characterization of the mutant petals suggested that nanoridge formation and conical cell shape may contribute to the reduction of physical adhesion forces between petals and other floral organs during floral development. PMID:27994007

  16. The SUD1 Gene Encodes a Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Is a Positive Regulator of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Activity in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas, Verónica G.; Amorim-Silva, Vítor; Posé, David; Rosado, Abel; Esteban, Alicia; Arró, Montserrat; Azevedo, Herlander; Bombarely, Aureliano; Borsani, Omar; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Ferrer, Albert; Tavares, Rui M.; Botella, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzyme catalyzes the major rate-limiting step of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway from which sterols and other isoprenoids are synthesized. In contrast with our extensive knowledge of the regulation of HMGR in yeast and animals, little is known about this process in plants. To identify regulatory components of the MVA pathway in plants, we performed a genetic screen for second-site suppressor mutations of the Arabidopsis thaliana highly drought-sensitive drought hypersensitive2 (dry2) mutant that shows decreased squalene epoxidase activity. We show that mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF DRY2 DEFECTS1 (SUD1) gene recover most developmental defects in dry2 through changes in HMGR activity. SUD1 encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that shows sequence and structural similarity to yeast Degradation of α factor (Doα10) and human TEB4, components of the endoplasmic reticulum–associated degradation C (ERAD-C) pathway. While in yeast and animals, the alternative ERAD-L/ERAD-M pathway regulates HMGR activity by controlling protein stability, SUD1 regulates HMGR activity without apparent changes in protein content. These results highlight similarities, as well as important mechanistic differences, among the components involved in HMGR regulation in plants, yeast, and animals. PMID:23404890

  17. Reference: 278 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available functional ERA1 gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of protein farnesyltransferase (PFT), exhibit pleiotropic effects...gnaling and meristem development. Here, we report the effects of T-DNA insertion mutations in the Arabidopsi

  18. Reference: 522 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tol phosphate (InsP) and phosphoinositide phosphate (PtdInsP) substrates. Arabidopsis thaliana has 15 genes encoding 5PTases. Biochem...ical analyses of a subgroup of 5PTase enzymes suggest th

  19. Reference: 734 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available umi et al. 2008 Apr. Development 135(7):1335-45. CAPRICE (CPC) encodes a small protein with an R3 MYB motif ...doreduplication. Arabidopsis CAPRICE-LIKE MYB 3 (CPL3) controls endoreduplication and flowering development

  20. Reference: 783 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sis ACBP6 was confirmed by analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged ACBP6 and w... mRNA encoding phospholipase Ddelta. Lipid profiling analyses of rosettes from co

  1. Reference: 301 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n phosphatidylinositol metabolism and is encoded by an At5PTase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. A previous study...ntracellular calcium levels. In this study, we provide evidence that At5PTase13 m

  2. Nucleus-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins are imported normally into chlorophyll b-free chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Sabine; Meurer, Jörg; Soll, Jürgen; Ankele, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    Chloroplast-located proteins which are encoded by the nuclear genome have to be imported from the cytosol into the organelle in a posttranslational manner. Among these nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins are the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs). After translation in the cytosol, precursor proteins of LHCPs are imported via the TOC/TIC translocase, processed to their mature size to insert into thylakoid membranes where they recruit chlorophylls a and b to form pigment-protein complexes. The translocation of proteins is a highly regulated process which employs several regulators. To analyze whether CAO (chlorophyll a oxigenase) which converts chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b at the inner chloroplast membrane, is one of these regulators, we performed import reactions utilizing a homozygous loss-of-function mutant (cao-1). We imported in vitro translated and (35)S-labeled precursor proteins of light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II LHCB1, LHCB4, and LHCB5 into chloroplasts isolated from cao-1 and show that import of precursor proteins and their processing to mature forms are not impaired in the mutant. Therefore, regulation of the import machinery cannot be responsible for the decreased steady-state levels of light-harvesting complex (LHC) proteins. Regulation does not take place at the transcriptional level either, because Lhcb mRNAs are not down-regulated. Additionally, reduced steady-state levels of LHCPs also do not occur due to posttranslational turnover of non-functional LHCPs in chloroplasts. Taken together, our data show that plants in the absence of CAO and therefore devoid of chlorophyll b are not influenced in their import behavior of LHC proteins.

  3. Early increase in DcR2 expression and late activation of caspases in the platelet storage lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenchette, S; Moutet, M; Benguella, M; N'Gondara, J P; Guigner, F; Coffe, C; Corcos, L; Bettaieb, A; Solary, E

    2001-10-01

    Platelet transfusion is widely used to prevent bleeding in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. The maximal storage duration of platelet concentrates is usually 5 days, due to the platelet storage lesion that impairs their functions when stored for longer times. Some of the morphological and biochemical changes that characterize this storage lesion are reminiscent of cell death by apoptosis. The present study analyzed whether proteins involved in nucleated cell apoptosis could play a role in the platelet storage lesion. Storage of leukocyte-depleted platelets obtained by apheresis is associated with a late and limited activation of caspases, mainly caspase-3. This event correlates with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim in the particulate fraction and a slight and late release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Diablo/Smac in the cytosol. Platelets do not express the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 on their plasma membrane, while the expression of the decoy receptor DcR2 increases progressively during platelet storage. Addition of low concentrations of the cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide accelerates platelet caspase activation during storage, an effect that is partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Altogether, DcR2 expression on the plasma membrane is an early event while caspase activation is a late event during platelet storage. These observations suggest that caspases are unlikely to account for the platelet storage lesion. As a consequence, addition of caspase inhibitors may not improve the quality of platelet concentrates stored in standard conditions.

  4. Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3) as a Biomarker of Tumor Deterioration in Female Reproductive Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengtong; Lin, Xiaomiao; He, Rongquan; Lin, Xinggu; Liang, Lu; Tang, Ruixue; Xiong, Dandan; Wei, Kanglai; Dang, Yiwu; Feng, Zhenbo; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background DcR3 (decoy receptor 3) has been proposed be involved in development and prognosis of female reproductive cancers, including cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the evidence for the correlation between DcR3 and the clinicopathological characteristics, as well as the overall survival time, in female reproductive cancers. Material/Methods Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Ovid, LILACS, Chinese CNKI, Chong Qing VIP, Wan Fang, and China Biology Medicine disc up to 30 September 2015. Data on the relationship between DcR3 expression and TNM stage, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, age, and overall survival time were extracted. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs (confidence intervals) were estimated by forest plot. Results Twelve studies with 1127 patients met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Overexpression of DcR3 was significantly related to the risk of female reproductive cancers (OR=10.69, 95% CI: 6.33–18.05), TNM stage (OR=5.51, 95% CI: 2.83–10.71), differentiation (OR=4.16, 95% CI: 2.28–7.60), lymph node metastasis (OR=5.89, 95% CI: 3.16–10.9), age (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.51–1.44), and overall survival time (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 0.58–5.83). Subgroup analyses showed that overexpression of DcR3 in cervical, ovarian, and breast cancer all had similar relationships with these clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that overexpression of DcR3 may play vital roles in the tumorigenesis and deterioration of female reproductive cancers. However, the relationship between DcR3 expression and prognosis needs further investigation. PMID:27246752

  5. 白纹伊蚊AGO2和Dcr-2基因片段克隆及各发育期转录水平分析%Cloning of AGO2 and Dcr-2 Gene Fragments and Analysis of Their Transcription Level in Different Developmental Stages of Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡燕丽; 郑学礼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To perform molecular cloning of the ACO2 and Dcr-2 gene fragments associated with RNA interference pathway of Aedes albopictus and characterize the transcription level of the two genes across all life stages of the mosquito. Methods The degenerate primers were designed based on the conserved regions of AGO2 and Dcr-2 amino acid sequences, and the AGO2 and Dcr-2 cDNA fragments were amplified from total RNA of a female mosquito by RT-PCR. The PCR products were cloned into pMD18-T vector and transformed into E. Coli DH5α strain, and the positive clones were selected and sequenced, with the results for homology analysis by Blastx. The specific primers were designed according to the sequences of ACO2 and Dcr-2 from Ae. Albopictus, which were used to investigate the transcription levels of these two genes from eggs, Ⅰ and Ⅱ instars larvae, Ⅲ and IV instars larvae, pupa, male and female mosquitoes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results The AGO2 and Dcr-2 cDNA fragments obtained were 326 bp and 491 bp in length, with the Accession number of JQ764670 and JQ764671, respectively. The Blastx analysis showed that the AC02 and Dcr-2 amino acid sequences shared 91% similarity to AGO2 of Ae. Aegypti and 98% to Dcr-2 of Ae. Albopictus. The transcription of ACO2 and Dcr-2 genes was detected in all life stages of Ae. Albopictus, with the highest level of mRNA in female mosquitoes, which was 3.1 times and 15.5 times higher for AGO2 and Dcr-2 than in male mosquitoes, respectively, and significantly higher than other developmental stages (P<0.05). Conclusion The AGO2 and Dcr-2 cDNA sequences have been partially obtained and the hightest transcription level found in female Ae. Albopictus, suggesting that AGO2 and Dcr-2 are the key genes of RNA interference in female mosquitoes.%目的 克隆白纹伊蚊(Aedes albopictus )RNA干扰通路相关AGO2和Dcr-2基因片段,并分析该蚊种不同发育阶段这2个基因片段的转录水平.方法

  6. Regulatory Proteolysis in Arabidopsis-Pathogen Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Miklós Pogány; Tamás Dankó; Evelin Kámán-Tóth; Ildikó Schwarczinger; Zoltán Bozsó

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two and a half percent of protein coding genes in Arabidopsis encode enzymes with known or putative proteolytic activity. Proteases possess not only common housekeeping functions by recycling nonfunctional proteins. By irreversibly cleaving other proteins, they regulate crucial developmental processes and control responses to environmental changes. Regulatory proteolysis is also indispensable in interactions between plants and their microbial pathogens. Proteolytic cleavage is s...

  7. Reference: 396 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ht to be encoded in Arabidopsis by the ATS1 locus. A number of genetic mutants deficient in this activity have been described. How...hosphatidylglycerol raised the question of whether an alternative pathway of phosphatidylglycerol assembly in the plastid exists. How

  8. Reference: 713 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available between the galactosyl side-chain structure of pectin and its physical properties...with correct hydration properties. 12 4007-21 18165329 2007 Dec The Plant cell Carpita Nicholas C|Dean Gilli.... The Arabidopsis MUM2 gene encodes a beta-galactosidase required for the production of seed coat mucilage

  9. Reference: 457 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n et al. 2006 Oct. Plant J. 48(2):238-48. The Arabidopsis BAP1 gene encodes a small protein with a C2-like domain. Here...er and is associated with membranes in vivo. We identify multiple roles of BAP1 in negatively re...gulating defense responses and cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana. The loss of BAP1 function ...confers an enhanced disease resistance to virulent bacterial and oomycete pathogens. The enhanced resistance... is mediated by salicylic acid, PAD4 and a disease resistance gene SNC1. BAP1 is

  10. DcR3重组蛋白对糖尿病大鼠心肌组织凋亡相关分子的表达及细胞凋亡的作用%Action of DcR3 recombinant protein of myocardial tissue in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄黎月; 庄国洪; 丘劲华; 陈福; 陶惠然

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究诱骗受体3(DcR3)在正常大鼠、糖尿病(DM)大鼠心肌组织的表达,DcR3重组蛋白对心肌组织凋亡相关分子表达以及心肌细胞凋亡的影响,探讨DcR3对DM大鼠心肌细胞凋亡的作用。方法:一次性腹腔注射链脲佐菌素建立大鼠DM模型,尾静脉注射不同剂量的DcR3重组蛋白[1.2 mg/(鼠・ d)、0.8 mg/(鼠・ d)、0.4 mg/(鼠・ d)]40 d。 RT-PCR检测心肌组织DcR3 mRNA、Fas mRNA、FasL mRNA的表达。 Wester blot分析凋亡相关蛋白Bcl-2、Caspase-8的表达。双抗夹心ELISA检测血液中IL-1β、TNF-α及LFN-γ水平的变化,HE染色观察心肌细胞凋亡的百分率。结果:DcR3治疗组大鼠与DM组比较心肌组织DcR3 mRNA高表达,Fas mRNA、FasL mRNA表达下调。 Caspase-8蛋白水平下调,Bcl-2蛋白水平上调,以中剂量组的作用最明显。各DcR3治疗组血清IL-1β、TNF-α和IFN-γ水平均有不同程度的降低(P<0.05,P<0.01)。心肌细胞凋亡的百分率下降(P<0.05)。结论:DcR3重组蛋白有抑制DM大鼠心肌细胞凋亡的作用,其机制与竞争Fas,阻断FasL诱导细胞凋亡,心肌细胞表达DcR3,凋亡相关因子Caspase-8下调、Bcl-2上调及细胞因子水平的降低有关。%Objective:To study the expression of DcR3 of myocardial tissue in diabetic mouse and normal rats and the impact of DcR3 recombinant protein to the expression of related molecules and myocardial cell apoptosis to discuss the action of DcR3 to myocardial cell apoptosis in Diabetic rats.Methods:Intraperitoneally injected streptozotocin one time to establish the model of Diabetic rats.Injected different doses of DcR3 recombinant protein to tail vein[1.2 mg/(rat・ d),0.8 mg/(rat・ d),0.4 mg/(rat・ d)] 40 d. The expression of DcR3 mRNA, Fas mRNA and FasL mRNA of myocardial tissue was detected with RT-PCR;the expression of apoptosis related molecules Bcl-2

  11. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2015-08-13

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  12. MASSUGU2 encodes Aux/IAA19, an auxin-regulated protein that functions together with the transcriptional activator NPH4/ARF7 to regulate differential growth responses of hypocotyl and formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Kumagai, Satoshi; Muto, Hideki; Sato, Atsuko; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Harper, Reneé M; Liscum, Emmanuel; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2004-02-01

    We have isolated a dominant, auxin-insensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, massugu2 (msg2), that displays neither hypocotyl gravitropism nor phototropism, fails to maintain an apical hook as an etiolated seedling, and is defective in lateral root formation. Yet other aspects of growth and development of msg2 plants are almost normal. These characteristics of msg2 are similar to those of another auxin-insensitive mutant, non-phototropic hypocotyl4 (nph4), which is a loss-of-function mutant of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 (ARF7) (Harper et al., 2000). Map-based cloning of the MSG2 locus reveals that all four mutant alleles result in amino acid substitutions in the conserved domain II of an Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid protein, IAA19. Interestingly, auxin inducibility of MSG2/IAA19 gene expression is reduced by 65% in nph4/arf7. Moreover, MSG2/IAA19 protein binds to the C-terminal domain of NPH4/ARF7 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) two-hybrid assay and to the whole latter protein in vitro by pull-down assay. These results suggest that MSG2/IAA19 and NPH4/ARF7 may constitute a negative feedback loop to regulate differential growth responses of hypocotyls and lateral root formation.

  13. Arabidopsis GPAT9 contributes to synthesis of intracellular glycerolipids but not surface lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE ACYLTRANSFERASE (GPAT) genes encode enzymes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis in plants. Ten GPAT homologues have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). GPATs 4-8 have been shown to be involved in the production of extracellular lipid barrier polyesters. Rece...

  14. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  15. Co-overexpressing a plasma membrane and a vacuolar membrane sodium/proton antiporter significantly improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane bound sodium/proton (Sodium/Hydrogen) antiporter that transports sodium into the vacuole and exports hydrogen into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane bound sodium/hydrogen antiporter that exports sodium to the ex...

  16. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  17. Two differentially regulated Arabidopsis genes define a new branch of the DFR superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, L; Lauvergeat, V; Naested, H;

    2001-01-01

    Two tandem genes were identified on Arabidopsis chromosome II (AtCRL1 and AtCRL2) encoding proteins with homology to members of the dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) superfamily. The encoded CRL1 and CRL2 proteins share 87% mutual amino acid sequence identity whereas their promoter regions are hi...

  18. 一个编码含VQ模序蛋白的基因AtARVQ1参与拟南芥对砷酸盐的响应调控%AtARVQ1 encodes a novel VQ motif-containing protein involved in arsenate stress response regulation in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安娜; 腾瑶; 徐文忠; 麻密

    2011-01-01

    Arsenate is a highly toxic heavy metal containing compound poisonous to most living organisms, including human and plants. We report that the AtARVQl gene encodes a plant-specific VQ motif-containing protein involved in the response and resistance of Arabidopsis to arsenate stress. The expression of AtARVQl was strongly downregulated by arsenate stress. To determine the function of AtARVQl in planta, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AtARVQl driven by a CaMV-35S promoter were generated. Overexpressing transgenic lines with high levels of AtARVQl expression were observed to be more resistant to arsenate stress. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that all homologs of AtARVQl were plant-specific and evolved from two primitive branches, which were classified into four clusters. The AtARVQl-like proteins in dicots and bryophyta were segregated into the two branches, whereas those in monocot plants all fall into one sub-branch. These results suggest that AtARVQl and its homologs may have important roles in the plant response to arsenate stress.%砷酸盐(Asv)是一种对包括人类和植物在内大部分生物具有剧毒的重金属.结果显示,编码含植物特有VQ模序蛋白基因AtARVQl (arsenate-_repressed V__Q motif-containing protein 1)参与拟南芥对Asv应答和抗性调控.结果表明,砷酸盐胁迫强烈抑制AtARVQ1基因在拟南芥中的转录表达.进一步利用组成型启动子CaMV 35S驱动AtARVQ1基因在拟南芥中的表达,获得在砷酸盐处理条件下增强AtARVQ1基因转录的超表达植株,发现超表达AtARVQ1可以明显提高拟南芥对砷酸盐的抗性水平.系统进化分析发现,含VQ模序结构的AtARVQ1同源基因为植物特有,并进化出两大分支4个子分支,这类同源基因在双子叶植物和苔藓中分布于两大分支上,而在单子叶植物中仅分布在同一子分支上.这些结果表明,AtAR VQ1基因在拟南芥对砷酸盐的抗性应答上有着重要作用,而其同源基因

  19. Reference: 235 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ers in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh that encode multicopper oxidase-like proteins that are related to fer...roxidases, ascorbate oxidases and laccases. Only one member of the family has been pre...ke SKU5 appears to lack a functional copper-binding site and is most closely related to Bp10 from Brassica n...apus and Ntp303 from Nicotiana tobacum. The SKS6 promoter contains many putative re...gulatory sites and differential expression of an SKS6::GUS reporter gene revealed selective induction in s

  20. Reference: 237 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available member gene family in Arabidopsis (AtFer1-4). To investigate whether iron sequestration in ferritins is a pa...tical time points 0.5 and 24 h post-infection (p.i.). The activation of AtFer1 expression observed at 24 h p...tration of the purified siderophores chrysobactin and desferrioxamine strongly increased AtFer1 transcript a...ia et al. 2005 Jul. Plant J. 43(2):262-72. Ferritins are multimeric iron storage proteins encoded by a four-...rt of an iron-withholding defense system induced in response to bacterial invasio

  1. Reference: 517 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d isolated aleurone layers of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used in experiments designed to iden...tify components of the Arabidopsis seed that contribute to seed dormancy and to lea

  2. Analysis of Arabidopsis glutathione-transferases in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Matthias P; Kanawati, Basem; Fekete, Agnes; Kowalski, Natalie; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grill, Erwin

    2013-07-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 54 functional glutathione transferases (GSTs), classified in seven clades. Although plant GSTs have been implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as herbicides, extensive redundancy within this large gene family impedes a functional analysis in planta. In this study, a GST-deficient yeast strain was established as a system for analyzing plant GSTs that allows screening for GST substrates and identifying substrate preferences within the plant GST family. To this end, five yeast genes encoding GSTs and GST-related proteins were simultaneously disrupted. The resulting yeast quintuple mutant showed a strongly reduced conjugation of the GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl). Consistently, the quintuple mutant was hypersensitive to CDNB, and this phenotype was complemented by the inducible expression of Arabidopsis GSTs. The conjugating activity of the plant GSTs was assessed by in vitro enzymatic assays and via analysis of exposed yeast cells. The formation of glutathione adducts with dinitrobenzene was unequivocally verified by stable isotope labeling and subsequent accurate ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (ICR-FTMS). Analysis of Arabidopsis GSTs encompassing six clades and 42 members demonstrated functional expression in yeast by using CDNB and NBD-Cl as model substrates. Subsequently, the established yeast system was explored for its potential to screen the Arabidopsis GST family for conjugation of the fungicide anilazine. Thirty Arabidopsis GSTs were identified that conferred increased levels of glutathionylated anilazine. Efficient anilazine conjugation was observed in the presence of the phi, tau, and theta clade GSTs including AtGSTF2, AtGSTF4, AtGSTF6, AtGSTF8, AtGSTF10, and AtGSTT2, none of which had previously been known to contribute to fungicide detoxification. ICR-FTMS analysis of yeast extracts allowed the simultaneous detection and

  3. Arabidopsis MYB68 in development and responses to environmental cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Caiping; Andreasson, E.; Maslak, A.;

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis MYB68 gene encodes a MYB family protein with N-terminal R2R3 DNA-binding domains. Analyses of MYB68 expression by RNA blot and a transposant gene-trap MYB68::GUS reporter indicated that MYB68 is expressed specifically in root pericycle cells. Root cultures of the myb68 mutant, cau...

  4. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript a

  5. Differentially expressed genes associated with dormancy or germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorop, P.E.; Barroco, R.M.; Engler, G.; Groot, S.P.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Differential display analysis using dormant and non-dormant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh seeds resulted in a set of genes that were associated with either dormancy or germination. Expression of the germination-associated genes AtRPL36B and AtRPL27B, encoding two ribosomal proteins, was undetectab

  6. Sucrose regulated translational control of bZip genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahmani, F.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrose can translationally regulate the expression of bZIP11 and four other S-class bZip transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence encoding 28 amino acids (SC-peptide) in the leader of the bZIP11 is sufficient to mediate sucrose induced translational control. A model proposes that suc

  7. Etopic expression of "Arabidopsis" H(+)-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances drought resistance in bottle gourd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been used as a source of rootstock for grafting watermelon to improve its fruit quality. We report here the development of a bottle gourd with resistance to drought by ectopic expression of the "Arabidopsis AVP1" gene that encodes a vacuolar H(+)-pyro...

  8. The expression of DcR3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome%吉兰-巴雷综合征外周血单个核细胞DcR3mRNA表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆嘉茵; 李静; 朱太卿; 田发发; 杨欢; 陈毓茜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of DcR3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).And to discuss the correlation among cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -Ig, the severity of GBS and DcR3 mRNA.Methods Thirty-six patients with GBS and 20 healthy controls were included.The expression of DcR3 mRNA in PBMCs was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The correlation between the severity of GBS and the expression of DcR3 mRNA was analyzed.The CSF level of CSF-Ig was also analyzed.Results DcR3 mRNA level in GBS patients (0.40 ± 0.08) was significantly higher than in the healthy control (0.17 ± 0.04) (P<0.01).The expression of DcR3 mRNA was comparable between the mild group (0.39 ±0.07) and the severe group (0.41±0.05) (P>0.05).The level of CSF-Ig was also comparable between the mild group [IgG (0.l23 ±0.113) g/L, IgA (0.016± 0.012) g/L, IgM (0.012 ±0.011) g/L]and the severe group [IgG (0.128 ±0.112) g/L, IgA (0.015 ± 0.011) g/L, IgM (0.013±0.013) g/L](P>0.05).There was no correlation between the levels of CSF-Ig and DcR3 mRNA (rIgG = 0.0083, rIgA = 0.0056, rIgM = 0.0015, P> 0.05).Conclusions The expression of DcR3 mRNA in PBMCs increased significantly in GBS patients, indicating that DcR3 could be involved in the pathogenesis of GBS.There was no correlation between GBS severity and DcR3 mRNA level or between CSF-Ig and DcR3 mRNA levels.%目的 研究吉兰-巴雷综合征(Guillain-Barré syndrome,GBS)患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs)中凋亡相关基因诱骗受体(DCR3)mRNA的表达水平.探讨DcR3与GBS疾病严重程度及脑脊液免疫球蛋白(CSFIg,包括IgG、IgA、IgM)水平之间的关联性.方法 以36例GBS患者和20名健康人为研究对象,应用反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测外周静脉血PBMCs DcR3 mRNA表达水平,并对GBS患者CSF-Ig水平与疾病严重程度和DcR3 mRNA表达的相关性进行分析.结果 GBS

  9. Reference: 13 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iluz G et al. 2002 Nov. Plant Cell 14(11):2799-811. A T-DNA-tagged population of Arabidopsis was screened fo...r mutations in AtOPT3, which encodes a member of the oligopeptide (OPT) family of peptide transporters, and a re...ed that most homozygous embryos were arrested at or before the octant stage of embryo development and that n...one showed the usual periclinal division leading to the formation of the protoderm. This defective phenotype could be re.... A beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion to DNA sequences upstream of the putative AtOPT3 ATG start codon was constructed, and the expre

  10. Reference: 528 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 528 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17270011i An Rui et al. 2007 Fe...m (K+) and caesium (Cs+). AtNHX8 overexpression in a triple-deletion yeast mutant AXT3 that exhibits defecti...ve Na+/Li+ transport specifically suppresses sensitivity to Li+, but does not affect Na+ sensitivity. Likewi...n antiporter-1 family in Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes a putative Li/H antiporter. 4 718-28 17270011 2007 Fe...b The Plant journal An Rui|Chai Mao-Feng|Chen Jia|Chen Qi-Jun|Lu Ping-Li|Qin Zhi-Xiang|Su Zhao|Wang Xue-Chen

  11. The effect of HTLV-1 Tax protein on the DcR3 gene expression in T cells%HTLV-1病毒Tax蛋白对T淋巴细胞DcR3基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕壮伟; 牛志国; 陈丽媛; 王金恒; 陈琳; 王辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨HTLV-1病毒Tax蛋白对T淋巴细胞DcR3基因表达的影响.方法 构建pGL3-DcR3-luc( -1010 bp- +114 bp)荧光素酶报告基因;利用脂质体介导的方法将pGL3 -DcR3 -luc转染到MT-2、TaxP、Jurkat细胞中,48h后检测DcR3荧光素酶报告基因的活性;利用脂质体介导的方法将梯度剂量的pCMV -Tax转染入Jurkat细胞,48 h后提RNA逆转录,real-time PCR检测DcR3 mRNA 的表达的变化;选用流式细胞技术检测MT-2、TaxP、Jurkat细胞表面DcR3蛋白的表达.结果 成功构建DcR3基因调控序列荧光素酶报告基因pGL3-DcR3-luc;荧光素酶活性的检测显示,与对照组相比,MT2细胞荧光素酶活性升高了32.07± 12.43倍,TaxP细胞荧光素酶活性升高了13.27±4.04倍,Jurkat细胞荧光素酶活性升高了1.26±0.49倍.与Jurkat细胞相比,MT2细胞和TaxP细胞的相对荧光素酶活性明显升高(P<0.01);Real-time PCR结果显示,4组Ct内参/Ct目的基因的值依次是0.40±0.02、0.44±0.01、0.47±0.02、0.53±0.02; DcR3 mRNA的表达与转染pCMV-Tax存在着剂量依赖性(P<0.05).流式细胞技术检测,MT2和TaxP细胞实验组DcR3蛋白的表达较对照组Jurkat细胞表达的高(P<0.05).MT2细胞的结果是33.1 ±9.9,TaxP细胞的结果是35.1 ±4.8,Jurkat细胞的结果是16.9±2.3.结论 Tax蛋白能够促进DcR3基因在T细胞中的表达.%Objective To explore the effect of HTLV-1 (human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 ) Tax protein on the DcR3 gene expression in T cells.Methods The construction of DcR3 (-1010 bp to +114 bp) luciferase reporter gene; MT2,TaxP,and Jurkat E6-1 cells were transfected with DcR3 luciferase reporter gene (pGL3-DcR3-1uc) using liposomes according to the manufacturer's instructions.For the control group,pGL3-basic replaced it respectively.At 48 h after incubation,luciferase activity was measured with a luciferase assay system; Jurkat cells were transfected with pCMV-Tax-Bam using liposomes,and total RNA was extracted from the

  12. Functional overlap of the Arabidopsis leaf and root microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Müller, Daniel B; Srinivas, Girish; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Potthoff, Eva; Rott, Matthias; Dombrowski, Nina; Münch, Philipp C; Spaepen, Stijn; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja; Hüttel, Bruno; McHardy, Alice C; Vorholt, Julia A; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-12-17

    Roots and leaves of healthy plants host taxonomically structured bacterial assemblies, and members of these communities contribute to plant growth and health. We established Arabidopsis leaf- and root-derived microbiota culture collections representing the majority of bacterial species that are reproducibly detectable by culture-independent community sequencing. We found an extensive taxonomic overlap between the leaf and root microbiota. Genome drafts of 400 isolates revealed a large overlap of genome-encoded functional capabilities between leaf- and root-derived bacteria with few significant differences at the level of individual functional categories. Using defined bacterial communities and a gnotobiotic Arabidopsis plant system we show that the isolates form assemblies resembling natural microbiota on their cognate host organs, but are also capable of ectopic leaf or root colonization. While this raises the possibility of reciprocal relocation between root and leaf microbiota members, genome information and recolonization experiments also provide evidence for microbiota specialization to their respective niche.

  13. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  14. Recombination Rate Heterogeneity within Arabidopsis Disease Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuha Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr effectors by resistance (R genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1 R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity.

  15. Recombination Rate Heterogeneity within Arabidopsis Disease Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Heïdi; Ziolkowski, Piotr A.; Yelina, Nataliya E.; Jackson, Matthew; Mézard, Christine; McVean, Gil; Henderson, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1) R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity. PMID:27415776

  16. DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.K.

    1987-10-27

    A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.

  17. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  18. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  19. P-proteins in Arabidopsis are heteromeric structures involved in rapid sieve tube sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan B Jekat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural phloem proteins (P-proteins are characteristic components of the sieve elements in all dicotyledonous and many monocotyledonous angiosperms. Tobacco P-proteins were recently evidenced to be encoded by the widespread SEO gene family, and tobacco SEO proteins were shown to be directly involved in sieve tube sealing thus preventing the loss of photosynthate. Analysis of the two Arabidopsis SEO proteins (AtSEOa and AtSEOb indicated that the corresponding P-protein subunits do not act in a redundant manner. However, there are still pending questions regarding the interaction properties and specific functions of AtSEOa and AtSEOb as well as the general function of structural P-proteins in Arabidopsis. In this study, we characterized the Arabidopsis P-proteins in more detail. We used in planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the predicted heteromeric interactions between AtSEOa and AtSEOb. Arabidopsis mutants depleted for one or both AtSEO proteins lacked the typical P-protein structures normally found in sieve elements, underlining the identity of AtSEO proteins as P-proteins and furthermore providing the means to determine the role of Arabidopsis P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore developed an assay based on phloem exudation. Mutants with reduced AtSEO expression levels lost twice as much photosynthate following injury as comparable wild-type plants, confirming that Arabidopsis P-proteins are indeed involved in sieve tube sealing. 

  20. Functional analysis of the Hikeshi-like protein and its interaction with HSP70 in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Shinya; Ohama, Naohiko; Mizoi, Junya [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kazuo [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko, E-mail: akys@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • HKL, a Hikeshi homologous gene is identified in Arabidopsis. • HKL interacts with two HSP70 isoforms and regulates the subcellular localization of HSC70-1. • The two HSP70 translocate into nucleus in response to heat stress. • Overexpression of HKL confers thermotolerance in transgenic plants. - Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) refold damaged proteins and are an essential component of the heat shock response. Previously, the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) has been reported to translocate into the nucleus in a heat-dependent manner in many organisms. In humans, the heat-induced translocation of HSP70 requires the nuclear carrier protein Hikeshi. In the Arabidopsis genome, only one gene encodes a protein with high homology to Hikeshi, and we named this homolog Hikeshi-like (HKL) protein. In this study, we show that two Arabidopsis HSP70 isoforms accumulate in the nucleus in response to heat shock and that HKL interacts with these HSP70s. Our histochemical analysis revealed that HKL is predominantly expressed in meristematic tissues, suggesting the potential importance of HKL during cell division in Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that HKL regulates HSP70 localization, and HKL overexpression conferred thermotolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that HKL plays a positive role in the thermotolerance of Arabidopsis plants and cooperatively interacts with HSP70.

  1. PNL1 and PNL2 : Arabidopsis homologs of maize PAN1

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lauren Gail

    2010-01-01

    PNL1 and PNL2 are the closest Arabidopsis relatives of maize pan1. pan1 and the PNL family of 11 genes encode leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like kinases, however none of these putative kinases is predicted to have actual kinase function, due to one or more amino acid substitutions in residues necessary for kinase function. Because PAN1 plays a role in subsidiary cell formation in maize, it is hypothesized that PNL1 and PNL2 are involved in stomatal formation in Arabidopsis. YFP fusions of the...

  2. Structure and organ specificity of an anionic peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Abelskov, A K; Mattsson, O

    1996-01-01

    The predominant peroxidase (pI 3.5) (E.C. 1.11.1.7) of an Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was purified and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotides were designed and a specific probe was obtained. A cDNA clone was isolated from an Arabidopsis cell suspension cDNA library and completely...... sequenced. The cDNA clone comprised 1194 bp and encodes a 30 residue signal peptide and a 305 residue mature protein (Mr 31,966). The sequence of the mature protein is 95% identical to the well-characterized horseradish peroxidase HRP A2 and has therefore been designated ATP A2. Three introns at positions...

  3. Reference: 774 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available an essential gene, the disruption of which causes embryonic lethality. Plants carrying a hypomorphic smg7 mu...e progression from anaphase to telophase in the second meiotic division in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis SMG7 is

  4. Reference: 398 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plays attenuated chloroplast movements under intermediate and high light intensitie...hese movements. In this work, we describe plastid movement impaired 2 (pmi2), a mutant in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that dis

  5. Reference: 173 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mical approaches to elucidate the action mechanisms of sirtinol in Arabidopsis. A...tic and chemical analyses of the action mechanisms of sirtinol in Arabidopsis. 8 3129-34 15710899 2005 Feb P

  6. Reference: 718 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available displayed a moderate but significant decrease in germination in the presence of D...NA damage. This report links Ubc13-Uev with functions in DNA damage response in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis UEV

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eme oxygenase (HY1) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4877362, heme oxygenase 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4530591 GB:AF132475; annotation upd...ated per Seth J. Davis at University of Wisconsin-Madison 3e-90 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104955 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B:AF132475; annotation updated per Seth J. Davis at University of Wisconsin-Madison 3e-90 ... ...heme oxygenase (HY1) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4877362, heme oxygenase 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4530591 G

  9. Reference: 110 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on process. Our study shows that an Arabidopsis SNM protein, although structurally closer to the SNM1/PSO2 members, shares some prope...rties with ARTEMIS but also has novel characteristics. Arabidopsis plants defective

  10. Profilin Plays a Role in Cell Elongation, Cell Shape Maintenance, and Flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, S.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Ishimaru, Y.

    2000-01-01

    carrying a 35S-PFN-1 or 35S-antisense PFN-1 transgene. Etiolated seedlings underexpressing PFN (PFN-U) displayed an overall dwarf phenotype with short hypocotyls whose lengths were 20% to 25% that of wild type (WT) at low temperatures. Light-grown PFN-U plants were smaller in stature and flowered early......Profilin (PFN) is an ubiquitous, low-M-r, actin-binding protein involved in the organization of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotes including higher plants. PFNs are encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis. We have analyzed in vivo functions of Arabidopsis PFN by generating transgenic plants...... expressed in the vascular bundles of cotyledons and leaves. Our results show that Arabidopsis PFNs play a role in cell elongation, cell shape maintenance, polarized growth of root hair, and unexpectedly, in determination of flowering time....

  11. A bacterial haloalkane dehalogenase gene as a negative selectable marker in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Fennema, M.; Hao, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dhlA gene of Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 encodes a dehalogenase which hydrolyzes dihalo- alkanes, such as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), to a halo- genated alcohol and an inorganic halide ( Janssen et al. 1994 , Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 48, 163-191). In Xanthobacter, these alcohols are further...... catabolized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and by the product of the dhlB gene to a second halide and a hydroxyacid. The intermediate halogenated alcohols and, in particular, the aldehydes are more toxic than the haloalkane substrates or the pathway products. We show here that plants......, including Arabidopsis, tobacco, oil seed rape and rice, do not express detectable haloalkane dehalogenase activities, and that wild-type Arabidopsis grows in the presence of DCE. In contrast, DCE applied as a volatile can be used to select on plates or in soil transgenic Arabidopsis which express dhl...

  12. Phosphate uptake and allocation – a closer look at Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Młodzińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This year marks the 20th anniversary of the discovery and characterization of the two Arabidopsis PHT1 genes encoding the phosphate transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. So far, multiple inorganic phosphate (Pi transporters have been described, and the molecular basis of Pi acquisition by plants has been well characterized. These genes are involved in Pi acquisition, allocation and/or signal transduction. This review summarizes how Pi is taken up by the roots and further distributed within two plants: Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa L. by plasma membrane phosphate transporters PHT1 and PHO1 as well as by intracellular transporters: PHO1, PHT2, PHT3, PHT4, PHT5 (VPT1, SPX-MFS and phosphate translocators family. We also describe the role of the PHT1 transporters in mycorrhizal roots of rice as an adaptive strategy to cope with limited phosphate availability in soil.

  13. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 703, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  14. Metabolomic and genetic analyses of flavonol synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana support the in vivo involvement of leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, R.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Bartelniewoehner, L.; Ishihara, H.; Sagasser, M.; Martens, S.; Weisshaar, B.

    2009-01-01

    Flavonol synthase (FLS) (EC-number 1.14.11.23), the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of flavonols into dihydroflavonols, is part of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this activity is thought to be encoded by several loci. In addition to the FLAVONOL SYNTHASE1 (FLS1) lo

  15. Sequence and RT-PCR expression analysis of two peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana belonging to a novel evolutionary branch of plant perioxidases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgård, I.V.H.; Jespersen, H.M.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård;

    1997-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding two new Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases, ATP la and ATP 2a, have been identified by searching the Arabidopsis database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST). They represent a novel branch of hitherto uncharacterized plant peroxidases which is only 35% identical in amino acid...... of unknown function, is likely to be widespread in plant species. The atp 1 and atp 2 types of cDNA sequences were the most redundant among the 28 different isoperoxidases identified among about 200 peroxidase encoding ESTs. Interestingly, 8 out of totally 38 EST sequences coding for ATP 1 showed three...... sequence to the well characterized group of basic plant peroxidases represented by the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) isoperoxidases HRP C, HRP E5 and the similar Arabidopsis isoperoxidases ATP Ca, ATP Cb, and ATP Ea. However ATP 1a is 87% identical in amino acid sequence to a peroxidase encoded by an m...

  16. Gravity-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederoff, Heike; Brown, Christopher S.; Heber, Steffen; Kajla, Jyoti D.; Kumar, Sandeep; Lomax, Terri L.; Wheeler, Benjamin; Yalamanchili, Roopa

    Plant growth and development is regulated by changes in environmental signals. Plants sense environmental changes and respond to them by modifying gene expression programs to ad-just cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Functional expression of genes comprises many different processes including transcription, translation, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, as well as the degradation of RNA and proteins. Recently, it was discovered that small RNAs (sRNA, 18-24 nucleotides long), which are heritable and systemic, are key elements in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic changes. Sev-eral different classes of sRNAs have been identified that are part of a non-cell autonomous and phloem-mobile network of regulators affecting transcript stability, translational kinetics, and DNA methylation patterns responsible for heritable transcriptional silencing (epigenetics). Our research has focused on gene expression changes in response to gravistimulation of Arabidopsis roots. Using high-throughput technologies including microarrays and 454 sequencing, we iden-tified rapid changes in transcript abundance of genes as well as differential expression of small RNA in Arabidopsis root apices after minutes of reorientation. Some of the differentially regu-lated transcripts are encoded by genes that are important for the bending response. Functional mutants of those genes respond faster to reorientation than the respective wild type plants, indicating that these proteins are repressors of differential cell elongation. We compared the gravity responsive sRNAs to the changes in transcript abundances of their putative targets and identified several potential miRNA: target pairs. Currently, we are using mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis plants to characterize the function of those miRNAs and their putative targets in gravitropic and phototropic responses in Arabidopsis.

  17. Increase in expression level of alpha-tubulin gene in Arabidopsis seedlings under hypergravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuka; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-10-01

    Under hypergravity conditions, elongation growth of plant shoots is suppressed. The analysis of the changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by the differential display method showed that a gene encoding alpha-tubulin, which is a component of microtubules, was up-regulated by hypergravity. In Arabidopsis six genes encoding alpha-tubulin (TUA1-TUA6) have been identified. In the present study, we examined the dose-response and the time course relations of the changes in the expression of all six alpha-tubulin genes in Arabidopsis hypocotyls grown under hypergravity conditions. The expression levels of all six alpha-tubulin genes, TUA1-TUA6, were increased by increasing gravity, although the extent was variable among genes. The increase in expression of all alpha-tubulin genes was detected within a few hours, when the seedlings grown at 1 g were transferred to 300 g condition. These results suggest that Arabidopsis hypocotyls regulate the expression level of six alpha-tubulin genes promptly in response to gravity stimuli. The increase in the amount of microtubules due to the activation of tubulin gene expression may be involved in the regulation by gravity signal of shoot growth.

  18. Overexpression of several Arabidopsis histone genes increases agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transgene expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenea, Gabriela N; Spantzel, Joerg; Lee, Lan-Ying; Zhu, Yanmin; Lin, Kui; Johnson, Susan J; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2009-10-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana histone H2A-1 is important for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Mutation of HTA1, the gene encoding histone H2A-1, results in decreased T-DNA integration into the genome of Arabidopsis roots, whereas overexpression of HTA1 increases transformation frequency. To understand the mechanism by which HTA1 enhances transformation, we investigated the effects of overexpression of numerous Arabidopsis histones on transformation and transgene expression. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing cDNAs encoding histone H2A (HTA), histone H4 (HFO), and histone H3-11 (HTR11) displayed increased transformation susceptibility, whereas histone H2B (HTB) and most histone H3 (HTR) cDNAs did not increase transformation. A parallel increase in transient gene expression was observed when histone HTA, HFO, or HTR11 overexpression constructs were cotransfected with double- or single-stranded forms of a gusA gene into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts. However, these cDNAs did not increase expression of a previously integrated transgene. We identified the N-terminal 39 amino acids of H2A-1 as sufficient to increase transient transgene expression in plants. After transfection, transgene DNA accumulates more rapidly in the presence of HTA1 than with a control construction. Our results suggest that certain histones enhance transgene expression, protect incoming transgene DNA during the initial stages of transformation, and subsequently increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  19. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  20. 过表达转录因子 AhAREB1对拟南芥生长素分布的影响%Auxin Distribution in Arabidopsis Plants Over-Expressing AhAREB1 Encoding a Transcription Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莹莹; 李晓云; 刘帅; 钟钰婷; 李玲

    2015-01-01

    本课题组前期研究表明,过表达AhAREB1(花生AREB转录因子基因)植株矮小,叶片卷曲,抗旱能力增强,体内IAA含量升高,推测AhAREB1可能影响植株体内IAA分布。该文采用携带3个重复IAA化学诱导启动子元件的pDR5:GUS植株与AhAREB1过表达拟南芥植株的杂交纯合后代,通过GUS组织化学染色方法,探讨AhAREB1转录因子对植株体内IAA分布的影响。结果表明,过表达AhAREB1植株体内IAA增加,主要分布在幼苗的根尖和成苗的叶片边缘;在过表达植株IAA响应基因IAA29和IAA运输蛋白基因LAX3表达均显著下调,而IAA响应蛋白基因ARF2和ARF9显著上调。过表达AhAREB1植株体内IAA分布不均衡是引起表型变化的原因之一。%Our previous study showed that Arabidopsis plants over-expressing AhAREB1 ( a peanut AREB transcrip-tion factor) displayed growth retardation, curly leaves, enhanced drought tolerance and increased IAA content.It is implied that auxin distribution may be affected by the expression of AhAREB1.In the present study, the homozy-gous transgenic Arabidopsis, generated by hybridizing the pDR5::GUS ( harboring GUS gene driven by a promoter with three repeat IAA-induced elements) plants with AhAREB1 over-expressing plants, was used to further investi-gate the effect of the expression of AhAREB1 transcription factor on auxin distribution through GUS histochemical staining .The results showed that the IAA content was increased in AhAREB1 over-expressing plants when compared with that in the controlled plants.The IAA mainly accumulated in the root tip of transgenic seedlings, instead on the edge of the leaves in mature plants.The expressions of IAA-responsive genes IAA29 and IAA-transport gene LAX3 in AhAREB1 over-expressing plants were significantly down-regulated, whereas The expressions of other two IAA-responsive genes ARF2 and ARF9 were significantly up-regulated.Take together, the unbalanced IAA distri

  1. Analyses of Old Prokaryotic Proteins Indicate Functional Diversification in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama eSingh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During evolution, various processes such as duplication, divergence, recombination and many other events leads to the evolution of new genes with novel functions. These evolutionary events, thus significantly impact the evolution of cellular, physiological, morphological and other phenotypic trait of organisms. While evolving, eukaryotes have acquired large number of genes from the earlier prokaryotes. This work is focused upon identification of old prokaryotic proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genome, further highlighting their possible role(s in the two genomes. Our results suggest that with respect to their genome size, the fraction of old prokaryotic proteins is higher in Arabidopsis than in Oryza sativa. The large fractions of such proteins encoding genes were found to be localized in various endo-symbiotic organelles. The domain architecture of the old prokaryotic proteins revealed similar distribution in both Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genomes showing their conserved evolution. In Oryza sativa, the old prokaryotic proteins were more involved in developmental processes, might be due to constant man-made selection pressure for better agronomic traits/productivity. While in Arabidopsis, these proteins were involved in metabolic functions. Overall, the analysis indicates the distinct pattern of evolution of old prokaryotic proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.

  2. Dataset of Arabidopsis plants that overexpress FT driven by a meristem-specific KNAT1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplat-Bermúdez, L; Ruiz-Medrano, R; Landsman, D; Mariño-Ramírez, L; Xoconostle-Cázares, B

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset we integrated figures comparing leaf number and rosette diameter in three Arabidopsis FT overexpressor lines (AtFTOE) driven by KNAT1 promoter, "A member of the KNOTTED class of homeodomain proteins encoded by the STM gene of Arabidopsis" [5], vs Wild Type (WT) Arabidopsis plats. Also, presented in the tables are some transcriptomic data obtained by RNA-seq Illumina HiSeq from rosette leaves of Arabidopsis plants of AtFTOE 2.1 line vs WT with accession numbers SRR2094583 and SRR2094587 for AtFTOE replicates 1-3 and AtWT for control replicates 1-2 respectively. Raw data of paired-end sequences are located in the public repository of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States of America, Bethesda, MD, USA as Sequence Read Archive (SRA). Performed analyses of differential expression genes are visualized by Mapman and presented in figures. "Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering" [2], described the interpretation and discussion of the obtained data.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ostergaard, L

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the neutral peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATP N) has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 A and a free R value of 20.5%. ATP N has the expected characteristic fold of the class III peroxidases, with a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. of 0.82 A when compared with horseradish peroxidase C...... (HRP C). HRP C is 54% identical to ATP N in sequence. When the structures of four class III plant peroxidases are superimposed, the regions with structural differences are non-randomly distributed; all are located in one half of the molecule. The architecture of the haem pocket of ATP N is very similar...... to that of HRP C, in agreement with the low small-molecule substrate specificity of all class III peroxidases. The structure of ATP N suggests that the pH dependence of the substrate turnover will differ from that of HRP C owing to differences in polarity of the residues in the substrate-access channel. Since...

  4. Chromosomal proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehs, C P; McElwain, E F; Spiker, S

    1988-07-01

    In plants with large genomes, each of the classes of the histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) are not unique polypeptides, but rather families of closely related proteins that are called histone variants. The small genome and preponderance of single-copy DNA in Arabidopsis thaliana has led us to ask if this plant has such families of histone variants. We have thus isolated histones from Arabidopsis and analyzed them on four polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic systems: an SDS system; an acetic acid-urea system; a Triton transverse gradient system; and a two-dimensional system combining SDS and Triton-acetic acid-urea systems. This approach has allowed us to identify all four of the nucleosomal core histones in Arabidopsis and to establish the existence of a set of H2A and H2B variants. Arabidopsis has at least four H2A variants and three H2B variants of distinct molecular weights as assessed by electrophoretic mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Thus, Arabidopsis displays a diversity in these histones similar to the diversity displayed by plants with larger genomes such as wheat.The high mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromatin proteins have attracted considerable attention because of the evidence implicating them as structural proteins of transcriptionally active chromatin. We have isolated a group of non-histone chromatin proteins from Arabidopsis that meet the operational criteria to be classed as HMG proteins and that cross-react with antisera to HMG proteins of wheat.

  5. Transgenic expression in Arabidopsis of a polyprotein construct leading to production of two different antimicrobial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Isabelle E J A; De Bolle, Miguel F C; Dwyer, Geoff; Goderis, Inge J W M; Woutors, Piet F J; Verhaert, Peter D; Proost, Paul; Schaaper, Wim M M; Cammue, Bruno P A; Broekaert, Willem F

    2002-04-01

    We developed a method for expression in Arabidopsis of a transgene encoding a cleavable chimeric polyprotein. The polyprotein precursor consists of a leader peptide and two different antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), DmAMP1 originating from Dahlia merckii seeds and RsAFP2 originating from Raphanus sativus seeds, which are linked by an intervening sequence ("linker peptide") originating from a natural polyprotein occurring in seed of Impatiens balsamina. The chimeric polyprotein was found to be cleaved in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and the individual AMPs were secreted into the extracellular space. Both AMPs were found to exert antifungal activity in vitro. It is surprising that the amount of AMPs produced in plants transformed with some of the polyprotein transgene constructs was significantly higher compared with the amount in plants transformed with a transgene encoding a single AMP, indicating that the polyprotein expression strategy may be a way to boost expression levels of small proteins.

  6. Structure and function of a cyanophage-encoded peptide deformylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy A; Lorimer, Don; Youle, Merry; Witte, Pam; Craig, Tim; Abendroth, Jan; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A; Segall, Anca M; Burgin, Alex B

    2013-06-01

    Bacteriophages encode auxiliary metabolic genes that support more efficient phage replication. For example, cyanophages carry several genes to maintain host photosynthesis throughout infection, shuttling the energy and reducing power generated away from carbon fixation and into anabolic pathways. Photodamage to the D1/D2 proteins at the core of photosystem II necessitates their continual replacement. Synthesis of functional proteins in bacteria requires co-translational removal of the N-terminal formyl group by a peptide deformylase (PDF). Analysis of marine metagenomes to identify phage-encoded homologs of known metabolic genes found that marine phages carry PDF genes, suggesting that their expression during infection might benefit phage replication. We identified a PDF homolog in the genome of Synechococcus cyanophage S-SSM7. Sequence analysis confirmed that it possesses the three absolutely conserved motifs that form the active site in PDF metalloproteases. Phylogenetic analysis placed it within the Type 1B subclass, most closely related to the Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF, but lacking the C-terminal α-helix characteristic of that group. PDF proteins from this phage and from Synechococcus elongatus were expressed and characterized. The phage PDF is the more active enzyme and deformylates the N-terminal tetrapeptides from D1 proteins more efficiently than those from ribosomal proteins. Solution of the X-ray/crystal structures of those two PDFs to 1.95 Å resolution revealed active sites identical to that of the Type 1B Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF. Taken together, these findings show that many cyanophages encode a PDF with a D1 substrate preference that adds to the repertoire of genes used by phages to maintain photosynthetic activities.

  7. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  8. Exploiting Natural Variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana . This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  9. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar; J.J.B. Keurentjes

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of g

  10. The salty tale of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D

    2000-06-29

    High concentrations of sodium chloride are toxic to most plant species. New insights into the mechanisms by which plants tolerate salt have emerged from the identification of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana that play a critical part in physiological resistance to salt.

  11. A major role for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase complex in the expression of plastid transfer RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Carrier, Rosalind; Zoschke, Reimo; Belcher, Susan; Pfalz, Jeannette; Barkan, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast transcription in land plants relies on collaboration between a plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) of cyanobacterial ancestry and a nucleus-encoded RNA polymerase of phage ancestry. PEP associates with additional proteins that are unrelated to bacterial transcription factors, many of which have been shown to be important for PEP activity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the biochemical roles of these PEP-associated proteins are not known. We describe phenotypes conditioned by transposon insertions in genes encoding the maize (Zea mays) orthologs of five such proteins: ZmPTAC2, ZmMurE, ZmPTAC10, ZmPTAC12, and ZmPRIN2. These mutants have similar ivory/virescent pigmentation and similar reductions in plastid ribosomes and photosynthetic complexes. RNA gel-blot and microarray hybridizations revealed numerous changes in plastid transcript populations, many of which resemble those reported for the orthologous mutants in Arabidopsis. However, unanticipated reductions in the abundance of numerous transfer RNAs (tRNAs) dominated the microarray data and were validated on RNA gel blots. The magnitude of the deficiencies for several tRNAs was similar to that of the most severely affected messenger RNAs, with the loss of trnL-UAA being particularly severe. These findings suggest that PEP and its associated proteins are critical for the robust transcription of numerous plastid tRNAs and that this function is essential for the prodigious translation of plastid-encoded proteins that is required during the installation of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  12. Reference: 710 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n factor family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) induced AtMYB44 tr...anscript accumulation within 30 min. The gene was also activated under various abiotic stre...sses, such as dehydration, low temperature, and salinity. In transgenic Arabidopsis carrying an At...MYB44 promoter-driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) construct, strong GUS activity was observed in the vasculature... and leaf epidermal guard cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AtMYB44 is more

  13. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula defensin-like genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Tesfaye

    Full Text Available Plant genomes contain several hundred defensin-like (DEFL genes that encode short cysteine-rich proteins resembling defensins, which are well known antimicrobial polypeptides. Little is known about the expression patterns or functions of many DEFLs because most were discovered recently and hence are not well represented on standard microarrays. We designed a custom Affymetrix chip consisting of probe sets for 317 and 684 DEFLs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, respectively for cataloging DEFL expression in a variety of plant organs at different developmental stages and during symbiotic and pathogenic associations. The microarray analysis provided evidence for the transcription of 71% and 90% of the DEFLs identified in Arabidopsis and Medicago, respectively, including many of the recently annotated DEFL genes that previously lacked expression information. Both model plants contain a subset of DEFLs specifically expressed in seeds or fruits. A few DEFLs, including some plant defensins, were significantly up-regulated in Arabidopsis leaves inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola or Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Among these, some were dependent on jasmonic acid signaling or were associated with specific types of immune responses. There were notable differences in DEFL gene expression patterns between Arabidopsis and Medicago, as the majority of Arabidopsis DEFLs were expressed in inflorescences, while only a few exhibited root-enhanced expression. By contrast, Medicago DEFLs were most prominently expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Thus, our data document salient differences in DEFL temporal and spatial expression between Arabidopsis and Medicago, suggesting distinct signaling routes and distinct roles for these proteins in the two plant species.

  14. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula defensin-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Mesfin; Silverstein, Kevin At; Nallu, Sumitha; Wang, Lin; Botanga, Christopher J; Gomez, S Karen; Costa, Liliana M; Harrison, Maria J; Samac, Deborah A; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose F; Vandenbosch, Kathryn A

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contain several hundred defensin-like (DEFL) genes that encode short cysteine-rich proteins resembling defensins, which are well known antimicrobial polypeptides. Little is known about the expression patterns or functions of many DEFLs because most were discovered recently and hence are not well represented on standard microarrays. We designed a custom Affymetrix chip consisting of probe sets for 317 and 684 DEFLs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, respectively for cataloging DEFL expression in a variety of plant organs at different developmental stages and during symbiotic and pathogenic associations. The microarray analysis provided evidence for the transcription of 71% and 90% of the DEFLs identified in Arabidopsis and Medicago, respectively, including many of the recently annotated DEFL genes that previously lacked expression information. Both model plants contain a subset of DEFLs specifically expressed in seeds or fruits. A few DEFLs, including some plant defensins, were significantly up-regulated in Arabidopsis leaves inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola or Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Among these, some were dependent on jasmonic acid signaling or were associated with specific types of immune responses. There were notable differences in DEFL gene expression patterns between Arabidopsis and Medicago, as the majority of Arabidopsis DEFLs were expressed in inflorescences, while only a few exhibited root-enhanced expression. By contrast, Medicago DEFLs were most prominently expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Thus, our data document salient differences in DEFL temporal and spatial expression between Arabidopsis and Medicago, suggesting distinct signaling routes and distinct roles for these proteins in the two plant species.

  15. PNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambaldo, Claudio; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-encoded chemical libraries along with DNA-encoded libraries have provided a powerful new paradigm for library synthesis and ligand discovery. PNA-encoding stands out for its compatibility with standard solid phase synthesis and the technology has been used to prepare libraries of peptides, heterocycles and glycoconjugates. Different screening formats have now been reported including selection-based and microarray-based methods that have yielded specific ligands against diverse target classes including membrane receptors, lectins and challenging targets such as Hsp70.

  16. The Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins affect NPR1 differentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike eHermann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1 is the central regulator of the pathogen defense reaction systemic acquired resistance (SAR. NPR1 acts by sensing the SAR signal molecule salicylic acid (SA to induce expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR genes. Mechanistically, NPR1 is the core of a transcription complex interacting with TGA transcription factors and NIM1 INTERACTING (NIMIN proteins. Arabidopsis NIMIN1 has been shown to suppress NPR1 activity in transgenic plants. The Arabidopsis NIMIN family comprises four structurally related, yet distinct members. Here, we show that NIMIN1, NIMIN2 and NIMIN3 are expressed differentially, and that the encoded proteins affect expression of the SAR marker PR-1 differentially. NIMIN3 is expressed constitutively at a low level, but NIMIN2 and NIMIN1 are both responsive to SA. While NIMIN2 is an immediate early SA-induced and NPR1-independent gene, NIMIN1 is activated after NIMIN2, but clearly before PR-1. Notably, NIMIN1, like PR-1, depends on NPR1. In a transient assay system, NIMIN3 suppresses SA-induced PR-1 expression, albeit to a lesser extent than NIMIN1, whereas NIMIN2 does not negatively affect PR-1 gene activation. Furthermore, although binding to the same domain in the C-terminus, NIMIN1 and NIMIN2 interact differentially with NPR1, thus providing a molecular basis for their opposing effects on NPR1. Together, our data suggest that the Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins are regulators of the SAR response. We propose that NIMINs act in a strictly consecutive and SA-regulated manner on the SA sensor protein NPR1, enabling NPR1 to monitor progressing threat by pathogens and to promote appropriate defense gene activation at distinct stages of SAR. In this scenario, the defense gene PR-1 is repressed at the onset of SAR by SA-induced, yet instable NIMIN1.

  17. Plantacyanin plays a role in reproduction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juan; Kim, Sun Tae; Lord, Elizabeth M

    2005-06-01

    Plantacyanins belong to the phytocyanin family of blue copper proteins. In the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, only one gene encodes plantacyanin. The T-DNA-tagged mutant is a knockdown mutant that shows no visible phenotype. We used both promoter-beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants and immunolocalization to show that Arabidopsis plantacyanin is expressed most highly in the inflorescence and, specifically, in the transmitting tract of the pistil. Protein levels show a steep gradient in expression from the stigma into the style and ovary. Overexpression plants were generated using cauliflower mosaic virus 35S, and protein levels in the pistil were examined as well as the pollination process. Seed set in these plants is highly reduced mainly due to a lack of anther dehiscence, which is caused by degeneration of the endothecium. Callose deposits occur on the pollen walls in plants that overexpress plantacyanin, and a small percentage of these pollen grains germinate in the closed anthers. When wild-type pollen was used on the overexpression stigma, seed set was still decreased compared to the control pollinations. We detected an increase in plantacyanin levels in the overexpression pistil, including the transmitting tract. Guidance of the wild-type pollen tube on the overexpression stigma is disrupted as evidenced by the growth behavior of pollen tubes after they penetrate the papillar cell. Normally, pollen tubes travel down the papilla cell and into the style. Wild-type pollen tubes on the overexpression stigma made numerous turns around the papilla cell before growing toward the style. In some rare cases, pollen tubes circled up the papilla cell away from the style and were arrested there. We propose that when plantacyanin levels in the stigma are increased, pollen tube guidance into the style is disrupted.

  18. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1 that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theobroma cacao NPR1 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on homologous sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and Carica papaya. The cDNA was used to isolate a genomic clone from Theobroma cacao containing a putative TcNPR1 gene. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a 4.5 kb coding region containing three introns and encoding a polypeptide of 591 amino acids. The predicted TcNPR1 protein shares 55% identity and 78% similarity to Arabidopsis NPR1, and contains each of the highly conserved functional domains indicative of this class of transcription factors (BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat protein-protein interaction domains and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS. To functionally define the TcNPR1 gene, we transferred TcNPR1 into an Arabidopsis npr1 mutant that is highly susceptible to infection by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, the cacao TcNPR1 gene partially complemented the npr1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, resulting in 100 fold less bacterial growth in a leaf infection assay. Upon induction with SA, TcNPR1 was shown to translocate into the nucleus of leaf and root cells in a manner identical to Arabidopsis NPR1. Cacao NPR1 was also capable of participating in SA-JA signaling crosstalk, as evidenced by the suppression of JA responsive gene expression in TcNPR1 overexpressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the TcNPR1 is a functional

  19. Cell encoding recombinant human erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.K.; Withy, R.M.; Zabrecky, J.R.; Masiello, N.C.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes a C127 cell transformed with a recombinant DNA vector. It comprises: a DNA sequence encoding human erythropoietin, the transformed cell being capable of producing N-linked and O-linked glycosylated human erythropoietin.

  20. Compressed Encoding for Rank Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Eyal En; Jiang,; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-01-01

    Rank modulation has been recently proposed as a scheme for storing information in flash memories. While rank modulation has advantages in improving write speed and endurance, the current encoding approach is based on the "push to the top" operation that is not efficient in the general case. We propose a new encoding procedure where a cell level is raised to be higher than the minimal necessary subset - instead of all - of the other cell levels. This new procedure leads to a significantly more compressed (lower charge levels) encoding. We derive an upper bound for a family of codes that utilize the proposed encoding procedure, and consider code constructions that achieve that bound for several special cases.

  1. Self-Organising Stochastic Encoders

    CERN Document Server

    Luttrell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The processing of mega-dimensional data, such as images, scales linearly with image size only if fixed size processing windows are used. It would be very useful to be able to automate the process of sizing and interconnecting the processing windows. A stochastic encoder that is an extension of the standard Linde-Buzo-Gray vector quantiser, called a stochastic vector quantiser (SVQ), includes this required behaviour amongst its emergent properties, because it automatically splits the input space into statistically independent subspaces, which it then separately encodes. Various optimal SVQs have been obtained, both analytically and numerically. Analytic solutions which demonstrate how the input space is split into independent subspaces may be obtained when an SVQ is used to encode data that lives on a 2-torus (e.g. the superposition of a pair of uncorrelated sinusoids). Many numerical solutions have also been obtained, using both SVQs and chains of linked SVQs: (1) images of multiple independent targets (encod...

  2. Cell fate in the Arabidopsis root epidermis is determined by competition between WEREWOLF and CAPRICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Kee; Ryu, Kook Hui; Kang, Yeon Hee; Song, Jae Hyo; Cho, Young-Hee; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Schiefelbein, John; Lee, Myeong Min

    2011-11-01

    The root hair and nonhair cells in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermis are specified by a suite of transcriptional regulators. Two of these are WEREWOLF (WER) and CAPRICE (CPC), which encode MYB transcription factors that are required for promoting the nonhair cell fate and the hair cell fate, respectively. However, the precise function and relationship between these transcriptional regulators have not been fully defined experimentally. Here, we examine these issues by misexpressing the WER gene using the GAL4-upstream activation sequence transactivation system. We find that WER overexpression in the Arabidopsis root tip is sufficient to cause epidermal cells to adopt the nonhair cell fate through direct induction of GLABRA2 (GL2) gene expression. We also show that GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3), two closely related bHLH proteins, are required for the action of the overexpressed WER and that WER interacts with these bHLHs in plant cells. Furthermore, we find that CPC suppresses the WER overexpression phenotype quantitatively. These results show that WER acts together with GL3/EGL3 to induce GL2 expression and that WER and CPC compete with one another to define cell fates in the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

  3. In vivo imaging of the tonoplast intrinsic protein family in Arabidopsis roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khonsari Roman H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs are widely used as markers for vacuolar compartments in higher plants. Ten TIP isoforms are encoded by the Arabidopsis genome. For several isoforms, the tissue and cell specific pattern of expression are not known. Results We generated fluorescent protein fusions to the genomic sequences of all members of the Arabidopsis TIP family whose expression is predicted to occur in root tissues (TIP1;1 and 1;2; TIP2;1, 2;2 and 2;3; TIP4;1 and expressed these fusions, both individually and in selected pairwise combinations, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Analysis by confocal microscopy revealed that TIP distribution varied between different cell layers within the root axis, with extensive co-expression of some TIPs and more restricted expression patterns for other isoforms. TIP isoforms whose expression overlapped appeared to localise to the tonoplast of the central vacuole, vacuolar bulbs and smaller, uncharacterised structures. Conclusion We have produced a comprehensive atlas of TIP expression in Arabidopsis roots, which reveals novel expression patterns for not previously studied TIPs.

  4. Dataset of Arabidopsis plants that overexpress FT driven by a meristem-specific KNAT1 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Duplat-Bermúdez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this dataset we integrated figures comparing leaf number and rosette diameter in three Arabidopsis FT overexpressor lines (AtFTOE driven by KNAT1 promoter, “A member of the KNOTTED class of homeodomain proteins encoded by the STM gene of Arabidopsis” [5], vs Wild Type (WT Arabidopsis plats. Also, presented in the tables are some transcriptomic data obtained by RNA-seq Illumina HiSeq from rosette leaves of Arabidopsis plants of AtFTOE 2.1 line vs WT with accession numbers SRR2094583 and SRR2094587 for AtFTOE replicates 1–3 and AtWT for control replicates 1–2 respectively. Raw data of paired-end sequences are located in the public repository of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States of America, Bethesda, MD, USA as Sequence Read Archive (SRA. Performed analyses of differential expression genes are visualized by Mapman and presented in figures. “Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering” [2], described the interpretation and discussion of the obtained data.

  5. Two Arabidopsis ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunits (APL1 and APL2) are catalytic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglia, Tiziana; Kuhn, Misty L; Ruiz, Ma Teresa; Ribeiro-Pedro, Marina; Valverde, Federico; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Romero, José M

    2008-09-01

    ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in starch biosynthesis. Higher plant ADP-Glc PPase is a heterotetramer (alpha(2)beta(2)) consisting of two small and two large subunits. There is increasing evidence that suggests that catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme from higher plants result from the synergy of both types of subunits. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two genes encode small subunits (APS1 and APS2) and four large subunits (APL1-APL4). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, APL1 and APL2, besides their regulatory role, have catalytic activity. Heterotetramers formed by combinations of a noncatalytic APS1 and the four large subunits showed that APL1 and APL2 exhibited ADP-Glc PPase activity with distinctive sensitivities to the allosteric activator (3-phosphoglycerate). Mutation of the Glc-1-P binding site of Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum) isoforms confirmed these observations. To determine the relevance of these activities in planta, a T-DNA mutant of APS1 (aps1) was characterized. aps1 is starchless, lacks ADP-Glc PPase activity, APS1 mRNA, and APS1 protein, and is late flowering in long days. Transgenic lines of the aps1 mutant, expressing an inactivated form of APS1, recovered the wild-type phenotype, indicating that APL1 and APL2 have catalytic activity and may contribute to ADP-Glc synthesis in planta.

  6. Two Arabidopsis ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Large Subunits (APL1 and APL2) Are Catalytic1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglia, Tiziana; Kuhn, Misty L.; Ruiz, Ma Teresa; Ribeiro-Pedro, Marina; Valverde, Federico; Ballicora, Miguel A.; Preiss, Jack; Romero, José M.

    2008-01-01

    ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in starch biosynthesis. Higher plant ADP-Glc PPase is a heterotetramer (α2β2) consisting of two small and two large subunits. There is increasing evidence that suggests that catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme from higher plants result from the synergy of both types of subunits. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two genes encode small subunits (APS1 and APS2) and four large subunits (APL1–APL4). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, APL1 and APL2, besides their regulatory role, have catalytic activity. Heterotetramers formed by combinations of a noncatalytic APS1 and the four large subunits showed that APL1 and APL2 exhibited ADP-Glc PPase activity with distinctive sensitivities to the allosteric activator (3-phosphoglycerate). Mutation of the Glc-1-P binding site of Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum) isoforms confirmed these observations. To determine the relevance of these activities in planta, a T-DNA mutant of APS1 (aps1) was characterized. aps1 is starchless, lacks ADP-Glc PPase activity, APS1 mRNA, and APS1 protein, and is late flowering in long days. Transgenic lines of the aps1 mutant, expressing an inactivated form of APS1, recovered the wild-type phenotype, indicating that APL1 and APL2 have catalytic activity and may contribute to ADP-Glc synthesis in planta. PMID:18614708

  7. LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 interacts with catalases to regulate hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansha; Chen, Lichao; Mu, Jinye; Zuo, Jianru

    2013-10-01

    LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (lsd1) is an important negative regulator of programmed cell death (PCD) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The loss-of-function mutations in lsd1 cause runaway cell death triggered by reactive oxygen species. lsd1 encodes a novel zinc finger protein with unknown biochemical activities. Here, we report the identification of CATALASE3 (CAT3) as an lsd1-interacting protein by affinity purification and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. The Arabidopsis genome contains three homologous catalase genes (CAT1, CAT2, and CAT3). Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that lsd1 interacted with all three catalases both in vitro and in vivo, and the interaction required the zinc fingers of lsd1. We found that the catalase enzymatic activity was reduced in the lsd1 mutant, indicating that the catalase enzyme activity was partially dependent on lsd1. Consistently, the lsd1 mutant was more sensitive to the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole than the wild type, suggesting that the interaction between lsd1 and catalases is involved in the regulation of the reactive oxygen species generated in the peroxisome. Genetic studies revealed that lsd1 interacted with CATALASE genes to regulate light-dependent runaway cell death and hypersensitive-type cell death. Moreover, the accumulation of salicylic acid was required for PCD regulated by the interaction between lsd1 and catalases. These results suggest that the lsd1-catalase interaction plays an important role in regulating PCD in Arabidopsis.

  8. Characterization of Arabidopsis calreticulin mutants in response to calcium and salinity stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Li; Yangrong Cao; Jinsong Zhang; Shouyi Chen

    2008-01-01

    As an important calcium-binding protein,calreticulin plays an important role in regulating calcium homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of plants.Here,we identified three loss-of-function mutants ofcalreticulin genes in Arabidopsis to demonstrate the function of calreticulin in response to calcium and salinity stresses.There are three genes encoding calreticulin in Arabidopsis,and they are named AtCRT1,2,and 3,respectively.We found that both single mutant of crt3 and double mutant of crtl crt2 were more sensitive to low calcium environment than wild-type Arabidopsis.Moreover,crt3 mutant showed more sensitivity to salt treatment at germination stage,but tolerance to salt stress at later stage compared with wild-type plant.However,there was no obvious growth difference in the mutant crt1 and crt2 compared with wild-type Arabidopsis under calcium and salt stresses.These results suggest that calreticulin functions in plant responses to calcium and salt stresses.

  9. Structures of genes encoding TATA box-binding proteins from Trimeresurus gramineus and T. flavoviridis snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, K; Nobuhisa, I; Deshimaru, M; Ogawa, T; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y; Hattori, S; Ohno, M

    1995-01-23

    A cDNA encoding the Trimeresurus gramineus (Tg; green habu snake) TATA-box-binding protein (TgTBP) was cloned and sequenced. The cDNA encodes a 33-kDa protein with an extensive sequence similarity to those derived from other organisms, except for the N-terminal domain. Genes encoding TgTBP and Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Tf; habu snake) TBP (TfTBP) were isolated using a TgTBP cDNA and their nt sequences were determined. They are the first TBP genes entirely sequenced in higher animals. Both genes span over 15 kb and are constructed from eight exons and seven introns. Comparison of the loci of introns on the aligned amino-acid sequences of TBP from six organisms (Tg, Tf, mouse, Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Acanthamoeba castellanii) indicated that there are three highly conserved loci in the C-terminal domain.

  10. In Silico Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Peroxisomal 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro D. Fernández-Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH, whose regeneration is critical for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification pathways, is an essential component in cell redox homeostasis. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles with a complex biochemical machinery involved in signaling and stress processes by molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO. NADPH is required by several peroxisomal enzymes involved in β-oxidation, NO, and glutathione (GSH generation. Plants have various NADPH-generating dehydrogenases, one of which is 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH. Arabidopsis contains three 6PGDH genes that probably are encoded for cytosolic, chloroplastic/mitochondrial, and peroxisomal isozymes, although their specific functions remain largely unknown. This study focuses on the in silico analysis of the biochemical characteristics and gene expression of peroxisomal 6PGDH (p6PGDH with the aim of understanding its potential function in the peroxisomal NADPH-recycling system. The data show that a group of plant 6PGDHs contains an archetypal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS, while in silico gene expression analysis using affymetrix microarray data suggests that Arabidopsis p6PGDH appears to be mainly involved in xenobiotic response, growth, and developmental processes.

  11. Arabidopsis chloroplast chaperonin 10 is a calmodulin-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium regulates diverse cellular activities in plants through the action of calmodulin (CaM). By using (35)S-labeled CaM to screen an Arabidopsis seedling cDNA expression library, a cDNA designated as AtCh-CPN10 (Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast chaperonin 10) was cloned. Chloroplast CPN10, a nuclear-encoded protein, is a functional homolog of E. coli GroES. It is believed that CPN60 and CPN10 are involved in the assembly of Rubisco, a key enzyme involved in the photosynthetic pathway. Northern analysis revealed that AtCh-CPN10 is highly expressed in green tissues. The recombinant AtCh-CPN10 binds to CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Deletion mutants revealed that there is only one CaM-binding site in the last 31 amino acids of the AtCh-CPN10 at the C-terminal end. The CaM-binding region in AtCh-CPN10 has higher homology to other chloroplast CPN10s in comparison to GroES and mitochondrial CPN10s, suggesting that CaM may only bind to chloroplast CPN10s. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the calcium/CaM messenger system is involved in regulating Rubisco assembly in the chloroplast, thereby influencing photosynthesis. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Methylation of Gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varbanova,M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yang, Y.; McKelvey, K.; Hanada, A.; Borochov, R.; Yu, F.; Jikumaru, Y.; Ross, J.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana GAMT1 and GAMT2 encode enzymes that catalyze formation of the methyl esters of gibberellins (GAs). Ectopic expression of GAMT1 or GAMT2 in Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and petunia (Petunia hybrida) resulted in plants with GA deficiency and typical GA deficiency phenotypes, such as dwarfism and reduced fertility. GAMT1 and GAMT2 are both expressed mainly in whole siliques (including seeds), with peak transcript levels from the middle until the end of silique development. Within whole siliques, GAMT2 was previously shown to be expressed mostly in developing seeds, and we show here that GAMT1 expression is also localized mostly to seed, suggesting a role in seed development. Siliques of null single GAMT1 and GAMT2 mutants accumulated high levels of various GAs, with particularly high levels of GA1 in the double mutant. Methylated GAs were not detected in wild-type siliques, suggesting that methylation of GAs by GAMT1 and GAMT2 serves to deactivate GAs and initiate their degradation as the seeds mature. Seeds of homozygous GAMT1 and GAMT2 null mutants showed reduced inhibition of germination, compared with the wild type, when placed on plates containing the GA biosynthesis inhibitor ancymidol, with the double mutant showing the least inhibition. These results suggest that the mature mutant seeds contained higher levels of active GAs than wild-type seeds.

  13. Novel disease susceptibility factors for fungal necrotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albor Dobón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Host cells use an intricate signaling system to respond to invasions by pathogenic microorganisms. Although several signaling components of disease resistance against necrotrophic fungal pathogens have been identified, our understanding for how molecular components and host processes contribute to plant disease susceptibility is rather sparse. Here, we identified four transcription factors (TFs from Arabidopsis that limit pathogen spread. Arabidopsis mutants defective in any of these TFs displayed increased disease susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, and a general activation of non-immune host processes that contribute to plant disease susceptibility. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the mutants share a common transcriptional signature of 77 up-regulated genes. We characterized several of the up-regulated genes that encode peptides with a secretion signal, which we named PROVIR (for provirulence factors. Forward and reverse genetic analyses revealed that many of the PROVIRs are important for disease susceptibility of the host to fungal necrotrophs. The TFs and PROVIRs identified in our work thus represent novel genetic determinants for plant disease susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens.

  14. Phenotypic and chemotypic studies using Arabidopsis and yeast reveal that GHB converts to SSA and induce toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Dereje Worku; Ludewig, Frank

    2016-07-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring compound. It is detected in organisms such as yeasts, plants and mammals. GHB is produced from the reduction of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) by the activity of GHB dehydrogenase. Arabidopsis genome contains two GHB dehydrogenase encoding genes. The accumulation of GHB in ssadh mutants led to the speculation that GHB is the cause of aberrant phenotypes. Conversely, the accumulation of GHB in Arabidopsis plants subjected to abiotic stresses was described as a way of avoiding SSA induced damage. To resolve these contrasting views on GHB, we examined the effect of exogenous GHB and SSA on the growth of yeast and Arabidopsis plants. GHB concentrations up to 1.5 mM didn't affect shoots of Arabidopsis plants; however, root growth was inhibited. In contrast, 0.3 mM SSA has severely affected the growth of plants. Treatment of yeast wild-type strain with 10 mM SSA and 10 mM GHB didn't affect the growth. However, the growth of yeast uga2 mutant was greatly inhibited by the same concentration of SSA, but not GHB. Metabolic analysis and enzyme activity assay on native gel showed that Arabidopsis, but not yeast, possesses a GHB dehydrogenase activity that converts GHB back to SSA. The enzymatic assay has also indicated the existence of an additional GHB dehydrogenase encoding gene(s) in Arabidopsis genome. Taken together, we conclude that GHB is less toxic than SSA. Its accumulation in ssadh mutants and during abiotic stresses is a response to avoid the SSA induced damage.

  15. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.2 68418.m07919 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.1 68418.m07918 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.1 68418.m07918 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.4 68418.m07921 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.3 68418.m07920 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.2 68418.m07919 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241761 J065205C18 At5g63090.4 68418.m07921 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-32 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240652 J023098G11 At5g63090.3 68418.m07920 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries... protein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-13 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105527 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105527 001-127-G05 At5g63090.4 LOB domain protein / lateral organ boundaries prot...ein (LOB) identical to LOBa [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:17484100, SP|Q9FML4 LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES protein {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-52 ...

  5. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR…

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-11 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288052 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288052 J075151I09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 6e-14 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240911 J065037E05 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-22 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241119 J065094C22 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-13 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243149 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243149 J100032I21 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 7e-12 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-15 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287479 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287479 J043023O14 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 1e-17 ...

  13. Reference: 631 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ggest that atRZ-1a has a negative impact on seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis under salt o...binding protein, atRZ-1a, has a negative impact on seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thali

  14. The ARABIDOPSIS accession Pna-10 is a naturally occurring sng1 deletion mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Bergelson, Joy; Chapple, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Sinapoylmalate is the major sinapate ester found in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, where it plays an important role in UV-B protection. Metabolic profiling of rosette leaves from 96 Arabidopsis accessions revealed that the Pna-10 accession accumulates sinapoylglucose instead of sinapoylmalate. This unique leaf sinapate ester profile is similar to that of the previously characterized sinapoylglucose accumulator1 (sng1) mutants. SNG1 encodes sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase (SMT), a serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sinapoylglucose to sinapoylmalate. In the reference Columbia genome, the SNG1 gene is located in a cluster of five SCPL genes on Chromosome II. PCR and sequencing analysis of the same genomic region in the Pna-10 accession revealed a 13-kb deletion that eliminates the SNG1 gene (At2g22990) and the gene encoding sinapoylglucose:anthocyanin sinapoyltransferase (SAT) (At2g23000). In addition to its sinapoylmalate-deficient phenotype, and consistent with the loss of SAT, Pna-10 is unable to accumulate sinapoylated anthocyanins. Interestingly, the Pna-17 accession, collected from the same location as Pna-10, has no such deletion. Further analysis of 135 lines collected from the same location as Pna-10 and Pna-17 revealed that four more lines contain the deletion found in Pna-10 accession, suggesting that either the deletion found in Pna-10 is a recent event that has not yet been eliminated through selection or that sinapoylmalate is dispensable for the growth of Arabidopsis under field conditions.

  15. Sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in darkness depends on the presence of gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhongjuan; Wang, Liguang; Zheng, Sheng; Xie, Jiping; Bi, Yurong

    2010-09-15

    In this study, the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light and in dark were investigated. Sucrose suppressed the hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light, but stimulated elongation in dark. Application of paclobutrazol (PAC, a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor) impaired the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation, suggesting that endogenous GAs is required for sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in the dark. Exogenous GA(3) application reversed the repression caused by PAC application, indicating that exogenous GA(3) could substitute, at least partially, for endogenous GAs in sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation. In addition, we found that GA 3-oxidase 1 (GA3ox1), encoding a key enzyme involved in endogenous bioactive GA biosynthesis, was up-regulated by sucrose in the dark, whereas GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1a (AtGID1a), encoding a GA receptor and playing an important role during GAs degradation to DELLA proteins (DELLAs, repressors of GA-induced plant growth), was down-regulated. These results imply that endogenous bioactive GA levels are expected to be enhanced, but the degradation of DELLAs was inhibited by sucrose in dark. Thus, our data suggest that the sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in the dark does not result from GA-induced degradation of DELLAs. We conclude that sucrose can stimulate hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark in a GA-dependent manner.

  16. Hypergravity-induced changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, R; Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Takeba, G; Hoson, T

    2003-01-01

    Under hypergravity conditions, the cell wall of stem organs becomes mechanically rigid and elongation growth is suppressed, which can be recognized as the mechanism for plants to resist gravitational force. The changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by the differential display method, for identifying genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression. Sixty-two cDNA clones were expressed differentially between the control and 300 g conditions: the expression levels of 39 clones increased, whereas those of 23 clones decreased under hypergravity conditions. Sequence analysis and database searching revealed that 12 clones, 9 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated, have homology to known proteins. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. Finally, six genes were confirmed to be up-regulated by hypergravity. One of such genes encoded 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor of terpenoids such as membrane sterols and several types of hormones. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of genes encoding CCR1 and ERD15, which were shown to take part in the signaling pathway of environmental stimuli such as temperature and water, and those of the alpha-tubulin gene. These genes may be involved in a series of cellular events leading to growth suppression of stem organs under hypergravity conditions.

  17. Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase I Is Involved in Specific Aspects of Abscisic Acid and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia D.; Chary, S. Narasimha; Chernoff, Ellen A.; Zeng, Qin; Running, Mark P.; Crowell, Dring N.

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking a functional ERA1 gene, which encodes the β-subunit of protein farnesyltransferase (PFT), exhibit pleiotropic effects that establish roles for protein prenylation in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and meristem development. Here, we report the effects of T-DNA insertion mutations in the Arabidopsis GGB gene, which encodes the β-subunit of protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (PGGT I). Stomatal apertures of ggb plants were smaller than those of wild-type plants at all concentrations of ABA tested, suggesting that PGGT I negatively regulates ABA signaling in guard cells. However, germination of ggb seeds in response to ABA was similar to the wild type. Lateral root formation in response to exogenous auxin was increased in ggb seedlings compared to the wild type, but no change in auxin inhibition of primary root growth was observed, suggesting that PGGT I is specifically involved in negative regulation of auxin-induced lateral root initiation. Unlike era1 mutants, ggb mutants exhibited no obvious developmental phenotypes. However, era1 ggb double mutants exhibited more severe developmental phenotypes than era1 mutants and were indistinguishable from plp mutants lacking the shared α-subunit of PFT and PGGT I. Furthermore, overexpression of GGB in transgenic era1 plants partially suppressed the era1 phenotype, suggesting that the relatively weak phenotype of era1 plants is due to partial redundancy between PFT and PGGT I. These results are discussed in the context of Arabidopsis proteins that are putative substrates of PGGT I. PMID:16183844

  18. AtCXXS: atypical members of the Arabidopsis thaliana thioredoxin h family with a remarkably high disulfide isomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Antonio Jesús; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Meyer, Yves; Vignols, Florence

    2008-07-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana thioredoxin subgroup h III is composed of four members and includes the two monocysteinic (CXXS) thioredoxins encoded by the genome. We show that AtCXXS1 is the ortholog of monocysteinic thioredoxins present in all higher plants. In contrast, unicellular algae and the moss Physcomitrella patens do not encode monocysteinic thioredoxin. AtCXXS2, the second monocysteinic thioredoxin of Arabidopsis has no ortholog in any other higher plants. It probably appeared recently by duplications of a dicysteinic thioredoxin of the same subgroup h III. Both monocysteinic thioredoxins show a low disulfide reductase activity in vitro but are very efficient as disulfide isomerases in RNAse refolding tests. The possible interactions of these proteins with the glutathione glutaredoxin pathway are discussed on the basis of recent papers.

  19. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled.

  20. Molecular and structural analyses of a novel temperature stress-induced lipocalin from wheat and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette Charron, Jean Benoit; Breton, Ghislain; Badawi, Mohamed; Sarhan, Fathey

    2002-04-24

    Two cDNAs corresponding to a novel lipocalin were identified from wheat and Arabidopsis. The two cDNAs designated Tatil for Triticum aestivum L. temperature-induced lipocalin and Attil for Arabidopsis thaliana temperature-induced lipocalin encode polypeptides of 190 and 186 amino acids respectively. Structure analyses indicated the presence of the three structurally conserved regions that characterize lipocalins. Sequence analyses revealed that this novel class of plant lipocalin shares homology with three evolutionarily related lipocalins: the mammalian apolipoprotein D (ApoD), the bacterial lipocalin and the insect Lazarillo. The comparison of the putative tertiary structures of both the human ApoD and the wheat TaTIL suggest that the two proteins differ in membrane attachment and ligand interaction. Northern analyses demonstrated that Tatil and Attil transcripts are upregulated during cold acclimation and heat-shock treatment. The putative functions of this novel class of plant lipocalins during temperature stresses are discussed.

  1. Calcium dynamics in root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana visualized with selective plane illumination microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Costa

    Full Text Available Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM is an imaging technique particularly suited for long term in-vivo analysis of transparent specimens, able to visualize small organs or entire organisms, at cellular and eventually even subcellular resolution. Here we report the application of SPIM in Calcium imaging based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the genetically encoded-FRET-based Ca(2+ probe Cameleon, in the cytosol or nucleus, were used to demonstrate that SPIM enables ratiometric fluorescence imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution, both at tissue and single cell level. The SPIM-FRET technique enabled us to follow nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+ dynamics in Arabidopsis root tip cells, deep inside the organ, in response to different stimuli. A relevant physiological phenomenon, namely Ca(2+ signal percolation, predicted in previous studies, has been directly visualized.

  2. The Prx Q protein of Arabidopsis thaliana is a member of the luminal chloroplast proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Ulrika A; Kieselbach, Thomas; García-Cerdán, José G; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2006-11-13

    Peroxiredoxins have been discovered in many organisms ranging from eubacteria to mammals, and their known biological functions include both oxidant defense and signal transduction. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes for ten individual peroxiredoxins, of which four are located in the chloroplast. The best-characterized member of the chloroplast peroxiredoxins is 2-Cys Prx that is associated with the stroma side of the thylakoid membrane and is considered to participate in antioxidant defense and protection of photosynthesis. This study addressed the chloroplast peroxiredoxin Prx Q and showed that its subcellular location is the lumen of the thylakoid membrane. To get insight in the biological function of the Prx Q protein of Arabidopsis, the protein levels of the Prx Q protein in thylakoid membranes were studied under different light conditions and oxidative stress. A T-DNA knockout mutant of Prx Q did not show any visible phenotype and had normal photosynthetic performance with a slightly increased oxygen evolving activity.

  3. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  4. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... in various parts of the viral life cyclus. Most of the receptors encoded by human pathogenic virus are still orphan receptors, i.e. the endogenous ligand is unknown. In the few cases where it has been possible to characterize these receptors pharmacologically, they have been found to bind a broad spectrum...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  5. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan eOstojic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity. Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain.

  6. The genetic basis of constitutive and herbivore-induced ESP-independent nitrile formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Meike; Losansky, Anja; Müller, René; Plock, Antje; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Wittstock, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a group of thioglucosides that are components of an activated chemical defense found in the Brassicales. Plant tissue damage results in hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous thioglucosidases known as myrosinases. Spontaneous rearrangement of the aglucone yields reactive isothiocyanates that are toxic to many organisms. In the presence of specifier proteins, alternative products, namely epithionitriles, simple nitriles, and thiocyanates with different biological activities, are formed at the expense of isothiocyanates. Recently, simple nitriles were recognized to serve distinct functions in plant-insect interactions. Here, we show that simple nitrile formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia-0 rosette leaves increases in response to herbivory and that this increase is independent of the known epithiospecifier protein (ESP). We combined phylogenetic analysis, a screen of Arabidopsis mutants, recombinant protein characterization, and expression quantitative trait locus mapping to identify a gene encoding a nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) responsible for constitutive and herbivore-induced simple nitrile formation in Columbia-0 rosette leaves. AtNSP1 is one of five Arabidopsis ESP homologues that promote simple nitrile, but not epithionitrile or thiocyanate, formation. Four of these homologues possess one or two lectin-like jacalin domains, which share a common ancestry with the jacalin domains of the putative Arabidopsis myrosinase-binding proteins MBP1 and MBP2. A sixth ESP homologue lacked specifier activity and likely represents the ancestor of the gene family with a different biochemical function. By illuminating the genetic and biochemical bases of simple nitrile formation, our study provides new insights into the evolution of metabolic diversity in a complex plant defense system.

  7. Reference: 572 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available et al. 2007 May. Plant J. 50(3):439-51. Although glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 2 (GRP2) has been implicated in plant re...sponses to environmental stresses, the function and importance of GRP2 in stress responses are largely unknown. Here...haliana under high-salinity, cold or osmotic stress. GRP2 affects seed germination of Arabidopsis plants under salt stre...ss, but does not influence seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis plants under osmotic stre...ss. GRP2 accelerates seed germination and seedling growth in Arabidopsis plants under cold stre

  8. Reference: 446 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rk E et al. 2006 Nov. Plant Physiol. 142(3):1004-13. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) QUARTET (QRT) genes are require...d for pollen separation during normal floral development. In qrt mutants, the four products of microsporogenesis re...main fused and pollen grains are released as tetrads. In Arabid...opsis, tetrad analysis in qrt mutants has been used to map all five centromeres, easily distinguish sporophy...tic from gametophytic mutations, and accurately assess crossover interference. Using a combination of forward and re

  9. StrigoQuant: A genetically encoded biosensor for quantifying strigolactone activity and specificity

    KAUST Repository

    Samodelov, S. L.

    2016-11-05

    Strigolactones are key regulators of plant development and interaction with symbiotic fungi; however, quantitative tools for strigolactone signaling analysis are lacking. We introduce a genetically encoded hormone biosensor used to analyze strigolactone-mediated processes, including the study of the components involved in the hormone perception/signaling complex and the structural specificity and sensitivity of natural and synthetic strigolactones in Arabidopsis, providing quantitative insights into the stereoselectivity of strigolactone perception. Given the high specificity, sensitivity, dynamic range of activity, modular construction, ease of implementation, and wide applicability, the biosensor StrigoQuant will be useful in unraveling multiple levels of strigolactone metabolic and signaling networks.

  10. Gene Mining for Proline Based Signaling Proteins in Cell Wall of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; Ahmad, Samina J. N.; Shah, Zahid Hussain; Rehman, Hafiz M.; Aslam, Zubair; Ahuja, Ishita; Bones, Atle M.; Ahmad, Jam N.

    2017-01-01

    The cell wall (CW) as a first line of defense against biotic and abiotic stresses is of primary importance in plant biology. The proteins associated with cell walls play a significant role in determining a plant's sustainability to adverse environmental conditions. In this work, the genes encoding cell wall proteins (CWPs) in Arabidopsis were identified and functionally classified using geneMANIA and GENEVESTIGATOR with published microarrays data. This yielded 1605 genes, out of which 58 genes encoded proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and glycine-rich proteins (GRPs). Here, we have focused on the cellular compartmentalization, biological processes, and molecular functioning of proline-rich CWPs along with their expression at different plant developmental stages. The mined genes were categorized into five classes on the basis of the type of PRPs encoded in the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. We review the domain structure and function of each class of protein, many with respect to the developmental stages of the plant. We have then used networks, hierarchical clustering and correlations to analyze co-expression, co-localization, genetic, and physical interactions and shared protein domains of these PRPs. This has given us further insight into these functionally important CWPs and identified a number of potentially new cell-wall related proteins in A. thaliana. PMID:28289422

  11. The Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor Y Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Wu, Di; Kong, Fanying; Lin, Ke; Zhang, Haishen; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved trimeric transcription factor complex present in nearly all eukaryotes. The heterotrimeric NF-Y complex consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, and binds to the CCAAT box in the promoter regions of its target genes to regulate their expression. Yeast and mammal genomes generally have single genes with multiple splicing isoforms that encode each NF-Y subunit. By contrast, plant genomes generally have multi-gene families encoding each subunit and these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues or stages. Therefore, different subunit combinations can lead to a wide variety of NF-Y complexes in various tissues, stages, and growth conditions, indicating the potentially diverse functions of this complex in plants. Indeed, many recent studies have proved that the NF-Y complex plays multiple essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this review, we highlight recent progress on NF-Y in Arabidopsis thaliana, including NF-Y protein structure, heterotrimeric complex formation, and the molecular mechanism by which NF-Y regulates downstream target gene expression. We then focus on its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, possible directions for future research on NF-Y are also presented.

  12. Signal transduction regulating meristem development in Arabidopsis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cark, Steven E.

    2003-09-10

    Research support by DE-FG02-96ER20227 focused on the CLV loci and their regulation of organ formation at the Arabidopsis shoot meristem. Shoot meristem function is central to plant development as all of the above-ground organs and tissues of the plant are derived post-embryonically from the shoot meristem. At the shoot meristem, stem cells are maintained, and progeny cells undergo a switch toward differentiation and organ formation. The CLV loci, represented by three genes CLV1, CLV2 and CLV3 are key regulators of meristem development. Each of the CLV loci encode a putative receptor-mediated signaling component. When this work began, virtually nothing was known about receptor-mediated signaling in plants. Thus, our goal was to both characterize these genes and the proteins they encode as regulators of meristem development, and to investigate how receptor-mediated signaling might function in plants. Our work lead to several major publications that were significant contributions to understanding this system.

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  18. Reference: 488 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Inactivation of ATAB2 strongly affects Arabidopsis development and thylakoid mem...n center subunits is decreased and the association of their mRNAs with polysomes is affected. ATAB2 is a chl

  19. Reference: 212 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available identified in pea (Pisum sativum) using biochemical approaches. The Arabidopsis (...C75-IV, which we studied using a range of molecular, genetic, and biochemical techniques. Expression of atTO

  20. Reference: 480 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available activity was analyzed. Compared to all other Suc transporters, AtSUC9 had an ult...abidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) L. Heynh., was expressed in Xenopus (Xenopus laevis) oocytes, and transport

  1. Reference: 507 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available een them. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the two pathways and the metabolic cro...ss-talk. To identify such regulatory mechanisms, we isolated and characterized the Arabidopsis T-DNA inserti

  2. Reference: 185 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available organisms, we suggest that AtARP4 is likely to exert its effects on plant develop...nuclear actin-related protein AtARP4 in Arabidopsis has multiple effects on plant development, including ear

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069960 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-60 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-112 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104764 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-67 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK098998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltrans...T1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-57 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to O-methyltran...MT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-100 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103387 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntical to SC35-like splicing factor SCL28, 28 kD [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9843655; contains Pfam profile PF00076: RNA recognition motif. (a.k.a. RRM, RBD, or RNP domain) 2e-34 ...

  10. Reference: 564 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 39-44 17360695 2007 Feb Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un...tion in plants. Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein crucial for Ca2+ influx and touch sensing in roots. 9 36

  11. Reference: 796 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America DeBolt...required for normal microtubule dynamics and organization in Arabidopsis. 46 18064-9 19004800 2008 Nov Pro

  12. Reference: 67 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A complete knockout of AGD2 renders embryos inviable. We suggest that AGD2 synthesizes an important amino a...no acid-derived molecule important for activating defense signaling. Divergent roles in Arabidopsis thaliana

  13. Reference: 420 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available are found in various compartments in plant cells. The cytosolic and chloroplast APXs appear to play important...d development, suggesting that APX3 may not be an important antioxidant enzyme in Arabidopsis, at least unde

  14. Reference: 771 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT), an Arabidopsis thaliana gene important for light regula...l elongation in xct is hyposensitive to red light but hypersensitive to blue light. Finally, XCT is important

  15. Reference: 797 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available that the level of GMPase activity regulates Arabidopsis sensitivity to NH(4)(+). Further analysis showed that defective N-glycosylati...on of proteins, unfolded protein response, and cell death in the roots are likely i

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241712 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241712 J065197H24 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 6e-27 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242957 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242957 J090089I15 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-28 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287726 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287726 J065138E17 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-88 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242387 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242387 J080051E14 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-45 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106306 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106306 002-101-C10 At4g37750.1 ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) ident...ical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-89 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241272 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241272 J065132I19 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-88 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240892 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240892 J065030K10 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-88 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109848 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109848 002-148-F05 At4g37750.1 ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) ident...ical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-73 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287673 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287673 J065121E18 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 6e-17 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287621 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287621 J065066I09 At4g37750.1 68417.m05344 ovule development protein aintegumenta... (ANT) identical to ovule development protein aintegumenta (ANT) (GI:1244708) ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-85 ...

  6. Reference: 142 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te S-glucosyltransferase, UGT74B1, to determine its role in the Arabidopsis glucosinolate pathway. Biochem...ical analyses demonstrate that recombinant UGT74B1 specifically glucosylates the th

  7. Reference: 459 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plants. These results suggest an additive contribution of AMT1;1 and AMT1;3 to the overall ammonium uptake ...capacity in Arabidopsis roots under nitrogen-deficiency conditions. Additive contribution

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  9. Reference: 645 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rter AtDUR3 in nitrogen nutrition in Arabidopsis. In transgenic lines expressing ... impaired growth on urea as a sole nitrogen source were used to investigate a role of the H+/urea co-transpo

  10. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  11. Reference: 711 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of the RLK signaling pathway, which also mediates adaptation to Na(+) stress. RLK pathway components, known... The Arabidopsis kinase-associated protein phosphatase regulates adaptation to Na+ stress. 2 612-22 18162596

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101526 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ucosaminyltransferase, putative similar to N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5139335]; contains AT-AC non-consensus splice sites at intron 13 1e-179 ...

  13. Reference: 733 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available role in this transition. Specifically, two autonomous factors in the Arabidopsis...tes FCA alternative polyadenylation and promotes flowering as a novel factor in the autonomous pathway. Firs

  14. Reference: 343 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the characterization of a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Arabidopsis CAP-C gene. Analysis of the progeny of selfe...matin was observed between segregating mitotic chromosomes in pollen produced by selfed heterozygotes. Addit

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241281 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 3e-19 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241243 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 6e-11 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243188 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 8e-23 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242986 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 protein) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; a false single bp exon was added to circumvent a single basepair insertion in the genomic sequence, supported by cDNA/genome alignment. 1e-17 ...

  19. Reference: 30 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponse to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However the physiological role of t...his pathway remains obscure. To elucidate its role in plants, we analyzed Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout mutants

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062082 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062082 001-044-F11 At3g59970.3 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1 (MTHFR1) ide...ntical to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:5911425 4e-81 ...

  1. Reference: 789 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylakoid membranes. Microarray analysis of the chl27-t mutant showed repression of numerous nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis...d CHL27 proteins. Role of Arabidopsis CHL27 protein for photosynthesis, chloroplast development and gene exp

  2. Reference: 352 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available em II and has a specific function distinct from 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in protecting photosynthesis. Its absenc...f Arabidopsis thaliana is attached to the thylakoids and functions in context of photosynthesis

  3. Reference: 21 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ication of a number of mutant lines with altered Chl fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of photosynthesis...cation of mutants of Arabidopsis defective in acclimation of photosynthesis to th

  4. Reference: 413 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ollination and fertilization, and, in the absence of fertilization, flowers senesce. In the Arabidopsis thal...ARF8 acts as an inhibitor to stop further carpel development in the absence of fertilization and the generat

  5. Reference: 405 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as previously thought. These mutants will prove to be valuable resources for understanding laccase functions in vivo. Mutant identifi...cation and characterization of the laccase gene family in Arabidopsis. 11 2563-9 16

  6. Reference: 263 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available idopsis leaves GLB1 expression and PII protein levels were not significantly affected by either the day/nigh...bolism. Physiological characterisation of Arabidopsis mutants affected in the expression of the putative reg

  7. Reference: 160 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available excessive accumulation of these toxic compounds impairs cell death containment and counteracts the effect...iveness of the plant defenses to restrict pathogen infection. Arabidopsis SHMT1, a

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  9. Reference: 724 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is required in the roots during early signaling steps of rhizobacteria-mediated ...ISR. MYB72 is required in early signaling steps of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis.

  10. Reference: 289 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f flavonoids in Arabidopsis seed coat. 11 2966-80 16243908 2005 Nov The Plant cell Caboche Michel|Debeaujon Isabelle|Kerhoas Lucien|Lepiniec Loïc|Pourcel Lucille|Routaboul Jean-Marc

  11. Reference: 684 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cellular proliferation and expansion at nanomolar concentrations. PSY1 is widely expressed in various Arabi...ulfated glycopeptide involved in cellular proliferation and expansion in Arabidopsis. 46 18333-8 17989228 20

  12. Reference: 147 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the region-specific control of trichome development of Arabidopsis. 3 389-98 15604688 2004 May Plant molecular biology Hulskamp Mart...in|Kirik Victor|Schiefelbein John|Simon Marissa|Wester Katja

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  15. Reference: 798 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iption factors, control the delicately tuned reorientation and timing of cell div...EZ and SOMBRERO control the orientation of cell division plane in Arabidopsis root stem cells. 6 913-22 1908

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071710 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071710 J023110L07 At4g14030.1 selenium-binding protein, putative contains Pfam profile PF05694: 56kDa sele...nium binding protein (SBP56); identical to Putative selenium-binding protein (Swiss...-Prot:O23264) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to selenium binding protein (GI:15485232) [Arabidopsis thalian...a]; identical to cDNA from partial mRNA for selenium binding protein (sbp gene) GI:15485231 1e-162 ...

  17. Reference: 221 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ell cycle. In addition, RAD51 is required for meiosis and its Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog is important... cell cultures, the RAD51 paralog RAD51C is also important for mitotic homologous...ortant for recombination and DNA repair in the mitotic c...chromosome (homolog) pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) RAD51 gene is known to be imp

  18. Reference: 598 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omoter is markedly reduced in the cdkc;2 and cyct1;5 mutants, indicating that the kinase complexes are important... flowering. These results establish Arabidopsis CDKC kinase complexes as important...T1;4 and CYCT1;5, play important roles in infection with Cauliflower mosaic virus...hat Arabidopsis thaliana CDK9-like proteins, CDKC;1 and CDKC;2, and their interacting cyclin T partners, CYC

  19. Structural and functional analysis of VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis as interacting proteins of WRKY transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Chi, Ying-Jun; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Jian-Ye; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2012-06-01

    WRKY transcription factors are encoded by a large gene superfamily with a broad range of roles in plants. Recently, several groups have reported that proteins containing a short VQ (FxxxVQxLTG) motif interact with WRKY proteins. We have recently discovered that two VQ proteins from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), SIGMA FACTOR-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 and SIGMA FACTOR-INTERACTING PROTEIN2, act as coactivators of WRKY33 in plant defense by specifically recognizing the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulating the DNA-binding activity of WRKY33. In this study, we have analyzed the entire family of 34 structurally divergent VQ proteins from Arabidopsis. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assays showed that Arabidopsis VQ proteins interacted specifically with the C-terminal WRKY domains of group I and the sole WRKY domains of group IIc WRKY proteins. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified structural features of these two closely related groups of WRKY domains that are critical for interaction with VQ proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression of a majority of Arabidopsis VQ genes was responsive to pathogen infection and salicylic acid treatment. Functional analysis using both knockout mutants and overexpression lines revealed strong phenotypes in growth, development, and susceptibility to pathogen infection. Altered phenotypes were substantially enhanced through cooverexpression of genes encoding interacting VQ and WRKY proteins. These findings indicate that VQ proteins play an important role in plant growth, development, and response to environmental conditions, most likely by acting as cofactors of group I and IIc WRKY transcription factors.

  20. Isolation and functional analysis of a Brassica juncea gene encoding a component of auxin efflux carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; MIN; NI; XIAO; YA; CHEN; ZHI; HONG; XU; HONG; WEI; XUE

    2002-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a divergent role in plant growth and developmental processes including rootand embryo development, vascular pattern formation and cell elongation. Recently isolated Arabidopsispin gene family was believed to encode a component of auxin efflux carrier (Galweiler et al, 1998). Basedon the Arabidopsis pin1 sequence we have isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA (designated Bjpinl), whichencoded a 70-kDa putative auxin efflux carrier. Deduced BjPIN1 shared 65% identities at protein level withAtPIN1 and was highly homologous to other putative PIN proteins of Arabidopsis (with highest homologyto AtPIN3). Hydrophobic analysis showed similar structures between BjPIN1 and AtPIN proteins. Presenceof 6 exons (varying in size between 65 bp and 1229 bp) and 5 introns (sizes between 89 bp and 463 bp)in the genomic fragment was revealed by comparing the genomic and cDNA sequences. Northern blotanalysis indicated that Bjpinl was expressed in most of the tissues tested, with a relatively higher levelof transcript in flowers and a lower level in root tissues. Promoter-reporter gene fusion studies furtherrevealed the expression of Bjpinl in the mature pollen grains, young seeds, root tip, leaf vascular tissue andtrace bundle, stem epidermis, cortex and vascular cells. BjPIN1 was localized on the plasma membraneas demonstrated through fusion expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Auxin efflux carrier activitywas elevated in transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BjPIN1.

  1. Identification and structural analysis of a novel snoRNA gene cluster from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A Z2 snoRNA gene cluster,consisting of four antisense snoRNA genes, was identified from Arabidopsis thaliana. The sequence and structural analysis showed that the Z2 snoRNA gene cluster might be transcribed as a polycistronic precursor from an upstream promoter, and the intergenic spacers of the gene cluster encode the 'hairpin' structures similar to the processing recognition signals of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae polycistronic snoRNA precursor. The results also revealed that plant snoRNA gene with multiple copies is a characteristic in common, and provides a good system for further revealing the transcription and expression mechanism of plant snoRNA gene cluster.

  2. Association of flavin adenine dinucleotide with the Arabidopsis blue light receptor CRY1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.; Robertson, D.E.; Ahmad, M. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-18

    The Arabidopsis thaliana HY4 gene encodes CRY1, a 75-kilodalton flavoprotein mediating blue light-dependent regulation of seedling development. CRY1 is demonstrated here to noncovalently bind stoichiometric amounts of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The redox properties of FAD bound by CRY1 include an unexpected stability of the neutral radical flavosemiquinone (FADH{center_dot}). The absorption properties of this flavosemiquinone provide a likely explanation for the additional sensitivity exhibited by CRY1-mediated responses in the green region of the visible spectrum. Despite the sequence homology to microbial DNA photolyases, CRY1 was found to have no detectable photolyase activity. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Biochemical and genetic characterization of three molybdenum cofactor hydroxylases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Tine; Frandsen, Gitte Inselmann; Rocher, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases and xanthine dehydrogenases/oxidases belong to the molybdenum cofactor dependent hydroxylase class of enzymes. Zymograms show that Arabidopsis thaliana has at least three different aldehyde oxidases and one xanthine oxidase. Three different cDNA clones encoding putative aldehyde...... oxidases (AtAO1, 2, 3) were isolated. An aldehyde oxidase is the last step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. AtAO1 is mainly expressed in seeds and roots which might reflect that it is involved in ABA biosynthesis....

  4. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  5. Geometric Hyperplanes: Desargues Encodes Doily

    CERN Document Server

    Saniga, Metod

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the generalized quadrangle of order two is fully encoded in the properties of the Desargues configuration. A point of the quadrangle is represented by a geometric hyperplane of the Desargues configuration and its line by a set of three hyperplanes such that one of them is the complement of the symmetric difference of the remaining two and they all share a pair of non-collinear points.

  6. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  7. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  8. Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastid phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William; Rujan, Tamas; Richly, Erik; Hansen, Andrea; Cornelsen, Sabine; Lins, Thomas; Leister, Dario; Stoebe, Bettina; Hasegawa, Masami; Penny, David

    2002-09-17

    Chloroplasts were once free-living cyanobacteria that became endosymbionts, but the genomes of contemporary plastids encode only approximately 5-10% as many genes as those of their free-living cousins, indicating that many genes were either lost from plastids or transferred to the nucleus during the course of plant evolution. Previous estimates have suggested that between 800 and perhaps as many as 2,000 genes in the Arabidopsis genome might come from cyanobacteria, but genome-wide phylogenetic surveys that could provide direct estimates of this number are lacking. We compared 24,990 proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis genome to the proteins from three cyanobacterial genomes, 16 other prokaryotic reference genomes, and yeast. Of 9,368 Arabidopsis proteins sufficiently conserved for primary sequence comparison, 866 detected homologues only among cyanobacteria and 834 other branched with cyanobacterial homologues in phylogenetic trees. Extrapolating from these conserved proteins to the whole genome, the data suggest that approximately 4,500 of Arabidopsis protein-coding genes ( approximately 18% of the total) were acquired from the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids. These proteins encompass all functional classes, and the majority of them are targeted to cell compartments other than the chloroplast. Analysis of 15 sequenced chloroplast genomes revealed 117 nuclear-encoded proteins that are also still present in at least one chloroplast genome. A phylogeny of chloroplast genomes inferred from 41 proteins and 8,303 amino acids sites indicates that at least two independent secondary endosymbiotic events have occurred involving red algae and that amino acid composition bias in chloroplast proteins strongly affects plastid genome phylogeny.

  9. In vitro activities of four xyloglucan endotransglycosylases from Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P.; Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs) are encoded by a gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. These enzymes modify a major structural component of the plant cell wall, xyloglucan, and therefore may influence plant growth and development. We have produced four Arabidopsis XETs (TCH4, Meri-5, EXGT and XTR9) using the baculovirus/insect cell system and compared their biochemical activities. TCH4, as previously demonstrated, and the other three proteins are capable of carrying out transglycosylation of xyloglucans. The K(m) for XLLGol acceptor oligosaccharide is in the range of 20-40 microM for all the XETs except XTR9, which has a Km of 5 microM and is significantly inhibited by high levels of XLLGol. All four enzymes are most active between pH 6.0 and 6.5. TCH4 and XTR9 have temperature optima of 18 degrees C, whereas Meri-5 and EXGT are most active at 28 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Although the activity levels of three of the XETs are not influenced by the presence of fucose on the xyloglucan polymer, XTR9 has a clear preference for non-fucosylated xyloglucan polymer. The four XETs show a marked preference for XLLGol over either XXFGol or XXXGol as acceptor oligosaccharide. All four XETs are glycosylated; however, only the activities of TCH4 and Meri-5 are affected by the removal of the N-glycan with PNGase F. These four enzymes most likely function solely as transglycosylases because xyloglucan endoglucanase activity was not apparent. Subtle differences in biochemical activities may influence the physiological functions of the distinct XETs in vivo.

  10. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  11. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  12. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73 genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliécer eGonzález Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73 reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  13. Natural variation and dosage of the HEI10 meiotic E3 ligase control Arabidopsis crossover recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Piotr A.; Underwood, Charles J.; Lambing, Christophe; Martinez-Garcia, Marina; Lawrence, Emma J.; Ziolkowska, Liliana; Griffin, Catherine; Choi, Kyuha; Franklin, F. Chris H.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2017-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations. We mapped rQTL1 to semidominant polymorphisms in HEI10, which encodes a conserved ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates crossovers. Null hei10 mutants are haploinsufficient, and, using genome-wide mapping and immunocytology, we show that transformation of additional HEI10 copies is sufficient to more than double euchromatic crossovers. However, heterochromatic centromeres remained recombination-suppressed. The strongest HEI10-mediated crossover increases occur in subtelomeric euchromatin, which is reminiscent of sex differences in Arabidopsis recombination. Our work reveals that HEI10 naturally limits Arabidopsis crossovers and has the potential to influence the response to selection. PMID:28223312

  14. Prokaryotic expression of soluble Arabidopsis protein AtERF1 and preparation of its polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AtERF1 encodes a member of the ERF subfamily B-3 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family.It has been demonstrated almost every member of the B3 subgroup of AP2/ERF genes is involved in defense responses in Arabidopsis.Codon usage within a gene is a critical determinant of achievable protein expression level in E.coli. Gene optimization,therefore,is an effective method for synthetic genes with the aim of enhancing soluble expression,particular in heterologous hosts.In this paper,the AtERF1 protein of Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed in Escherichia coli using its optimized DNA sequence for E.coli. and yielded high level of soluble AtERF-1 protein in recombinant E.coli. The AtERF1 protein was used as an antigen to immune rabbits and obtains high titer antibodies.The immunological specificity of the polyclonal antibodies to AtERF1 was confirmed by Western blot assay.The prepared antibody in this work would facilitate the further functional investigation of AtERF1 in biochemical levels in Arabidopsis anther development.

  15. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  16. Genetic analysis of a host determination mechanism of bromoviruses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Koki; Iwahashi, Fukumatsu; Kaido, Masanori; Okuno, Tetsuro; Mise, Kazuyuki

    2009-03-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and Spring beauty latent virus (SBLV) are closely related, tripartite RNA plant viruses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, BMV shows limited multiplication whereas SBLV efficiently multiplies. Such distinct multiplication abilities have been observed commonly in all Arabidopsis accessions tested. We used this model system to analyze the molecular mechanism of viral resistance in plants at the species level. Unlike SBLV, BMV multiplication was limited even in protoplasts and a reassortment assay indicated that at least viral RNA1 and/or RNA2 determine such distinct infectivities. By screening Arabidopsis mutants with altered defense responses, we found that BMV multiplies efficiently in cpr5-2 mutant plants. This mutation specifically enhanced BMV multiplication in protoplasts, which depended on the functions of RNA1 and RNA2. In the experiment using DNA vectors to express BMV replication proteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2, BMV RNA3 accumulation in cpr5-2 protoplasts was similar to that in wild-type Col-0 protoplasts, despite significant reduction of accumulation levels of replication proteins, suggesting that cpr5-2 mutation could enhance BMV multiplication independently of increased accumulation, therefore enhanced translation and stabilization, of the replication proteins.

  17. Employing libraries of zinc finger artificial transcription factors to screen for homologous recombination mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Beatrice I; Pinas, Johan E; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2006-11-01

    A library of genes for zinc finger artificial transcription factors (ZF-ATF) was generated by fusion of DNA sequences encoding three-finger Cys(2)His(2) ZF domains to the VP16 activation domain under the control of the promoter of the ribosomal protein gene RPS5A from Arabidopsis thaliana. After introduction of this library into an Arabidopsis homologous recombination (HR) indicator line, we selected primary transformants exhibiting multiple somatic recombination events. After PCR-mediated rescue of ZF sequences, reconstituted ZF-ATFs were re-introduced in the target line. In this manner, a ZF-ATF was identified that led to a 200-1000-fold increase in somatic HR (replicated in an independent second target line). A mutant plant line expressing the HR-inducing ZF-ATF exhibited increased resistance to the DNA-damaging agent bleomycin and was more sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a combination of traits not described previously. Our results demonstrate that the use of ZF-ATF pools is highly rewarding when screening for novel dominant phenotypes in Arabidopsis.

  18. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis gene related to putative zinc-transporter genes from animals can lead to enhanced zinc resistance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaal, B J; Neuteboom, L W; Pinas, J E; Chardonnens, A N; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A; Hooykaas, P J

    1999-03-01

    We describe the isolation of an Arabidopsis gene that is closely related to the animal ZnT genes (Zn transporter). The protein encoded by the ZAT (Zn transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana) gene has 398 amino acid residues and is predicted to have six membrane-spanning domains. To obtain evidence for the postulated function of the Arabidopsis gene, transgenic plants with the ZAT coding sequence under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were analyzed. Plants obtained with ZAT in the sense orientation exhibited enhanced Zn resistance and strongly increased Zn content in the roots under high Zn exposure. Antisense mRNA-producing plants were viable, with a wild-type level of Zn resistance and content, like plants expressing a truncated coding sequence lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. The availability of ZAT can lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of Zn homeostasis and resistance in plants.

  19. OsHT, a Rice Gene Encoding for a Plasma-Membrane Localized Histidine Transporter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di LIU; Wei GONG; Yong BAI; Jing-Chu LUO; Yu-Xian ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Using a degenerative probe designed according to the most conservative region of a known Lys- and His-specific amino acid transporter (LHT1) from Arabidopsis, we isolated a full-length cDNA named OsHT (histidine transporter of Oryza sativa L.) by screening the rice cDNA library. The cDNA is 1.3kb in length and the open reading frame encodes for a 441 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 49 kDa. Multiple sequence alignments showed that OsHT shares a high degree of sequence conservation at the deduced amino acid level with the Arabidopsis LHT1 and six putative lysine and histidine transporters. Computational analysis indicated that OsHT is an integral membrane protein with 11 putative transmembrane helices. This was confirmed by the transient expression assay because the OsHT-GFP fusion protein was, indeed, localized mainly in the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Functional complementation experiments demonstrated that OsHT was able to work as a histidine transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that OsHT is a gene that encodes for a histidine transporter from rice.This is the first time that an LHT-type amino acid transporter gene has been cloned from higher plants other than A rabidopsis.

  20. A Pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues fromBrassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities witheach other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 wasexpressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls.Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' techniqueusing primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven byBjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein,epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with differentexpression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family.

  1. Organization and expression of two tandemly oriented genes encoding ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, S J; Zielinski, R E

    1991-03-15

    We have isolated and structurally characterized genomic DNA and cDNA sequences encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rbu-P2 carboxylase) activase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Three Rbu-P2 carboxylase activase (Rca) polypeptides are encoded in the barley genome by two closely linked, tandemly oriented nuclear genes (RcaA and RcaB); cDNAs encoding each of the three Rbu-P2 carboxylase activase polypeptides were isolated from cDNA libraries of barley leaf mRNA. RcaA produces two mRNAs, which encode polypeptides of 42 and 46 kDa, by an alternative splicing mechanism identical to that previously reported for spinach and Arabidopsis Rca genes (Werneke, J.M., Chatfield, J.M., and Ogren, W. L. (1989) Plant Cell 1, 815-825). RcaB is transcribed to produce a single mRNA, which encodes a mature peptide of 42 kDa. Genomic Southern blots indicate that RcaA and RcaB represent the entire Rbu-P2 carboxylase activase gene family in barley. The genes share 80% nucleotide sequence identity, and the 42-kDa polypeptides encoded by RcaA and RcaB share 87% amino acid sequence identity. Coding regions of the two barley Rca genes are separated by 1 kilobase pair of flanking DNA. DNA sequence motifs similar to those thought to control light-regulated gene expression in other nuclear-encoded plastid polypeptide genes are found at the 5' end of both barley Rca genes. Probes specific to three mRNAs were used to determine the relative contribution each species makes to the total Rca mRNA pool.

  2. The interconversion of UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose is indispensable for plant development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Herter, Thomas; Petzold, Christopher J; Ishii, Tadashi; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Usadel, Björn; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2011-04-01

    L-Ara, an important constituent of plant cell walls, is found predominantly in the furanose rather than in the thermodynamically more stable pyranose form. Nucleotide sugar mutases have been demonstrated to interconvert UDP-Larabinopyranose (UDP-Arap) and UDP-L-arabinofuranose (UDP-Araf) in rice (Oryza sativa). These enzymes belong to a small gene family encoding the previously named Reversibly Glycosylated Proteins (RGPs). RGPs are plant-specific cytosolic proteins that tend to associate with the endomembrane system. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the RGP protein family consists of five closely related members. We characterized all five RGPs regarding their expression pattern and subcellular localizations in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Enzymatic activity assays of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli identified three of the Arabidopsis RGP protein family members as UDP-L-Ara mutases that catalyze the formation of UDP-Araf from UDP-Arap. Coimmunoprecipitation and subsequent liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed a distinct interaction network between RGPs in different Arabidopsis organs. Examination of cell wall polysaccharide preparations from RGP1 and RGP2 knockout mutants showed a significant reduction in total L-Ara content (12–31%) compared with wild-type plants. Concomitant downregulation of RGP1 and RGP2 expression results in plants almost completely deficient in cell wall–derived L-Ara and exhibiting severe developmental defects.

  3. Synthetic phytochelatins complement a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant and enhance the accumulation of heavy metal(loid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Tiwari, Manish; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-05-10

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are naturally occurring thiol-rich peptides containing gamma (γ) peptide bonds and are well known for their metal-binding and detoxification capabilities. Whether synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) can be used as an alternative approach for enhancing the metal-binding capacity of plants has been investigated in this study. The metal-binding potential of ECs has been demonstrated in bacteria; however, no report has investigated the expression of ECs in plants. We have expressed three synthetic genes encoding ECs of different lengths in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis (Col-0 background) and a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant (cad1-3). After exposure to different heavy metals, the transgenic plants were examined for phenotypic changes, and metal accumulation was evaluated. The expression of EC genes rescued the sensitive phenotype of the cad1-3 mutant under heavy metal(loid) stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EC genes accumulated a significantly enhanced level of heavy metal(loid)s in comparison with the WT plant. The mutant complementation and enhanced heavy metal(loid) accumulation in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggest that ECs work in a manner similar to that of PCs in plants and that ECs could be used as an alternative for phytoremediation of heavy metal(loid) exposure.

  4. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions.

  5. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  6. Autoimmunity in Arabidopsis acd11 Is Mediated by Epigenetic Regulation of an Immune Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palma, K.; Thorgrimsen, S.; Malinovsky, F.G.;

    2010-01-01

    . In a screen for lazarus (laz) mutants that suppress acd11 death we identified two genes, LAZ2 and LAZ5. LAZ2 encodes the histone lysine methyltransferase SDG8, previously shown to epigenetically regulate flowering time via modification of histone 3 (H3). LAZ5 encodes an RPS4-like R-protein, defined by several...... dominant negative alleles. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that LAZ2/SDG8 is required for LAZ5 expression and H3 lysine 36 trimethylation at LAZ5 chromatin to maintain a transcriptionally active state. We hypothesize that LAZ5 triggers cell death in the absence of ACD11......, and that cell death in other lesion mimic mutants may also be caused by inappropriate activation of R genes. Moreover, SDG8 is required for basal and R protein-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis, revealing the importance of chromatin remodeling as a key process in plant innate immunity....

  7. Allele-specific interactions between CAST AWAY and NEVERSHED control abscission in Arabidopsis flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Groner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An advantage of analyzing abscission in genetically tractable model plants is the ability to make use of classic genetic tools such as suppression analysis. We have investigated the regulation of organ abscission by carrying out suppression analysis in Arabidopsis flowers. Plants carrying mutations in the NEVERSHED (NEV gene, which encodes an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein, retain their outer floral organs after fertilization. Mutant alleles of CAST AWAY (CST, which encodes a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, were found to restore organ abscission in nev flowers in an allele-specific manner. To further explore the basis of the interactions between CST and NEV, we tested whether the site of a nev mutation is predictive of its ability to be suppressed. Our results suggest instead that the strength of a nev allele influences whether organ abscission can be rescued by a specific allele of CST.

  8. Autoimmunity in Arabidopsis acd11 Is Mediated by Epigenetic Regulation of an Immune Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palma, K.; Thorgrimsen, S.; Malinovsky, F.G.;

    2010-01-01

    Certain pathogens deliver effectors into plant cells to modify host protein targets and thereby suppress immunity. These target modifications can be detected by intracellular immune receptors, or Resistance (R) proteins, that trigger strong immune responses including localized host cell death....... In a screen for lazarus (laz) mutants that suppress acd11 death we identified two genes, LAZ2 and LAZ5. LAZ2 encodes the histone lysine methyltransferase SDG8, previously shown to epigenetically regulate flowering time via modification of histone 3 (H3). LAZ5 encodes an RPS4-like R-protein, defined by several......, and that cell death in other lesion mimic mutants may also be caused by inappropriate activation of R genes. Moreover, SDG8 is required for basal and R protein-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis, revealing the importance of chromatin remodeling as a key process in plant innate immunity....

  9. Overexpression of a soybean ariadne-like ubiquitin ligase gene GmARI1 enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolian Zhang

    Full Text Available Ariadne (ARI subfamily of RBR (Ring Between Ring fingers proteins have been found as a group of putative E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains in fruitfly, mouse, human and Arabidopsis. Recent studies showed several RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, but the function of ARI in plants is largely unknown. In this study, an ariadne-like E3 ubiquitin ligase gene was isolated from soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr., and designated as GmARI1. It encodes a predicted protein of 586 amino acids with a RBR supra-domain. Subcellular localization studies using Arabidopsis protoplast cells indicated GmARI protein was located in nucleus. The expression of GmARI1 in soybean roots was induced as early as 2-4 h after simulated stress treatments such as aluminum, which coincided with the fact of aluminum toxicity firstly and mainly acting on plant roots. In vitro ubiquitination assay showed GmARI1 protein has E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of GmARI1 significantly enhanced the aluminum tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that GmARI1 encodes a RBR type E3 ligase, which may play important roles in plant tolerance to aluminum stress.

  10. Overexpression of a soybean ariadne-like ubiquitin ligase gene GmARI1 enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolian; Wang, Ning; Chen, Pei; Gao, Mengmeng; Liu, Juge; Wang, Yufeng; Zhao, Tuanjie; Li, Yan; Gai, Junyi

    2014-01-01

    Ariadne (ARI) subfamily of RBR (Ring Between Ring fingers) proteins have been found as a group of putative E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domains in fruitfly, mouse, human and Arabidopsis. Recent studies showed several RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, but the function of ARI in plants is largely unknown. In this study, an ariadne-like E3 ubiquitin ligase gene was isolated from soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., and designated as GmARI1. It encodes a predicted protein of 586 amino acids with a RBR supra-domain. Subcellular localization studies using Arabidopsis protoplast cells indicated GmARI protein was located in nucleus. The expression of GmARI1 in soybean roots was induced as early as 2-4 h after simulated stress treatments such as aluminum, which coincided with the fact of aluminum toxicity firstly and mainly acting on plant roots. In vitro ubiquitination assay showed GmARI1 protein has E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of GmARI1 significantly enhanced the aluminum tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that GmARI1 encodes a RBR type E3 ligase, which may play important roles in plant tolerance to aluminum stress.

  11. Cell wall glucomannan in Arabidopsis is synthesised by CSLA glycosyltransferases, and influences the progression of embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubet, Florence; Barton, Christopher J; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhinong; Miles, Godfrey P; Richens, Jenny; Liepman, Aaron H; Seffen, Keith; Dupree, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that have previously been implicated as structural constituents of cell walls and as storage reserves but which may serve other functions during plant growth and development. Several members of the Arabidopsis cellulose synthase-like A (CSLA) family have previously been shown to synthesise mannan polysaccharides in vitro when heterologously expressed. It has also been found that CSLA7 is essential for embryogenesis, suggesting a role for the CSLA7 product in development. To determine whether the CSLA proteins are responsible for glucomannan synthesis in vivo, we characterised insertion mutants in each of the nine Arabidopsis CSLA genes and several double and triple mutant combinations. csla9 mutants showed substantially reduced glucomannan, and triple csla2csla3csla9 mutants lacked detectable glucomannan in stems. Nevertheless, these mutants showed no alteration in stem development or strength. Overexpression of CSLA2, CSLA7 and CSLA9 increased the glucomannan content in stems. Increased glucomannan synthesis also caused defective embryogenesis, leading to delayed development and occasional embryo death. The embryo lethality of csla7 was complemented by overexpression of CSLA9, suggesting that the glucomannan products are similar. We conclude that CSLA2, CSLA3 and CSLA9 are responsible for the synthesis of all detectable glucomannan in Arabidopsis stems, and that CSLA7 synthesises glucomannan in embryos. These results are inconsistent with a substantial role for glucomannan in wall strength in Arabidopsis stems, but indicate that glucomannan levels affect embryogenesis. Together with earlier heterologous expression studies, the glucomannan deficiency observed in csla mutant plants demonstrates that the CSLA family encodes glucomannan synthases.

  12. The Arabidopsis COX11 Homolog is Essential for Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Ivan; Mansilla, Natanael; Rödel, Gerhard; Steinebrunner, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Members of the ubiquitous COX11 (cytochrome c oxidase 11) protein family are involved in copper delivery to the COX complex. In this work, we characterize the Arabidopsis thaliana COX11 homolog (encoded by locus At1g02410). Western blot analyses and confocal microscopy identified Arabidopsis COX11 as an integral mitochondrial protein. Despite sharing high sequence and structural similarities, the Arabidopsis COX11 is not able to functionally replace the Saccharomyces cerevisiae COX11 homolog. Nevertheless, further analysis confirmed the hypothesis that Arabidopsis COX11 is essential for COX activity. Disturbance of COX11 expression through knockdown (KD) or overexpression (OE) affected COX activity. In KD lines, the activity was reduced by ~50%, resulting in root growth inhibition, smaller rosettes and leaf curling. In OE lines, the reduction was less pronounced (~80% of the wild type), still resulting in root growth inhibition. Additionally, pollen germination was impaired in COX11 KD and OE plants. This effect on pollen germination can only partially be attributed to COX deficiency and may indicate a possible auxiliary role of COX11 in ROS metabolism. In agreement with its role in energy production, the COX11 promoter is highly active in cells and tissues with high-energy demand for example shoot and root meristems, or vascular tissues of source and sink organs. In COX11 KD lines, the expression of the plasma-membrane copper transporter COPT2 and of several copper chaperones was altered, indicative of a retrograde signaling pathway pertinent to copper homeostasis. Based on our data, we postulate that COX11 is a mitochondrial chaperone, which plays an important role for plant growth and pollen germination as an essential COX complex assembly factor.

  13. A Conserved Carboxylesterase Is a SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnac, Sébastien; Wilson, Ariane; Nuwer, Jamie; Kirik, Angela; Baranage, Gayathri; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2007-01-01

    AvrBsT is a type III effector from Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria that is translocated into plant cells during infection. AvrBsT is predicted to encode a Cys protease that targets intracellular host proteins. To dissect AvrBsT function and recognition in Arabidopsis thaliana, 71 ecotypes were screened to identify lines that elicit an AvrBsT-dependent hypersensitive response (HR) after Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) infection. The HR was observed only in the Pi-0 ecotype infected with Xcc strain 8004 expressing AvrBsT. To create a robust pathosystem to study AvrBsT immunity in Arabidopsis, the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 was engineered to translocate AvrBsT into Arabidopsis by the Pseudomonas type III secretion (T3S) system. Pi-0 leaves infected with Pst DC3000 expressing a Pst T3S signal fused to AvrBsT-HA (AvrBsTHYB-HA) elicited HR and limited pathogen growth, confirming that the HR leads to defense. Resistance in Pi-0 is caused by a recessive mutation predicted to inactivate a carboxylesterase known to hydrolyze lysophospholipids and acylated proteins in eukaryotes. Transgenic Pi-0 plants expressing the wild-type Columbia allele are susceptible to Pst DC3000 AvrBsTHYB-HA infection. Furthermore, wild-type recombinant protein cleaves synthetic p-nitrophenyl ester substrates in vitro. These data indicate that the carboxylesterase inhibits AvrBsT-triggered phenotypes in Arabidopsis. Here, we present the cloning and characterization of the SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE1. PMID:17293566

  14. A conserved carboxylesterase is a SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnac, Sébastien; Wilson, Ariane; Nuwer, Jamie; Kirik, Angela; Baranage, Gayathri; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2007-02-01

    AvrBsT is a type III effector from Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria that is translocated into plant cells during infection. AvrBsT is predicted to encode a Cys protease that targets intracellular host proteins. To dissect AvrBsT function and recognition in Arabidopsis thaliana, 71 ecotypes were screened to identify lines that elicit an AvrBsT-dependent hypersensitive response (HR) after Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) infection. The HR was observed only in the Pi-0 ecotype infected with Xcc strain 8004 expressing AvrBsT. To create a robust pathosystem to study AvrBsT immunity in Arabidopsis, the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 was engineered to translocate AvrBsT into Arabidopsis by the Pseudomonas type III secretion (T3S) system. Pi-0 leaves infected with Pst DC3000 expressing a Pst T3S signal fused to AvrBsT-HA (AvrBsTHYB-HA) elicited HR and limited pathogen growth, confirming that the HR leads to defense. Resistance in Pi-0 is caused by a recessive mutation predicted to inactivate a carboxylesterase known to hydrolyze lysophospholipids and acylated proteins in eukaryotes. Transgenic Pi-0 plants expressing the wild-type Columbia allele are susceptible to Pst DC3000 AvrBsTHYB-HA infection. Furthermore, wild-type recombinant protein cleaves synthetic p-nitrophenyl ester substrates in vitro. These data indicate that the carboxylesterase inhibits AvrBsT-triggered phenotypes in Arabidopsis. Here, we present the cloning and characterization of the SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE1.

  15. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  16. Elevated early callose deposition results in complete penetration resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Naumann, Marcel; Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Jamrow, Torsten; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C; Voigt, Christian A

    2013-03-01

    A common response by plants to fungal attack is deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan polymer, in the form of cell wall thickenings called papillae, at site of wall penetration. While it has been generally believed that the papillae provide a structural barrier to slow fungal penetration, this idea has been challenged in recent studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where fungal resistance was found to be independent of callose deposition. To the contrary, we show that callose can strongly support penetration resistance when deposited in elevated amounts at early time points of infection. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that express POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT4 (PMR4), which encodes a stress-induced callose synthase, under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter. In these lines, we detected callose synthase activity that was four times higher than that in wild-type plants 6 h post inoculation with the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum. The callose synthase activity was correlated with enlarged callose deposits and the focal accumulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged PMR4 at sites of attempted fungal penetration. We observed similar results from infection studies with the nonadapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Haustoria formation was prevented in resistant transgenic lines during both types of powdery mildew infection, and neither the salicylic acid-dependent nor jasmonate-dependent pathways were induced. We present a schematic model that highlights the differences in callose deposition between the resistant transgenic lines and the susceptible wild-type plants during compatible and incompatible interactions between Arabidopsis and powdery mildew.

  17. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  18. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  19. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  20. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  1. ZmPep1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis elicitor peptide 1, regulates maize innate immunity and enhances disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Alisa; Dafoe, Nicole J; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-03-01

    ZmPep1 is a bioactive peptide encoded by a previously uncharacterized maize (Zea mays) gene, ZmPROPEP1. ZmPROPEP1 was identified by sequence similarity as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtPROPEP1 gene, which encodes the precursor protein of elicitor peptide 1 (AtPep1). Together with its receptors, AtPEPR1 and AtPEPR2, AtPep1 functions to activate and amplify innate immune responses in Arabidopsis and enhances resistance to both Pythium irregulare and Pseudomonas syringae. Candidate orthologs to the AtPROPEP1 gene have been identified from a variety of crop species; however, prior to this study, activities of the respective peptides encoded by these orthologs were unknown. Expression of the ZmPROPEP1 gene is induced by fungal infection and treatment with jasmonic acid or ZmPep1. ZmPep1 activates de novo synthesis of the hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene and induces the expression of genes encoding the defense proteins endochitinase A, PR-4, PRms, and SerPIN. ZmPep1 also stimulates the expression of Benzoxazineless1, a gene required for the biosynthesis of benzoxazinoid defenses, and the accumulation of 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside in leaves. To ascertain whether ZmPep1-induced defenses affect resistance, maize plants were pretreated with the peptide prior to infection with fungal pathogens. Based on cell death and lesion severity, ZmPep1 pretreatment was found to enhance resistance to both southern leaf blight and anthracnose stalk rot caused by Cochliobolis heterostrophus and Colletotrichum graminicola, respectively. We present evidence that peptides belonging to the Pep family have a conserved function across plant species as endogenous regulators of innate immunity and may have potential for enhancing disease resistance in crops.

  2. The transcription factor WIN1/SHN1 regulates Cutin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannangara, Rubini; Branigan, Caroline; Liu, Yan; Penfield, Teresa; Rao, Vijaya; Mouille, Grégory; Höfte, Herman; Pauly, Markus; Riechmann, José Luis; Broun, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The composition and permeability of the cuticle has a large influence on its ability to protect the plant against various forms of biotic and abiotic stress. WAX INDUCER1 (WIN1) and related transcription factors have recently been shown to trigger wax production, enhance drought tolerance, and modulate cuticular permeability when overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that WIN1 influences the composition of cutin, a polyester that forms the backbone of the cuticle. WIN1 overexpression induces compositional changes and an overall increase in cutin production in vegetative and reproductive organs, while its downregulation has the opposite effect. Changes in cutin composition are preceded by the rapid and coordinated induction of several genes known or likely to be involved in cutin biosynthesis. This transcriptional response is followed after a delay by the induction of genes associated with wax biosynthesis, suggesting that the regulation of cutin and wax production by WIN1 is a two-step process. We demonstrate that at least one of the cutin pathway genes, which encodes long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase LACS2, is likely to be directly targeted by WIN1. Overall, our results suggest that WIN1 modulates cuticle permeability in Arabidopsis by regulating genes encoding cutin pathway enzymes.

  3. Deciphering transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine metabolism during Arabidopsis seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Fait, Aaron; Zhu, Xiaohong; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Feldmesser, Ester; Fernie, Alisdair R; Galili, Gad

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine (Lys) metabolism, we utilized developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds as a system in which Lys synthesis could be stimulated developmentally without application of chemicals and coupled this to a T-DNA insertion knockout mutation impaired in Lys catabolism. This seed-specific metabolic perturbation stimulated Lys accumulation starting from the initiation of storage reserve accumulation. Our results revealed that the response of seed metabolism to the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was relatively minor; however, that which was observable operated in a modular manner. They also demonstrated that Lys metabolism is strongly associated with the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle while largely disconnected from other metabolic networks. In contrast, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was strongly associated with gene networks, stimulating the expression of hundreds of genes controlling anabolic processes that are associated with plant performance and vigor while suppressing a small number of genes associated with plant stress interactions. The most pronounced effect of the developmentally inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was an induction of expression of a large set of genes encoding ribosomal proteins as well as genes encoding translation initiation and elongation factors, all of which are associated with protein synthesis. With respect to metabolic regulation, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was primarily associated with altered expression of genes belonging to networks of amino acids and sugar metabolism. The combined data are discussed within the context of network interactions both between and within metabolic and transcriptional control systems.

  4. Transcriptional analysis of the Arabidopsis ovule by massively parallel signature sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-León, Nidia; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Alvarez-Mejía, César; Mendiola-Soto, Javier; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; García-Campayo, Vicenta; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Arteaga-Sánchez, Mario; Martínez de la Vega, Octavio; Nobuta, Kan; Vemaraju, Kalyan; Meyers, Blake C.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of flowering plants alternates between a predominant sporophytic (diploid) and an ephemeral gametophytic (haploid) generation that only occurs in reproductive organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the female gametophyte is deeply embedded within the ovule, complicating the study of the genetic and molecular interactions involved in the sporophytic to gametophytic transition. Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) was used to conduct a quantitative large-scale transcriptional analysis of the fully differentiated Arabidopsis ovule prior to fertilization. The expression of 9775 genes was quantified in wild-type ovules, additionally detecting >2200 new transcripts mapping to antisense or intergenic regions. A quantitative comparison of global expression in wild-type and sporocyteless (spl) individuals resulted in 1301 genes showing 25-fold reduced or null activity in ovules lacking a female gametophyte, including those encoding 92 signalling proteins, 75 transcription factors, and 72 RNA-binding proteins not reported in previous studies based on microarray profiling. A combination of independent genetic and molecular strategies confirmed the differential expression of 28 of them, showing that they are either preferentially active in the female gametophyte, or dependent on the presence of a female gametophyte to be expressed in sporophytic cells of the ovule. Among 18 genes encoding pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins (PPRs) that show transcriptional activity in wild-type but not spl ovules, CIHUATEOTL (At4g38150) is specifically expressed in the female gametophyte and necessary for female gametogenesis. These results expand the nature of the transcriptional universe present in the ovule of Arabidopsis, and offer a large-scale quantitative reference of global expression for future genomic and developmental studies. PMID:22442422

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the Arabidopsis ovule by massively parallel signature sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-León, Nidia; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Alvarez-Mejía, César; Mendiola-Soto, Javier; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; García-Campayo, Vicenta; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Arteaga-Sánchez, Mario; de la Vega, Octavio Martínez; Nobuta, Kan; Vemaraju, Kalyan; Meyers, Blake C; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2012-06-01

    The life cycle of flowering plants alternates between a predominant sporophytic (diploid) and an ephemeral gametophytic (haploid) generation that only occurs in reproductive organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the female gametophyte is deeply embedded within the ovule, complicating the study of the genetic and molecular interactions involved in the sporophytic to gametophytic transition. Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) was used to conduct a quantitative large-scale transcriptional analysis of the fully differentiated Arabidopsis ovule prior to fertilization. The expression of 9775 genes was quantified in wild-type ovules, additionally detecting >2200 new transcripts mapping to antisense or intergenic regions. A quantitative comparison of global expression in wild-type and sporocyteless (spl) individuals resulted in 1301 genes showing 25-fold reduced or null activity in ovules lacking a female gametophyte, including those encoding 92 signalling proteins, 75 transcription factors, and 72 RNA-binding proteins not reported in previous studies based on microarray profiling. A combination of independent genetic and molecular strategies confirmed the differential expression of 28 of them, showing that they are either preferentially active in the female gametophyte, or dependent on the presence of a female gametophyte to be expressed in sporophytic cells of the ovule. Among 18 genes encoding pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins (PPRs) that show transcriptional activity in wild-type but not spl ovules, CIHUATEOTL (At4g38150) is specifically expressed in the female gametophyte and necessary for female gametogenesis. These results expand the nature of the transcriptional universe present in the ovule of Arabidopsis, and offer a large-scale quantitative reference of global expression for future genomic and developmental studies.

  6. The Arabidopsis EDR1 Protein Kinase Negatively Regulates the ATL1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase to Suppress Cell Death[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Irene; Gu, Yangnan; Qi, Dong; Dubiella, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (EDR1) gene confer enhanced programmed cell death under a variety of abiotic and biotic stress conditions. All edr1 mutant phenotypes can be suppressed by missense mutations in the KEEP ON GOING gene, which encodes a trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE)-localized E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we report that EDR1 interacts with a second E3 ubiquitin ligase, ARABIDOPSIS TOXICOS EN LEVADURA1 (ATL1), and negatively regulates its activity. Overexpression of ATL1 in transgenic Arabidopsis induced severe growth inhibition and patches of cell death, while transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced cell death and tissue collapse. The E3 ligase activity of ATL1 was required for both of these processes. Importantly, we found that ATL1 interacts with EDR1 on TGN/EE vesicles and that EDR1 suppresses ATL1-mediated cell death in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Lastly, knockdown of ATL1 expression suppressed cell death phenotypes associated with the edr1 mutant and made Arabidopsis hypersusceptible to powdery mildew infection. Taken together, our data indicate that ATL1 is a positive regulator of programmed cell death and EDR1 negatively regulates ATL1 activity at the TGN/EE and thus controls stress responses initiated by ATL1-mediated ubiquitination events. PMID:25398498

  7. Evidence for a positive regulatory role of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) Fa WRKY1 and Arabidopsis At WRKY75 proteins in resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-Villarejo, Sonia; Maldonado, Ana M; Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; de los Santos, Berta; Romero, Fernando; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular basis of plant resistance to pathogens in species other than Arabidopsis is limited. The function of Fa WRKY1, the first WRKY gene isolated from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), an important agronomical fruit crop, has been investigated here. Fa WRKY1 encodes a IIc WRKY transcription factor and is up-regulated in strawberry following Colletotrichum acutatum infection, treatments with elicitors, and wounding. Its Arabidopsis sequence homologue, At WRKY75, has been described as playing a role in regulating phosphate starvation responses. However, using T-DNA insertion mutants, a role for the At WRKY75 and Fa WRKY1 in the activation of basal and R-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis is demonstrated. At wrky75 mutants are more susceptible to virulent and avirulent isolates of Pseudomonas syringae. Overexpression of Fa WRKY1 in At wrky75 mutant and wild type reverts the enhanced susceptible phenotype of the mutant, and even increases resistance to avirulent strains of P. syringae. The resistance phenotype is uncoupled to PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) gene expression, but it is associated with a strong oxidative burst and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) induction. Taken together, these results indicate that At WRKY75 and Fa WRKY1 act as positive regulators of defence during compatible and incompatible interactions in Arabidopsis and, very likely, Fa WRKY1 is an important element mediating defence responses to C. acutatum in strawberry. Moreover, these results provide evidence that Arabidopsis can be a useful model for functional studies in Rosacea species like strawberry.

  8. Melatonin induces the transcripts of CBF/DREB1s and their involvement in both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Qian, Yongqiang; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a naturally occurring small molecule that acts as an important secondary messenger in plant stress responses. However, the mechanism underlying the melatonin-mediated signaling pathway in plant stress responses has not been established. C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs)/Drought response element Binding 1 factors (DREB1s) encode transcription factors that play important roles in plant stress responses. This study has determined that endogenous melatonin and transcripts level of CBFs (AtCBF1, AtCBF2, and AtCBF3) in Arabidopsis leaves were significantly induced by salt, drought, and cold stresses and by pathogen Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Moreover, both exogenous melatonin treatment and overexpression of CBFs conferred enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Notably, AtCBFs and exogenous melatonin treatment positively regulated the mRNA expression of several stress-responsive genes (COR15A, RD22, and KIN1) and accumulation of soluble sugars content such as sucrose in Arabidopsis under control and stress conditions. Additionally, exogenous sucrose also conferred improved resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Taken together, this study indicates that AtCBFs confer enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses, and AtCBF-mediated signaling pathway and sugar accumulation may be involved in melatonin-mediated stress response in Arabidopsis, at least partially.

  9. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  10. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  11. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J W; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R; Apostol, Marcin I; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of beta-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct beta-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  12. Reference: 510 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ch stabilizes the water-oxidizing complex, is represented in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) by two isofo...rms. Two T-DNA insertion mutant lines deficient in either the PsbO1 or the PsbO2 protein were re...ally. Both PsbO proteins were able to support the oxygen evolution activity of PSII, although PsbO2 was less... efficient than PsbO1 under photoinhibitory conditions. Prolonged high light stress led to re...duced growth and fitness of the mutant lacking PsbO2 as compared with the wild type and the muta

  13. Reference: 600 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n M et al. 2007 Jun. Plant J. 50(5):810-24. A novel abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant, aba4, was identified in a scre...en for paclobutrazol-resistant germination. Compared with wild-type, the mutant showed reduced e...by map-based cloning, and found to be a unique gene in the Arabidopsis genome. The predicted protein has fou...r putative helical transmembrane domains and shows significant similarity to pred...icted proteins from tomato, rice and cyanobacteria. Constitutive expression of the ABA4 gene in Arabidopsis

  14. Reference: 59 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 59 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u14563930i Kaczorowski Kare...naling network in Arabidopsis, we used a sensitized genetic screen for deetiolation-defective seedlings. Two allelic mutants were... isolated that exhibited reduced sensitivity to both continuous red and far-re...d light, suggesting involvement in both phyA and phyB signaling. The molecular lesions res...ponsible for the phenotype were shown to be mutations in the Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR7 (PRR7) g

  15. Reference: 640 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available er Alois et al. 2007 Jul. Plant Cell 19(7):2213-24. Wound signaling pathways in plants are mediated by mitog...en-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and stress hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonates. In Arabidopsis th...ed investigations; however, the involvement of specific phosphatases in wound signaling is not known. Here, ...we show that AP2C1, an Arabidopsis Ser/Thr phosphatase of type 2C, is a novel stress signal regulator that inactivates the stress-re... significantly higher amounts of jasmonate upon wounding and are more resistant to phytophagous mites (Tetra

  16. Reference: 756 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available elle et al. 2008 Jun. Plant Physiol. 147(2):595-610. Treatment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) alterna...tive oxidase1a (aox1a) mutant plants with moderate light under drought conditions resulted in a phenotypic difference compare...d with ecotype Columbia (Col-0), as evidenced by a 10-fold incre...ase in the accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves, alterations in photosynthetic efficiency, and increased superoxide radical and re...duced root growth at the early stages of seedling growth. Analysis of metabolite profiles re

  17. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning.

  18. Novelty's effect on memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Janenaite, Sigita; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    It is often thought that novelty benefits memory formation. However, support for this idea mostly comes from paradigms that are open to alternative explanations. In the present study we manipulated novelty in a word-learning task through task-irrelevant background images. These background images were either standard (presented repeatedly), or novel (presented only once). Two types of background images were used: Landscape pictures and fractals. EEG was also recorded during encoding. Contrary to the idea that novelty aids memory formation, memory performance was not affected by the novelty of the background. In the evoked response potentials, we found evidence of distracting effects of novelty: both the N1 and P3b components were smaller to words studied with novel backgrounds, and the amplitude of the N2b component correlated negatively with subsequent retrieval. We conclude that although evidence from other studies does suggest benefits on a longer time scale, novelty has no instantaneous benefits for learning.

  19. WBC27, an Adenosine Tri-phosphate-binding Cassette Protein, Controls Pollen Wall Formation and Patterning in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Dou; Ke-Zhen Yang; Yi Zhang; Wei Wang; Xiao-Lei Liu; Li-Qun Chen; Xue-Qin Zhang; De Ye

    2011-01-01

    In flowering plants, the exine components are derived from tapetum. Despite its importance to sexual plant reproduction, little is known about the translocation of exine materials from tapetum to developing microspores. Here we report functional characterization of the arabidopsis WBC27 gene. WBC27 encodes an adenosine tri-phosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter and is expressed preferentially in tapetum. Mutation of WBC27 disrupted the exine formation. The wbc27 mutant microspores began to degenerate once released from tetrads and most of the microspores collapsed at the uninucleate stage. Only a small number of wbc27-1 microspores could develop into tricellular pollen grains. These survival pollen grains lacked exine and germinated in the anther before anthesis. All of these results suggest that the ABC transporter, WBC27 plays important roles in the formation of arabidopsis exine, possibly by translocation of lipidic precursors of sporopollenin from tapetum to developing microspores.

  20. Glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 3 (GDH3) of Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a combined effect of nitrogen and cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Laura; Degola, Francesca; Polverini, Eugenia; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Dubois, Frédéric; Hirel, Bertrand; Restivo, Francesco Maria

    2013-12-01

    In higher plants, NAD(H)-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is an abundant enzyme that exists in different isoenzymic forms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three genes (Gdh1, Gdh2 and Gdh3) encode three different GDH subunits (β, α and γ) that randomly associate to form a complex array of homo- and heterohexamers. The modification of the GDH isoenzyme pattern and its regulation was studied during the development of A. thaliana in the gdh1, gdh2 single mutants and the gdh1-2 double mutant, with particular emphasis on GDH3. Investigations showed that the GDH3 isoenzyme could not be detected in closely related Arabidopsis species. The induction and regulation of GDH3 activity in the leaves and roots was investigated following nitrogen deprivation in the presence or absence of sucrose or kinetin. These experiments indicate that GDH3 is likely to play an important role during senescence and nutrient remobilization.

  1. Programming of Plant Leaf Senescence with Temporal and Inter-Organellar Coordination of Transcriptome in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hee Jung; Kim, Jeongsik; Jeong, Hyobin; Yang, Jin Ok; Lee, Il Hwan; Jun, Ji Hyung; Choi, Seung Hee; Park, Su Jin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, You Wang; Phee, Bong-Kwan; Kim, Jin Hee; Seo, Chaehwa; Park, Charny; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Seongjin; Lee, Byungwook; Lee, Sanghyuk; Hwang, Daehee; Lim, Pyung Ok

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaves, harvesting light energy and fixing CO2, are a major source of foods on the earth. Leaves undergo developmental and physiological shifts during their lifespan, ending with senescence and death. We characterized the key regulatory features of the leaf transcriptome during aging by analyzing total- and small-RNA transcriptomes throughout the lifespan of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves at multidimensions, including age, RNA-type, and organelle. Intriguingly, senescing leaves showed more coordinated temporal changes in transcriptomes than growing leaves, with sophisticated regulatory networks comprising transcription factors and diverse small regulatory RNAs. The chloroplast transcriptome, but not the mitochondrial transcriptome, showed major changes during leaf aging, with a strongly shared expression pattern of nuclear transcripts encoding chloroplast-targeted proteins. Thus, unlike animal aging, leaf senescence proceeds with tight temporal and distinct interorganellar coordination of various transcriptomes that would be critical for the highly regulated degeneration and nutrient recycling contributing to plant fitness and productivity. PMID:26966169

  2. Alternative translational initiation of ATP sulfurylase underlying dual localization of sulfate assimilation pathways in plastids and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie eBohrer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants assimilate inorganic sulfate into sulfur-containing vital metabolites. ATP sulfurylase (ATPS is the enzyme catalyzing the key entry step of the sulfate assimilation pathway in both plastids and cytosol in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana has four ATPS genes (ATPS1, -2, -3 and -4 encoding ATPS pre-proteins containing N-terminal transit peptide sequences for plastid targeting, however, the genetic identity of the cytosolic ATPS has remained unverified. Here we show that Arabidopsis ATPS2 dually encodes plastidic and cytosolic ATPS isoforms, differentiating their subcellular localizations by initiating translation at AUGMet1 to produce plastid-targeted ATPS2 pre-proteins or at AUGMet52 or AUGMet58 within the transit peptide to have ATPS2 stay in cytosol. Translational initiation of ATPS2 at AUGMet52 or AUGMet58 was verified by expressing a tandem-fused synthetic gene, ATPS2(5’UTR-His12:Renilla luciferase:ATPS2(Ile13-Val77:firefly luciferase, under a single constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis protoplasts and examining the activities of two different luciferases translated in-frame with split N-terminal portions of ATPS2. Introducing missense mutations at AUGMet52 and AUGMet58 significantly reduced the firefly luciferase activity, while AUGMet52 was a relatively preferred site for the alternative translational initiation. The activity of luciferase fusion protein starting at AUGMet52 or AUGMet58 was not modulated by changes in sulfate conditions. The dual localizations of ATPS2 in plastids and cytosol were further evidenced by expression of ATPS2-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts and transgenic lines, while they were also under control of tissue-specific ATPS2 promoter activity found predominantly in leaf epidermal cells, guard cells, vascular tissues and roots.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of Two NAD Kinases from Arabidopsis. Identification of a Calmodulin Binding Isoform1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William L.; Waller, Jeffrey C.; Vanderbeld, Barb; Snedden, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NAD kinase (NADK; ATP:NAD 2′-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.23), an enzyme found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, generates the important pyridine nucleotide NADP from substrates ATP and NAD. The role of NADKs in plants is poorly understood, and cDNAs encoding plant NADKs have not previously been described to our knowledge. We have cloned two cDNAs from Arabidopsis predicted to encode NADK isoforms, designated NADK1 and NADK2, respectively. Expressed as recombinant proteins in bacteria, both NADK1 and NADK2 were catalytically active, thereby confirming their identity as NADKs. Transcripts for both isoforms were detected in all tissues examined and throughout development. Although the predicted catalytic regions for NADK1 and NADK2 show sequence similarity to NADKs from other organisms, NADK2 possesses a large N-terminal extension that appears to be unique to plants. Using recombinant glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins and calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography, we delineated a Ca2+-dependent CaM-binding domain to a 45-residue region within the N-terminal extension of NADK2. Although recombinant NADK2 was not responsive to CaM in vitro, immunoblot analysis suggests that native NADK2 is a CaM-binding protein. In Arabidopsis crude extracts, CaM-dependent NADK activity was much greater than CaM-independent activity throughout development, particularly in young seedlings. A native CaM-dependent NADK was partially purified from Arabidopsis seedlings (KmNAD = 0.20 mM, KmMg2+−ATP = 0.17 mM). The enzyme was fully activated by conserved CaM (S0.5 = 2.2 nm) in the presence of calcium but displayed differential responsiveness to eight CaM-like Arabidopsis proteins. Possible roles for NADKs in plants are discussed in light of our observations. PMID:15247403

  4. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  5. Dynamic light regulation of translation status in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eBailey-Serres

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Light, a dynamic environmental parameter, is an essential regulator of plant growth and development. Light-regulated transcriptional networks are well documented, whereas light-regulated post-transcriptional regulation has received only limited attention. In this study, dynamics in translation of cytosolic mRNAs were evaluated at the genome-level in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under a typical light / dark diurnal regime, shifted to darkness at midday and then re-illuminated. One-hour of unanticipated darkness reduced levels of polyribosomes (polysomes by 17% in a manner consistent with inhibition of initiation of translation. This down-regulation of protein synthesis was reversed within 10 minutes of re-illumination. Quantitative comparison of the total cellular population of transcripts (the transcriptome to those associated with one or more 80S ribosome (the translatome identified over 1600 mRNAs that are differentially translated in response to light availability. Unanticipated darkness limited transcription and translation of mRNAs encoding components of the photosynthetic machinery. Many mRNAs encoding proteins associated with the energy demanding process of protein synthesis were stable but sequestered in the dark, in a rapidly reversible manner. A meta-analysis determined these same transcripts were similarly and coordinately regulated in response to changes in oxygen availability. The dark and hypoxia translationally repressed mRNAs lack highly supported candidate RNA-regulatory elements but are characterized by G+C-rich 5’-untranslated regions. We propose that dynamic regulation of the translational status of a subset of cellular mRNAs serves as a general energy conservation mechanism.

  6. A small intergenic region drives exclusive tissue-specific expression of the adjacent genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Estela M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II is unidirectional from most genes. In plants, divergent genes, defined as non-overlapping genes organized head-to-head, are highly represented in the Arabidopsis genome. Nevertheless, there is scarce evidence on functional analyses of these intergenic regions. The At5g06290 and At5g06280 loci are head-to-head oriented and encode a chloroplast-located 2-Cys peroxiredoxin B (2CPB and a protein of unknown function (PUF, respectively. The 2-Cys peroxiredoxins are proteins involved in redox processes, they are part of the plant antioxidant defence and also act as chaperons. In this study, the transcriptional activity of a small intergenic region (351 bp shared by At5g06290 and At5g06280 in Arabidopsis thaliana was characterized. Results Activity of the intergenic region in both orientations was analyzed by driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene during the development and growth of Arabidopsis plants under physiological and stressful conditions. Results have shown that this region drives expression either of 2cpb or puf in photosynthetic or vascular tissues, respectively. GUS expression driven by the promoter in 2cpb orientation was enhanced by heat stress. On the other hand, the promoter in both orientations has shown similar down-regulation of GUS expression under low temperatures and other stress conditions such as mannitol, oxidative stress, or fungal elicitor. Conclusion The results from this study account for the first evidence of an intergenic region that, in opposite orientation, directs GUS expression in different spatially-localized Arabidopsis tissues in a mutually exclusive manner. Additionally, this is the first demonstration of a small intergenic region that drives expression of a gene whose product is involved in the chloroplast antioxidant defence such as 2cpb. Furthermore, these results contribute to show that 2cpb is related to the heat stress defensive system

  7. FARE, a new family of foldback transposons in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A J; Waddell, C S

    2000-01-01

    A new family of transposons, FARE, has been identified in Arabidopsis. The structure of these elements is typical of foldback transposons, a distinct subset of mobile DNA elements found in both plants and animals. The ends of FARE elements are long, conserved inverted repeat sequences typically 550 bp in length. These inverted repeats are modular in organization and are predicted to confer extensive secondary structure to the elements. FARE elements are present in high copy number, are heterogeneous in size, and can be divided into two subgroups. FARE1's average 1.1 kb in length and are composed entirely of the long inverted repeats. FARE2's are larger, up to 16.7 kb in length, and contain a large internal region in addition to the inverted repeat ends. The internal region is predicted to encode three proteins, one of which bears homology to a known transposase. FARE1.1 was isolated as an insertion polymorphism between the ecotypes Columbia and Nossen. This, coupled with the presence of 9-bp target-site duplications, strongly suggests that FARE elements have transposed recently. The termini of FARE elements and other foldback transposons are imperfect palindromic sequences, a unique organization that further distinguishes these elements from other mobile DNAs. PMID:11102389

  8. Arabidopsis 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate deformylases are essential for photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collakova, Eva; Goyer, Aymeric; Naponelli, Valeria; Krassovskaya, Inga; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2008-07-01

    In prokaryotes, PurU (10-formyl tetrahydrofolate [THF] deformylase) metabolizes 10-formyl THF to formate and THF for purine and Gly biosyntheses. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains two putative purU genes, At4g17360 and At5g47435. Knocking out these genes simultaneously results in plants that are smaller and paler than the wild type. These double knockout (dKO) mutant plants show a 70-fold increase in Gly levels and accumulate elevated levels of 5- and 10-formyl THF. Embryo development in dKO mutants arrests between heart and early bent cotyledon stages. Mature seeds are shriveled, accumulate low amounts of lipids, and fail to germinate. However, the dKO mutant is only conditionally lethal and is rescued by growth under nonphotorespiratory conditions. In addition, culturing dKO siliques in the presence of sucrose restores normal embryo development and seed viability, suggesting that the seed and embryo development phenotypes are a result of a maternal effect. Our findings are consistent with the involvement of At4g17360 and At5g47435 proteins in photorespiration, which is to prevent excessive accumulation of 5-formyl THF, a potent inhibitor of the Gly decarboxylase/Ser hydroxymethyltransferase complex. Supporting this role, deletion of the At2g38660 gene that encodes the bifunctional 5,10-methylene THF dehydrogenase/5,10-methenyl THF cyclohydrolase that acts upstream of 5-formyl THF formation restored the wild-type phenotype in dKO plants.

  9. Unique nucleotide polymorphism of ankyrin gene cluster in Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianchang Du; Xingna Wang; Mingsheng Zhang; Dacheng Tian; Yong-Hua Yang

    2007-01-01

    The ankyrin (ANK) gene cluster is a part of a multigene family encoding ANK transmembrane proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana, and plays an important role in protein–protein interactions and in signal pathways. In contrast to other regions of a genome, the ANK gene cluster exhibits an extremely high level of DNA polymorphism in an ∼5-kb region, without apparent decay. Phylogenetic analysis detects two clear, deeply differentiated haplotypes (dimorphism). The divergence between haplotypes of accession Col-0 and Ler-0 (Hap-C and Hap-L) is estimated to be 10.7%, approximately equal to the 10.5% average divergence between A. thaliana and A. lyrata. Sequence comparisons for the ANK gene cluster homologues in Col-0 indicate that the members evolve independently, and that the similarity among paralogues is lower than between alleles. Very little intralocus recombination or gene conversion is detected in ANK regions. All these characteristics of the ANK gene cluster are consistent with a tandem gene duplication and birth-and-death process. The possible mechanisms for and implications of this elevated nucleotide variation are also discussed, including the suggestion of balancing selection.

  10. The PSE1 gene modulates lead tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Yang, Libo; Wu, Xi; Ni, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Haikun; Zhang, Qi’an; Fang, Ling; Sheng, Yibao; Ren, Yongbing; Cao, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a dangerous heavy metal contaminant with high toxicity to plants. However, the regulatory mechanism of plant Pb tolerance is poorly understood. Here, we showed that the PSE1 gene confers Pb tolerance in Arabidopsis. A novel Pb-sensitive mutant pse1-1 (Pb-sensitive1) was isolated by screening T-DNA insertion mutants. PSE1 encodes an unknown protein with an NC domain and was localized in the cytoplasm. PSE1 was induced by Pb stress, and the pse1-1 loss-of-function mutant showed enhanced Pb sensitivity; overexpression of PSE1 resulted in increased Pb tolerance. PSE1-overexpressing plants showed increased Pb accumulation, which was accompanied by the activation of phytochelatin (PC) synthesis and related gene expression. In contrast, the pse1-1 mutant showed reduced Pb accumulation, which was associated with decreased PC synthesis and related gene expression. In addition, the expression of PDR12 was also increased in PSE1-overexpressing plants subjected to Pb stress. Our results suggest that PSE1 regulates Pb tolerance mainly through glutathione-dependent PC synthesis by activating the expression of the genes involved in PC synthesis and at least partially through activating the expression of the ABC transporter PDR12/ABCG40. PMID:27335453

  11. Mobile gene silencing in Arabidopsis is regulated by hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacheng Liang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants and nematodes, RNAi can spread from cells from which it is initiated to other cells in the organism. The underlying mechanism controlling the mobility of RNAi signals is not known, especially in the case of plants. A genetic screen designed to recover plants impaired in the movement but not the production or effectiveness of the RNAi signal identified RCI3, which encodes a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-producing type III peroxidase, as a key regulator of silencing mobility in Arabidopsis thaliana. Silencing initiated in the roots of rci3 plants failed to spread into leaf tissue or floral tissue. Application of exogenous H2O2 reinstated the spread in rci3 plants and accelerated it in wild-type plants. The addition of catalase or MnO2, which breaks down H2O2, slowed the spread of silencing in wild-type plants. We propose that endogenous H2O2, under the control of peroxidases, regulates the spread of gene silencing by altering plasmodesmata permeability through remodelling of local cell wall structure, and may play a role in regulating systemic viral defence.

  12. The FRIABLE1 gene product affects cell adhesion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Neumetzler

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1, was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246. Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion.

  13. Differentiation between MAMP Triggered Defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen Vetter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A first line of defense against pathogen attack for both plants and animals involves the detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs, followed by the induction of a complex immune response. Plants, like animals, encode several receptors that recognize different MAMPs. While these receptors are thought to function largely redundantly, the physiological responses to different MAMPs can differ in detail. Responses to MAMP exposure evolve quantitatively in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, perhaps in response to environment specific differences in microbial threat. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which the detection of two canonical MAMPs were evolving redundantly or distinctly within natural populations. Our results reveal negligible correlation in plant growth responses between the bacterial MAMPs EF-Tu and flagellin. Further investigation of the genetic bases of differences in seedling growth inhibition and validation of 11 candidate genes reveal substantial differences in the genetic loci that underlie variation in response to these two MAMPs. Our results indicate that natural variation in MAMP recognition is largely MAMP-specific, indicating an ability to differentially tailor responses to EF-Tu and flagellin in A. thaliana populations.

  14. Jasmonate is essential for insect defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConn, M; Creelman, R A; Bell, E; Mullet, J E; Browse, J

    1997-05-13

    The signaling pathways that allow plants to mount defenses against chewing insects are known to be complex. To investigate the role of jasmonate in wound signaling in Arabidopsis and to test whether parallel or redundant pathways exist for insect defense, we have studied a mutant (fad3-2 fad7-2 fad8) that is deficient in the jasmonate precursor linolenic acid. Mutant plants contained negligible levels of jasmonate and showed extremely high mortality ( approximately 80%) from attack by larvae of a common saprophagous fungal gnat, Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae), even though neighboring wild-type plants were largely unaffected. Application of exogenous methyl jasmonate substantially protected the mutant plants and reduced mortality to approximately 12%. These experiments precisely define the role of jasmonate as being essential for the induction of biologically effective defense in this plant-insect interaction. The transcripts of three wound-responsive genes were shown not to be induced by wounding of mutant plants but the same transcripts could be induced by application of methyl jasmonate. By contrast, measurements of transcript levels for a gene encoding glutathione S-transferase demonstrated that wound induction of this gene is independent of jasmonate synthesis. These results indicate that the mutant will be a good genetic model for testing the practical effectiveness of candidate defense genes.

  15. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-47 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-28 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-26 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-45 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-24 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 2e-65 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110534 002-168-A07 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-114 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-50 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-25 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-98 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061162 006-209-A01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-35 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 3e-66 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069071 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069071 J023010H01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121003 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121003 J023045B21 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-45 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-98 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060286 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060286 001-006-C08 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 6e-78 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 1e-125 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-25 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-31 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-130 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105393 001-123-B04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-48 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-29 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109812 002-147-H02 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 5e-90 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 8e-63 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-126 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-124 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 4e-27 ...

  8. Reference: 415 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available study focuses on the seven other Arabidopsis CAD for which functions are not yet elucidated. Their expression patterns were determine...ession of CAD 1, B1, and G genes was determined using their promoters fused to the GUS reporter gene. CAD 1

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243408 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 1e-151 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242797 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 2e-23 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243408 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit ClpX, putative similar to CLP protease regulatory subunit CLPX GI:2674203 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; non-consensus... splice donor GC at exon 4; non-consensus splice donor AA at exon 7 2e-12 ...

  12. Reference: 767 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Mutation analysis of 25 of the 27 member genes representing 13 of the 14 sub-families... of the UBP gene family revealed that single-gene mutants of three genes in two sub-families exhibit v

  13. Reference: 158 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onika et al. 2005 Feb. Plant J. 41(3):386-99. Cullin proteins, which belong to multigenic families in all eu...ic search revealed the existence of at least 76 BTB-domain proteins in Arabidopsis belonging to 11 major families.... Yeast two-hybrid experiments indicate that representative members of certain families are able to phy

  14. Reference: 456 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available h other Spo11/topo VIA proteins, but their functional relationship during meiosis or other processes is not ...s. Thus, the three Arabidopsis Spo11 homologues appear to function in two discrete processes, i.e. AtSPO11-1

  15. Reference: 412 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the tobacco arcA gene, mediates hormone responses and plays a regulatory role in multiple developmental processes...in RACK1A confer defects in multiple developmental processes including seed germination, leaf production, an...ltiple hormone responsiveness and developmental processes in Arabidopsis. 11 2697-708 16829549 2006 Journal

  16. Reference: 51 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urce of acetyl-CoA formation in the plastids of plants and is composed of multiple copies of four different ...astidic E2 (dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase) subunit, plE2, of the complex in Arabidopsis destroys the expre

  17. Reference: 567 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ith findings that noxy2 and mutants with defective 9-LOX activity showed increased numbers of lateral roots,...or of lateral root formation. Histochemical and molecular analyses revealed that 9-HOT activated events comm...in Arabidopsis regulate lateral root development and defense responses through a specific signaling cascade.

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287911 J065213B08 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 3e-85 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318551 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318551 J075138M12 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 4e-27 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241823 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241823 J065212G21 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 1e-150 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243378 J100063A13 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 5e-18 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288351 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288351 J090024C17 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 2e-24 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242252 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242252 J075182G16 At1g12110.1 68414.m01402 nitrate/chlorate transporter (NRT1.1) ...(CHL1) identical to nitrate/chlorate transporter SP:Q05085 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00854 POT family 6e-88 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073411 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073411 J033041P20 At4g02060.1 prolifera protein (PRL) / DNA replication licensing... factor Mcm7 (MCM7) identical to DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7 SP|P43299 PROLIFERA protein {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam profile PF00493: MCM2/3/5 family 0.0 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100867 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100867 J023124E13 At2g29640.1 josephin family protein contains Pfam domain PF02099: Jose...phin; similar to Josephin-like protein (Swiss-Prot:O82391) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-59 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  7. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and down-

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241096 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241096 J065076O13 At3g10520.1 68416.m01262 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (HB2) (GLB2...) identical to SP|O24521 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (Hb2) (ARAth GLB2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-40 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240885 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240885 J065029A17 At3g10520.1 68416.m01262 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (HB2) (GLB2...) identical to SP|O24521 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 2 (Hb2) (ARAth GLB2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 6e-34 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241096 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241096 J065076O13 At2g16060.1 68415.m01841 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (HB1) (GLB1...) identical to SP|O24520 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (Hb1) (ARAth GLB1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-59 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240885 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240885 J065029A17 At2g16060.1 68415.m01841 non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (HB1) (GLB1...) identical to SP|O24520 Non-symbiotic hemoglobin 1 (Hb1) (ARAth GLB1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-49 ...

  12. Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. Results We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced dicot genomes, Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa by using genes coding for proteases in the MEROPS database 1 for Arabidopsis to identify homologous sequences in Populus. A multigene-based phylogenetic analysis was performed. Most protease families were found to be larger in Populus than in Arabidopsis, reflecting recent genome duplication. Detailed studies on e.g. the DegP, Clp, FtsH, Lon, rhomboid and papain-Like protease families showed the pattern of gene family expansion and gene loss was complex. We finally show that different Populus tissues express unique suites of protease genes and that the mRNA levels of different classes of proteases change along a developmental gradient. Conclusion Recent gene family expansion and contractions have made the Arabidopsis and Populus complements of proteases different and this, together with expression patterns, gives indications about the roles of the individual gene products or groups of proteases.

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241728 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241728 J065199H08 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 3e-36 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240645 J023003B03 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 1e-17 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243302 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243302 J100054J17 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-82 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241015 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241015 J065054A13 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 8e-37 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288091 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288091 J075184D14 At1g50310.1 68414.m05640 monosaccharide transporter (STP9) iden...tical to monosaccharide transporter STP9 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15487254; contains Pfam profile PF00083: major facilitator superfamily protein 4e-29 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318617 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318617 J100090H20 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-63 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103452 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103452 J033129I11 At1g19850.1 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) / auxin-respon...sive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-166 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243230 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243230 J100044L04 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-65 ...

  1. Reference: 346 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 346 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16496096i Todd Christopher...midohydrolase activity from Arabidopsis thaliana. 5 1108-13 16496096 2006 Apr Planta Polacco Joe C|Todd Christopher D

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242980 J090094F15 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-19 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241644 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241644 J065189M04 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-37 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241055 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241055 J065063N18 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-26 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242211 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242211 J075171C16 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-21 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243669 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243669 J100089N11 At3g58780.1 68416.m06551 agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 / shatterproof... 1 (AGL1) (SHP1) identical to SP|P29381 Agamous-like MADS box protein AGL1 (Protein Shatterproof 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 6e-14 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100613 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100613 J023107M18 At4g10180.1 light-mediated development protein 1 / deetiolated1... (DET1) identical to Light-mediated development protein DET1 (Deetiolated1) (Swiss-Prot:P48732) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058683 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058683 001-019-A06 At4g10180.1 light-mediated development protein 1 / deetiolated...1 (DET1) identical to Light-mediated development protein DET1 (Deetiolated1) (Swiss-Prot:P48732) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241645 J065189N07 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243043 J100008P08 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241277 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241277 J065134P20 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241074 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241074 J065068E03 At5g20000.1 68418.m02380 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit, putative almost... identical to 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a GI:6652888 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; almost

  13. Reference: 386 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 386 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16698900i Hricová Andrea...d mesophyll cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. 3 942-56 16698900 2006 Jul Plant physiology Hricová Andrea|Micol José Luis|Quesada Victor

  14. Reference: 394 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 394 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16766689i Rudella Andrea...and defects in chloroplast biogenesis in Arabidopsis. 7 1704-21 16766689 2006 Jul The Plant cell Alonso Jose M|Ecker Joseph R|Friso Giulia|Rudella Andrea|van Wijk Klaas J

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243428 J100067L15 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-36 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288699 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288699 J090061C22 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-36 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243271 J100049K04 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 4e-35 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241812 J065210K15 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-22 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241549 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241549 J065176M15 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-32 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241615 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241615 J065186D02 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 8e-35 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288487 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288487 J090040H24 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-37 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287469 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287469 J043021L20 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-36 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241370 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241370 J065154C10 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-31 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288415 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288415 J090031E07 At5g14750.1 68418.m01731 myb family transcription factor (MYB66) / werewolf...iption factor (MYB66) mRNA, partial cds GI:3941491; identical to GP:9755743 myb transcription factor werewolf (WER)/ MYB66 {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-37 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287447 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287447 J043016O04 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-30 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241364 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241364 J065152E11 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-20 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 3e-13 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241281 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-12 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241762 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 9e-17 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242986 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-13 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287689 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-23 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240736 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-22 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241705 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-11 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available avonol 3-O-methyltransferase 1 / caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (OMT1) identical to ...1.1.76) (AtOMT1) (Flavonol 3- O-methyltransferase 1) (Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O- methyltransferase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-37 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107208 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ala hydrolase, putative virtually identical to gr1-protein from [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3559811; similar t...AK107208 002-125-B11 At1g44350.1 IAA-amino acid hydrolase 6, putative (ILL6) / IAA-

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062144 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062144 001-045-G08 At5g54080.2 homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase / homogentisicase/ho... (EC 1.13.11.5) (Homogentisicase) (Homogentisate oxygenase) (Homogentisic acid oxidase) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam profile PF04209: homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase 1e-155 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061294 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061294 006-301-D01 At3g08900.1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptide-3 (RGP3) nearl...y identical to reversibly glycosylated polypeptide-3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:11863238; contains non-consensus GA-donor splice site at intron 2 0.0 ...

  18. Reference: 119 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of the Arabidopsis homolog of MSH4 (AtMSH4). We demonstrate that AtMSH4 expression can only be detected in floral tissues, consisten...chromosomes. A T-DNA insertional mutant (Atmsh4) exhibited normal vegetative growth but a severe reduction in fertility, consistent

  19. Reference: 428 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on was delayed in the psb27 mutant, suggesting that Psb27 is required for efficient...icient repair of photodamaged photosystem II. 4-5 567-75...he involvement of this lumenal protein in the recovery process of PSII. A Psb27 homologue in Arabidopsis thaliana is required for eff

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105724 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105724 001-201-G07 At1g07110.1 fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase / fructose-2,6-bisph...osphatase (F2KP) identical to fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F2KP) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13096098 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072243 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072243 J023003N10 At1g07110.1 fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase / fructose-2,6-bispho...sphatase (F2KP) identical to fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F2KP) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13096098 0.0 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243221 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243221 J100043L21 At5g15410.2 68418.m01803 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic... nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-40 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067626 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067626 J013112I06 At5g15410.1 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic nu...cleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243602 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243602 J100084P18 At5g15410.2 68418.m01803 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic... nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-98 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288592 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288592 J090051B06 At5g15410.2 68418.m01803 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic... nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-145 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060339 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060339 001-008-C12 At5g15410.2 cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channel / cyclic n...ucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2) identical to cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel GI:3894399 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-175 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069395 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069395 J023011N07 At1g71440.1 tubulin folding cofactor E / Pfifferling (PFI) almo...st identical to tubulin folding cofactor E (Pfifferling; PFI) GI:20514267 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA tubulin folding cofactor E, GI:20514266 7e-41 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102150 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102150 J033086D17 At3g10220.1 tubulin folding cofactor B identical to tubulin folding... cofactor B GI:20514259 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA tubulin folding cofactor B GI:20514258 6e-91 ...

  9. Reference: 566 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utations in the MKK3-MPK6 cascade, which indicates important roles in JA signaling. We provide a model expla...tress - into three different sets of responses in Arabidopsis. The mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade MKK3-MPK6 is an important

  10. Reference: 392 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pment. The Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF AUXIN RESISTANCE proteins are nucleoporins with an important role in ho...olyadenylated RNA within the nucleus, indicating that SAR1 and SAR3 are required for mRNA export. Our results demonstrate the importa...nt role of the plant NPC in hormone signaling and develo

  11. Reference: 438 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ity and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. 18 6902-12 16943431 2006 Sep Molecular and cellular bio...logy Chen Zhizhong|Gong Zhizhong|Hong Xuhui|Jablonowski Daniel|Ren Xiaozhi|Schaffrath Raffael|Zhang Hairong|Zhou Xiaofeng|Zhu Jian-Kang

  12. Reference: 356 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 006 Mar Plant molecular biology Deng Xingwang|Dong Li|Wang Lei|Xue Yongbiao|Zhang Yansheng|Zhang Yu'e ...ein CEGENDUO negatively regulates auxin-mediated lateral root formation in Arabidopsis. 4 599-615 16525894 2

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059353 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059353 001-026-D01 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066771 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066771 J013083K07 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative s...imilar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059160 001-023-D05 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 3e-28 ...

  16. Reference: 234 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 234 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15980261i Stepanova ...ion of two root-specific ethylene-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis. 8 2230-42 15980261 2005 Aug The Plant cell Alonso Jose M|Hamilton Alexandra A|Hoyt Joyce M|Stepanova Anna N

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101721 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101721 J033061A20 At3g57040.1 two-component responsive regulator / response reactor... 4 (RR4) identical to responce reactor4 GI:3273202 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain 9e-49 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058585 001-017-G01 At3g57040.1 two-component responsive regulator / response reactor... 4 (RR4) identical to responce reactor4 GI:3273202 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain 6e-55 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066153 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287906 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit / ClpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF028...61: Clp amino terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058510 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amin...o terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069552 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288349 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288349 J090023P19 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affect...ing germination 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-23 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-129 ...

  6. Reference: 750 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 750 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u18390594i Fulton Daniel...in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. 4 1040-58 18390594 2008 Apr The Plant cell Dorken Gary|Eicke Simona|Francisco Perigio|Fulton Daniel

  7. Reference: 161 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sis have not been identified. We tested whether several Arabidopsis thaliana enzy...ith the fact that GH3.6 was active on each of these auxins. By contrast, GH3.6 and the other five enzymes tested

  8. Reference: 267 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tien et al. 2005 Sep. Plant J. 43(6):824-36. The sucrose transporter gene AtSUC5 was studied as part of a programme aimed at identify...ing and studying the genes involved in seed maturation in Arabidopsis. Expression p

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242807 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242807 J090060H17 At5g37500.1 68418.m04516 guard cell outward rectifying K+ chann...el (GORK) identical to guard cell outward rectifying K+ channel [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|11414742|emb|CAC17

  10. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110694 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110694 002-170-A08 At5g59560.2 sensitivity to red light reduced protein (SRR1) id...entical to sensitivity to red light reduced protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:25527089; supporting cDNA gi|25527088|gb|AY127047.1| 1e-18 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.2 68418.m02892 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.3 68418.m02893 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287566 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287566 J065027L04 At1g34790.1 68414.m04337 transparent testa 1 protein (TT1) / zi...nc finger (C2H2 type) protein TT1 identical to transparent testa 1 GI:18253279 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00096: Zinc finger, C2H2 type 2e-77 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.1 68418.m02891 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289209 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289209 J100058I16 At1g34790.1 68414.m04337 transparent testa 1 protein (TT1) / zi...nc finger (C2H2 type) protein TT1 identical to transparent testa 1 GI:18253279 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00096: Zinc finger, C2H2 type 1e-12 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.1 68418.m02891 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243061 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243061 J100014C18 At5g24520.3 68418.m02893 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 1e-102 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243285 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243285 J100051N01 At1g34790.1 68414.m04337 transparent testa 1 protein (TT1) / zi...nc finger (C2H2 type) protein TT1 identical to transparent testa 1 GI:18253279 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00096: Zinc finger, C2H2 type 1e-24 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288081 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288081 J075172F18 At5g24520.2 68418.m02892 transparent testa glabra 1 protein (TTG1) identical to transpar...ent testa glabra 1 (Ttg1) protein (GI:10177852) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam PF00400: WD domain, G-beta repeat (4 copies,1 weak); 4e-13 ...