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Sample records for arabic numeral recognition

  1. A comparative study of different feature sets for recognition of handwritten Arabic numerals using a Multi Layer Perceptron

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nibaran; Mollah, Ayatullah Faruk; Sarkar, Ram; Basu, Subhadip

    2010-01-01

    The work presents a comparative assessment of seven different feature sets for recognition of handwritten Arabic numerals using a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier. The seven feature sets employed here consist of shadow features, octant centroids, longest runs, angular distances, effective spans, dynamic centers of gravity, and some of their combinations. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the maximum recognition rate of 95.80% is observed with both of two separat...

  2. DATABASES FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN ARABIC CHEQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alohali, Y.; Cheriet, M.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an effort toward building Arabic cheque databases for research in recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques. Databases of Arabic legal amounts, Arabic sub­ words, courtesy amounts, Indian digits, and Arabic cheques are provided. This paper highlights the characteristics of the

  3. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  4. The Hindu-Arabic numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David Eugene

    1911-01-01

    The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the

  5. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  6. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  7. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  8. CASRA+: A Colloquial Arabic Speech Recognition Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi A. Haraty; Omar El Ariss

    2007-01-01

    The research proposed here was for an Arabic speech recognition application, concentrating on the Lebanese dialect. The system starts by sampling the speech, which was the process of transforming the sound from analog to digital and then extracts the features by using the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC). The extracted features are then compared with the system's stored model; in this case the stored model chosen was a phoneme-based model. This reference model differs from the direc...

  9. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  10. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  11. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  12. Experiments on Automatic Recognition of Nonnative Arabic Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas O'Shaughnessy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The automatic recognition of foreign-accented Arabic speech is a challenging task since it involves a large number of nonnative accents. As well, the nonnative speech data available for training are generally insufficient. Moreover, as compared to other languages, the Arabic language has sparked a relatively small number of research efforts. In this paper, we are concerned with the problem of nonnative speech in a speaker independent, large-vocabulary speech recognition system for modern standard Arabic (MSA. We analyze some major differences at the phonetic level in order to determine which phonemes have a significant part in the recognition performance for both native and nonnative speakers. Special attention is given to specific Arabic phonemes. The performance of an HMM-based Arabic speech recognition system is analyzed with respect to speaker gender and its native origin. The WestPoint modern standard Arabic database from the language data consortium (LDC and the hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK are used throughout all experiments. Our study shows that the best performance in the overall phoneme recognition is obtained when nonnative speakers are involved in both training and testing phases. This is not the case when a language model and phonetic lattice networks are incorporated in the system. At the phonetic level, the results show that female nonnative speakers perform better than nonnative male speakers, and that emphatic phonemes yield a significant decrease in performance when they are uttered by both male and female nonnative speakers.

  13. Experiments on Automatic Recognition of Nonnative Arabic Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selouani Sid-Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic recognition of foreign-accented Arabic speech is a challenging task since it involves a large number of nonnative accents. As well, the nonnative speech data available for training are generally insufficient. Moreover, as compared to other languages, the Arabic language has sparked a relatively small number of research efforts. In this paper, we are concerned with the problem of nonnative speech in a speaker independent, large-vocabulary speech recognition system for modern standard Arabic (MSA. We analyze some major differences at the phonetic level in order to determine which phonemes have a significant part in the recognition performance for both native and nonnative speakers. Special attention is given to specific Arabic phonemes. The performance of an HMM-based Arabic speech recognition system is analyzed with respect to speaker gender and its native origin. The WestPoint modern standard Arabic database from the language data consortium (LDC and the hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK are used throughout all experiments. Our study shows that the best performance in the overall phoneme recognition is obtained when nonnative speakers are involved in both training and testing phases. This is not the case when a language model and phonetic lattice networks are incorporated in the system. At the phonetic level, the results show that female nonnative speakers perform better than nonnative male speakers, and that emphatic phonemes yield a significant decrease in performance when they are uttered by both male and female nonnative speakers.

  14. Character context: a shape descriptor for Arabic handwriting recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhsh, Mohammed; Almodfer, Rolla; Duan, Pengfei; Xiong, Shengwu

    2017-11-01

    In the handwriting recognition field, designing good descriptors are substantial to obtain rich information of the data. However, the handwriting recognition research of a good descriptor is still an open issue due to unlimited variation in human handwriting. We introduce a "character context descriptor" that efficiently dealt with the structural characteristics of Arabic handwritten characters. First, the character image is smoothed and normalized, then the character context descriptor of 32 feature bins is built based on the proposed "distance function." Finally, a multilayer perceptron with regularization is used as a classifier. On experimentation with a handwritten Arabic characters database, the proposed method achieved a state-of-the-art performance with recognition rate equal to 98.93% and 99.06% for the 66 and 24 classes, respectively.

  15. Arabic sign language recognition based on HOG descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jmaa, Ahmed; Mahdi, Walid; Ben Jemaa, Yousra; Ben Hamadou, Abdelmajid

    2017-02-01

    We present in this paper a new approach for Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet recognition using hand gesture analysis. This analysis consists in extracting a histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features from a hand image and then using them to generate an SVM Models. Which will be used to recognize the ArSL alphabet in real-time from hand gesture using a Microsoft Kinect camera. Our approach involves three steps: (i) Hand detection and localization using a Microsoft Kinect camera, (ii) hand segmentation and (iii) feature extraction using Arabic alphabet recognition. One each input image first obtained by using a depth sensor, we apply our method based on hand anatomy to segment hand and eliminate all the errors pixels. This approach is invariant to scale, to rotation and to translation of the hand. Some experimental results show the effectiveness of our new approach. Experiment revealed that the proposed ArSL system is able to recognize the ArSL with an accuracy of 90.12%.

  16. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Rousan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  17. Lexicon Reduction for Urdu/Arabic Script Based Character Recognition: A Multilingual OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.

  18. The Impact of Orthographic Connectivity on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateb, Asaid; Khateb-Abdelgani, Manal; Taha, Haitham Y.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters' connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third, sixth and ninth grade native Arabic speakers during a lexical decision task, using fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and…

  19. Handwritten Character Recognition Based on the Specificity and the Singularity of the Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Boulid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A good Arabic handwritten recognition system must consider the characteristics of Arabic letters which can be explicit such as the presence of diacritics or implicit such as the baseline information (a virtual line on which cursive text are aligned and/join. In order to find an adequate method of features extraction, we have taken into consideration the nature of the Arabic characters. The paper investigate two methods based on two different visions: one describes the image in terms of the distribution of pixels, and the other describes it in terms of local patterns. Spatial Distribution of Pixels (SDP is used according to the first vision; whereas Local Binary Patterns (LBP are used for the second one. Tested on the Arabic portion of the Isolated Farsi Handwritten Character Database (IFHCDB and using neural networks as a classifier, SDP achieve a recognition rate around 94% while LBP achieve a recognition rate of about 96%.

  20. Word-level recognition of multifont Arabic text using a feature vector matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Erik J.; Trenkle, John M.; Vogt, Robert C., III

    1996-03-01

    Many text recognition systems recognize text imagery at the character level and assemble words from the recognized characters. An alternative approach is to recognize text imagery at the word level, without analyzing individual characters. This approach avoids the problem of individual character segmentation, and can overcome local errors in character recognition. A word-level recognition system for machine-printed Arabic text has been implemented. Arabic is a script language, and is therefore difficult to segment at the character level. Character segmentation has been avoided by recognizing text imagery of complete words. The Arabic recognition system computes a vector of image-morphological features on a query word image. This vector is matched against a precomputed database of vectors from a lexicon of Arabic words. Vectors from the database with the highest match score are returned as hypotheses for the unknown image. Several feature vectors may be stored for each word in the database. Database feature vectors generated using multiple fonts and noise models allow the system to be tuned to its input stream. Used in conjunction with database pruning techniques, this Arabic recognition system has obtained promising word recognition rates on low-quality multifont text imagery.

  1. RECOGNITION AND VERIFICATION OF TOUCHING HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Kryzak, A.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In the field of financial document processing, recognition of touching handwritten numerals has been limited by lack of good benchmarking databases and low reliability of algorithms. This paper addresses the efforts toward solving the two problems. Two databases IRIS-Bell\\\\\\'98 and TNIST are

  2. Synthesis of Common Arabic Handwritings to Aid Optical Character Recognition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laslo Dinges

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis tasks such as pattern recognition, word spotting or segmentation, require comprehensive databases for training and validation. Not only variations in writing style but also the used list of words is of importance in the case that training samples should reflect the input of a specific area of application. However, generation of training samples is expensive in the sense of manpower and time, particularly if complete text pages including complex ground truth are required. This is why there is a lack of such databases, especially for Arabic, the second most popular language. However, Arabic handwriting recognition involves different preprocessing, segmentation and recognition methods. Each requires particular ground truth or samples to enable optimal training and validation, which are often not covered by the currently available databases. To overcome this issue, we propose a system that synthesizes Arabic handwritten words and text pages and generates corresponding detailed ground truth. We use these syntheses to validate a new, segmentation based system that recognizes handwritten Arabic words. We found that a modification of an Active Shape Model based character classifiers—that we proposed earlier—improves the word recognition accuracy. Further improvements are achieved, by using a vocabulary of the 50,000 most common Arabic words for error correction.

  3. Synthesis of Common Arabic Handwritings to Aid Optical Character Recognition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-Etriby, Sherif

    2016-03-11

    Document analysis tasks such as pattern recognition, word spotting or segmentation, require comprehensive databases for training and validation. Not only variations in writing style but also the used list of words is of importance in the case that training samples should reflect the input of a specific area of application. However, generation of training samples is expensive in the sense of manpower and time, particularly if complete text pages including complex ground truth are required. This is why there is a lack of such databases, especially for Arabic, the second most popular language. However, Arabic handwriting recognition involves different preprocessing, segmentation and recognition methods. Each requires particular ground truth or samples to enable optimal training and validation, which are often not covered by the currently available databases. To overcome this issue, we propose a system that synthesizes Arabic handwritten words and text pages and generates corresponding detailed ground truth. We use these syntheses to validate a new, segmentation based system that recognizes handwritten Arabic words. We found that a modification of an Active Shape Model based character classifiers-that we proposed earlier-improves the word recognition accuracy. Further improvements are achieved, by using a vocabulary of the 50,000 most common Arabic words for error correction.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR EGYPTIAN ARABIC PHONE CONVERSATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Romanenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with description of several speech recognition systems for the Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. The research is based on the CALLHOME Egyptian corpus. The description of both systems, classic: based on Hidden Markov and Gaussian Mixture Models, and state-of-the-art: deep neural network acoustic models is given. We have demonstrated the contribution from the usage of speaker-dependent bottleneck features; for their extraction three extractors based on neural networks were trained. For their training three datasets in several languageswere used:Russian, English and differentArabic dialects.We have studied the possibility of application of a small Modern Standard Arabic (MSA corpus to derive phonetic transcriptions. The experiments have shown that application of the extractor obtained on the basis of the Russian dataset enables to increase significantly the quality of the Arabic speech recognition. We have also stated that the usage of phonetic transcriptions based on modern standard Arabic decreases recognition quality. Nevertheless, system operation results remain applicable in practice. In addition, we have carried out the study of obtained models application for the keywords searching problem solution. The systems obtained demonstrate good results as compared to those published before. Some ways to improve speech recognition are offered.

  5. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  6. Multi-digit handwritten sindhi numerals recognition using som neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandio, A.A.; Jalbani, A.H.; Awan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this research paper a multi-digit Sindhi handwritten numerals recognition system using SOM Neural Network is presented. Handwritten digits recognition is one of the challenging tasks and a lot of research is being carried out since many years. A remarkable work has been done for recognition of isolated handwritten characters as well as digits in many languages like English, Arabic, Devanagari, Chinese, Urdu and Pashto. However, the literature reviewed does not show any remarkable work done for Sindhi numerals recognition. The recognition of Sindhi digits is a difficult task due to the various writing styles and different font sizes. Therefore, SOM (Self-Organizing Map), a NN (Neural Network) method is used which can recognize digits with various writing styles and different font sizes. Only one sample is required to train the network for each pair of multi-digit numerals. A database consisting of 4000 samples of multi-digits consisting only two digits from 10-50 and other matching numerals have been collected by 50 users and the experimental results of proposed method show that an accuracy of 86.89% is achieved. (author)

  7. Recognition of phonetic Arabic figures via wavelet based Mel Frequency Cepstrum using HMMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. El-Henawy

    2014-04-01

    A comparison between different features of speech is given. The features based on the Cepstrum give accuracy of 94% for speech recognition while the features based on the short time energy in time domain give accuracy of 92%. The features based on formant frequencies give accuracy of 95.5%. It is clear that the features based on MFCCs with accuracy of 98% give the best accuracy rate. So the features depend on MFCCs with HMMs may be recommended for recognition of the spoken Arabic digits.

  8. Using features of local densities, statistics and HMM toolkit (HTK for offline Arabic handwriting text recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Moubtahij Hicham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical approach of an offline handwritten Arabic text recognition system. It is based on the Hidden Markov Models (HMM Toolkit (HTK without explicit segmentation. The first phase is preprocessing, where the data is introduced in the system after quality enhancements. Then, a set of characteristics (features of local densities and features statistics are extracted by using the technique of sliding windows. Subsequently, the resulting feature vectors are injected to the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK. The simple database “Arabic-Numbers” and IFN/ENIT are used to evaluate the performance of this system. Keywords: Hidden Markov Models (HMM Toolkit (HTK, Sliding windows

  9. Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukharouba, Abdelhak; Bennia, Abdelhak

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system.The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database

  10. Recognition for old Arabic manuscripts using spatial gray level dependence (SGLD

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    Ahmad M. Abd Al-Aziz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis forms the basis of object recognition and classification in several domains, one of these domains is historical document manuscripts because the manuscripts hold our culture heritage and also large numbers of undated manuscripts exist. This paper presents results for historical document classification of old Arabic manuscripts using texture analysis and a segmentation free approach. The main objective is to discriminate between historical documents of different writing styles to three different ages: Contemporary (Modern Age, Ottoman Age and Mamluk Age. This classification depends on a Spatial Gray-level Dependence (SGLD technique which provides eight distinct texture features for each sample document. We applied Stepwise Discriminant Analysis and Multiple discriminant analysis methods to decrease the dimensionality of features and extract training vector features from samples. To classify historical documents into three main historical age classes the decision tree classification is applied. The system has been tested on 48 Arabic historical manuscripts documents from the Dar Al-Kotob Al-Masria Library. Our results so far yield 95.83% correct classification for the historical Arabic documents.

  11. Arab Civil Society and Education in Israel: The Arab Pedagogical Council as a Contentious Performance to Achieve National Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…

  12. Adapted all-numerical correlator for face recognition applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbouz, M.; Bouzidi, F.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Leonard, I.; Benkelfat, B.-E.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we suggest and validate an all-numerical implementation of a VanderLugt correlator which is optimized for face recognition applications. The main goal of this implementation is to take advantage of the benefits (detection, localization, and identification of a target object within a scene) of correlation methods and exploit the reconfigurability of numerical approaches. This technique requires a numerical implementation of the optical Fourier transform. We pay special attention to adapt the correlation filter to this numerical implementation. One main goal of this work is to reduce the size of the filter in order to decrease the memory space required for real time applications. To fulfil this requirement, we code the reference images with 8 bits and study the effect of this coding on the performances of several composite filters (phase-only filter, binary phase-only filter). The saturation effect has for effect to decrease the performances of the correlator for making a decision when filters contain up to nine references. Further, an optimization is proposed based for an optimized segmented composite filter. Based on this approach, we present tests with different faces demonstrating that the above mentioned saturation effect is significantly reduced while minimizing the size of the learning data base.

  13. Developmental specialization of the left parietal cortex for the semantic representation of Arabic numerals: An fMR-adaptation study

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    Stephan E. Vogel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The way the human brain constructs representations of numerical symbols is poorly understood. While increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies has indicated that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS becomes increasingly specialized for symbolic numerical magnitude representation over developmental time, the extent to which these changes are associated with age-related differences in symbolic numerical magnitude representation or with developmental changes in non-numerical processes, such as response selection, remains to be uncovered. To address these outstanding questions we investigated developmental changes in the cortical representation of symbolic numerical magnitude in 6- to 14-year-old children using a passive functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation design, thereby mitigating the influence of response selection. A single-digit Arabic numeral was repeatedly presented on a computer screen and interspersed with the presentation of novel digits deviating as a function of numerical ratio (smaller/larger number. Results demonstrated a correlation between age and numerical ratio in the left IPS, suggesting an age-related increase in the extent to which numerical symbols are represented in the left IPS. Brain activation of the right IPS was modulated by numerical ratio but did not correlate with age, indicating hemispheric differences in IPS engagement during the development of symbolic numerical representation.

  14. Artificially intelligent recognition of Arabic speaker using voice print-based local features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Awais; Alsulaiman, Mansour; Muhammad, Ghulam; Akram, Sheeraz

    2016-11-01

    Local features for any pattern recognition system are based on the information extracted locally. In this paper, a local feature extraction technique was developed. This feature was extracted in the time-frequency plain by taking the moving average on the diagonal directions of the time-frequency plane. This feature captured the time-frequency events producing a unique pattern for each speaker that can be viewed as a voice print of the speaker. Hence, we referred to this technique as voice print-based local feature. The proposed feature was compared to other features including mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) for speaker recognition using two different databases. One of the databases used in the comparison is a subset of an LDC database that consisted of two short sentences uttered by 182 speakers. The proposed feature attained 98.35% recognition rate compared to 96.7% for MFCC using the LDC subset.

  15. ZONING DESIGN FOR HAND­WRITTEN NUMERAL RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecce Di, V.; Dimauro, G.; Guerriero, A.; Impedovo, S.; Pirlo, G.; Salzo, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR), zoning is used to extract topological information from patterns. In this paper zoning is considered as the result of an optimisation problem and a new technique is presented for automatic zoning. More precisely, local analysis of feature

  16. Digit recognition for Arabic/Jawi and Roman using features from triangle geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Sanusi; Omar, Khairuddin; Nasrudin, Mohamad Faidzul; Idrus, Bahari; Wan Mohd Ghazali, Khadijah

    2013-04-01

    A novel method is proposed to recognize the Arab/Jawi and Roman digits. This new method is based on features from the triangle geometry, normalized into nine features. The features are used for zoning which results in five and 25 zones. The algorithm is validated by using three standard datasets which are publicly available and used by researchers in this field. The first dataset is HODA that contains 60,000 images for training and 20,000 images for testing. The second dataset is IFHCDB. This dataset has 52,380 isolated characters and 17,740 digits. Only the 17,740 images of digits are used for this research. For the roman digit, MNIST are chosen. MNIST dataset has 60,000 images for training and 10,000 images for testing. Supervised (SML) and Unsupervised Machine Learning (UML) are used to test the nine features. The SML used are Neural Network (NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Whereas the UML uses Euclidean Distance Method with data mining algorithms; namely Mean Average Precision (eMAP) and Frequency Based (eFB). Results for SML testing for HODA dataset are 98.07% accuracy for SVM, and 96.73% for NN. For IFHCDB and MNIST the accuracy are 91.75% and 93.095% respectively. For the UML tests, HODA dataset is 93.91%, IFHCDB 85.94% and MNIST 86.61%. The train and test images are selected using both random and the original dataset's distribution. The results show that the accuracy of proposed algorithm is over 90% for each SML trained datasets where the highest result is the one that uses 25 zones features.

  17. Devnagari numeral recognition by combining decision of multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    These categories refer to individual characters thereby minimising learning interference ..... maximum activation provides the identity of the numeral. ... correct classification of an input sample as “1” (English) weight associated with the output.

  18. IMPROVEMENT IN HANDWRITTEN NUMERAL STRING RECOGNITION BY SLANT NORMALIZATION AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britto jr., A. de S.; Sabourin, R.; Lethelier, E.; Bortolozzi, F.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes a way of enhancing handwritten numeral string recognition by considering slant normalization and contextual information to train an implicit segmentation­based system. A word slant normalization method is modified in order to improve the results for handwritten numeral strings.

  19. How Does the Linguistic Distance Between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances During Verbal Memory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-06-01

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and phonologically similar version (PS). The result showed that for immediate free-recall, the performances were better for the SL and the PS conditions compared to the SA one. However, for the parts of delayed recall and recognition, the results did not reveal any significant consistent effect of diglossia. Accordingly, it was suggested that diglossia has a significant effect on the storage and short term memory functions but not on long term memory functions. The results were discussed in light of different approaches in the field of bilingual memory.

  20. A natural approach to convey numerical digits using hand activity recognition based on hand shape features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidananda, H.; Reddy, T. Hanumantha

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a natural representation of numerical digit(s) using hand activity analysis based on number of fingers out stretched for each numerical digit in sequence extracted from a video. The analysis is based on determining a set of six features from a hand image. The most important features used from each frame in a video are the first fingertip from top, palm-line, palm-center, valley points between the fingers exists above the palm-line. Using this work user can convey any number of numerical digits using right or left or both the hands naturally in a video. Each numerical digit ranges from 0 to9. Hands (right/left/both) used to convey digits can be recognized accurately using the valley points and with this recognition whether the user is a right / left handed person in practice can be analyzed. In this work, first the hand(s) and face parts are detected by using YCbCr color space and face part is removed by using ellipse based method. Then, the hand(s) are analyzed to recognize the activity that represents a series of numerical digits in a video. This work uses pixel continuity algorithm using 2D coordinate geometry system and does not use regular use of calculus, contours, convex hull and datasets.

  1. Experimental evaluation of Arabic OCR systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Alghamdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of the state-of-the-art printed Arabic text recognition systems to determine open areas for future improvements. In addition, this paper proposes a standard protocol with a set of metrics for measuring the effectiveness of Arabic optical character recognition (OCR systems to assist researchers in comparing different Arabic OCR approaches. Design/methodology/approach – This paper describes an experiment to automatically evaluate four well-known Arabic OCR systems using a set of performance metrics. The evaluation experiment is conducted on a publicly available printed Arabic dataset comprising 240 text images with a variety of resolution levels, font types, font styles and font sizes. Findings – The experimental results show that the field of character recognition for printed Arabic still requires further research to reach an efficient text recognition method for Arabic script. Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that provides a comprehensive automated evaluation of Arabic OCR systems with respect to the characteristics of Arabic script and, in addition, proposes an evaluation methodology that can be used as a benchmark by researchers and therefore will contribute significantly to the enhancement of the field of Arabic script recognition.

  2. How Does the Linguistic Distance between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances during Verbal Memory Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and…

  3. Neural Dissociation of Number from Letter Recognition and Its Relationship to Parietal Numerical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Hebrank, Andrew; Polk, Thad A.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    The visual recognition of letters dissociates from the recognition of numbers at both the behavioral and neural level. In this article, using fMRI, we investigate whether the visual recognition of numbers dissociates from letters, thereby establishing a double dissociation. In Experiment 1, participants viewed strings of consonants and Arabic…

  4. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  5. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  6. Arabs in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长贵

    2004-01-01

    In the eyes of many people in the United States, Arab-Americans are an invisible part of the population. Though Arab-Americans as a community have made great contributions to American society in the fields from literature to politics to medicine, many Americans know very little about Americans of Arab descent(血统).

  7. Reflections on Arab Spring in Nigeria: Constraints and Possibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of the 2011 Arab spring that revealed to the whole world more about the legitimacy crisis, authoritarian rule, dynasty politics and bad governance in that region, this paper review the role of citizen in a revolution. In spite of the numerous advances in the Arab region, recent growth did not create enough jobs for the ...

  8. A Holistic Technique for an Arabic OCR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan M. A. Nashwan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical based approaches in Optical Character Recognition (OCR systems can endure a significant amount of segmentation errors, especially when dealing with cursive languages such as the Arabic language with frequent overlapping between characters. Holistic based approaches that consider whole words as single units were introduced as an effective approach to avoid such segmentation errors. Still the main challenge for these approaches is their computation complexity, especially when dealing with large vocabulary applications. In this paper, we introduce a computationally efficient, holistic Arabic OCR system. A lexicon reduction approach based on clustering similar shaped words is used to reduce recognition time. Using global word level Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT based features in combination with local block based features, our proposed approach managed to generalize for new font sizes that were not included in the training data. Evaluation results for the approach using different test sets from modern and historical Arabic books are promising compared with state of art Arabic OCR systems.

  9. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  10. Adopting US-GAAP Or IASB Accounting Standards By The Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Taisier A. Zoubi; Osamah Al-Khazali

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether Arab countries have adopted the standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (lASB) or the US-GAAP. The results of this study show that companies in the Arab world use different accounting rules and regulations for measurement, recognition, and disclosures of financial position and results of operation. Consequently, comparability of the financial results of different companies in different countries in the Arab world is impaired. We recommend a...

  11. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  12. The Lexical Status of the Root in Processing Morphologically Complex Words in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhoub-Awwad, Yasmin; Leikin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Arabic root in the visual word recognition process among young readers in order to explore its role in reading acquisition and its development within the structure of the Arabic mental lexicon. We examined cross-modal priming of words that were derived from the same root of the target…

  13. Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Neural Network Classifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... an OCR using Neural Network classifier preceded by a set of preprocessing .... Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which we adopt in this research, consist of ... advantage and disadvantages of each technique. In [9],. Khemiri ...

  14. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  15. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14-19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.

  16. Ichi, Ni, 3, 4: Neural Representation of Kana, Kanji, and Arabic Numbers in Native Japanese Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; Filippi, Christopher G.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese language represents numbers in kana digit words (a syllabic notation), kanji numbers and Arabic numbers (logographic notations). Kanji and Arabic numbers have previously shown similar patterns of numerical processing, and because of their shared logographic properties may exhibit similar brain areas of numerical representation. Kana…

  17. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  18. Réalisation d’un système de reconnaissance automatique de la parole arabe base sur CMU Sphinx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadiqui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the continuation of the work completed by Satori and all. [SCH07] by the realization of an automatic speech recognition system (ASR for Arabic language based SPHINX 4 system. The previous work was limited to the recognition of the first ten digits, whereas the present work is a remarkable projection consisting in continuous Arabic speech recognition with a rate of recognition of surroundings 96%.

  19. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS)

    OpenAIRE

    ASMA AL-OMARI; BELAL ABUATA

    2014-01-01

    Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR), and natural language processing (NLP). A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem). Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the b...

  20. Recognition of Earthquake-Induced Damage in the Abakainon Necropolis (NE Sicily): Results From Geomorphological, Geophysical and Numerical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, C.; Albano, M.; Capizzi, P.; D'Alessandro, A.; Doumaz, F.; Martorana, R.; Moro, M.; Saroli, M.

    2018-01-01

    Seismotectonic activity and slope instability are a permanent threat in the archaeological site of Abakainon and in the nearby village of Tripi in NE Sicily. In recent times, signs of an ancient earthquake have been identified in the necropolis of Abakainon which dating was ascertained to the first century AD earthquake. The site is located on a slope of Peloritani Mts. along the Tindari Fault Line and contains evidence for earthquake-induced landslide, including fallen columns and blocks, horizontal shift and counter slope tilting of the tomb basements. In this paper, we used an integrated geomorphological and geophysical analysis to constrain the landslide. The research was directed to the acquisition of deep geological data for the reconstruction of slope process and the thickness of mobilized materials. The applied geophysical techniques included seismic refraction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography. The surveys were performed to delineate the sliding surface and to assess approximately the thickness of mobilized materials. The geophysical and geomorphologic data confirmed the presence of different overlapped landslides in the studied area. Moreover, a numerical simulation of the slope under seismic loads supports the hypothesis of a mobilization of the landslide mass in case of strong earthquakes (PGA > 0.3 g). However, numerical results highlight that the main cause of destruction for the Abakainon necropolis is the amplification of the seismic waves, occasionally accompanied by surficial sliding.

  1. Least Square Support Vector Machine Classifier vs a Logistic Regression Classifier on the Recognition of Numeric Digits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo A. López-Sarmiento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is compared the performance of a multi-class least squares support vector machine (LSSVM mc versus a multi-class logistic regression classifier to problem of recognizing the numeric digits (0-9 handwritten. To develop the comparison was used a data set consisting of 5000 images of handwritten numeric digits (500 images for each number from 0-9, each image of 20 x 20 pixels. The inputs to each of the systems were vectors of 400 dimensions corresponding to each image (not done feature extraction. Both classifiers used OneVsAll strategy to enable multi-classification and a random cross-validation function for the process of minimizing the cost function. The metrics of comparison were precision and training time under the same computational conditions. Both techniques evaluated showed a precision above 95 %, with LS-SVM slightly more accurate. However the computational cost if we found a marked difference: LS-SVM training requires time 16.42 % less than that required by the logistic regression model based on the same low computational conditions.

  2. In the Arab Bedroom: The Sex Life of Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, P

    2016-12-01

    The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki's book "Sex and the Citadel" is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world.

  3. In the Arab Bedroom: The Sex Life of Arabs

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki?s book ?Sex and the Citadel? is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world.

  4. Arab Knowledge Society: Who Represents the Arab World Online ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Knowledge Society: Who Represents the Arab World Online? ... Wikipedia's culture of openness, extensive reuse and near ubiquity makes it an ideal place to ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  5. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at…

  6. AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM CONCERNING THE MOROCCAN DIALECTE (Darija and Tamazight)

    OpenAIRE

    A. EL GHAZI; C. DAOUI; N. IDRISSI

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present an automatic speech recognition system for Moroccan dialect mainly: Darija (Arab dialect) and Tamazight. Many approaches have been used to model the Arabic and Tamazightphonetic units. In this paper, we propose to use the hidden Markov model (HMM) for modeling these phoneticunits. Experimental results show that the proposed approach further improves the recognition.

  7. Multi-Lingual Deep Neural Networks for Language Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    system architecture 2. I-VECTOR SYSTEM Most state-of-the- art language recognition systems are based on the i-vector framework [8] depicted in Figure 1...may be possible to achieve more gains on the Arabic and Chinese cluster by adding ad- ditional ASR corpora such as Callhome Egyptian Arabic or HKUST

  8. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  9. Egyptian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m 3 per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs

  10. ANALISIS KONTRASTIF PENULISAN ARAB MELAYU RIAU DAN PENULISAN BAHASA ARAB SERTA IMPLIKASINYA TERHADAP PENGAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprijon Efendi, Alwizar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada kaedah penulisan Arab Melayu klasik, semua kosa-kata yang berasal dari bahasa Arab mesti ditulis sesuai dengan tulisan bahasa asalnya yaitu bahasa Arab itu sendiri. Namun, pada kaedah penulisan Arab Melayu Riau saat ini, semua kosa-kata ditulis sesuai dengan konsonannya tanpa membedakan antara kosa-kata yang berasal dari bahasa Arab atau bukan bahasa Arab. Implikasi dari pergeseran kaedah penulisan ini, banyak kosa kata yang diadobsi dari bahasa Arab berbeda penulisannya dari bentuk asalnya. Perbedaan penulisan yang kontras ini menyebabkan banyak peserta didik, baik di tingkat sekolah menengah maupun perguruan tinggi salah dalam menulis nama sendiri, nama pahlawan, nama jalan, nama instansi, yayasan, dan kosa kata lainnya yang berasal dari bahasa Arab. Akibat dari kesalahan tersebut tidak hanya sekedar salah dilihat dari segi kaedah, bahkan juga dapat merubah makna kata dari makna asalnya dalam bahasa Arab. Jika hal ini tidak dikaji ulang, maka misi penulisan Arab Melayu tidak lagi untuk mendekatkan penggunanya agar mudah mempelajari bahasa Arab, akan tetapi keberadaannya akan mengganggu kesuksesan pengajaran bahasa Arab di bumi Lancang Kuning

  11. Arab Media Discourse: Breaking Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Lahlali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development and change of Arab media discourse since mid-1990s. The paper looks at how the production and consumption of media discourse have changed dramatically in the Arab world over the last decade or so, notably in relation to taboos such as religion, governance and gender. The paper argues that transnational Arab media, particularly al-Jazeera, have contributed to this change by adopting a liberal and critical approach when dealing with Arab taboos. This change is clearly reflected in the new discourse adopted by both the Arab public and Arab media. Such a discourse practice shapes and is shaped by a new Arab social, cultural and political practice.

  12. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  13. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.Keywords: lifestyle, obesity, physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary habits

  14. Teaching Islam and Arabic over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Chaim

    2004-01-01

    Arabic is the language of the Arab minority in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the neighbors of Israel (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon). Hence, learning Arabic and Arab culture is very important to promoting understanding between Arabs and Jews. The concept of using the internet to promote learning and communication between students in…

  15. A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ARABIC AND ENGLISH NOUN PLURAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyatul Himmah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is attempting to explore the plural markers in both Arabic and English. The data collected qualitatively are sorted to meet the scope of this paper. Through contrastive analysis, it is discovered that there are numerous significant differences rather than similarities in terms of syllable count start, patterns of plural nouns in relation to gender, regularity, regular vs irregular plural and internal vowel change. Moreover, Arabic has some uniqueness in its plural marking system. Being well informed on all of these might pave the way for second or foreign language learners to comprehensively understand the plural marking system in Arabic and English.   Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi penanda jamak dalam bahasa Arab dan bahasa Inggris. Data yang dikumpulkan secara kualitatif diurutkan untuk memenuhi cakupan makalah ini. Melalui analisis kontrastif, ditemukan banyak perbedaan yang signifikan daripada kesamaan dalam segi jumlah awal suku kata, pola kata benda jamak dalam kaitannya dengan gender, keteraturan dan ketidakteraturan jamak, serta perubahan vokal. Selain itu, bahasa Arab memiliki beberapa keunikan dalam sistem menandai jamaknya. Memahami informasi hal tersebut dengan baik mungkin memudahkan pembelajar bahasa kedua atau asing untuk memahami secara komprehensif sistem penanda jamak dalam bahasa Arab dan Inggris

  16. Teaching Arabic to Native Speakers Educational Games in a New Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshikhabobakr, Hanan; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents nine educational games and activities for learning the Arabic language developed for Arabiyyatii project, a three-year endeavor that involves re-conceptualization of the standard Arabic language learning curriculum as a first language for kindergarten students. The applications...... presented in this paper are developed for tabletop surface computers, which support a collaborative and interactive learning environment. These applications focus on speaking, word production, and sentence recognition of the Modern Standard Arabic to young native speakers. This work employs...... an interdisciplinary research framework, exploiting best practices used from related disciplines. Namely: computer-supported collaborative learning, language learning, teaching and learning pedagogy, instructional design and scaffolding....

  17. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  18. Cancer incidence among Arab Americans in California, Detroit, and New Jersey SEER registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel; Soliman, Amr S; Ruterbusch, Julie; Meza, Rafael; Hirko, Kelly; Graff, John; Schwartz, Kendra

    2014-06-01

    We calculated cancer incidence for Arab Americans in California; Detroit, Michigan; and New Jersey, and compared rates with non-Hispanic, non-Arab Whites (NHNAWs); Blacks; and Hispanics. We conducted a study using population-based data. We linked new cancers diagnosed in 2000 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) to an Arab surname database. We used standard SEER definitions and methodology for calculating rates. Population estimates were extracted from the 2000 US Census. We calculated incidence and rate ratios. Arab American men and women had similar incidence rates across the 3 geographic regions, and the rates were comparable to NHNAWs. However, the thyroid cancer rate was elevated among Arab American women compared with NHNAWs, Hispanics, and Blacks. For all sites combined, for prostate and lung cancer, Arab American men had a lower incidence than Blacks and higher incidence than Hispanics in all 3 geographic regions. Arab American male bladder cancer incidence was higher than that in Hispanics and Blacks in these regions. Our results suggested that further research would benefit from the federal recognition of Arab Americans as a specified ethnicity to estimate and address the cancer burden in this growing segment of the population.

  19. Arab countries are waking up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    Year after year, the Arab world is confirming its interest for the gas industry. In front of an increasing local consumption, a growth of export demand and a rise of rates, the Arab countries are multiplying the projects and partnerships in a sector for which the intervention of foreign expert companies and investment are often necessary. This paper presents an overview of the past year of the gas industry in Arab countries: the projects in progress, the penetration of occidental markets by Arab companies, and the difficulties encountered by the GTL (Gas to Liquid) industry. (J.S.)

  20. Arabic summarization in Tw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal El-Fishawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twitter, an online micro blogs, enables its users to write and read text-based posts known as “tweets”. It became one of the most commonly used social networks. However, an important problem arises is that the returned tweets, when searching for a topic phrase, are only sorted by recency not relevancy. This makes the user to manually read through the tweets in order to understand what are primarily saying about the particular topic. Some strategies were developed for summarizing English micro blogs but Arabic micro blogs summarization is still an active research area. This paper presents a machine learning based solution for summarizing Arabic micro blogging posts and more specifically Egyptian dialect summarization. The goal is to produce short summary for Arabic tweets related to a specific topic in less time and effort. The proposed strategy is evaluated and the results are compared with that obtained by the well-known multi-document summarization algorithms including; SumBasic, TF-IDF, PageRank, MEAD, and human summaries.

  1. After the Arab Spring : Are Secular Parties the Answer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boduszynski, Mieczyslaw; Fabbe, Kristin; Lamont, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    After the “Arab Spring” and the initial democratic reforms in Turkey under the Justice and Development Party (AKP), why has democratic progress remained so elusive in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)? In recent years, that question has preoccupied numerous scholars, commentators, and policy

  2. A grammar of Darfur Arabic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roset, C.J.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis provides grammatical details on the phonology, morphology and syntax of the Arabic as it is spoken in Darfur (West Sudan). All three of these linguistic fields give evidence that this variety of Arabic is heavily influenced by the other, particularly Nilo-Saharan languages which are also

  3. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  4. Libya: A Future Arab Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    with the Berber tribes of North Africa. The eastern region of Cyrenaica is more closely associated with the Arab states of the Middle East...Springborg’s analysis is nationalism. Libya has a strong sense of national identity as well as a very homogeneous population that is 97% Berber /Arab

  5. Detection of Text Lines of Handwritten Arabic Manuscripts using Markov Decision Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Boulid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a character recognition systems, the segmentation phase is critical since the accuracy of the recognition depend strongly on it. In this paper we present an approach based on Markov Decision Processes to extract text lines from binary images of Arabic handwritten documents. The proposed approach detects the connected components belonging to the same line by making use of knowledge about features and arrangement of those components. The initial results show that the system is promising for extracting Arabic handwritten lines.

  6. "We are Arabs:" The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women's Lived Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-12-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity , and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.

  7. Arabic validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may in certain cases become problematic and engender negative consequences in daily life. As no instrument in the Arabic language is available, however, to measure excessive Internet use, the goal of the current study was to validate an Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS. Methods The Arabic version of the CIUS was administered to a sample of 185 Internet users and exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed. Results As found previously for the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. The total score on the CIUS was positively associated with time spent online. Conclusion The Arabic version of the CIUS seems to be a valid self-report to measure problematic Internet use.

  8. Attitudes of Arabic- and Non-Arabic Speaking Parents Toward the Importance of Learning Arabic in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Al Alili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To promote Arabic teaching, researchers examined attitudes and expectations of parents regarding the importance of their children's Arabic study. In four states Researchers surveyed 238 Arabic-speaking and 128 non-Arabic speaking parents of children at urban and suburban schools offering Arabic as part of their mainstream programs. Most parents demonstrated positive attitudes toward language learning. They involved and encouraged their children's Arabic study and involved themselves in it. Arabic-speaking parents believed Arabic important for their children to maintain communication and affinity with family; preserve culture, religion, and traditions; maintain cultural heritage in the United States; and maintain moral and professional values. Non-Arabic speaking parents expressed similar reasons. However, Arabic-speaking parents recognized a wider variety of benefits to learning Arabic. Researchers concluded that parental attitudes toward language learning have great impact on children's learning process, but noted a discrepancy between the attitudes and expectations of Arabic- versus non-Arabic-speaking parents regarding learning Arabic.

  9. America's Credibility at Stake: Arab Perceptions of US Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ... and Arab governments as biased against the Arabs and in favor of Israel From the Arab view, two lesser factors that contribute to Arab feelings that US policies are unjust include the long-term American...

  10. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  11. Learning Arabic through play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of educational games in the context of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a three-year project funded through Qatar National Research Fund. The scope of the project is teaching Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) to kindergarten students (5-6 years old) that are native...... speakers of the Qatari dialect. Part of the new curriculum envisioned in the project includes the use of simple educational games, specifically designed and developed for tabletop surface computers. The paper presents a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9...... weeks in the project. The paper presents three of the most played games by the students, along with analysis on collected data, focusing on students’ performance and attitudes towards the new curriculum. Results analysis provided an encouraging image, suggesting that the conducted activity was able...

  12. Sustainability of International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates: A Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Angela; Alzouebi, Khadeegha

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses.…

  13. The feasibility of nuclear power development in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhars, A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many Arab countries have manifested an interest in the development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology. This intent, however, was viewed by many commentators through geopolitical and security lens. In contrast with this view, this paper argues for the feasibility and desirability of nuclear power development in the Arab world based on sound economic considerations and economic development needs. The first part of the paper will, therefore, examine the reasons behind the initiatives currently being developed to acquire nuclear energy. The second part will highlight the promise of nuclear power development. The concluding section will illustrate how recognition of the economic motivation for investing in nuclear power generation is important to avoid a misrepresentation of intentions. (Author)

  14. Increasing gender and ethnic diversity in the health care workforce: The case of Arab male nurses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael; Liberman, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent attempts at increasing health care workforce diversity, a measure that was found to reduce health disparities, men remain a minority in the traditionally female occupation of nursing. One exception to this observation is the Arab ethnic minority in Israel that includes numerous male nurses. Determining the percentage of Arab male nurses in the Israeli health care system and understanding how they perceive and negotiate their masculinity. We used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Quantitative statistics were obtained from the 2011 to 2013 Labor Force Survey conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and qualitative data derived from 13 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals, conducted during 2014. Nursing constitutes a prominent employment path for Arab men in Israel and is more prominent as an employment path for Arab men than that for Jewish men. A total of 38.6% of all Arab nurses were men and only 7.5% of Jews and others. Quantitative data thus reveal that men do not constitute a minority among Arab nurses. Similarly, qualitative findings show that Arab male nurses do not manifest marginal masculinity but rather demonstrate many elements of hegemonic masculinity. Arab male nurses distinguish themselves and differentiate their roles from those of female nurses, expressing their motives for choosing the nursing profession in terms of hegemonic gender roles for men in Arab society in Israel. Although nursing is a traditionally female occupation, it offers an opportunity for Arab men to demonstrate their masculinity. Arab male nurses choose nursing as a means rather than an end, however, meaning that many of them might not remain in the profession. This observation is significant because of the importance of retaining men from ethnic minorities in nursing, especially in multicultural societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 17 of 17 ... Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Journal Home > Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  17. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...and also English) natural language processing ( NLP ), containing code for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in Stephen Tratz’s

  18. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks in the ...... computers affected students’ performance and attitude towards the Arabic class and, consequently, the Arabic language....

  19. Lingkungan Bahasa Arab di Pemondokan Santri Mahasiswa Pondok Pesantren Mambaus Sholihin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Makinuddin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of factors shaping and deter-mining the success of learning and mastering foreign langua-ges, including Arabic language. Along with learning activities to achieve excellent ability in comprehending Arabic language, language environment becomes another most essential factor. The existence of Arabic environment (bî’ah lughawîyah ʻArabîyah beco-mes an exceptionally pivotal because it brings about what so-called “contextual learning activity” around the students. The article discusses the case of Mambaus Sholihin Islamic Boarding School which develops such language environment. The study shows that this Islamic educational institution has faced, however, several problems regarding inconsistent implementation of the language environment even though there have been numerous language instructors graduated from a number of universities in the Middle East and Indonesia as well as Islamic boarding schools in Indonesia. Specifically, these are a number of problems as regards to the issue: 1 there has been no such an organizing team; 2 the students have no self-confidence to practice Arabic; 3 the human resources engaging in the implementation of the Arabic environ-ment have less motivation to earnestly run it; 4 bad influence of senior students to the new students; and 5 there has been no strong awareness to use Arabic for daily communication.

  20. FONOLOGI DAN MORFOLOGI BAHASA ARAB 'AMIYAH MESIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrodi Mufrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Arabic language, it is divided into two, namely Arabic fuṣhâ and ‘âmiyah. Arabic fuṣhâ  used as a written language, and Arabic ‘âmiyah used as a spoken language. In daily activities, Arab people used Arabic ‘âmiyah more frequently. This is due to a fairly high level of formality that is owned by Arabic fuṣhâ, that should be in the spoken language is communicative, consultative, relaxed and intimate, both in term of morphological and syntactical. In the Egyptian Arabic occur in phonological and morphological differences were deemed difficult for students who only learn Arabic fuṣhâ. The difficulty that arises due to the ignorance of students to the differences that occur between Arabic fuṣhâ  and Egyptian dialect. With an understanding of phonological and morphological of Arabic ‘âmiyah expected that the students of Arabic language or people who have learned fuṣhâ can understand-at least a few understanding-spoken language so that communication will run smoothly.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i2.2184

  1. Teaching the Arab World: Evaluating Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a study of 19 junior and senior high school textbooks used in the Washington D.C. area to introduce students to the Arab World and Islam. Findings indicated that Middle Eastern culture and history were frequently measured by western standards, information was often inaccurate, the Arab-Israeli conflict often portrayed Arabs as being at…

  2. Smoking behavior in pregnant Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Smiley, Karen; Devine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    To determine the smoking behavior in pregnant Arab American women who attended a Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program at a local county public health clinic and compare the incidence of smoking behaviors of pregnant Arab American women with pregnant women who were not Arab Americans. Data were extracted from a computer database that contained information from health history charts of pregnant Arab and non-Arab American women. The study sample was 830 women, 823 of whom were Arab American participants enrolled in the WIC program in Michigan. Approximately 6% of pregnant Arab Americans smoked during pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking behavior among pregnant Arab American women was similar to that of smoking behaviors of Hispanics and Asian Americans in the United States. Although smoking behavior is a serious problem among Arab American immigrants in general and in the Arab world in particular, cultural factors that support healthy behavior during pregnancy in the Arab culture seem to limit the use of tobacco in pregnant women. Nurses who care for Arab American pregnant women can use this information to better inform their care of these patients.

  3. Health beliefs and practices among Arab women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the healthcare beliefs and practices of Arab American women, specifically those regarding menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and family planning. The information in this paper is derived from the author's experience as a researcher, as an Arab healthcare provider, and from the literature. Guidelines for nurses who provide care to Arab American women are also presented.

  4. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laslo Dinges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available.

  5. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-Etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available.

  6. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... a transnational sense of Arab Americanness to negotiate her own gender and ethnic identity. This is significant because we currently lack a broader historical understanding of Arab American women’s public agency, particularly during the mid-twentieth century. Hakim’s memoir requires us to rethink the history...... of Arab American women’s strategies of self-representation in ways that acknowledge but are not confined within the terms of conventional orientalist discourses....

  7. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  8. Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    The government of the Yemen Arab Republic does not have a population policy, but promotes family planning for health reasons since one of its goals is to reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The 2nd 5-Year Plan (1982-86) aims for increased gross domestic product and per capita income, regional development, infrastructure development, job creation, and human resources mobilization. The population increased from 4.8 million in 1970 to 5.8 million in 1980 and is projected to reach 6.5 million by 1985 (indicating a 2.4% growth rate from 1980-1985). Life expectancy is 44 years for both sexes; infant mortality now stands at a high 156/1000 due largely to early marriage and little maternal care. The government concentrates on improving health care, mainly through its national health plans, by emphasizing immunization, education, and training doctors abroad. Current total fertility is 6.7, the birth rate is 48.5/1000, and the average age at marriage for girls is 13. Contraceptives and sterilization are available; abortion for contraceptive purposes is illegal. Up to 30% of Yemen's labor force may have emigrated to neighboring Gulf states and Saudi Arabia. The shortage in labor is partially made up by immigrants from the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, but the government still considers emigration too high since many of those who leave are the most skilled. There is no policy on international migration, due to the great value of remittances, but the government would like to encourage return migration. Yemen's urban population increased from 1.9% in 1950 to 15.3% in 1980. 4/5 of the population live in 5 of Yemen's 10 governorates. The government's policy seeks to strengthen the agricultural sector, improve living quality in rural areas, build up a balanced regional infrastructure, and establish more educational opportunities in small cities and villages.

  9. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  10. Reading Arabic : legibility studies for the Arabic script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    What is the cost of visual complexity? This dissertation sets out to determine the effect of the complexity of word formation on the legibility of Arabic and the role that vocalization plays in reading. This is carried out via a holistic approach to legibility research that combines the visual

  11. A Phonology of Darfur Arabic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roset, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the introduction of this article, I summon the state of the art of Sudanic Arabic and the language situation in Darfur. Then the inventory of the consonants and vowels in the language variety at issue are given, followed by phonological processes, syllable structure, word stress and historical

  12. Democracy in the Arab World

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given that liberalism contains principles that 'have been profoundly hostile to democracy', ..... The challenge posed for Arab democracy by Islamist thought and practice is probably the ..... (2nd edn), London: Malaysian Think Tank London. ...... Thus, the Jordanian treasury was not very dependent on internal taxes, certainly ...

  13. Postpartum psychiatric illness in Arab culture: prevalence and psychosocial correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, R; Abou-Saleh, M T

    1997-07-01

    There have been numerous studies of the prevalence of postpartum depression and its putative risk factors in Western Europe and North America, but very few studies in developing countries including the Arab world. Ninety-five women admitted to the New Dubai Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for childbirth were studied. All subjects were assessed in the postpartum period using clinical and socio-cultural instruments: the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ) at day 2, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at day 7, and the Present State Examination (PSE) at week 8 +/- 2 and week 30 +/- 2 after delivery. The prevalence rate of psychiatric morbidity was 24.5% by the SRQ, 17.8% by the EPDS, and 15.8% by the PSE. A number of psychosocial factors emerged as putative risk factors for postpartum depression. The prevalence rates of postpartum psychiatric morbidity and its risk factors in this Arab culture are similar to the results obtained in numerous previous studies in industrialised countries. These findings have implications for the early detection and care of women at risk for postpartum depression.

  14. Segmentation of Arabic Handwritten Documents into Text Lines using Watershed Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Souhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A crucial task in character recognition systems is the segmentation of the document into text lines and especially if it is handwritten. When dealing with non-Latin document such as Arabic, the challenge becomes greater since in addition to the variability of writing, the presence of diacritical points and the high number of ascender and descender characters complicates more the process of the segmentation. To remedy with this complexity and even to make this difficulty an advantage since the focus is on the Arabic language which is semi-cursive in nature, a method based on the Watershed Transform technique is proposed. Tested on «Handwritten Arabic Proximity Datasets» a segmentation rate of 93% for a 95% of matching score is achieved.

  15. PENGARUH BAHASA ARAB TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuba Pantu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discover and describe how the Arabic influence on the development of the Indonesian language,  which focused on the influence of the vocabulary,  the influence of the Arabic alphabet and its influences on Indonesian syntax,  as well as to discover how changes are absorbed Arabic vocabulary into Indonesian. The method used in this study is a literature review using the technique of content analysis,  which is a research technique for making inferences that can be replicable,  and valid the data by looking at the context. Sources of data in this study are the books relating to the object of research,  among Indonesian Dictionary and other books. The results showed that the effect of Indonesian Arabic is big enough. This can be seen in the uptake of the Arabic word which ranks third after Dutch and English 1, 495 words. In addition,  the use of Arabic script in Indonesian,  which until now still many books,  both Islamic religious books,  Arabic books,  tales,  literature,  written in Arabic alphabet Malay. Arabic influence on Indonesian syntax can be seen in books or Qur’an translations. The words of the absorption Arabic generally undergo changes in shape,  as adapted to the Indonesian grammar or phonemes. It also changes the meaning,  although the numbers are limited.

  16. Arabic realia as objects of study of Arabic language and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Евгеньевна Власова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with specific Arabic realia. The author provides a definition of Arabic realia and classifies them according to their social, political and cultural characteristics.

  17. Arab Higher Education and Research post–2011. An Interview with Sari Hanafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Rohde

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upheavals of 2011 and subsequent developments in the MENA region have had substantial effects on universities and research centers within Arab world and in other neighboring countries where similar developments are taking shape (security issues, stricter political control/lesser levels of political control and repression, changing levels of funding, changing focus of donors etc.. META had the opportunity to talk with American University of Beirut’s Prof. Sari Hanafi about the repercussions of these developments for scholarly work within the MENA region. Sari Hanafi is currently a Professor of Sociology and chair of the department of sociology, anthropology and media studies at the American University of Beirut. He is also the editor of Idafat: the Arab Journal of Sociology (Arabic. He is the Vice President of the International Sociological Association (ISA and Vice President of the board of the Arab Council of Social Science. He is the author of numerous journal articles and book chapters on the political and economic sociology of the Palestinian diaspora and refugees; sociology of migration; transnationalism; politics of scientific research; civil society and elite formation and transitional justice. His last book is Arab Research and Knowledge Society: New Critical Perspective (with R. Arvanitis (in Arabic, Beirut: CAUS and forthcoming in English with Routledge.

  18. Immigrant Arab adolescents in ethnic enclaves: physical and phenomenological contexts of identity negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; Seay, Nancy; Karabenick, Stuart A

    2015-04-01

    Ecologically embedded social identity theories were used to examine the risk and protective factors associated with the identity negotiation and adjustment of recent immigrant Arab (IA) adolescents to the United States residing in ethnic enclaves. Yemeni, Lebanese, and Iraqi 8th-graders (n = 45) from 4 ethnic enclave schools participated in focus-group interviews. In-depth analyses of interviews revealed that living in an ethnic enclave enhanced IA adolescents' feelings of belonging to the community. However, the new immigrant status coupled with country of origin determined the permeability of intergroup boundaries with well-established Arab and Arab American peers. Their identity negotiations and social identity salience (national, religious, and pan-Arab) were informed by transitional experiences from home to host country and the prevailing political and cultural tensions between the two, recognition of national hierarchy within the Arab community, perceptions of discrimination by the larger society, changed educational aspirations consequent to immigration, and current physical (school and community) and phenomenological contexts. Findings suggest that current theoretical perspectives should be extended to incorporate phenomenological representations of past spaces and places not currently occupied to understand adolescents' multifaceted identity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Arabic text classification using Polynomial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayy M. Al-Tahrawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Arabic statistical learning-based text classification system has been developed using Polynomial Neural Networks. Polynomial Networks have been recently applied to English text classification, but they were never used for Arabic text classification. In this research, we investigate the performance of Polynomial Networks in classifying Arabic texts. Experiments are conducted on a widely used Arabic dataset in text classification: Al-Jazeera News dataset. We chose this dataset to enable direct comparisons of the performance of Polynomial Networks classifier versus other well-known classifiers on this dataset in the literature of Arabic text classification. Results of experiments show that Polynomial Networks classifier is a competitive algorithm to the state-of-the-art ones in the field of Arabic text classification.

  20. Optimal Viewing Position for Fully Connected and Unconnected words in Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganayim Deia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the unique reading processes in Arabic, given its unique orthographic nature of natural inherent variations of inter letter spacing, the current study examined the extent and influence of connectedness disparity during single word recognition using the optimal viewing position (OVP paradigm (three-, four- and five-letter stimuli presented at a normal reading size, at all possible locations. The initial word viewing position was systematically manipulated by shifting words horizontally relative to an imposed initial viewing position. Variations in recognition and processing time were measured as a function of initial viewing position. Fully connected/unconnected Arabic words were used. It was found that OVP effects occurred during the processing of isolated Arabic words. In Arabic, the OVP may be in the center of the word. No OVP was found in three-letter words; for four- and five-letter words, the OVP effect appeared as a U-shaped curve with a minimum towards the second and third letters. Thus, the OVP effects generalize across structurally different alphabetic scripts.

  1. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gridach, Mourad; Chenfour, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  2. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  3. DALILA: The Dialectal Arabic Linguistic Learning Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa , Salam; Bouamor , Houda; Habash , Nizar

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Dialectal Arabic (DA) poses serious challenges for Natural Language Processing (NLP). The number and sophistication of tools and datasets in DA are very limited in comparison to Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and other languages. MSA tools do not effectively model DA which makes the direct use of MSA NLP tools for handling dialects impractical. This is particularly a challenge for the creation of tools to support learning Arabic as a living language on the web, where aut...

  4. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  5. ANDRAGOGI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasyim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to get empirical evidence whether there is a significant difference between the class which is taught by andragogy technique and which is taught by conventional technique. This article describes that technique is one of the important factors in conducting Arabic class. This study categorized as an experimental research. The data is collected by giving the test for both experimental and conventional class. The result of the study shows that experimental class which is taught by applying andragogy technique get higher score than the conventional one. Means that Al-Ittihad Islamic Boarding School get higher score than Ulil Albâb. It seems that technique influences the quality of teaching and learning Arabic.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i1.1512

  6. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  7. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy....... The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is...

  8. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafei, A.N.

    1979-09-01

    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  9. Three Writers of Arabic Texts in Yogyakarta

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    Muhamad Murtadlo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of the Arabic alphabet in religious literature in Yogyakarta. This study uses a case study on three figure writers of religious texts that using the Arabic alphabet in southern part of Central Java (Yogyakarta, namely Asrori Ahmad (Magelang, Ali Maksum (Yogyakarta, and Ahmad Mujab Mahalli (Bantul. This study concluded that the writing of religious texts in Arabic alphabet in the southern Java area had been carried out by means of using Arabic Pegon, and only a few people who wrote in the Arabic language. The transmission of Arabic Pegon in Yogyakarta is allegedly from north coast of Java, especially from Lasem / East Java. The tradition of Arabic language teaching in the pesantrens still focuses mostly on the reading effort, communication, and understanding and it is not oriented to the writing skill. The presence of international journals initiated by the College of Islamic religious institutions and the effort of translation business into Arabic from certain institutions gives an opportunity to strengthen the use of the Arabic alphabet in Indonesia.

  10. Design and Realization of an Arabic Morphological Automaton-New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad Gridach; Noureddine Chenfour

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  11. UN RESEAU DE NEURONES MULTICOUCHES POUR LA RECONNAISSANCE HORS LIGNE DES CARACTERES MANUSCRITS ARABES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S OUCHTATI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an off line method of Arabic Handwritten Characters Recognition. The study is based on the analysis of several performances of feature vectors. It is hoped that the results of the evaluation contribute to the conception of operational systems. The futures are the projection moments, Barr-features, and Fourier descriptors. The classification is achieved by a standard multi-layer perception.

  12. Reliability and Validity of an Arabic Version of the Self-Determination Assessment--Internet (SDAi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Self-determination is related to the desirable transition outcomes of an individual. It has gained an increasing amount of attention in numerous fields, including education, sociology, psychology, and other fields related to human behavior. However, there are no measures originally written in Arabic that accurately measure an individual's…

  13. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  14. Automatic Speaker Recognition for Mobile Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Algabri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, lawyers, law enforcement agencies, and judges in courts use speech and other biometric features to recognize suspects. In general, speaker recognition is used for discriminating people based on their voices. The process of determining, if a suspected speaker is the source of trace, is called forensic speaker recognition. In such applications, the voice samples are most probably noisy, the recording sessions might mismatch each other, the sessions might not contain sufficient recording for recognition purposes, and the suspect voices are recorded through mobile channel. The identification of a person through his voice within a forensic quality context is challenging. In this paper, we propose a method for forensic speaker recognition for the Arabic language; the King Saud University Arabic Speech Database is used for obtaining experimental results. The advantage of this database is that each speaker’s voice is recorded in both clean and noisy environments, through a microphone and a mobile channel. This diversity facilitates its usage in forensic experimentations. Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients are used for feature extraction and the Gaussian mixture model-universal background model is used for speaker modeling. Our approach has shown low equal error rates (EER, within noisy environments and with very short test samples.

  15. Urbanization in contemporary Arab Gulf states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, I Y

    1983-01-01

    Urbanization in the Arab Gulf states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates is analyzed. Topics discussed include the historical background to urbanization; current demographic trends in the region; urban characteristics and growth; socioeconomic factors influencing urbanization, with an emphasis on labor force structure; future urban strategy; and the need for urban research.

  16. Industrial zones and Arab industrialization in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Michael; Schnell, Izhak; Drori, Israel

    1996-01-01

    Since the 1970s there has been increased integration of the Arab sector into the Israeli economy. This integration has been characterized by the increase in industrial entrepreneurship in the Arab settlements. Critical to the industrialization process are factors related to the availability of

  17. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  18. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  19. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  20. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation is the official publication of the Arab Society of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation. It publishes original articles pertaining to various aspects of renal medicine, as well as editorials, reviews, case reports, short communications, guidelines and statistical data pertaining ...

  1. Challenges in Learning to Speak Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…

  2. A novel root based Arabic stemmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stemming algorithms are used in information retrieval systems, indexers, text mining, text classifiers etc., to extract stems or roots of different words, so that words derived from the same stem or root are grouped together. Many stemming algorithms were built in different natural languages. Khoja stemmer is one of the known and widely used Arabic stemmers. In this paper, we introduced a new light and heavy Arabic stemmer. This new stemmer is presented in this study and compared with two well-known Arabic stemmers. Results showed that accuracy of our stemmer is slightly better than the accuracy yielded by each one of those two well-known Arabic stemmers used for evaluation and comparison. Evaluation tests on our novel stemmer yield 75.03% accuracy, while the other two Arabic stemmers yield slightly lower accuracy.

  3. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US.ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%.Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  4. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-17

    Arab-American (AA) populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC), the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12%) and women (16%). Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  5. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  6. A study in the lexicographical treatment of Arabic synonyms | Heliel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently three dictionaries of Arabic synonyms were published with the aim of helping Arabic learners, writers and translators. Though Classical Arabic lexicography distinguishes itself in the field of synonymy, Modern Standard Arabic lacks reliable dictionaries in the field and hence the importance of analysing these three ...

  7. The identity and witness of Arab pre-Islamic Arab Christianity: The Arabic language and the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Grafton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Arab Christianity has had a unique place in the history of World Christianity. Rooted in a biblical witness, the origins and history of Arab Christianity have been largely forgotten or ignored. This is not primarily as a result of the fact that the Arab Christian historical legacy has been overcome by Islam. Rather, unlike other early Christian communities, the Bible was never translated into the vernacular of the Arabs. By the 7th century the language of the Qur’an became the primary standard of the Arabic language, which then became the written religious text of the Arabs. This article will explore the identity and witness of the Christian presence in Arabia and claims that the development of an Arabic Bible provides a unique counter-example to what most missiologists have assumed as the basis for the spread of the Christian faith as a result of the translation of the Christian scriptures into a vernacular.

  8. The Development of Arabic Digit Knowledge in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Knudsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that Arabic digit knowledge rather than non-symbolic number knowledge is a key foundation for arithmetic proficiency at the start of a child’s mathematical career. We document the developmental trajectory of 4- to 7-year-olds’ proficiency in accessing magnitude information from Arabic digits in five tasks differing in magnitude manipulation requirements. Results showed that children from 5 years onwards accessed magnitude information implicitly and explicitly, but that 5-year-olds failed to access magnitude information explicitly when numerical magnitude was contrasted with physical magnitude. Performance across tasks revealed a clear developmental trajectory: children traverse from first knowing the cardinal values of number words to recognizing Arabic digits to knowing their cardinal values and, concurrently, their ordinal position. Correlational analyses showed a strong within-child consistency, demonstrating that this pattern is not only reflected in group differences but also in individual performance.

  9. A preference for mathematical processing outweighs the selectivity for Arabic numbers in the inferior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotheer, Mareike; Jeska, Brianna; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2018-03-28

    A region in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), referred to as the number form area (NFA, here ITG-numbers) has been implicated in the visual processing of Arabic numbers. However, it is unknown if this region is specifically involved in the visual encoding of Arabic numbers per se or in mathematical processing more broadly. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during experiments that systematically vary tasks and stimuli, we find that mathematical processing, not preference to Arabic numbers, consistently drives both mean and distributed responses in the posterior ITG. While we replicated findings of higher responses in ITG-numbers to numbers than other visual stimuli during a 1-back task, this preference to numbers was abolished when participants engaged in mathematical processing. In contrast, an ITG region (ITG-math) that showed higher responses during an adding task vs. other tasks maintained this preference for mathematical processing across a wide range of stimuli including numbers, number/letter morphs, hands, and dice. Analysis of distributed responses across an anatomically-defined posterior ITG expanse further revealed that mathematical task but not Arabic number form can be successfully and consistently decoded from these distributed responses. Together, our findings suggest that the function of neuronal regions in the posterior ITG goes beyond the specific visual processing of Arabic numbers. We hypothesize that they ascribe numerical content to the visual input, irrespective of the format of the stimulus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arab Youth: A Contained Youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Gertel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young people in the Arab world increasingly have to struggle with economic hardship and difficulties to start their own lives, although the majority is better educated than ever before. The problematic labor market situation combined with weak public schemes to support young careers force large sections of young people to postpone their ambitions to marry. This period of delayed marriage is captured as 'waithood'. I will argue that this term is misleading. Two points of critique apply: The social dimension of waiting exceeds the status of remaining inactive until something expected happens; the ever-changing present continuously generates new realities. Simultaneously uncertainties and insecurities have dramatically expanded since 2011 and further limit livelihood opportunities and future perspectives, particularly of the youth. Young people are hence becoming both, increasingly frustrated and disadvantaged the longer they "wait", and even more dependent on parents and kin networks. This hinders them to develop their personality – they rather have to accommodate with values that are not always suitable to master the present requirements of a globalizing world. In this paper I will inquire, in how far young people of the Arab world have thus to be considered as a “contained youth”.

  11. Preference for Democracy in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al-Ississ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We take a new look at the question of the Arab democratic exception by looking at the preference for democracy among individuals in the Arab world in a comparative context. We use the new sixth wave of the World Value Survey, which was collected between 2012 and 2013, and which included for the first time 12 Arab countries (up from only four in wave 5 and 68 non-Arab countries. We innovate empirically by measuring the preference for democracy over strong rule in a way that, we argue, is more adapted to an understanding of the Arab world than other measures used in past studies. Our statistical analysis reveals a democratic gap in the Arab region compared to global experience, which is especially marked among the more educated individuals, and to a lesser extent among the youth and the middle class. We conclude by discussing the reasons that may explain the Arab exceptionalism, and argue that it is unlikely to be related to culture alone.

  12. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  13. The Rise of the Arab Youth Paradigm: A Critical Analysis of the Arab Human Development Report 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssoun Sukarieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical analysis of the Arab Human Development Report (AHDR 2016, that was released by the United Nations Development Programme in November 2016. AHDR 2016 represents the return of the Arab Human Development project, that had been interrupted by the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. It also epitomizes the Arab youth paradigm that has increasingly come to frame development and security discourse in the region. While there is much that is familiar in AHDR 2016, there are also concerning developments: a historical revisionism that holds Arab youth responsible for the Arab Spring, and the Arab Spring responsible for the Arab Winter that followed; and a new trend that views not just Arab youth deficits as a dangerous threat to regional and global security, but Arab youth abilities and surfeits as well.

  14. Some comments about the situation of the Steel Industry in the Arab Countries (Arab Steel Summit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Y.; Astier, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Arab Steel Summit, that convened in Abu Dhabi in April, gave us another opportunity to review the situation of the Arab Iron and Steel Industry, with regard to the present World economic context. We will address: - the World situation of steel production, focusing on the Arab Countries; - the related situation of steel consumption; - the steel trade, including imports, exports and prices; - the consequences for technology and economy. (authors)

  15. Arab women employment in the United Arab Emirates: exploring opportunities, motivations and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Karen; Kyriazi, Tenia; Paris, Cody Morris

    2017-01-01

    This research paper identifies and explores the challenges and barriers that Arab women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) face in their careers. Primary data was collected via an interview process involving 12 Arab women who reside and work in senior decision making positions in the UAE. Taking into account an overview of the global and UAE-specific challenges faced by women in the workplace and considering the significant efforts of the UAE government to promote women in leadership, as repor...

  16. DCU 250 Arabic dependency bank: an LFG gold standard resource for the Arabic Penn treebank

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Raheb, Yafa; Akrout, Amine; van Genabith, Josef; Dichy, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of a dependency bank gold standard for Arabic, DCU 250 Arabic Dependency Bank (DCU 250), based on the Arabic Penn Treebank Corpus (ATB) (Bies and Maamouri, 2003; Maamouri and Bies, 2004) within the theoretical framework of Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG). For parsing and automatically extracting grammatical and lexical resources from treebanks, it is necessary to evaluate against established gold standard resources. Gold standards for various languages h...

  17. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...... with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz’ method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it goes...

  18. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  19. New methods in iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  20. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala

    2013-01-01

    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  1. PERANAN PEMBELAJARAN MATA KULIAH BAHASA ARAB PADA KEMAMPUAN MENULIS BERBAHASA ARAB BAGI MAHASISWA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA ARAB (PBA ANGKATAN 2009 JURUSAN TARBIYAH STAIN PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Burhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the role of Arabic teaching in increasing academic writing skill of the students of 2009 who were studying at Arabic Teaching Program of STAIN Pekalongan. The result showed that most of them (60% declared not ready to write their minithesis in Arabic. They were not enough well-prepared in Arabic academic writing. Their grades in overall Arabic subject were 68 in range 0 - 100: starting at General Arabic (Arabic I, II, and III; structure (nahwu and Sharf, pronounciation (Qirâ-ah, listening (Istimâ’, speaking (Kalâm, up to writing skill (kitâbah. It verified that student who had a good grade in a lingual subject, like Arabics, is not equal with his language skill, especially in writing skill.

  2. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation.

  3. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  4. Arab Customs and Culture. Second Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Richard A; Glass, Robert G; Gasper, Eberhard; Rizzo, Samuel R; Edsall, Curtis C

    1983-01-01

    .... interests along with international understanding and friendship, it is crucial for American Soldiers operating in the Middle East to have a basic understanding of the Arab people, their customs...

  5. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  6. GUESSING VERB-ADVERB COLLOCATIONS: ARAB EFL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In the sections to follow, the concept and meaning of collocation is defined ... expressions (Alexander 1984); formulaic language or speech (Weinert 1995); multi- ... Two further studies reported Arab EFL learners' overall ignorance of col-.

  7. “We are Arabs:” The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women’s Lived Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Mau...

  8. The development of the University of Jordan word recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garadat, Soha N; Abdulbaqi, Khader J; Haj-Tas, Maisa A

    2017-06-01

    To develop and validate a digitally recorded speech test battery to assess speech perception in Jordanian Arabic-speaking adults. Selected stimuli were digitally recorded and were divided into four lists of 25 words each. Speech audiometry was completed for all listeners. Participants were divided into two equal groups of 30 listeners each with equal male to female ratio. The first group of participants completed speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and word recognition testing on each of the four lists using a fixed intensity. The second group of listeners was tested on each of the four lists at different intensity levels in order to obtain the performance-intensity function. Sixty normal-hearing listeners in the age range of 19-25 years. All participants were native speakers of Jordanian Arabic. Results revealed that there were no significant differences between SRTs and pure tone average. Additionally, there were no differences across lists at multiple intensity levels. In general, the current study was successful in producing recorded speech materials for Jordanian Arabic population. This suggests that the speech stimuli generated by this study are suitable for measuring speech recognition in Jordanian Arabic-speaking listeners.

  9. Fundamental frequency characteristics of Jordanian Arabic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natour, Yaser S; Wingate, Judith M

    2009-09-01

    This study is the first in a series of investigations designed to test the acoustic characteristics of the normal Arabic voice. The subjects were three hundred normal Jordanian Arabic speakers (100 adult males, 100 adult females, and 100 children). The subjects produced a sustained phonation of the vowel /a:/ and stated their complete names (i.e. first, second, third and surname) using a carrier phrase. The samples were analyzed using the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). Fundamental frequency (F0) from the /a:/ and speaking fundamental frequency (SF0) from the sentence were analyzed. Results revealed a significant difference of both F0 and SF0 values among adult Jordanian Arabic-speaking males (F0=131.34Hz +/- 18.65, SF0=137.45 +/- 18.93), females (F0=231.13Hz +/- 20.86, SF0=230.84 +/- 16.50) and children (F0=270.93Hz +/- 20.01, SF0=278.04 +/- 32.07). Comparison with other ethnicities indicated that F0 values of adult Jordanian Arabic-speaking males and females are generally consistent with adult Caucasian and African-American values. However, for Jordanian Arabic-speaking children, a higher trend in F0 values was present than their Western counterparts. SF0 values for adult Jordanian Arabic-speaking males are generally consistent with the adult Caucasian male SF0 values. However, SF0 values of adult Jordanian-speaking females and children were relatively higher than the reported Western values. It is recommended that speech-language pathologists in Arabic-speaking countries, Jordan in specific, utilize the new data provided (F0 and SF0) when evaluating and/or treating Arabic-speaking patients. Due to its cross-linguistic variability, SF0 emerged as a preferred measurement when conducting cross-cultural comparisons of voice features.

  10. Internationalization path to the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to introduce internationalization of an SME including motives and risks of new market entry, as well as describing the steps of a target market selection and presenting different operational modes. Since the executive company, DesignShopOutlet, was interested in exploring their market possibilities in the United Arab Emirates, the aim of the thesis was also to conduct a market research report of the United Arab Emirates. The study applied a qualitative resea...

  11. Contribution of Arab countries to breast cancer research: comparison with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancers affecting women worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess and compare research activity in breast cancer in Arab countries with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Publications about "breast cancer" as a research topic were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Analysis was confined to original research and review articles. Research productivity was assessed by assessing number of publications and time trend of these publications, names of journals, citation analysis, top 10 active institutions as well as country contribution to breast cancer research. The quantity and quality of publications from Arab countries in addition to 3 other Middle East countries (Turkey, Iran and Israel) were assessed and compared using the h-index tool. A total of 1658 original research and review articles about "breast cancer" were published from Arab countries. Annual research productivity from Arab countries in the field of "breast cancer" was negligible but showed a significant increase in the last decade. Retrieved documents had relatively high citation parameters as measured by h-index of 61 and average citations of 17.46 per document. The highest research productivity was from Egypt with a total publication of 582 (35.10%). Cairo University with a total of 149 (8.99%) publications had the highest research productivity among institutions in Arab world. Forty four documents (2.65%) of breast cancer documents were published in Saudi Medical Journal. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from the United States of America (305; 18.40%) in breast cancer research. Compared with other non-Arab Middle Eastern countries, Arab countries had higher research productivity than some countries and lower than others, particularly Israel. The present data reveals a good contribution of some Arab countries to the field of "breast cancer" research. There is a gap between Arab countries and Israel in

  12. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  13. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  14. Towards Verbalizing SPARQL Queries in Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Al Agha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the wide spread of Open Linked Data and Semantic Web technologies, a larger amount of data has been published on the Web in the RDF and OWL formats. This data can be queried using SPARQL, the Semantic Web Query Language. SPARQL cannot be understood by ordinary users and is not directly accessible to humans, and thus they will not be able to check whether the retrieved answers truly correspond to the intended information need. Driven by this challenge, natural language generation from SPARQL data has recently attracted a considerable attention. However, most existing solutions to verbalize SPARQL in natural language focused on English and Latin-based languages. Little effort has been made on the Arabic language which has different characteristics and morphology. This work aims to particularly help Arab users to perceive SPARQL queries on the Semantic Web by translating SPARQL to Arabic. It proposes an approach that gets a SPARQL query as an input and generates a query expressed in Arabic as an output. The translation process combines both morpho-syntactic analysis and language dependencies to generate a legible and understandable Arabic query. The approach was preliminary assessed with a sample query set, and results indicated that 75% of the queries were correctly translated into Arabic.

  15. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascination with ancient Middle Eastern heritage, reflects a stereotypical depiction of everything Arab, Arab American literature can be seen as the other side of this projection or stereotype. Where Hollywood dramatizes, through the busting of ancient statues for the cause of terrorism, the Arab's disregard for his own culture, novels such as Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner and Nada Awar Jarrar's Somewhere, Home set out to preserve precisely a distinct cultural heritage, and go on to celebrate the contemporaneity and complexity of diasporic Afghan and Lebanese experience.

  16. Toward Understanding Arab Women's Cultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Shalghin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultural representation of women in the Arab world is a complex issue due to the sensitivity surrounding their status in the region. We are confronted with many ways in which women are misrepresented and distorted.  There are false claims used by male dominated culture(s in the Arab world about women and their intellectual and physical capabilities. Indeed, Arab women are often prevented from representing themselves.  When they are present, they are conceptualized as serving a decorative purpose. When women are given platforms from which they may speak, they are expected to reiterate male discourses.The paper focuses on the cultural and political marginalization and misrepresentation of Arab women and describes a number of cultural biases against women in Arabic-speaking societies. Based on culturally constructed misconceptions, Arab women are effaced and excluded from decision-making processes both politically, where they are subjugated and denied a social voice in the public sphere in favour of male-dominated discourses, and within the private sphere of the family where they are subordinate to male relatives.

  17. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire to the Arabic Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamrani, Samia; Alsobayel, Hana; Alnahdi, Ali H; Moloney, Niamh; Mackey, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric testing. To translate the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) into Arabic and investigate its psychometric properties in an Arabic-speaking sample of individuals with low back pain (LBP). Back pain beliefs are associated with pain chronicity and disability in people with LBP. The BBQ is a recognized and frequently used tool for measuring these beliefs. To date the BBQ has not been translated into Arabic. The English version of the BBQ was translated and culturally adapted into Arabic (BBQ-Ar) according to published guidelines. The BBQ-Ar was then tested in a sample of 115 Arabic-speaking individuals with LBP. Reliability was evaluated through internal consistency (Cronbach α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), the latter in a subgroup of 25. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and by examining the correlation between the BBQ-Ar, the Oswestry Disability Index and a Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Internal consistency of the BBQ-Ar was good (Cronbach α = 0.77). Test-retest reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1] = 0.88). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure, explaining 46% of total variance, with the first factor alone explaining 24%. Eight of the nine scoring items were loaded on the first factor thus forming a unidimensional scale. A significant negative correlation was found between Oswestry Disability Index and BBQ-Ar scores (r = -0.307; P < 0.01), whereas no significant correlation was found between BBQ-Ar and Pain Rating Scale scores. No floor or celling effects were observed. The BBQ-Ar is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess back pain beliefs in Arabic-speaking individuals. N/A.

  18. The evolution of Arabic(s): Making the Idiom speak for the Deme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its rather shallow origin, Arabic forms the largest group of extant Semitic languages and one of the most geographically widespread languages of the world. The current distribution of its linguistic variants is the product of a phylogeography of the populations that spoke them, and Arabic dialects have captured in their ...

  19. Personality Traits of Minority Arab Teachers in the Arab Educational System in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hussain, Jamal; Abu Hussain, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The present research examined the personality traits prevalent among Arab teachers as a minority in the Arab educational system in Israel. Personality traits has much significance in the prediction of human behavior in various situations. Personality traits affect a person's behavior. Usually personality traits do not change, and they are…

  20. The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA): Its Development, Validation, and Results in Three Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was constructed and validated in a sample of undergraduates (17-33 yrs) in 3 Arab countries, Egypt (n = 418), Kuwait (n = 509), and Syria (n = 709). In its final form, the ASDA consists of 20 statements. Each item is answered on a 5-point intensity scale anchored by 1: No, and 5: Very much. Alpha…

  1. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Hira Abdul; Harbi, Alya; Shelpai, Wael; Qawas, Ahmad

    2017-09-20

    Background/ Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease which has become a major global public health issue. This systematic review summarized epidemiological studies related to the prevalence, risk factors, complications, incidence, knowledge, attitude and practices of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among Arab population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). PubMed, Scopus databases, Science direct, Wiley online library, and other local journals were searched to identify relevant literature using appropriate keywords to retrieve studies conducted in the UAE. Search limits were restricted to studies in English language, between 2007 and 2016, and on UAE population (both citizens and expatriates). Electronic database search yielded 24 studies about the prevalence, incidence, complications, risk factors, knowledge, attitudes and practices of diabetes, including cross sectional studies (n =18), population-based survey (n = 1), retrospective cohort studies (n = 3), qualitative (n=1), and randomized controlled trial (n = 1). Countrywide prevalence estimates of Diabetes Mellitus were reported to be high. The major determinants of Diabetes Mellitus involved hypertension, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet. Even though past evidences have promulgated the role of numerous causative factors, the epidemiological implications of some of the risk factors including family history, educational level, and the use of alcohol remains elusive. This systematic review signifies epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates and suggests that extra efforts are needed for preventive and curative strategies in order to decrease the burden of this non-communicable disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. ARABIC PROGRAM ON COT KALA LANGSA STREAMING RADIO SEBAGAI STRATEGI BARU PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiauddin Dhiauddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learn to communicate. The goal of learning Arabic by using communicative approach is to stimulate the student to be able to master both receptive and productive skill. Receptive skills includes listening and reading skill, while productive skills includes speaking and writing skills. The objective of this study is to describe the streaming radio as a strategy in Arabic learning for the student of Arabic Department at Cot Kala Langsa State Islamic Institute. The result at the study shows that the streaming radio strategy gives a good response in conducting the Arabic class. Means that streaming radio can enhance the quality of teaching and learning Arabic at this institute.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i1.1480

  3. Avicenna’s Role in Arabic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمید احمدیان

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avicenna’s Role in Arabic Literature     Nasrollah Shameli *   Hamid Ahmadian **     Abstract     The master and doyen, Avicenna, is one of the prominent savants of the fourth century A.H. Besides medicine and philosophy, he was a master in sciences of his time, and was proficient in Arabic literature. He has peerless anthologies in poetry and prose, in both Arabic and Persian literature. In mysticism, he was tending to the symbolic and allusive style. Hence we find ourselves mystics when we float in “Resalat Altair” (the message of the birds and “Hai ebn Yagdan” (Alive son of the Yagdan, and when we look at his Arabic poems and quatrains we find ourselves at a hospital with the poetry as a cure, and when we enter “Al-Esharat” of Avicenna we find ourselves in a wisdom court, as we are kids obsessed by thousand fictions stalking gravely after wisdom and logic. In this article, an attempt has been made to pick bouquets of colorful flowers, ornated with rhetoric, eloquence, language, inflection, derivation and poetic meters, as we pick from symbolic prose that is full of mystic symbols.     Key words: Avicenna, Arabic literature, poetry, prose   * Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan .   E-mail: Dr-Nasrolla Shameli@y ahoo.com. ** Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan.   E-mail: ahmadian1776@yahoo.com.

  4. Joint Arab project for building of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently many Arab countries have expressed their interest in adopting nuclear power for electricity generation and seawater desalination in their energy strategies and hence sought assistance from IAEA and Arab Atomic Energy Agency. The Council of the League of Arab States at the summit level encouraged member states to develop peaceful use of atomic energy in different aspects of development, especially in energy generation and to establish a cooperative Arab program in this field. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if an Arab country forms a sharing partnership with other Arab countries. The sharing can be between two or more Arab states. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. This article outlines the major direct benefits of joint nuclear Arab programme to build a Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  5. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  6. Assembling a Revolution: Graffiti, Cairo and the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lennon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways revolutionary desire was articulated and interpreted through graffiti in Cairo, Egypt during the Arab Spring and its immediate aftermath. For writers in Cairo, graffiti was one of many in a constellation of resistances that undermined everyday life in Hosni Mubarak’s Egypt and the SCAF-controlled interim government. Ordinary surfaces of the city were illegally marked, displaying revolutionary potentiality by allowing the seemingly powerless rhetorical openings of engagement. Far from being a monolithic discourse, graffiti created geographies of material protest that were locally enacted but globally contextualized. Political graffiti, like the overall protests of the Arab Spring, emerged in large numbers at particular moments, but its numerous roots spread distinctly into the past. First contextualizing Cairo graffiti as a tool for revolutionary protest, the article then examines specific writers (Mahmoud Graffiti, Ganzeer, particular ‘battleground' spaces (Tahrir Square, Mohamed Mahmoud Street, different graffiti mutations (tags, pieces, murals and contrary aesthetic manipulations of the form (‘No Walls’ campaign, graffiti advertisements by multinational corporations in order to assemble a graffiti scene in Cairo as it follows the ebbs and flows of revolutionary desire.

  7. the Arab boycott of Israel: economic political warfare against Israel.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilat, Eliyau Zeev

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effectiveness of the Arab Boycott of Israel from an economic and a political perspective. This study covers the Arab boycott from 1946 until 1990. It demonstrates that economically and politically, the Arab boycott had three distinct phases. The first of these was the period from the declaration of the Arab boycott in 1946 until the 1973 War. The second phase took place between the 1973 War...

  8. Reliability and validity of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale for Arabic-speaking children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Housseiny, Azza A; Alsadat, Farah A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; El Derwi, Douaa A; Farsi, Najat M; Attar, Moaz H; Andijani, Basil M

    2016-04-14

    Early recognition of dental fear is essential for the effective delivery of dental care. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). A school-based sample of 1546 children was randomly recruited. The Arabic version of the CFSS-DS was completed by children during class time. The scale was tested for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. To test criterion validity, children's behavior was assessed using the Frankl scale during dental examination, and results were compared with children's CFSS-DS scores. To test the scale's construct validity, scores on "fear of going to the dentist soon" were correlated with CFSS-DS scores. Factor analysis was also used. The Arabic version of the CFSS-DS showed high reliability regarding both test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.83, p children with negative behavior had significantly higher fear scores (t = 13.67, p fear of invasive dental procedures," "fear of less invasive dental procedures" and "fear of strangers." The Arabic version of the CFSS-DS is a reliable and valid measure of dental fear in Arabic-speaking children. Pediatric dentists and researchers may use this validated version of the CFSS-DS to measure dental fear in Arabic-speaking children.

  9. Greek, Indian and Arabic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2004-01-01

    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...

  10. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  11. L2 Word Recognition: Influence of L1 Orthography on Multi-syllabic Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi

    2017-10-01

    L2 reading research suggests that L1 orthographic experience influences L2 word recognition. Nevertheless, the findings on multi-syllabic words in English are still limited despite the fact that a vast majority of words are multi-syllabic. The study investigated whether L1 orthography influences the recognition of multi-syllabic words, focusing on the position of an embedded word. The participants were Arabic ESL learners, Chinese ESL learners, and native speakers of English. The task was a word search task, in which the participants identified a target word embedded in a pseudoword at the initial, middle, or final position. The search accuracy and speed indicated that all groups showed a strong preference for the initial position. The accuracy data further indicated group differences. The Arabic group showed higher accuracy in the final than middle, while the Chinese group showed the opposite and the native speakers showed no difference between the two positions. The findings suggest that L2 multi-syllabic word recognition involves unique processes.

  12. Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement. The past century has witnessed disruptions in Middle Eastern politics, economics, religion and society that have taken their toll on Arab families and youth. Yet despite the centrality of family and youth in Arab society, there exists little scientific ...

  13. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble

  14. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  15. Morphology and Spelling in Arabic: Development and Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the development of derivational root and word-pattern morphological awareness in Arabic; the second tested morphological processing in Arabic spelling. 143 Arabic native speaking children with normal reading skills in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade participated in the study. The…

  16. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying Arabic as a foreign second language together with Arab heritage language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2015-01-01

    questionnaire and qualitative (interviews). The major findings of the study was that the group follows the general patterns of SCISs, to ask, cooperate and communicate, and that AHLLs’ presence only partially increases and promotes the opportunities of sociocultural interaction in the learning environment.......Abstract This article reports on my study of the sociocultural-interactive Strategies (SCISs) used by a mixed group of learners of Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The group consists of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) and Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs). FLLs...

  18. Arabic medical entity tagging using distant learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cotik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A semantic tagger aiming to detect relevant entities in Arabic medical documents and tagging them with their appropriate semantic class is presented. The system takes profit of a Multilingual Framework covering four languages (Arabic, English, French, and Spanish, in a way that resources available for each language can be used to improve the results of the others, this is specially important for less resourced languages as Arabic. The approach has been evaluated against Wikipedia pages of the four languages belonging to the medical domain. The core of the system is the definition of a base tagset consisting of the three most represented classes in SNOMED-CT taxonomy and the learning of a binary classifier for each semantic category in the tagset and each language, using a distant learning approach over three widely used knowledge resources, namely Wikipedia, Dbpedia, and SNOMED-CT.

  19. Muslim Feminist Agency and Arab American Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Mohja Kahf’s novel the girl in the tangerine scarf highlights a broad spectrum of Muslim feminist agencies. In this essay I look at how her literary representations negotiate religious and feminist discourses in doing so. I further argue that her focus on empowerment through self......-defined spirituality and religion sets her novel apart within the canon of contemporary Arab American literature, as most other Arab American feminist narratives focus rather on reappropriations of orientalist Scheherazade figures to reclaim the transnational histories of Muslim women’s agency. The genre of the Arab...... to the intersectional specificity encountered by Muslim feminist writers who have to work within both Western Orientalisms and the disapproval of Muslim conservatives who denounce feminism as a Western import and refuse any critique of their own patriarchy. Kahf suggests a constant double critique and careful...

  20. Urgensi Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab dalam Pendidikan Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asna Andriani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is very important for everyone used to deliver information, ideas, and thought from a person to others. One of the oldest languages in this world is Arabic. It is used in oral and written form and it contributes to the development of Islamic thought tradition in some Islamic texts such as Qur’an, Hadits, Tafsir, Fiqih, Tasawuf, etc. Therefore, it is very important for Moslems to learn Arabic language especially in the realm of Islamic education as to gain deep understanding about the substances or contents (meaning sense of the text. This article discusses about the important roles of Arabic in islamic education to increase the faith quality and good behavior of Moslems.

  1. Validation of an Arab name algorithm in the determination of Arab ancestry for use in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Lauderdale, Diane S; Galea, Sandro

    2010-12-01

    Data about Arab-Americans, a growing ethnic minority, are not routinely collected in vital statistics, registry, or administrative data in the USA. The difficulty in identifying Arab-Americans using publicly available data sources is a barrier to health research about this group. Here, we validate an empirically based probabilistic Arab name algorithm (ANA) for identifying Arab-Americans in health research. We used data from all Michigan birth certificates between 2000 and 2005. Fathers' surnames and mothers' maiden names were coded as Arab or non-Arab according to the ANA. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of Arab ethnicity inferred using the ANA as compared to self-reported Arab ancestry. Statewide, the ANA had a specificity of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 50.3%, a PPV of 57.0%, and an NPV of 98.6%. Both the false-positive and false-negative rates were higher among men than among women. As the concentration of Arab-Americans in a study locality increased, the ANA false-positive rate increased and false-negative rate decreased. The ANA is highly specific but only moderately sensitive as a means of detecting Arab ancestry. Future research should compare health characteristics among Arab-American populations defined by Arab ancestry and those defined by the ANA.

  2. Validation of an Arab names algorithm in the determination of Arab ancestry for use in health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Objective Data about Arab-Americans, a growing ethnic minority, is not routinely collected in vital statistics, registry, or administrative data in the US. The difficulty in identifying Arab-Americans using publicly available data sources is a barrier to health research about this group. Here, we validate an empirically-based, probabilistic Arab name algorithm (ANA) for identifying Arab-Americans in health research. Design We used data from all Michigan birth certificates between 2000-2005. Fathers’ surnames and mothers’ maiden names were coded as Arab or non-Arab according to the ANA. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of Arab ethnicity inferred using the ANA as compared to self-reported Arab ancestry. Results State-wide, the ANA had a specificity of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 50.3%, a PPV of 57.0%, and a NPV of 98.6%. Both the false positive and false negative rates were higher among men than among women. As the concentration of Arab-Americans in a study locality increased, the ANA false positive rate increased and false-negative rate decreased. Conclusion The ANA is highly specific but only moderately sensitive as a means of detecting Arab ancestry. Future research should compare health characteristics among Arab-American populations defined by Arab ancestry and those defined by the ANA. PMID:20845117

  3. Solar energy activities in the Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayigh, A.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Arab countries, 22 in total, are divided into three groups. Group one consists of all countries of the Middle East. The second group is the Arabian Peninsula, and the third group consists of all Arab countries in Africa. The paper outlines the solar density and sunshine hours, as well as wind data in the region and compares them with some industrialized countries. Brief surveys of various solar energy projects are tabulated: that is solar, wind and biomass. Several specific major projects in various parts of the Arab World will be discussed. More specifically, the cooling of the solar energy research building in Baghdad (120 tons of solar absorption chillers, 80 tons of heat pumps), the heating of King Abdu-Asis Airborne and Physical Training School near Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, the 350 kW PV. field of the solar energy village near Riyadh and the 100 kW solar thermal plant in Kuwait are discussed. It is worth noting that the present photovoltaic capacity in the Arab world is more than 3.0 MW and the yearly installation potential per year is 2.0 MW. There are at least five photovoltaic production facilities in the Arab countries. Two of them in Saudi Arabia with capacity of 400 kW, one in Iraq with a capacity of 200 kW, one in Tunisia with a capacity of 100 kW and on in Algeria with capacity of 100 kW. The Arab countries can absorb 5MW per year and more countries like Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Jordan and Libya are thinking of having their own production capabilities. Five desalination plants are also mentioned, plus the Yanbu plant of 240m/day, which is one of the largest in the world. The potential of wind energy utilisation is considered. Obstacles hindering the process of solar energy in the region are also outlined. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Eclectic Sufism in the Contemporary Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Eclectic Sufsm that might be interpreted as a modern form of subjectivity construction has been observed in Morocco and Pakistan. This article reports comparable phenomena elsewhere, using the case of the Arabic translation of Elif Shafak’s novel The Forty Rules of Love. The article argues that......, in the wider Arab world as in Morocco and Pakistan, the localization of eclectic Sufsm is an instance of the reinterpretation of Islamic traditions to incorporate globally relevant social imaginaries. It questions, however, the association between eclectic Sufsm and individualism, and argues that there is also...

  5. Oil and Gas in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The state of oil and gas production in each of twelve Arab states in 1996 is reviewed. A table of proved oil reserves and production in these countries as at the end of 1995 is provided. For Arab oil producers, 1996 was a good year in price terms. Crude oil was selling at an average of $3 a barrel more than in 1995. Factors contributing to prices rises were the increase in demand accompanying global economic growth, especially in the developing economies of Asia, which was not matched by supply growth, and the news that Iraq is unlikely to return to international markets in the near future. (UK)

  6. Arab space in the geopolitical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is analysing the geopolitical structure and dynamics of Arab space. Based on structural analysis of social, political, cultural and spatial changes the key-problems and geopolitical features are recognized. Arab space is – more or less – the largest ‘shatter belt’ known by contemporary crises and similar processes in the near past. These are caused by inner and, even more, by outer geopolitical factors in the large regional surrounding. The western economic and military forces are perhaps loosing the role of key-factor in the area. In the near future, Asiatic powers might play a dominant role.

  7. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, Tara

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these...

  8. MOOC in the Arab world: a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Khalid; Ally, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been spreading and receiving attention worldwide in the last few years. Universities mainly in the USA led the trend in distributing online courses to interested students across the globe. The Middle East is no exception. Recently, the MOOC movement started to gain some popularity in this region. The end of year 2013 witnessed the beginning of the fi rst Arabic MOOC in the Arab World, namely Rwaq. What makes this initiative unique is that the course content is in Arabic, and presented by Arab lecturers to Arabic-speaking students.

  9. MOOC in the Arab world: a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Khalid

    2016-12-19

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been spreading and receiving attention worldwide in the last few years. Universities mainly in the USA led the trend in distributing online courses to interested students across the globe. The Middle East is no exception. Recently, the MOOC movement started to gain some popularity in this region. The end of year 2013 witnessed the beginning of the fi rst Arabic MOOC in the Arab World, namely Rwaq. What makes this initiative unique is that the course content is in Arabic, and presented by Arab lecturers to Arabic-speaking students.

  10. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal Halim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  11. Numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1982-01-01

    There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)

  12. Depression Among Arab American and Arab Immigrant Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelezam, Nadia N; Fontenot, Holly B

    The difficult and tense political climate Arab populations are currently facing may be exacerbating mental health issues, reducing forms of social support in friend circles, and decreasing the desire to seek health care. There is room to better understand the mental health needs of Arab women residing in the United States and to develop policies and interventions that keep these women safe and in care. This column reviews two recent studies; the first examines barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression among Arab American women and the second highlights stressors and social support for Arab women immigrants throughout their immigration experience. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-05

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. United Arab Emirates students at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  16. The Digital Biliteracies of Arab Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salmi, Laila Z.; Smith, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored how the literacies of immigrant parents are influenced by participation in their children's emerging biliteracy. This study addressed this lacuna using a qualitative case study design to investigate the biliteracy development of Arab immigrant mothers in the U.S. Southwest. We used the framework of digital biliteracy to…

  17. An Intelligent System For Arabic Text Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syiam, M.M.; Tolba, Mohamed F.; Fayed, Z.T.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed S.; Ghoniemy, Said A.; Habib, Mena Badieh

    Text Categorization (classification) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. In this paper, an intelligent Arabic text categorization system is presented. Machine learning algorithms are used in this system. Many algorithms for stemming and

  18. African Journals Online: Syrian Arab Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  19. ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book in Arabic

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Language: Arabic - The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  20. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  1. Financial Development in Arab Countries (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Khaled; Omran, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    This book of readings provides fruitful policy recommendations on various financial development issues in the Arab World such as operational efficiency and service quality in banking. It also examines different aspects related to stock markets development such as efficiency, volatility, hedging, and returns.

  2. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  3. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  4. Arab Democracy Barometer | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to address the deficits identified in the Arab Human Development Report, as well as ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management. International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  5. A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Jacob M.

    This book presents a word count of Arabic prose based on 60 twentieth-century Egyptian books. The text is divided into an alphabetical list and a word frequency list. This word count is intended as an aid in the: (1) writing of primers and the compilation of graded readers, (2) examination of the vocabulary selection of primers and readers…

  6. Applying Synectics Strategy in teaching Arabic Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abu Jabeen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   This research aimed at knowing the ability of applying Synectics strategy in teaching rhetoric in Arabic language at secondary schools and universities   Synectics is identifying as a process of joining elements that has no obvious relationship using the rhetoric arts, especially “metaphor” in addition to logical arts especially “analogy,” within a methodology aims to reach creative solutions to problems. This definition is completely similar to Arabic rhetoric such as analogy and metaphor.   When metaphor in language contains aesthetic and rhetorical values in expression, it carries explanatory connotations in philosophy and science which is the using of a specific experience to shed the light on another one. It also helps us to comprehend, insight and clarifying and explaining the concepts. And what we mean with analogy in Arabic language is nearer to simile which is one of the rhetoric arts.   This research will review the Synectics strategy, how the western scientists applied it to develop creativity, and to what extent it is suitable to teach Arabic rhetoric subject in the university and secondary stage. In addition, It will provide application forms about applying Synectics strategy which will at the same time increase creativity of the students in all fields.

  7. Pendekatan dan Strategi Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Subur

    2015-01-01

    Arabic language have specific character and difficulty level which relatively high. In its presentation, this condition requires the appropriate approach, according to student character and its materials. The appropriate approach can derive into strategy that guarantying learning process that more enthusiasm so that can grow the learning motivation and active learning.

  8. The Arab Spring: Causes, Consequences, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-18

    Organization ( UNESCO ) stated that while ―low and perhaps deteriorating quality [has been] the major failing of Arab [public] education systems, private...groups as socialists, Berberists, feminists, and Islamists, among others. Morocco’s “New” Political Face: Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose

  9. Code-Switching in Judaeo-Arabic Documents from the Cairo Geniza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Esther-Miriam; Connolly, Magdalen

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates code-switching and script-switching in medieval documents from the Cairo Geniza, written in Judaeo-Arabic (Arabic in Hebrew script), Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic. Legal documents regularly show a macaronic style of Judaeo-Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew, while in letters code-switching from Judaeo-Arabic to Hebrew is tied in with…

  10. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  11. Gulf Arab women's transition to motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missal, Bernita

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the findings of a study of Gulf Arab women's perspectives of the transition to motherhood. Transition to motherhood is a universal phenomenon in which every culture has its own expectations and varying supports for women moving through this transition. International studies have provided models or categories of maternal responses related to cultural aspects of transition to motherhood. However, no known research has focused on transition to motherhood among Gulf Arab women. In the initial cohort seventeen first time Gulf Arab mothers in the United Arab Emirates were interviewed during the following three times: before childbirth, two-four weeks after childbirth, and forty-days after childbirth. A second cohort of seventeen first time new mothers was interviewed after childbirth in Sultanate of Oman. Four patterns were identified as indicators of change as women transitioned into motherhood: 1) Women's personal transition: women changed from feeling of freedom to feeling of dependency to self-confidence. 2) Mother/baby relationships: women changed from fear, anxiety, and uncertainty to feelings of care and confidence. 3) Family influences: women experienced family support to being integrated and feeling respected by family. 4) Cultural/religious beliefs and practices: women felt they were initially observers of culture, to experiencing cultural/religious beliefs and practices. This was followed by accomplishment in childbearing and childrearing practices. As Gulf Arab new mothers made the transition to motherhood, four implications for international nursing practice emerged: 1) patient teaching to help relieve anxiety, fears, and uncertainty, 2) facilitation of mother/baby relationships, 3) family-centered care, and 4) the importance of cultural/religious beliefs and practices to new mothers.

  12. Glyph Identification and Character Recognition for Sindhi OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISAR AHMEDMEMON

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A computer can read and write multiple languages and today?s computers are capable of understanding various human languages. A computer can be given instructions through various input methods but OCR (Optical Character Recognition and handwritten character recognition are the input methods in which a scanned page containing text is converted into written or editable text. The change in language text available on scanned page demands different algorithm to recognize text because every language and script pose varying number of challenges to recognize text. The Latin language recognition pose less difficulties compared to Arabic script and languages that use Arabic script for writing and OCR systems for these Latin languages are near to perfection. Very little work has been done on regional languages of Pakistan. In this paper the Sindhi glyphs are identified and the number of characters and connected components are identified for this regional language of Pakistan. A graphical user interface has been created to perform identification task for glyphs and characters of Sindhi language. The glyphs of characters are successfully identified from scanned page and this information can be used to recognize characters. The language glyph identification can be used to apply suitable algorithm to identify language as well as to achieve a higher recognition rate.

  13. Emotions Classification for Arabic Tweets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... learning methods for referring to all areas of detecting, analyzing, and classifying ... In this paper, an adaptive model is proposed for emotions classification of ... WEKA data mining tool is used to implement this model and evaluate the ... defined using vector representation, storing a numerical. "importance" ...

  14. Current situation in the Arab countries and the AAEA Role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, Salaheddin

    2013-01-01

    Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA) is one of the organizations of the League of Arab States (LAS). AAEA is working within the framework of the LAS to coordinate the scientific efforts of the Arab Countries in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. So, AAEA works hard to enhance the socio-economical development in Arab countries by promoting the peaceful applications of atomic energy in many aspects of life. The Arab Authority contributes for the implementation of training programs for Arab staff in the field of parameters mentioned above through the implementation of training courses, workshops and expert meetings in addition to scientific visits exchanged between the researchers and Arabs scientists and translation of books from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the Arabic language and circulated to the Arab countries. At Arab Summits (Riyadh - 2007 - Damascus and Doha 2008 - 2009), AAEA elaborates 12 projects on the Arab strategy for the peaceful uses of atomic energy until 2020 and planed all applications of atomic energy. Integration of radioisotopes production in the Arab countries is among these projects. This project aims to unify efforts and coordinate cooperation between the Arab countries together to develop the human potential and benefit from the expertise available in some Arab countries in the production of radioisotopes to insure the integration between Arab countries. Nuclear and radioactive facilities in Arab countries are:- Research reactors (RRs) that can produce isotopes (Egypt -2, -2 Algeria, Libya -1) and (-1 Morocco, Syria -1).- Ions accelerators (cyclotron) for isotope production (Morocco, Algeria, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt).- Ions accelerators (VDG) for research and analysis (Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria and Jordan).- Electron accelerator (LINAC) for research and industry applications (Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, UAE and Kuwait).- Electron accelerators (LINAC) for nuclear medicine therapy

  15. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  16. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  17. Domestic Violence in Arab Society: A Comparison of Arab and Jewish Women in Shelters in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porat, Anat; Levy, Drorit; Kattoura, Ola; Dekel, Rachel; Itzhaky, Haya

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to address a gap in the literature by determining prevalence, specific types of violence, and risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Israeli born Arab women compared with Israeli born Jewish women. The following measures were compared: demographic and socioeconomic measures; measures relating to the characteristics of the violence, that is, the three types of violence (physical, emotional, and verbally threatening), sense of danger, and history of violence in childhood; family support levels; and perpetrator characteristics. The sample consisted of 154 Israeli born Arab women and 149 Israeli born Jewish women who were staying in shelters for victims of domestic violence in Israel. A comparison of the two groups revealed that the Arab women were exposed to more physical violence and received less family support than did their Jewish counterparts. The proportion of Arab perpetrators with access to weapons was higher than that of Jewish perpetrators, whereas the proportion of police complaints against Jewish perpetrators was higher than that against Arab perpetrators. Arab women were also younger, less educated, and less a part of the workforce than Jewish women. The contribution of the woman's age to the variance in levels of physical violence was negative and significant. In contrast, the contribution of her sense of danger, and various perpetrator characteristics, was positive. Moreover, the interaction between sense of danger × ethnicity contributed significantly to levels of violence. This study extends the existing knowledge about the contribution of ethnicity as one of many variables that play a role in the lives of women who are victims of domestic violence and highlights the need to develop, in particular, unique individual, community, and social interventions for Arab women in Israeli society.

  18. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Khabaza, I M

    1960-01-01

    Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput

  19. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  20. Tuning Recurrent Neural Networks for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Words

    KAUST Repository

    Qaralleh, Esam

    2013-10-01

    Artificial neural networks have the abilities to learn by example and are capable of solving problems that are hard to solve using ordinary rule-based programming. They have many design parameters that affect their performance such as the number and sizes of the hidden layers. Large sizes are slow and small sizes are generally not accurate. Tuning the neural network size is a hard task because the design space is often large and training is often a long process. We use design of experiments techniques to tune the recurrent neural network used in an Arabic handwriting recognition system. We show that best results are achieved with three hidden layers and two subsampling layers. To tune the sizes of these five layers, we use fractional factorial experiment design to limit the number of experiments to a feasible number. Moreover, we replicate the experiment configuration multiple times to overcome the randomness in the training process. The accuracy and time measurements are analyzed and modeled. The two models are then used to locate network sizes that are on the Pareto optimal frontier. The approach described in this paper reduces the label error from 26.2% to 19.8%.

  1. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Vilarrubias, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heter...

  2. A 1000 Arab genome project to study the Emirati population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Mariam; Osman, Wael; Tay, Guan K; AlSafar, Habiba S

    2018-04-01

    Discoveries from the human genome, HapMap, and 1000 genome projects have collectively contributed toward the creation of a catalog of human genetic variations that has improved our understanding of human diversity. Despite the collegial nature of many of these genome study consortiums, which has led to the cataloging of genetic variations of different ethnic groups from around the world, genome data on the Arab population remains overwhelmingly underrepresented. The National Arab Genome project in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) aims to address this deficiency by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to provide data to improve our understanding of the Arab genome and catalog variants that are unique to the Arab population of the UAE. The project was conceived to shed light on the similarities and differences between the Arab genome and those of the other ethnic groups.

  3. After the Arab Spring: Democratic Aspirations and State Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    on an unprecedented scale, and the resulting frustration has led to the biggest refugee flows in recent memory. What went wrong? This short course offers an overview of the structural shortcomings of Arab states and societies, which help us understand why the democratic awakening did not happen but instead “has given......The popular protests that erupted in 2010 and quickly remade the political map of the Arab world surprised almost everybody. We all knew the terrible state of Arab governance, marked as it was by rents, repression and regression, still no-one predicted that the people would ever rise. For decades......, the Arabs had looked like an exception to global trends towards greater participation and accountability in public life, towards more sensible economic policies and more permissive social mores. Today, the Arab world is in deep crisis. Of the 22 member states of the Arab League, at least five have...

  4. Arab drama series content analysis from a transnational Arab identity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Chamieh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scientific contribution in deciphering drama series falls under the discipline of understanding the narratology of distinctive cultures and traditions within specific contexts of certain societies. This article spells out the interferences deployed by the provocations that are induced through the functions of values in modeling societies which are projected through the transmission of media. The proposed operational model consists of providing an à priori design of common Arab values assimilated into an innovative grid analysis code book that has enabled the execution of a systematic and reliable approach to the quantitative content analysis performance. Additionally, a more thorough qualitative content analysis has been implemented in terms of narratolgy where actions have been evaluated based on the grid analysis code book for a clearer perception of Arab values depicted in terms of their context within the Arab drama milieu. This approach has been deployed on four Arab drama series covering the transnational/national and non-divisive/divisive media aspects in the intention of extracting the transmitted values from a common identity perspective for cause of divulging Arab people’s expectancies.

  5. Mobile Application Development for Quran Verse Recognition and Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Alqahtani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning or “m-learning” is the process of learning when learners are not at a fixed location or time and can exploit the advantage of learning opportunities using mobile technologies. Nowadays, speech recognition is being used in many mobile applications. Speech recognition helps people to interact with the device as if were they talking to another person. This technology helps people to learn anything using computers by promoting self-study over extended periods of time. The objective of this study is focusing on designing and developing a mobile application for the Arabic recognition of spoken Quranic verses. The application is suitable for Android-based devices. The application is called Say Quran and is available on Google Play Store. Moreover, this paper presents the results of a preliminary experimentation to gather feedback from students regarding the developed application

  6. The Arab activity in uranium exploration and recovery: pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banany, Mohamad; Lababidi, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    This is the second part of a paper given during the third Arab energy conference held in Algeria, 4 - 9 May, 1985. Information concerning uranium resources and exploration in some Arab Countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Lybia is presented. In addition to that, uranium content in phosphate rocks in the world and specially in Arab Countries is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. The Term cybrarian : Concept and The Arabic Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.Sattar Khalifa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the term cybrarian, dealing with its origin, definition in the public and specific dictionaries and gives comments for each one , then deals with the usage of term on the Arabic coverage which acted by appearing a printed pamphlet and discussion group entitled cybrarians, and a published study about this topic , also acted by establishing an Arabic web site with the same name, finally the study try to give an Arabic opposite to this term.

  8. Discrimination and Psychological Distress: Gender Differences among Arab Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the existing knowledge on the association between discrimination and poor mental health, very few studies have explored gender differences in this association in Arab Americans. Objective The current study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the association between the experience of discrimination and psychological distress in a representative sample of Arab Americans in Michigan. Methods Using data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 2...

  9. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  10. Cancer Research in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R.; Borgan, Saif M.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2017-01-01

    This review aimed to examine trends in cancer research in the Arab world and identify existing research gaps. A search of the MEDLINE® database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was undertaken for all cancer-related publications published between January 2000 and December 2013 from seven countries, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Sudan. A total of 1,773 articles were identified, with a significant increase in yearly publications over time (P social and structural determinants of health (27.1%), followed by behavioural risk factors (14.1%), particularly tobacco use. Overall, more cancer research is needed in the Arab world, particularly analytical studies with high-quality evidence and those focusing on older age groups and associations with physical activity and diet. PMID:28690885

  11. Venuti's Foreignization: Resistance Against The Arabic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Elmenfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief study on Domestication and Foreignization, and the disputes over these two basic translation strategies. Domestication designates the type of translation in which a transparent and fluent style is adopted to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text for the target language readers; while foreignization means a target text is deliberately produced to break target conventions by retaining something of the foreignness of the original.Most of Said's work have been translated into Arabic; some have been translated twice, and some three times.  One of these translations forms the core of this paper, which attempts to discuss foreignization strategy. To accomplish this task, Edward Said's Orientalism (1978/2003 is chosen as the source text (ST, and the Arabic translation undertaken by Kamal Abu Deeb (1981/1995 is chosen as the target text (TT.

  12. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  13. National characteristics and variation in Arabic handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadhrami, Ahmed A N; Allen, Mike; Moffatt, Colin; Jones, Allison E

    2015-02-01

    From each of four Arabic countries; Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and Oman, 150 participants produced handwriting samples which were examined to assess whether national characteristics were discernible. Ten characters, which have different configurations depending upon their position in the word, along with one short word, were classified into distinguishable forms, and these forms recorded for each handwriting sample. Tests of independence showed that character forms used were not independent of country (phandwriting samples that underwent 'blind' classification. When the countries were combined into two regions, North Africa and Middle East, the grouping was more marked. Thus, there appears to be some scope for narrowing down the nationality, and particularly the wider geographical region of an author based upon the character forms they use in Arabic handwriting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Semantic Sentiment Analysis in Arabic Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Tartir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media is a huge source of information. And is increasingly being used by governments, companies, and marketers to understand how the crowd thinks. Sentiment analysis aims to determine the attitudes of a group of people that are using one or more social media platforms with respect to a certain topic. In this paper, we propose a semantic approach to discover user attitudes and business insights from social media in Arabic, both standard and dialects. We also introduce the first version of our Arabic Sentiment Ontology (ASO that contains different words that express feelings and how strongly these words express these feelings. We then show the usability of our approach in classifying different Twitter feeds on different topics.

  15. The Electronic Archiving of Arab News Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Ayub Gigawy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This Research aims to present the electronic archives of Arab news agency websites and their methods of searching for and retrieving information. Also, its aim is to examine all their methods in order to find out which are the best and most practically useful ones. The research refers to the news agencies and the Internet, through the methods that users encounter in these inquires and links which present information. It concentrates on practical ways of searching for news items in both texts and pictures. The research contains tables showing the results. It presents a brief summery for each of Arab news agencies.The research comes to the conclusion that there are many things which need to be considered, and also some suggestions as to how the search for and retrieval of information might be improved

  16. OTM Machine Acceptance: In the Arab Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Abdullah; Santos, Henrique

    Basically, neglecting the human factor is one of the main reasons for system failures or for technology rejection, even when important technologies are considered. Biometrics mostly have the characteristics needed for effortless acceptance, such as easiness and usefulness, that are essential pillars of acceptance models such as TAM (technology acceptance model). However, it should be investigated. Many studies have been carried out to research the issues of technology acceptance in different cultures, especially the western culture. Arabic culture lacks these types of studies with few publications in this field. This paper introduces a new biometric interface for ATM machines. This interface depends on a promising biometrics which is odour. To discover the acceptance of this biometrics, we distributed a questionnaire via a web site and called for participation in the Arab Area and found that most respondents would accept to use odour.

  17. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  18. The Global Financial Crisis and the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane; Loewe, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the impact of the global financial crisis on Europe, Asia and the Americas but only little on the Arab states. This article makes an early attempt to take stock of recent developments in the Arab world and offers a systematic approach to disentangle the various inter......-linkages and effects of the crisis on the region. It argues that most Arab countries might be lucky and get off lightly, especially the energy-importing Arab countries which have proved not to be very vulnerable because they are only weakly integrated into global trade and capital markets. The energy exporters have...

  19. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR TULISAN ARAB-MELAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Risdiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research and development is to produce a teaching material of Arab-Melayu inscription for Indonesian literature students with expediently and effectively content, presentation, language, and display. This research use Team of Research Central of Educational SPolicy and Innovation’s research and development method. The result is a book and the tittle is Membuka Jendela Ilmu Pengetahuan Arab-Melayu.The trial results from matter expert obtained 90,7%, the result of the trial from studies design expert obtained 89,9%, the trial results from teacher obtained 80,6%, and student’s tes results obtained 92,8%. It’s mean that the product can be implemented. The results of effectively trial that show 70% students has high ability. So, the product can be effective for studies. Tujuan penelitian pengembangan ini adalah menghasilkan bahan ajar tulisan Arab-Melayu untuk mahasiswa jurusan Sastra Indonesia dengan isi, penyajian, bahasa, serta kegrafikaan yang layak dan efektif untuk pembelajaran. Penelitian ini menggunakan model penelitian prosedural serta metode penelitian dan pengembangan dari Tim Pusat Penelitian Kebijakan dan Inovasi Pendidikan. Hasil penelitian ini adalah bahan ajar berbentuk buku cetak berjudul Membuka Jendela Ilmu Pengetahuan Arab-Melayu. Berdasarkan ahli materi, produk mendapatkan penilaian sebesar 90,7%, ahli desain pembelajaran sebesar 89,9%, praktisi dosen sebesar 80,6%, dan mahsiswa sebesar 92,8%. Dengan demikian produk dikategorikan dapat diimplementasikan. Berdasarkan uji keefektifan, diketahui bahwa 70% mahasiswa berkemampuan sangat tinggi, sehingga produk dapat dikatakan efektif untuk pembelajaran.

  20. Arab Cultural Influences on Intertemporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    Godfrey, Ph.D. Winset Group, LLC. Fairfax, VA Arab Cultural Influences 2 Introduction “The handling of time is revealing of how unconscious implicit...faint strains of this tendency in, for example, the works of William Shakespeare . Here, Western society has extracted, excerpted and restated...Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 430-454. Khaldûn, I. (1967). The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to

  1. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  2. Qualitative interviewing: methodological challenges in Arab settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.

  3. Health Care, the Arab Spring and After

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Alianak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of health care on Middle Eastern countries on the eve of and soon after the Arab Spring. It posits that countries that were most stable were the healthiest ones; countries which underwent revolutions were the unhealthiest ones; whereas countries that settled for reforms were moderate in health. It presents a hypothesis, the Inverted Funnel Model Hypothesis, that states that as the level of health care of a country rises so does its stability, which in turn leads to better health care as if down an inverted funnel to hypothetical maximums of both health care and stability. To test the hypothesis both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. The quantitative part involves first of all compiling seven health indicators based on the World Health Organization Annual Reports on twelve individual countries, for a period of five years preceding the Arab Spring’s onset in 2011 and in the immediate aftermath of 2011, and, second of all running correlations with political stability of each country, grouped in a three-way typology of countries. This is supplemented by a qualitative part which analyzes the health perceptions and demands of Arab Spring protesters in search of social justice.

  4. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”

  5. Improved pattern recognition systems by hybrid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, B.; Haettich, W.; Tropf, H.; Winkler, G.; Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V., Karlsruhe

    1978-12-01

    This report describes a combination of statistical and syntactical pattern recongition methods. The hierarchically structured recognition system consists of a conventional statistical classifier, a structural classifier analysing the topological composition of the patterns, a stage reducing the number of hypotheses made by the first two stages, and a mixed stage based on a search for maximum similarity between syntactically generated prototypes and patterns. The stages work on different principles to avoid mistakes made in one stage in the other stages. This concept is applied to the recognition of numerals written without constraints. If no samples are rejected, a recognition rate of 99,5% is obtained. (orig.) [de

  6. Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  7. Hindi Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  8. The Rise of the Arab Youth Paradigm: A Critical Analysis of the Arab Human Development Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Mayssoun Sukarieh

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the Arab Human Development Report (AHDR) 2016, that was released by the United Nations Development Programme in November 2016. AHDR 2016 represents the return of the Arab Human Development project, that had been interrupted by the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. It also epitomizes the Arab youth paradigm that has increasingly come to frame development and security discourse in the region. While there is much that is familiar in AHDR 2016, there are al...

  9. Syria in the Arab Spring: The integration of Syria’s conflict with the Arab uprisings, 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lynch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available How did Syria’s conflict interact with the broader wave of regional protest known as the Arab Spring? This article uses a unique, complete Twitter dataset of tweets including the word “Syria” in English or Arabic to empirically test how Syria’s conflict was discussed online. The analysis shows a high level of interaction between Syria and other Arab countries through 2011. Other Arab countries experiencing popular protests (“Arab Spring countries” were referenced far more often in 2011 than were Syria’s immediate neighbors, while keyword analysis shows the framing of the conflict in terms of Syria’s “regime” aligned the conflict with other Arab uprisings. In 2012–2013 this changed sharply, with significantly fewer mentions of other Arab countries, particularly Arab Spring countries, more fundraising and political appeals across the Gulf, and growing Islamization. These findings offer one of the first empirical demonstrations of the integration and disintegration of a unified Arab discourse from 2011 to 2013, with significant implications for theories of the diffusion of protest and ideas.

  10. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, G Shanker

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...

  11. Behavioral Pattern in the United States in the Face of Upheavals of Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Sabeti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditions and upheavals, by their characteristics, including people opposition with governments and alteration in regional order, have challenged the US strategic interests in the Middle East region and forced the authorities of Washington to manage and strategize upheavals. The type of US encounter with the trend of upheavals, approach of the ruling regime, the future of people movement and available alternative, interests, and security of Israel and contradiction between strategic interests and democratic principles were amongst the most important issues facing the United States. The present article is seeking to find the answer to this question that what sort of relationship does exist between United States policies in the Middle East from one hand and recent upheavals in Arab countries on the other hand? The assumption of the article is that in the past two decades the one sided role of the US in forming the upheavals of Middle East has changed into a bilateral relationship and the behavior of this country in the process of recent upheavals, affected by the presence of the people of Arab countries in internal politics of their own country in numerous cases has changed into a reaction behavior. Finally, it should be said that contrasts between society and government in Arabic Middle East, is considered as one of the prominent challenges of the US in decision-making process and management of region unrests. On the other hand, the lack of a specified instruction and strategy by Americans is another problem of the US in this region.

  12. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Large old trees need more conservation attention: A case of Tamarix aphylla in the arid deserts of the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large old trees are often recognized for the provision of variety of ecosystem services to humanity. This paper reports the existence of a large old Tamarix aphylla (L. Karst. tree in the Hamriyah area of Sharjah, the United Arab Emirates. Existence of such keystone structures spans many human generations and they become a historic link between the generations. Therefore, protection and recognition of more culturally, historically, and ecologically important trees by establishing a comprehensive tree list are crucial.

  14. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  15. “We are Arabs:” The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women’s Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and “We are Arabs.” To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society’s perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society’s honor. “We are Arabs” describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being. PMID:26865811

  16. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recognition as care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study provides critical insight into the social processes of municipal diabetes training for Arabic-speaking immigrants in Denmark focusing on participants’ experiences. Our study builds on observations of three diabetes courses and 36 interviews with participants at the start of...

  18. Contribution of Arabic Medicine and Pharmacy to the Development of Health Care Protection in Bosnia and Herzegovina - the Second Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2017-12-01

    After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements. However, insufficiently elaborated, rich funds of oriental medical and pharmaceutical handwriting testify that Oriental science has nurtured in these areas as well, and that the Arabic component in a specific way was intertwined with other cultures and traditions of B&H. The Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina have museums which contain important exhibits and libraries rich in books, among which many from the field of medicine and pharmacy. Muslim mosques, also, had small libraries with Arabic books used for spreading medical knowledge. The second category was folk doctors and practitioners who were on disposition to the people of any religion. Some of them listened to lectures in medicine during the studies of theology and philosophy. However, most did not have any medical education, but by reading books and teaching experience they made their own recipe collection. Special books, called "Ljekaruše" (Books of recipes) were also born during the study when they came into contact with an even larger number of health books. However, it should not be neglected that a lot of them contained folk medicines that were used in some environments depending on the habits and available herbs. Although it has been proven that many recipes from Ljekaruše are pharmacologically and medically justified, one should not ignore the knowledge and skill behind

  19. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, L Ridgway

    2011-01-01

    Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...

  20. The Modern Arabic Book : Design as Agent of Cultural Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abi-Fares, H.

    2017-01-01

    Books in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century played an important role in the dissemination of liberal and nationalist ideologies, thus instigating social change in the Arab world. The focus of this study are printed Arabic books where the ideas of modernity in both form and content were

  1. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  3. Arab International Students' Experiences in a U.S. University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Rabia, Hazza M.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study described the experiences of Arab international students in a U.S. postsecondary institution. This research identified those factors that Arab international students reported as facilitating or obstructing their academic success, promoting or limiting their socialization within the context of their postsecondary…

  4. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of…

  5. An Assessment of Training Needs of Arabic School Teachers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the training needs of teachers in the Arabic schools in Lagos State. The study involved Head Teachers in 42 selected Arabic schools operating in. Akoka, Bariga and Somolu areas in the Lagos metropolis. The subjects were given a list of six possible teaching competencies and asked to appraise their ...

  6. An acoustic investigation of Arabic vowels pronounced by Malay speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abd Almisreb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Arabic language is spoken, and commonly used among the Malays. Malays use Arabic in their daily life, such as during performing worship. Hence, in this paper, some of the Arabic vowels attributes are investigated, analyzed and initial findings are presented based on tokens articulated by Malay speakers as we can consider the spoken Arabic by Malays as one of the Arabic dialects. It is known that in Arabic language there are 28 consonants and 6 main vowels. Firstly, the duration, variability, and overlapping attributes are highlighted based on syllables of Consonant–Vowel with each syllable representing every Arabic consonant with the corresponding vowels. Next, the dispersion of each vowel is examined to be compared with each other along with the variability among vowels that may cause overlapping between vowels in the vowel-space. Results showed that the vowel overlapping occurred between short vowels and their long counterpart vowels. Furthermore, an investigation of the Arabic vowel duration is addressed as well, and duration analysis for all the vowels is discussed, followed by the analysis for each vowel separately. In addition, a comparison between long and short vowels is presented as well as comparison between high and low vowel is carried out.

  7. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  8. Undergraduate Arab International Students' Adjustment to U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    The adjustment process and issues of 16 Arab international students enrolled at two universities in the Northeast of the United States were examined through this qualitative, exploratory study. The participants were from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates and had been in the US for 2 to 5 years. In-depth…

  9. Adoption of Loanwords in Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabaa, Sami

    An analysis of non-Arabic words used in two Kuwaiti daily newspapers reveals that (1) the newspapers often use loan words instead of their Arabic equivalents to emphasize that they are discussing something European; (2) the number and frequency of loan words relating to objects of daily use are much greater than those of abstract and technical…

  10. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  11. Who Benefits from Foreign Universities in the Arab Gulf States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The Arab Gulf States are the largest hosts of international branch campuses globally. By increasing higher education capacity in the Arab Gulf States by over 30,000 places, foreign institutions have, through various forms of transnational provision, increased significantly the accessibility of higher education to young people living in these…

  12. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... Despite the fact that gum arabic is widely used as a vehicle for .... humidity, are the main factors affecting gum arabic yield. ... 450 mm from May to October; the soil is uniform deep reddish sand with little textural differentiation in the profile. .... 0.01; Mg/l * equivalent weight = mg/l (ppm); Molecular weight *.

  13. Moroccan Arabic Technical Lessons for Rehab./Special Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtatou, Mohamed, Ed.

    The instructional materials in Moroccan Arabic are designed to meet the language needs of Peace Corps volunteers working in rehabilitation and special education in Morocco. The lessons are almost entirely in Arabic, and include vocabulary lists with both technical and everyday language pertaining to disabilities. Lesson topics include singing, the…

  14. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab World. While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little improvement in ensuring equitable access to health care. In most countries, the majority of people have limited access to basic health services. These are ...

  15. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will ... While the Arab revolts brought with them a wave of political change and ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  16. The nuclear choice of arab countries particularism and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haouari, Boukaker

    1998-01-01

    The author analyzes the arab countries opinion and policy concerning the nuclear energy use. He shows how socio-economical factors but also Israel position concerning the nuclear weapon possession, influence on the objective of the arab countries. (A.L.B.)

  17. What Has Happened to Arabs? Identity and Face Management Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zidjaly, Najma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face (e.g., Ting-Toomey 1994, 2004; Tracy 2008) and research on Islamic and Arabic cultures and linguistic strategies (e.g., Beeman 1986; Hegland 1998; Wilce 2005; Al Zidjaly 2006) to explore the role that the Internet plays in enabling Muslim Arabs to manage or save their…

  18. Building Knowledge and Advocacy Agendas for Change in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As Arab countries continue to experience change, this research project will provide ... -Contribute to creating an inclusive, democratic culture in Syria and help with ... research, and dialogue -Measure public opinion through survey instruments ... IDRC partner with a network of regional organizations in 17 Arab countries.

  19. On the Notions "Standard" and "Prestigious" in Arabic Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad H.

    This paper examines the results of two sociolinguistic studies of the Arabic spoken by men and women in Jordan and Syria in terms of sex differentiation in Arabic. The study reported in this paper proposes that the terms "prestigious" and "standard" should not be used interchangeably; accordingly, it reinterprets the previous…

  20. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  1. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...

  2. Arabic Language as a source of Diplomatic Relations between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The idea of sending massages from one person to another is a tradition that is as old as man in history. With the development of the art of writing, Arabic language played and still plays an important role in communication as a medium of expression. In most of the West African empires, Arabic served as the official language ...

  3. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gith, Emad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  4. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  5. Education for Multiculturalism among Arab Youth in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Asbah, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Education for multiculturalism, founded on liberal-democratic values, is a frequent topic of educational discourse that has not been ignored by Muslim Arab schools in Israel. In general, Arab society is undergoing change processes, in transition from a traditional to a modern society; traditional values are challenged, engendering social crises.…

  6. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  7. Arabs' Stereotypes Revisited: The Need for a Literary Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, there has been a steady growth of interest in studying the representations of Arabs in media as shown by the increasing number of journal articles. Scholars have talked abundantly about he ugly images of Arabs that have been shown in American media for over a century. However, research lacks explanation and sufficing…

  8. Arabic Supervised Learning Method Using N-Gram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanan, Majed; Rammal, Mahmoud; Zreik, Khaldoun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, classification of Arabic documents is a real problem for juridical centers. In this case, some of the Lebanese official journal documents are classified, and the center has to classify new documents based on these documents. This paper aims to study and explain the useful application of supervised learning method on Arabic texts…

  9. Who Is Studying Arabic and Why? A Survey of Arabic Students' Orientation at a Major University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseinali, Ghassan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the initial motivation of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). One hundred and twenty students enrolled in first-year and second-year AFL classes participated in this study. The participants were classified into two major groups of learners according to their heritage background: The first group consisted of…

  10. The evolution of Arabic(s) Making the Idiom speak for the Deme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Fig.1). While all non-Semitic but also non-Arabic Semitic languages are located in .... of such polarities, we need a mixed model of evolution to explore the structure of ... case of language, a growing interest has been building up around the use of ... bar along the bottom of the phylogeny presents time in YBP, and branch ...

  11. Development of numerical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Peucker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of numerical concepts is described from infancy to preschool age. Infants a few days old exhibit an early sensitivity for numerosities. In the course of development, nonverbal mental models allow for the exact representation of small quantities as well as changes in these quantities. Subitising, as the accurate recognition of small numerosities (without counting, plays an important role. It can be assumed that numerical concepts and procedures start with insights about small numerosities. Protoquantitative schemata comprise fundamental knowledge about quantities. One-to-one-correspondence connects elements and numbers, and, for this reason, both quantitative and numerical knowledge. If children understand that they can determine the numerosity of a collection of elements by enumerating the elements, they have acquired the concept of cardinality. Protoquantitative knowledge becomes quantitative if it can be applied to numerosities and sequential numbers. The concepts of cardinality and part-part-whole are key to numerical development. Developmentally appropriate learning and teaching should focus on cardinality and part-part-whole concepts.

  12. After the Arab Spring – Democratic Aspirations and State Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    About this Course: Learn why the hope and excitement of the Arab Spring is gone, why so many Arab states are falling apart, why the youth are so frustrated, why there are so many refugees, and what can be done about it. The so-called Arab Spring appeared to end decades of exceptionalism and bring...... new, better societies. Today, the Arab world is in deep crisis. Of the 22 member states of the Arab League, at least five have essentially collapsed: Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Somalia and Syria exist only in name today, as their territories have fallen to competing, murderous armed groups. In the remaining...... countries, the old autocracies have reasserted themselves. The repression at home is now worsened by regional conflict on an unprecedented scale, and the resulting frustration has led to the biggest refugee flows in recent memory. What went wrong? This course offers an overview of the structural...

  13. Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

  14. Naming to empower: lesbianism in the Arab Islamicate world today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    After a brief review of the proliferation of newly coined Arabic words to speak about LGBTQIA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and ally) identities, this article interrogates the facile imitation of Western labels and questions their usefulness in the context of Arab societies and cultures. It demonstrates that the assumptions that underlie the creation of new wordlists overlook and ultimately erase the very rich tradition on alternative sexual practices that has been prominent in the Islamicate world at least since the ninth century. Salvaging this tradition and its accompanying terminology on homosexuality challenges the claim that homosexuality is a Western importation, and renders the recourse to English categories superfluous. Moreover, uncovering the forgotten Arabic cultural material on alternative sexualities offers contemporary Arab gays and lesbians a rich and empowering indigenous heritage, as well as home-grown modes of resistance that are poised to challenge homophobic attitudes and policies in the Arab world, and the hegemony of Western sexual and cultural imperialism.

  15. Moriscos and Arabic studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegers, Gerard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay studies the contribution of Moriscos to Arabic studies. It concludes that the contributions of Moriscos in the Iberian peninsula remained modest. Some contributed actively to the knowledge of Arabic through their Arabic-Islamic learning. I show that the Mudejar convert known as Juan Andrés, who wrote one of the most influential treatises against Islam, was indeed a canon of the cathedral of Granada. I briefly discuss the contribution of Moriscos to the translations and interpretations of the Lead Books and studied their post-expulssion contribution to Arabic and Islamic studies. The last part focuses on the Dutch Republic, where, as a result of historical circumstances and contingent factors such as personal relations, Moriscos played an important role. Here, in addition to the study of the Arabic language itself, the physical sciences played a noteworthy role. This, I suggest, can be connected to the broad scope of the emergence of Arabic studies in Europe, which incorporated both the physical sciences and religion and philosophy, and an interest in North Africa itself because of developments in the physical sciences, including their application in daily life.

    Este artículo analiza la aportación de los moriscos a los estudios árabes, concluyendo que ésta fue modesta en la Península Ibérica. Algunos moriscos contribuyeron de forma activa al conocimiento del árabe a través de sus estudios sobre temas árabo-islámicos. Se demuesttra que el converso mudéjar conocido como Juan Andrés, autor de uno de los más influyentes tratados contra el Islam, fue un canónigo de la Catedral de Granada. Se aborda brevemente la cuestión de la contribución de los moriscos a la traducción e interpretación de los Libros Plúmbeos y se estudia su contribucción, con posterioridad a la expulsión, a los estudios árabes e islámicos. La última parte del trabajo se centra en Holanda (República de los Siete Países Bajos Unidos

  16. Working for change in the Arab world. Advocacy for reproductive health: Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamand, J

    1996-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) revealed that within the Arab world there are special difficulties with regard to family planning (FP) and the status of women. There is general social opposition to women's empowerment and employment outside the home, which FP associations have to tackle. At the Cairo ICPD in 1994 the Vatican and Islamic fundamentalists formed a holy alliance against undesirable Western ideas. Eventually most Arab governments became convinced about the need for the program of action. A regional conference was also held in January 1996 on this agenda organized by the IPPF Arab World Region in Cairo to implement the program of action with the participation of 140 representatives. The question of population at the Cairo meeting was linked to economic and social development leading up to the women's conference in Beijing in 1995. At the 1996 implementation meeting the unmet need for reproductive health services was voiced along with the need for solid research in this area. FP has a vital role in social development and in combating poverty. The implementation of IPPF's Vision 2000 strategic plan also contributes to the implementation of the ICPD program of action, which deals with sex education, unsafe abortion, marginalized groups, and women's empowerment. Even Islam has come to support responsible FP for the sake of the well-being of the family. The Grand Mufti of Egypt pronounced his support for FP for health and socioeconomic reasons, for the education of girls, and for equality with men. In Arab countries the outstanding problems are early marriage, female genital mutilation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and ignorance about reproduction. Listening to young people, funding restrictions hampering progress, and an advocacy group of prominent leaders, and the formation of an Arab parliamentarians group on FP were other high points.

  17. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  18. Further questions to the historiography of Arabic (but not only Arabic) mathematics from the perspective of Romance abbacus mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Since some years I have been engaged in a close reading of early Italian abbacus books and related material from the Ibero-Provençal orbit and in comparison of this material with Arabic mathematical writings. At the 7th North African Meeting on the History of Arab Mathematics in Marrakesh in 2002...

  19. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  20. Health Information in Modern Standard Arabic (al-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - English MP3 Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - al-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá (Modern Standard Arabic) MP3 Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - English ...

  1. Stylistic Features of Comment in Arabic Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdulzyamil G. Zaynullin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of the functioning of the Internet language is the definition of the features of each Internet genre presented in online communication, taking into account the linguocultural features of the language in question. This paper studies the genre of the Internet comments of the Arabic-speaking blogosphere and reveals its stylistic features. The most common goal of the comment is gratitude, followed by praise. We created a corpus of comments from blogs of various subjects, and then conducted the tagging, having identified the group to which we attributed a comment, depending on the subject and the communicative goal. With the help of the Lexico 3 software, the most frequent lexical units were identified, the lexical features of the comments were described, the main one being the widespread use of religionyms, and the relationship between the blog subject and the stylistic characteristics of communication was revealed. The article traces the correlation between the literary and colloquial functional style in the comments, and also draws a conclusion that the comments are of a conversational, informal character. The main devices of expressiveness that are characteristic for both network and pre-network communication were revealed, and the tendency of the analysts to observe in the comments a stable three-part composition (greeting, message, final formula. The influence of traditional Arabic rhetoric, as well as the epistolary genre, was preserved. The results of the paper can be used when studying other genres of Internet communication in Arabic and in comparative studies to create the linguistic software.

  2. Water ethics perspectives in the Arab Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Awar, F.; Abdulrazzak, M. Jameel; Al-Weshah, R.

    2006-01-01

    Water ethics has only recently emerged in academic and development arenas as an independent field of professional discussion. Concerns over water conservation and adequate access to basic needs of water and sanitation pose a difficult ethical dilemma that should be addressed based on societal and ethical frame works. Issues such as water allocation and pricing, privatization of various water services and efficient water management need to be contested within an ethical framework according to principles of equity and social justice. This paper presents the basic concepts of water ethics, as well as water ethics perspectives and applications within the framework of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the Arab Region, which suffers from one of the fastest growing water deficits in the world. The deteriorating status of the water resources situation in Arab Region is no longer tolerable due to the high costs in terms of negative environmental consequences and deteriorating livelihoods of poor populations associated with lack of access to clean water and sanitation. Nevertheless, most of the national efforts for IWRM implementation in the Region have been dominated by neo-liberal economic policies stressing privatization of various water services; cost recovery through different pricing and tariffication schemes; as well as sectoral water (re)allocation. However, many negative impacts due to the shift to neo-liberal market-led economies have been surfaced throughout the developing world in the past decade and a half, especially with respect to the increased levels of poverty and worsening environmental degradation. It is, therefore, critical to adopt IWRM approaches in the region within an ethical framework that takes full consideration of all social implications regarding the poor, and that could be used as a means to achieve water-related international goals of poverty reduction. Finally, the paper also shows that there is no contradiction between Islamic

  3. Epidemiology of diabetes among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Linda A; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Nowak, Sandra N; Zhu, Qian; Ghafoor, Anisa; Herman, William H

    2003-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance by age and sex in the Arab-American community of Dearborn, Michigan. Participants were randomly selected adult Arab Americans, 20-75 years of age, from randomly selected households in Dearborn, Michigan. Demographic and anthropometric data were recorded. Glucose tolerance was assessed with 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests and classified according to 1997 American Diabetes Association and 1998 World Health Organization criteria. A total of 626 eligible adults were selected, and 542 participated (87% response rate). Because prevalence increases with age and the overall response rate for women (328/352; 93%) was higher than that for men (214/274; 78%), prevalence rates were adjusted for age and sex. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 15.5% (95% CI 12.2-18.7%) in women and 20.1% (15.0-25.2%) in men (P = 0.13). The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was similar to that of undiagnosed diabetes. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were present in 16.8% (12.8-20.8%) of women and 29.7% (23.4-35.9%) of men (P = 0.0007). The combined rates of glucose intolerance (diabetes, IGT, and IFG) were 32.3% (27.8-36.7%) for women and 49.8% (43.1-56.4%) for men (P women. As expected, subjects with diabetes or IGT/IFG were older and had greater BMI and waist-to-hip ratios than subjects with normal glucose tolerance. The prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance is extremely high among adult Arab Americans in Michigan and represents a major clinical and public health problem. Community-based intervention programs to prevent and treat diabetes are urgently needed.

  4. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  6. Using an Anti-Racist Education Strategy to Counter Prejudice against Arab and Muslim Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTample, Darrell R.

    2016-01-01

    Most Americans misunderstand the terms "Arab" and "Muslim," while also casting Arabs and Muslims as threats to national security. These perceived threats have led to the justification of the oppression of Arab and Muslim Americans similar to other minority groups in the United States, as non-Arab and non-Muslim Americans have…

  7. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  8. After the Spring: Reforming Arab Armies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    2012 following riots at a soccer stadium that cost the lives of at least 74 people were sentenced.37 Six officers charged in the context of the death...Arab Military Coups,” Journal of Political and Military Sociology , Vol. 2, Fall, 1974, pp. 237-250. 5. Brooks, pp. 106-134. 6. Florence Gaub, “The...www.pewglobal.org/2011/04/25/egyptians- embrace-revolt-leaders-religious-parties-and-military-as-well/. 37. “75 Charged in Deaths at Soccer Riot in Egypt,” The New

  9. The United States and the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kivimäki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals, by studying correlative relationships between US regime support and regime properties, that the US foreign policy in the Middle East has traditionally helped governments to limit the political participation of Islamists, communists, enemies of Israel and populations that could be hostile to the US oil interests. This way the US economic and strategic security interests have contributed to human insecurity in the region. With the exception of the last interest, the US has relaxed its support for repression of the above-mentioned groups. This seems to be one of the international factors that made the Arab Spring possible.

  10. Hanna David`s Book: The Gifted Arab Child In Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre KOMEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it was examined Hanna David’s Book: The Gifted Arab Child in Israel. The book focuses on Arab gifted children living in Israel. In Israel three Arab groups are living: Muslim, Christian and Druze. This book contains 7 sections. First Section: A Brief History of Education of Arabs In The State of Israel, Second Section: Characteristics of the Arab Gifted Child in Israel, Third Section: Education of the Arab Gifted Child, Fourth Section: Enrichment Programs for the Gifted in the Arab Sector, Fifth section: Description of Various Kinds of Enrichment Program for the Arab Sector, Sixth section: A Minority within a Minority: Gifted Students in the Christian, Druze and Bedouin Sectors, Seventh Section: The talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism. In this book, author gives some suggestions to reveal potential of Arab girls. Some of them are; family support, financial aid etc.

  11. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<

  12. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  13. Arabic CWR Based on Correlation of Normalized Signatures of Words Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala S. Zaghloul

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods for Arabic OCR (AOCR based on segmentation of each word into a set of characters. The Arabic language is of cursive nature, and the character's shape depends on its position in the word. There are about 100 shape of the characters have to be classified, and some of them may be overlapped. Our approach use a normalized signature of the time signal of the pulse coupled neural network PCNN, supported with some shape primitives to represent the number of the word complementary and their positions within the image of the word. A lookup dictionary of words with its signatures was constructed, and structured in groups using a decision tree. The tested signature was routed through the tree to the nearest group, and then the signature and its related word with higher correlation within the selected group will be the classified. This method overcome many difficulties arise in cursive word recognition CWR for printed script with different font type and size; also it shows higher accuracy for the classification process, 96%.

  14. Reading speed and phonological awareness deficits among Arabic-speaking children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Although reading accuracy of isolated words and phonological awareness represent the main criteria of subtyping developmental dyslexia, there is increasing evidence that reduced reading speed also represents a defining characteristic. In the present study, reading speed and accuracy were measured in Arabic-speaking phonological and mixed dyslexic children matched with controls of the same age. Participants in third and fourth grades, aged from 9-10 to 9-8 years, were given single frequent and infrequent word and pseudo-word reading and phonological awareness tasks. Results showed that the group with dyslexia scored significantly lower than controls in accuracy and speed in reading tasks. Phonological and mixed dyslexic subgroups differed in infrequent and frequent word reading accuracy, the latter being worse. In contrast, the subgroups were comparable in pseudo-word identification and phonological awareness. Delayed phonological and recognition processes of infrequent and frequent words, respectively, were placed in the context of the dual route model of reading and the specific orthographic features of the Arabic language. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  16. Arab Societal Awareness of Dental Veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfouzan, Afnan; Al-Sanie, Aisha A; Al-Dhafiri, Reem A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the Arab society's knowledge, awareness, and attitudes toward dental veneers. A cross-sectional study was performed by collecting data through an online questionnaire created using the Survey Monkey website and distributed among Middle Eastern societies through social media to ascertain participants' knowledge and awareness regarding dental veneers. The sample included Arab laypeople who were over 18 years old, to represent the awareness of the majority regarding dental veneers. The sample of this study included 1,332 subjects from different Middle Eastern nationalities, mainly Saudis, Kuwaitis, and Emiratis (15.6% of males and 84.4% of females). The results of this study showed that the total knowledge of dental veneers is 50.12%. The respondents with the highest level of knowledge acquired their information mainly from newspapers and magazines, followed by the Internet, then dentists, then social media, and, finally, friends and relatives. Cost was the only factor limiting 38.4% of subjects from receiving veneers, and 56% of the subjects would receive veneers if they were free of cost. In total, 72.6% of the respondents believed that veneers are currently overused. The knowledge and awareness of dental veneers were below a satisfactory level. Participants who relied on social media as a source of information had lower knowledge levels. This study emphasized the need for continual societal education regarding dental veneers.

  17. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  18. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  19. Improving a HMM-based off-line handwriting recognition system using MME-PSO optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Mahdi; El Abed, Haikal; Hamdani, Tarek M.; Märgner, Volker; Alimi, Adel M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the trivial steps in the development of a classifier is the design of its architecture. This paper presents a new algorithm, Multi Models Evolvement (MME) using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). This algorithm is a modified version of the basic PSO, which is used to the unsupervised design of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based architectures. For instance, the proposed algorithm is applied to an Arabic handwriting recognizer based on discrete probability HMMs. After the optimization of their architectures, HMMs are trained with the Baum- Welch algorithm. The validation of the system is based on the IfN/ENIT database. The performance of the developed approach is compared to the participating systems at the 2005 competition organized on Arabic handwriting recognition on the International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR). The final system is a combination between an optimized HMM with 6 other HMMs obtained by a simple variation of the number of states. An absolute improvement of 6% of word recognition rate with about 81% is presented. This improvement is achieved comparing to the basic system (ARAB-IfN). The proposed recognizer outperforms also most of the known state-of-the-art systems.

  20. Managing terror: differences between Jews and Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Eli; Maguen, Shira; Or-Chen, Keren; Litz, Brett T

    2009-04-01

    Using telephone surveys, we examined exposure to terror, coping, and mental health response in randomly selected Jewish-Israelis (n = 100) and Arab-Israelis (n = 100) living in five Israeli cities affected by terrorism. Jewish-Israelis and Arab-Israelis were randomly selected for study participation and completed telephone surveys in May 2002, following an extended string of terror attacks and hostilities. Although terrorism is designed to target Jewish-Israelis, the rates of exposure were similar in the two groups. Arab-Israelis reported using a wider array of coping strategies, yet also endorsed more frequent PTSD and more severe depression symptoms than Jewish-Israelis. We examined a variety of demographic, ethnic, and religious predictors of different coping styles and found varying results. For example, acceptance coping was best predicted by Arab-Israeli ethnicity, being female, greater religiosity, and lower education. Predictors of mental health response to terror were also examined, with Arab-Israeli ethnicity, being female, adaptation coping and collaborative coping best predicting PTSD and depression symptoms. Arab-Israelis may not have the same access to overarching sources of patriotic support that are readily available to their Jewish compatriots, and civilian and economic inequity experienced by the Arab minority may add to a sense of diminished resources. Our findings justify outreach efforts to overlooked minorities at risk for posttraumatic distress. Women seem to be at particular risk for the development of mental health symptoms following terrorism, which should also be noted for outreach purposes.

  1. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  2. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  3. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  4. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  5. Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Al Tayar; Sarkis, N.; Appert, O.; Boisseau, Ph.; Perrin, F.; Dauger, J.M.; Pochettino, N.; Chevalier, J.M.; Benkhadra, A.; Thevenot, N.

    2006-01-01

    On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

  6. Journalism's Rewriting of History in Reporting the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of journalism’s role as writer and rewriter of the record of political episodes of world importance is central to this article, which takes an empirical approach in choosing the Danish press coverage of The Arab Spring as its starting point. The article analyses how a number...... and circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary...

  7. I will always be with you: traditional and complementary therapists' perspectives on patient-therapist-doctor communication regarding treatment of Arab patients with cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, an Integrative Oncology Program was implemented at the Clalit Oncology Service in Haifa, Israel, to promote patients' well-being during chemotherapy and advanced stages of disease. We hypothesized that studying the perceptions of Arab complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapists would facilitate development of a cross-culturally integrative oncology approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 27 Arab therapists who use medicinal herbs, the Quran and various CAM modalities, with the aim of characterizing their treatment practices and learning about their perspectives regarding conventional cancer care. Thematic analysis revealed that therapists act as go-betweens, mediating between patients and conventional physicians. Therapists translate diagnoses into Arabic and elucidate key concepts. They tend to perceive their role as gatekeepers accompanying patients through the conventional health system, referring them for further examinations, and providing CAM-based supportive care consultation. CAM therapists have an essential role in supportive care of Arab patients with cancer. Triangular patient-therapist-oncologist communication may have an impact on patients' experience and treatment quality. Recognition of CAM therapists as mediators between patients' health beliefs and conventional perceptions of care may improve doctor-patient dialogue and facilitate supportive care provision in a cross-cultural context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new Snellen's visual acuity chart with 'Indian' numerals.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Salem, M

    1987-01-01

    'Indian' numerals, which are popular among the Arab population, were used to devise a new Snellen's visual acuity chart. The new chart has the advantages of a reading chart. It keeps the patient's interest, does not miss alexic patients, and is quicker to perform. It is also devoid of the many disadvantages of a kinetic response chart (the capital E letter or Landolt's broken rings), especially that of the limited option of test objects.

  9. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  10. Influencing factors of the 6-min walk distance in adult Arab populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joobeur, Samah; Rouatbi, Sonia; Latiri, Imed; Sfaxi, Raoudha; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2016-05-01

    Background Walk tests, especially the 6-min walk-test (6MWT), are commonly used in order to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity. The primary outcome of the 6MWT is the 6-min walk-distance (6MWD). Numerous demographic, physiological and anthropometric factors can influence the 6MWD in healthy adults. Objective The purpose of the present review is to highlight and discuss the 6MWD influencing factors in healthy of the healthy adult Arab populations. Methods It is a review including a literature search, from 1970 to September 31th 2015 using the PubMed, the Science Direct databases and the World Wide Web on Google search engine. Reference lists of retrieved English/French articles were searched for any additional references. Results Six studies, conducted in Tunisia (n=2), Saudi Arabia (n=3) and Algeria (n=1) were included. All studies were conducted according to the 2002-American-thoracic-society guidelines for the 6MWT. In addition to anthropometric data (sex, age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass), the following data were recognized as 6MWD influencing factors: schooling and socioeconomic levels, urban origin, parity, physical activity score or status, metabolic equivalent task for moderate activity, spirometric data, end-walk heart-rate, resting diastolic blood pressure, dyspnoea Borg value and niqab-wearing. Conclusion The 6MWD influencing factors in adult Arab populations are numerous and include some specific predictors such as parity, physical activity level and niqab-wearing.

  11. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  12. The semantics of English Borrowings in Arabic Media Language: The case of Arab Gulf States Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML. The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs. They  are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% - 18% than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% - 8% with the computer and technology category (18% is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction.  Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing and?ištiqa:q (the modern efforts of deriving equivalent neologisms.

  13. Arab Emirates: Middle East oasis of development; Emirados Arabes: o oasis do desenvolvimento no Oriente Medio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ighor Botti de; Bravo, Rafaela Gomes [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    The referred article main focus is to illustrate a parameter between the United Arab Emirates development - from its oil historic (including its peek, in the 1970's decade) - and the country preoccupation with the economic diversification, considering that the petroleum natural deposits are finite. Even though they are one of the biggest petroleum holders in the world, the country governors are already worried about the economy's future. The government proposal consists in investing their exorbitant royalties, from the oil industry, in mega constructions and 'futuristic' innovations, mainly in Dubai. According to forecasts made by the division of active and investments management from the Saudi bank National Commercial Bank (in the beginning of the year of 2008) the United Arab Emirates might become the country with the most independence in the oil and gas industry between the Gulf Cooperation Council members and that about 70% of the country's GDP, gross domestic production, will come from the non-hydrocarbon sectors. This means that the United Arab Emirates can be considered as a good example in which refers to the regional economy diversification. (author)

  14. Can Arabic Proverbs Enhance Arabic-Speaking Students' Comprehension of Financial Concepts?: An Empirical Study in Randomly Selected Business Schools in Dubai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsame, Mohammed H.; Ireri, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of Arabic proverbs and quotes for teaching finance courses to Arabic-speaking students who are nonnative speakers of English. The study found that the use of Arabic proverbs and quotes greatly enhances the students' comprehension of the finance topics covered. Similarly, the study revealed that the use of…

  15. An Arabic-English-French Lexicon of the Dialects Spoken in the Chad-Sudan Area, 1. [Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.

    This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…

  16. Supporting Transitions in the Arab World | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    research the changing role of the state in economic and social issues; - support ... Institution Country. France. Institution Website. http://www.arab-reform.net ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is pleased ...

  17. Impact of Qualification Framework in United Arab Emirates: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QFE) on the undergraduate Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) context. Method: Curriculum developers (faculty and other stakeholders) have selected appropriate teaching, learning and assessment ...

  18. Gum Arabic authentication and mixture quantification by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yongjiang; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method is developed for Gum Arabic authentication based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods. On a large industrial collection of authentic gum Arabics, the two major Acacia gum species, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal could be assigned perfectly...... by the NIR spectroscopic method. In addition, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is calibrated to predict the blending percentage of the two pure gum types, producing an accuracy, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.8%. Sampling of the Gum Arabic ‘tears’ is discussed......, and it was determined that subsamples from three ‘tears’ is required for a representative result. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a very powerful and reliable method for authenticity testing of Gum Arabic species....

  19. Building new foundations for Arab youth | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-16

    With economic crisis accompanying the instability, there is tremendous pressure to ... Building new foundations for Arab youth. March 16, 2015. Image ... and dialogue on issues that directly affect them, IDRC is equipping a new generation to ...

  20. arTenTen: Arabic Corpus and Word Sketches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressy Arts

    2014-12-01

    The article also presents the ‘sketch grammar’ (the basis for the word sketches in detail, describes the process of building and processing the corpus, and considers the role of the corpus in additional research on Arabic.

  1. Creating an Arab Council for the Social Sciences | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the same time, the ability of Arab states to deal with these problems is constrained by ... a Web-based discussion; and fundraising and development of a full business plan. ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  2. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little ... It is coordinating and strengthening two existing research networks: the ... and the impact of war and the regional governance crisis on public health.

  3. Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yet despite the centrality of family and youth in Arab society, there exists little scientific ... The grant will support some 15 rigorous studies in Egypt, Lebanon and ... of use to scholars, policymakers, planners, nongovernmental organizations and ...

  4. Arab-Byzantine War, 629-644 AD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunselman, David E

    2007-01-01

    .... In the course of just a few years the Arabs had conquered the valuable territories of modern day Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon from the Byzantines who in turn withdrew to Anatolia after great losses...

  5. Teaching Public Policy for the Arab World : final technical report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... Teaching Public Policy for the Arab World .... integrating politics, policy, economics and other social science research perspectives, this ..... The primary, successful output of this overall project is the viable MA program.

  6. Shaping public health education, research, and policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab countries often face multifaceted health challenges, including gaps and ... play a critical role in filling this gap by educating the public health workforce as well as ... implement an alternative institutional model for public health based on a ...

  7. The black Arab as a substitution for sin and guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Radmilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The figure of the Black Arab as a form of guilt and sin is a well-established memorial pattern throughout the Mediterranean world, having already existed for more than 3000 years. This text is focused on two different types of interpretation of the Black Stone and its semantic relation with the symbolized figure of Black Arab in the oral traditions of Mediterranean peoples - Jewish religion and Islamic eschatology. The transformation of the signification of the Black Stone was transferred to the Islamic religion in the act of pilgrimage. The Jewish practice of transferring sin and guilt is related with the Iranian-Manichean Ahura Mazda-Ahriman, and the ancient Greek goddess Hecate. All manifestations of the Black Arab left a deep trace on Slavic spiritual life through the Slavic gods Chernobog, Triglav and Toyan and consequently on the deeply rooted conception of all Slavic peoples that the Black Arab was a black demon of death and the underworld.

  8. The Arab Citizens of Israel: Motivations for Collective Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gust, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    ..., and the expropriation of Arab lands. Most studies of collective action and social mobilization predict that repressed groups will eventually mobilize if inclusion in the political process is denied...

  9. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding ... and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. ... and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women.

  10. MYTHS ABOUT COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN DEALING WITH ARABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anyone who has ever stood in front of an audience, he felt very nervous. Degree uneasy feeling is even more increased in situations when all eyes are on the speaker when there is absolute silence. Serbia is a country that is open to all ways of trying to attract new foreign investment. In this sense, there is cooperation with the far, and for our region unfamiliar Arab world. Arabs in our ethnos is often seen as a special kind of peopl, with whom it is not joke. However, the distribution of power (and money is such that Serbia, and with it the entire business world involved in cooperation with the Arab world and in many fields. It is necessary to master the art of communication in general, and special techniques of successful business communication with the Arabs, who, in any case, very specific.

  11. Arabism and Islam: Stateless Nations and Nationless States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helms, Christine M

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, Islamic activists in the Arab Middle East have challenged the definition of "legitimate authority" and provided the means and rationale for revolutionary change, hoping to pressure...

  12. Eleventh Arab Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Arab conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy is an important station where Arab researchers and scientists meet to present the results of their scientific and applied research activities, to exchange views, experiences and knowledge and to strengthen the bonds of cooperation among them. Under this framework, the Arab Atomic Energy Agency organized the eleventh Arab conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in cooperation with the Ministry of Science and Communications of the Republic of Sudan and the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission in Khartoum city during the period of 23-27 December 2012. The sessions of the conference included scientific papers, in addition to specialized lectures on topics of particular importance in the field of peaceful applications of atomic energy followed by panel discussions.

  13. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  14. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Humeira; Kong, Kok Ooi; Tak, Paul P

    2008-06-01

    Studies have shown that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Middle East have delayed diagnosis and low disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) utilization. We describe the characteristics and treatments of consecutive RA patients presenting to a new musculoskeletal clinic in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Demographic and clinical data were collected over a 10-month period at the first visit to our clinic for patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. A total of 100 patients were seen: (average +/- SD) age 42.2 +/- 12.3 years; female 87%; Arabs 38%, Indian 36%, Caucasian and others 26%; 73% rheumatoid-factor positive; years since diagnosis: 3.9 +/- 5.7; lag time between symptom onset to diagnosis 1.2 +/- 1.3 years and lag time to first DMARD was 1.6 +/- 2.0 years. Mean tender joint count was 8.9 +/- 7.9, mean swollen joint count 9.0 +/- 7.6, mean patient's global assessment of disease activity 57.4 +/- 25.0 mm, mean ESR 33 +/- 25 mm/h, mean DAS28 5.2 +/- 1.6, physician global assessment 55.0 +/- 23.8. Only 43% were on DMARDs (25% MTX, 5% TNF blockers). Among the patients who were not on DMARD, only 28.1% had disease duration less than 1 year (p = <0.01). Erosions were present in 55.2% of patients with available X-rays, and deformities in 26% of patients. There were no racial differences in disease characteristics. The UAE has a unique population with many races residing in the country. Among the first 100 consecutive patients seen at our clinic, there were no significant differences in disease characteristics with the majority of the patients having very active disease, delayed diagnosis, and not being treated with DMARDs.

  16. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  17. Arab management accounting systems under the influence of their culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dik, Roula

    2011-01-01

    Due to globalization, business opportunities can be established in new countries more than ever before. The Arab countries are gaining more attention as emerging markets in global business. Applying managerial accounting on a global basis requires an understanding of the cultural aspects of the countries. Arabic culture has a long history on the one hand and contradicts the Western cultures sharply on the other hand. Research on comparative management accounting (CMA) emerged in the early ...

  18. Nature in Arab American Literature Majaj, Nye, and Kahf

    OpenAIRE

    Bujupaj, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Much critical engagement with works of Arab American literature focuses on cultural identity and political issues, without treating nature in those works. The writings of Lisa Suhair Majaj, Naomi Shihab Nye, and Mohja Kahf, provide rich opportunities to start examining Arab American writings through an ecocritical lens which examines the human relationship to nature, place, and the physical environment. Often, in these works, place is doubled, with the present-day physical environment as well...

  19. Against the Flow: Impassive Modernism in Arabic and Hebrew Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Alon, Shir

    2017-01-01

    Against the Flow: Impassive Modernism in Arabic and Hebrew Literatures elaborates two interventions in contemporary studies of Middle Eastern Literatures, Global Modernisms, and Comparative Literature: First, the dissertation elaborates a comparative framework to read twentieth century Arabic and Hebrew literatures side by side and in conversation, as two literary cultures sharing, beyond a contemporary reality of enmity and separation, a narrative of transition to modernity. The works analyz...

  20. Adjustment Strategies of the Arab Minority to Life in Israel,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    the Israeli forces in 1948. Originally the village depended totally on farming but presently more than half of the breadwinners work in Jewish towns...time, use up the money, then sell few more , and so on. Even this source is just about to dry up. This course has been a very pain- ful process. To...that inspired Jewish nationalism in Europe. Arab nationalism, especially in 1.i 5 Palestine and neighboring Arab regions, became later much more defined

  1. EFEKTIVITAS PENGEMBANGAN RANAH AFEKTIF MELALUI PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohra Yasin

    2013-07-01

    Learning technology is one of the critical success factors in the process of learning the Arabic, including the determinant of the quality of learning. If the Arabic learning quality is low then the output of education in this case is the academic achievement would have lower too and vice versa. If the education output is low then the purpose of learning which includes three domains will be difficult to be realized.

  2. THE ARAB SPRING - REGIONAL AND GLOBAL EVOLUTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MINCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the developments in the Arab World between December 2010 and February 2012, epitomizing om the international context, the geopolitical and economic importance of states from Northern Africa and the Middle East, causes, goals, characteristics and consequences of the Arab Spring", the implications of these movements in the repositioning of the great powers and regional actors in the following period.

  3. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  4. Ethnic Inequalities in Mortality: The Case of Arab-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Background Although nearly 112 million residents of the United States belong to a non-white ethnic group, the literature about differences in health indicators across ethnic groups is limited almost exclusively to Hispanics. Features of the social experience of many ethnic groups including immigration, discrimination, and acculturation may plausibly influence mortality risk. We explored life expectancy and age-adjusted mortality risk of Arab-Americans (AAs), relative to non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan, the state with the largest per capita population of AAs in the US. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected about all deaths to AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan between 1990 and 2007, and year 2000 census data were collected for population denominators. We calculated life expectancy, age-adjusted all-cause, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates stratified by ethnicity and gender among AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites. Among AAs, life expectancies among men and women were 2.0 and 1.4 years lower than among non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men and women, respectively. AA men had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men due to infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and homicide. AA women had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White women due to chronic diseases. Conclusions/Significance Despite better education and higher income, AAs have higher age-adjusted mortality risk than non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites, particularly due to chronic diseases. Features specific to AA culture may explain some of these findings. PMID:22216204

  5. Dialectal Atlas of the Arab World - between Intention and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Redkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialectology has a long history and achieved significant progress in collecting and analyzing linguistic data and its classification. The present paper analyses modern trends in the linguistic situation in the Arab world and defines the topics essential for the Arabic dialectology, which require an urgent solution. During the last century, several attempts have been undertaken to create dialectal atlases of different regions of the Arab world. Besides this, considerable work also has been done on synchronous descriptions of modern and ancient Arabic dialects. Meanwhile these researches do not always reflect fully and adequately the current state of the dialectal continuum, which underwent significant transformations as a result of social and economic changes in the region, development of new technologies. Globalization and leveling of dialectal differences, spread of languages of international communication will lead to disappearance of small dialectal groups and vernaculars, among them those that are not sufficiently described or are little known at all, which presupposes their urgent investigation. In recent years digital methods of research open new horizons for scholars and put on the agenda the task of building of the dialectal atlas of the Arab world basing on the previous experience and data collected as well as application of ICT.

  6. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study

  7. Dubbing and Redubbing Animation: Disney in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Di Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of Disney films and TV products in the Arab world has recently undergone a radical change: since the signing of a large-scale agreement between Al Jazeera and Disney, in 2013, most films and TV series are being dubbed, or redubbed, in Modern Standard Arabic. Contrary to the long-standing tradition of dubbing Disney productions using the Egyptian vernacular variety of Arabic, the eminently written, formal language used for administration and classical education has been introduced as a vehicle for animation dialogue. And not without consistent semantic manipulation.  This article seeks to contextualize this recent shift in dubbing animation in the Arab world, with a view to unveiling its underlying dynamics. The role played by Al Jazeera in reshaping media communication and translation across the Arab world and beyond is also considered, in an attempt to grasp the social, political and ultimately ideological implications of its strategies, as well as its power in significantly orienting traditionally imperialist, Western colossi like Disney. A comparative analysis of the original English TV series Aladdin, its Egyptian dubbed version and MSA redubbing follows, providing evidence for this new trend in audiovisual translation aimed at Arabic speakers the world over.

  8. Grey Parrot Number Acquisition: The Inference of Cardinal Value from Ordinal Position on the Numeral List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.; Carey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A Grey parrot ("Psittacus erithacus") had previously been taught to use English count words ("one" through "sih" [six]) to label sets of one to six individual items (Pepperberg, 1994). He had also been taught to use the same count words to label the Arabic numerals 1 through 6. Without training, he inferred the relationship between the Arabic…

  9. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  10. Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status among Arabs and Koreans in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p Arab nationals in the UAE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies; Les Etats-Unis et les monarchie arabes du Golfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kechichian, J A

    1999-07-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  12. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Ian

    1987-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...

  13. Health issues in the Arab American community. Tobacco use patterns among high school students: do Arab American youth differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Abou-Mediene, Sharifa; Farroukh, Mona; Rice, Virginia Hill

    2007-01-01

    To determine tobacco use rates (cigarette, water pipe smoking [WPS] or narghile) in Arab American compared to non-Arab youth. A convenience sample of 2,782 14- to 18-year-old high school students from a midwest community completed a 21-item tobacco use history survey. Seventy-one percent of the participants were ArA. Grades 9 through 12 were equally represented. Results included 'ever tried cigarettes [narghile]' (20%, 39%); 'smoked cigarettes [narghile] in the past 30 days' (7%, 22%); and 'regular smoking [narghile]' (3%, 15%) for ArA and non-Arab youths, respectively. Each was significantly related to grade and ethnicity. WPS for ArA and non-Arab youths was (38%, 21%); (17%, 11%); and (7%, 5%) for 'ever used,' 'used in the past 30 days,' and 'regular use,' respectively. Grade, ethnicity, and sex were significantly related to WPS. Cigarette smoking rates for non-Arab youth were lower than current national youth smoking rates but significantly higher than ArA youth. Rates for ArA youth were much lower than current national reported data. Rates of WPS for US youth, regardless of race or ethnicity, are not known. Findings from this study indicate that both ArA and non-Arab youth are experimenting and using WPS regularly. These results underscore the importance of assessing novel forms of tobacco use, particularly WPS, a growing phenomenon among US youth.

  14. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  15. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  16. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  17. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  18. Translation of questionnaires into Arabic in cross-cultural research: techniques and equivalence issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2013-10-01

    To describe the translation process of nursing instruments into Arabic and discuss the equivalence issues arising from this process. Review of the literature. The Arabic language is essentially three different languages: Classical Arabic; Modern Standard Arabic (fuS-Ha or MSA); and colloquial Arabic (Lahja A'mmeya), which is itself divided into five different regional Arabic dialects. The Arabic fuS-Ha language is the dialect most widely used in the translation of instruments into Arabic. The literature reveals that only a few studies focused on the linguistic issues in the translation of instruments into Arabic. Brislin's back-translation emerged as the most common method widely used by researchers in studies with Arabic-speaking subjects, but not the perfect one. Linguistic issues in nursing research have not been sufficiently described and discussed in the context of Arabic language and culture. Although there is no standard guideline for instrument translation, the combined translation model is the most recommended procedure to use in cross-cultural research. Linguistic differences between the source culture and the target Arabic culture should be taken into account. Finally, we recommend the use of the fuS-Ha dialect and trilingual translators in the translation of nursing instruments into Arabic.

  19. Ideological Constraints in Dubbing The Simpsons into Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Yahiaoui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Audiovisual Translation has received considerable attention in recent years, evidence suggests that there is a paucity of empirical research carried out on the topic of ideological constraints in audiovisual translation from English into Arabic. This is despite the fact that subtitling and dubbing Western animation into Arabic has been on the increase ever since television sets entered Arab homes; which is why several authority figures are calling for tighter control and moral screening of what is aired on television sets, in particular that which is aimed at children. This study aims to add some understanding of the problems facing practitioners in the dubbing industry, such as the reasons for their alleged reality distortion and how these problems are dealt with by the dubbing agencies. This is achieved by exploring the extent ideological norms, as well as other agents, shape the outcome of dubbed English animations/films when rendered into Arabic by manipulation, subversion and/or appropriation. Fifty-two dubbed episodes of The Simpsons were selected for this study. The Simpsons was chosen due to its universal appeal and influence. It addresses many sensitive issues, such as sex, drugs, religion, politics, racial and gender stereotypes, with a bluntness and boldness rarely seen before, and goes beyond passive entertainment and school education. Therefore, it is looked at with suspicion and vigilance in the Arab World. The contrastive analysis of the English and Arabic versions of The Simpsons yielded interesting results; it established that the translation process is marred by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors either exercised by the translator or imposed upon him. Ideological and socio-cultural factors are the chief culprits in the case of translating The Simpsons into Arabic.

  20. Arab Spring - Concepts and Characteristics (Case of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El Ashkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sheding light on the revolutions of the Arab Spring, especially in the case of Egypt, where the conceptual side will be reviewed and to identify the most important features and highlights of this event. During the second decade of the twenty-first century, the Arab region has marked a flurry of unusual at the political level. This flurry has created a very important phenomenon not only for the Arab region, but also worldwide. This phenomenon is known as the Arab Spring, which came as a result of the ongoing suffering of the peoples of the region from injustice, oppression and inequality in all spheres of life. Thus, to achieve this purpose, revolutionary concepts and the theoretical concept of revolution will be analyzed and studied, a comparison between western concept and the Arab revolution, as well as concentration on a particular focus on the concept of Egyptian Spring and the most prominent features of it. Through this work will be provided insights on the reality of revolutionary concepts and specifically the depth of the dimensions, aspects and characteristics that belong to the concept of the Revolution of Arab Spring in general, and Egypt in particular. There is no doubt that the study of this event cannot be stopped to the limits or the time, and that this event is not just about Arab nations or peoples of the Middle East region, but it has to do will all the peoples of the world living under the pressure of the same reasons and conditions of these revolutions.

  1. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Development of an Arabic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abduwani, Jumana; Sidebotham, Peter; Al Saadoon, Muna; Al Lawati, Mohammed; Barlow, Jane

    2017-10-01

    The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a well-validated screening tool for assessing potential for child physical abuse, and has been translated into many different languages. To date the CAPI has not been translated into Arabic or used in any studies in Arabic-speaking populations. This study reports on the process of adapting the CAPI into Arabic Language which was undertaken following the International Society of Pharma-economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines. The translation/adaptation process was multi-stage, and involved the use of a Delphi process, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and a pilot testing of the Arabic CAPI at two primary health care centers with a population of pregnant women (n=60). Following "literal translation" 73 out of the 160 items needed re-phrasing to adapt the items to the Oman context. No differences were found when comparing results of the translated or back-translated versions to source; however, eight items needed further amendment following translated to back-translated comparison and feedback from the pilot. Iterations were resolved following in-depth interviews. Discrepancies were due to differences in culture, parenting practices, and religion. Piloting of the tool indicated mean score value of 155.8 (SD=59.4) and eleven women (18%) scored above the cut off value of 215. This Arabic translation of the CAPI was undertaken using rigorous methodology and sets the scene for further research on the Arabic CAPI within Arabic-speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Foreign Language Optical Character Recognition, Phase II: Arabic and Persian Training and Test Data Sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The samples were systematically chosen to represent current vocabulary, usage, typography, and publication practices in major newspapers and news magazines, and in recent books and journals dealing...

  3. Foreign Language Optical Character Recognition, Phase II: Arabic and Persian Training and Test Data Sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... Each data set is divided into a training set, which is made available to developers, and a carefully matched equal-sized set of closely analogous samples, which is reserved for testing of the developers' products...

  4. Arab-Norman Heritage: State of Knowledge and New Actions and Innovative Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescia, R.; Scianna, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper wants to offers a perlustrative recognition on the 'state of the studies', concerning to the Arab-Norman architecture of Palermo, admissed by Unesco in 2015 and explain a research in progress which, starting from re-cognition of the peculiarities of the restoration work carried out on it, consisting of the identification of authentic material-constructive values and / or reconstruction, it orients itself to develop a concrete proposal of filing for a more conscious knowledge. She, moreover, wants contribute to real enhancement through the use of targeted communication strategies that use innovative means capable, on one hand, to attracting the greatest possible number of users, on the other hand, to plan further interventions of conservation coherent with the previous data. The product that you want to achieve is that of a Bank-data that allows the "networking" of monumental emergencies, that become the virtual itineraries waypoint, which can be implemented periodically and whose boards meet the cataloging needs and documentation but with reference at geo-referred systems, compatible with the conservation and management of heritage and with need of usability, real and virtual.

  5. Nuun: A System for Developing Platform and Browser Independent Arabic Web Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Habash, Nizar Y

    2001-01-01

    .... Arabic web applications are far from this state of ubiquitous support. Full support is available only under Arabic Windows, while little support is provided under other versions of Windows, and no support at all under UNIX systems...

  6. Proposed Framework for the Evaluation of Standalone Corpora Processing Systems: An Application to Arabic Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen Al-Thubaity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the accessibility of numerous online corpora, students and researchers engaged in the fields of Natural Language Processing (NLP, corpus linguistics, and language learning and teaching may encounter situations in which they need to develop their own corpora. Several commercial and free standalone corpora processing systems are available to process such corpora. In this study, we first propose a framework for the evaluation of standalone corpora processing systems and then use it to evaluate seven freely available systems. The proposed framework considers the usability, functionality, and performance of the evaluated systems while taking into consideration their suitability for Arabic corpora. While the results show that most of the evaluated systems exhibited comparable usability scores, the scores for functionality and performance were substantially different with respect to support for the Arabic language and N-grams profile generation. The results of our evaluation will help potential users of the evaluated systems to choose the system that best meets their needs. More importantly, the results will help the developers of the evaluated systems to enhance their systems and developers of new corpora processing systems by providing them with a reference framework.

  7. Proposed framework for the evaluation of standalone corpora processing systems: an application to Arabic corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thubaity, Abdulmohsen; Al-Khalifa, Hend; Alqifari, Reem; Almazrua, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Despite the accessibility of numerous online corpora, students and researchers engaged in the fields of Natural Language Processing (NLP), corpus linguistics, and language learning and teaching may encounter situations in which they need to develop their own corpora. Several commercial and free standalone corpora processing systems are available to process such corpora. In this study, we first propose a framework for the evaluation of standalone corpora processing systems and then use it to evaluate seven freely available systems. The proposed framework considers the usability, functionality, and performance of the evaluated systems while taking into consideration their suitability for Arabic corpora. While the results show that most of the evaluated systems exhibited comparable usability scores, the scores for functionality and performance were substantially different with respect to support for the Arabic language and N-grams profile generation. The results of our evaluation will help potential users of the evaluated systems to choose the system that best meets their needs. More importantly, the results will help the developers of the evaluated systems to enhance their systems and developers of new corpora processing systems by providing them with a reference framework.

  8. An XML Approach of Coding a Morphological Database for Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gridach, Mourad; Chenfour, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    We present an XML approach for the production of an Arabic morphological database for Arabic language that will be used in morphological analysis for modern standard Arabic (MSA). Optimizing the production, maintenance, and extension of morphological database is one of the crucial aspects impacting natural language processing (NLP). For Arabic language, producing a morphological database is not an easy task, because this it has some particularities such as the phenomena of agglutination and a...

  9. Some Numerical Characteristics of Image Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Samarina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Texture classification is one of the basic images processing tasks. In this paper we present some numerical characteristics to the images analysis and processing. It can be used at the solving of images classification problems, their recognition, problems of remote sounding, biomedical images analysis, geological researches.

  10. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  11. Terjemah Bahasa Arab Antara Teori dan Praktik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Shalihah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every language is rich with vocabulary and its diversity is consistent with human experience and the development of the culture in which it grows and develops. Every language has its own way in determining the system of symbols and meaning. This will cause the problems in translation. Arabic for example, as the language of Al-Qur'an, has characters structures that different from the Indonesian. It makes the interpreter must know about the process of reconstructing the source language into the target language, because every language has a different way of expressing a similar message. The difference could be at lexical level and grammatical level. From the literature review it can be concluded that basically the process of translation consists of two stages: (1 original textual analysis and understanding of meaning and / or original text message and (2 the revelation of the meaning and message in the target language in words or acceptable sentences in the target language. Differences in the choice of lexical and grammatical forms from one language and other languages makes an interpreter have to be careful in translating. It makes the parallel equivalence of form and meaning is difficult to find in translation.

  12. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies,...... the lack of both integration and citizenship is a defining principle. Using these two perspectives, this article examines the relationship between citizenship rights and migration in the Gulf region, drawing on data from the UAE along with Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar.......In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies......, whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard...

  13. Social Media, Mediation and the Arab Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriyam Aouragh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article discusses the socio-political implications of user-generated applications and platforms through the prism of the Arab revolutions. Popular postmodern conceptualisations such as (post-nation state network societies, (post-class immaterial economies and (horizontal political resistance through multitudes requires rigorous reassessment in the aftermath of the events in the MENA. Although the revolutions have led to a resurgence of debates about the power of new media, such arguments (or rather assertions are echoes of earlier suggestions related to peculiar fetishisations of ICT in general and social media in particular. The point of my critique is not to deny the social and political usefulness of new media but to examine the pros and cons of the internet. I tackle the juxtaposition of the internet and political activism through the Marxist concept Mediation and investigate how the social, political and cultural realms of capitalism (superstructure are both conditioned by and react upon the political-economic base. This helps us to understand structural factors such as ICT ownership (political-economic decision making of social media; while deconstructing the effect of cultural hegemony disseminated through mass media. It also overcomes an unfortunate weakness of some “academic Marxism” (an overwhelming focus on theory by anchoring the theoretical arguments in an anthropological approach

  14. Interpersonal violence in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ossama T; Abbas, Alaa K; Eid, Hani O; Salem, Mohamed O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity and outcome of hospitalised interpersonal violence-related injured patients in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates so as to give recommendations regarding the magnitude of this problem, its causes and priorities of prevention. Data were retrieved from Al-Ain Hospital Trauma Registry, which was prospectively collected over three years. There were 75 patients (males = 85.3%) having a mean age of 30 years. Eighty-one percent had blunt trauma. The estimated annual injury hospitalisation of interpersonal violence in Al-Ain city was 6.7 per 100,000 population. Females were significantly more injured by a family member (p = 0.02), at home (p = 0.005), and had more severe injuries (p = 0.003). There was a trend for children less than 18 years old to have more penetrating trauma (p = 0.06) and to be injured by a family member (p = 0.09). There was only one case of woman sexual assault and two cases of child abuse. The mean (SD) hospital stay was 7.87 (14.1) days. Less than 3% (n = 2) were admitted to the intensive care unit with no deaths. In conclusion, the majority of patients in our study had minor injuries. Nevertheless, the psychological impact may be major. This highlights the need to develop suitable mental health services in support of victims of interpersonal violence.

  15. Health of dentists in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Raghad; Al-Ali, Khalid

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and nature of some health and lifestyle problems among dentists in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional study with a one-stage complex sampling technique using a self-reported questionnaire distributed to all 844 dentists, working in three cities (Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah) in UAE. Seven hundred and thirty-three (87%) dentists, aged 22-70 years, responded. More than half (n = 442, 61%) of dentists do not exercise regularly. Around one-seventh of the dentists are smokers. One hundred and eighteen dentists (16%) reported having some known systemic problem. The most common systemic health problems were cardiovascular diseases (n = 56, 8%). The present study indicates that the prevalence of exercise among dentists in UAE is relatively low and some systemic health problems, especially cardiovascular diseases, are present among dentists practicing in UAE. Cigarette consumption is relatively high in this population of dentist. Further continuing education and investigation of the appropriate intervention to improve rates of exercise and reduce the level of smoking among dentists in UAE is needed, and this may help reduce the level of systemic disease. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Omani Arabic: More than a Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Balushi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys several linguistic aspects of the varieties of the Omani Arabic dialect (OA. It starts with a discussion of the sociolinguistic situation in Oman and the factors that shaped it, as well as discussing the OA varieties and the languages spoken in the country. This is followed by a presentation of the OA consonant and vowel phonemes and their allophones. The paper also presents phonological aspects such as syllable structure and word stress as well as examples of processes like assimilation and emphasis spreading. Then, it presents the OA personal, demonstrative, possessive, and interrogative pronouns, as well as morphological issues such as subject agreement affixes, verbal forms, passive formation, and pluralization patterns. Next, it presents syntactic patterns including word order, negation, question formation, and relative clauses. Besides the survey, the paper provides examples that reveal similarity between some OA dialects and those of the pre-Islamic era, as evidenced by some of the documented and approved readings of the Holy Qurʔān. There is also discussion of some cases of grammaticalization and pronominal copulas.

  17. Field-scale forward modelling of a shallow marine carbonate ramp: the Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (onshore Abu Dhabi - UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionda, Elisabetta; Deschamps, Rémy; Nader, Fadi H.; Ceriani, Andrea; Di Giulio, Andrea; Lawrence, David; Morad, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The stratigraphic record of a carbonate system is the result of the interplay of several local and global factors that control the physical and the biological responses within a basin. Conceptual models cannot be detailed enough to take into account all the processes that control the deposition of sediments. The evaluation of the key controlling parameters on the sedimentation can be investigated with the use of stratigraphic forward models, that permit dynamic and quantitative simulations of the sedimentary basin infill. This work focuses on an onshore Abu Dhabi field (UAE) and it aims to provide a complete picture of the stratigraphic evolution of Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (Fm.). In this study, we started with the definition of the field-scale conceptual depositional model of the Formation, resulting from facies and well log analysis based on five wells. The Arab Fm. could be defined as a shallow marine carbonate ramp, that ranges from outer ramp deposits to supratidal/evaporitic facies association (from bottom to top). With the reconstruction of the sequence stratigraphic pattern and several paleofacies maps, it was possible to suggest multiple directions of progradations at local scale. Then, a 3D forward modelling tool has been used to i) identify and quantify the controlling parameters on geometries and facies distribution of the Arab Fm.; ii) predict the stratigraphic architecture of the Arab Fm.; and iii) integrate and validate the conceptual model. Numerous constraints were set during the different simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed testing the carbonate production, eustatic oscillations and transport parameters. To verify the geological consistency the 3D forward modelling has been calibrated with the available control points (five wells) in terms of thickness and facies distribution.

  18. FAKTOR DEMOTIVASI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PERSPEKTIF SISWA MADRASAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Muhammad Saepul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation plays important role in language learning. When the language learner’s motivation is decreasing then he is being in a demotivation stage. Several previous studies in reveal that demotivation could diminish the student achievement in language skill. The phenomenon of this demotivation is rising in Arabic language learning in Indonesia’s madrasa. Using qualitative method with short essay from 105 students of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN Cianjur, this study shows two major factors that cause demotivation in Arabic learning: external and internal. Specific external factors come from: (1 complexity of Arabic language; (2 learning material and method; (3 learning facility and environment; and (4 teacher’s behavior and personality. While internal factor sources are: (1 basic skill and previous learning experience; (2 negative attitude to Arabic subject. These factors need to be considered by teacher and other stakeholder as basic reference to increase student’s motivation in Arabic learning.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i1.1511

  19. Fabrication and characterization of gum Arabic bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuarra, Ali; Hashim, Rokiah; Bauk, Sabar; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Tousi, Ehsan Taghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exploring gum Arabic as a binder for Rhizophora sp. particleboards. • The addition of gum Arabic improved overall properties. • Gum Arabic could be added to manufacture particleboards. - Abstract: Gum Arabic (GA) was used as a binder for the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the bioadhesive bonded particleboards, including moisture content, internal bond (IB) strength, thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the manufactured particleboards. Three different particle sizes of the Rhizophora spp. with four adhesive levels were utilized. Results revealed that the addition of GA into the particleboards noticeably improved panel overall properties. The GA bonded particleboards resulted in smoother surfaces, more rigid texture and better internal bonding strength compared to binderless particleboards made without using any adhesive. All specimens had internal bond strength of more than the minimum requirement of the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS A-5908 Type-8 of 0.15 N/mm 2 and were noticed to increase by increasing the adhesive level. However the GA bonded particleboards had higher percentage of WA and the TS compared with the binderless boards. Microscopic study also revealed that particleboards bonded with the gum had better contact compared to the binderless boards. Based on these results, it could be concluded that gum Arabic is an effective natural substance that could be added to manufacture particleboards to improve some of panels’ physical and mechanical properties

  20. On Gender and Apology Strategies: The Case of Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb Mustafa Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to see whether gender plays a role in the apology strategies employed by native speakers of Arabic, i.e., how Arab males and females express apologies in different situations. Data necessary for this study were collected via a Discourse Completion Task (DCT questionnaire, incorporating 10 real-life scenarios in the form of short descriptive statements. In accordance with the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realisation Patterns, participants’ responses(n = 20 were analysed and further classified into five distinct apology strategies: (Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID, Responsibility (RESP, Explanation (EXPL, Repair (REPR, and Forbearance (FORB. The researcher initially hypothesised that apology strategies employed by participants would exhibit more differences than similarities among native speakers of Arabic. Contrary to previously conducted research on this subject (i.e., attesting more differences, the data analysed (n = 350 apology exchanges revealed more similarities than differences regardless of gender. In fact, no statistically significant differences were found. In addition to contributing to the current theoretical debate on gender and gender-related topics, the results of this study may entail pedagogical implications for those in direct contact with Arab learners of English as a Second Language or with speakers of Arabic in general terms.

  1. Sentiment analysis of Arabic tweets using text mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Horaibi, Lamia; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    Sentiment analysis has become a flourishing field of text mining and natural language processing. Sentiment analysis aims to determine whether the text is written to express positive, negative, or neutral emotions about a certain domain. Most sentiment analysis researchers focus on English texts, with very limited resources available for other complex languages, such as Arabic. In this study, the target was to develop an initial model that performs satisfactorily and measures Arabic Twitter sentiment by using machine learning approach, Naïve Bayes and Decision Tree for classification algorithms. The datasets used contains more than 2,000 Arabic tweets collected from Twitter. We performed several experiments to check the performance of the two algorithms classifiers using different combinations of text-processing functions. We found that available facilities for Arabic text processing need to be made from scratch or improved to develop accurate classifiers. The small functionalities developed by us in a Python language environment helped improve the results and proved that sentiment analysis in the Arabic domain needs lot of work on the lexicon side.

  2. Building an Arabic Sentiment Lexicon Using Semi-supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz H.H. Mahyoub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is the process of determining a predefined sentiment from text written in a natural language with respect to the entity to which it is referring. A number of lexical resources are available to facilitate this task in English. One such resource is the SentiWordNet, which assigns sentiment scores to words found in the English WordNet. In this paper, we present an Arabic sentiment lexicon that assigns sentiment scores to the words found in the Arabic WordNet. Starting from a small seed list of positive and negative words, we used semi-supervised learning to propagate the scores in the Arabic WordNet by exploiting the synset relations. Our algorithm assigned a positive sentiment score to more than 800, a negative score to more than 600 and a neutral score to more than 6000 words in the Arabic WordNet. The lexicon was evaluated by incorporating it into a machine learning-based classifier. The experiments were conducted on several Arabic sentiment corpora, and we were able to achieve a 96% classification accuracy.

  3. Kultur Arab dalam Hadis Pemimpin Negara dari Suku Quraysh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Misbakhul Khoir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to present a comprehensive discussion of related interventions arabic culture elements which to some extent has influenced the style of thinking and normal life of the Prophet in the hadith leaders expressed in the State of Quraysh. This is given in addition to as an Apostle, Muhammad also serves as head of state, warlords, judges, community leaders, husband and personal. As an Arab man who lives in the community and the arabic culture, the environment and the interaction with the surrounding culture has its own influence on the habits and behavior. Consequently, what comes from the Prophet Muhammad must exist in between which is the culture of Arab societies at the time. Hadith state leaders of Quraysh, for example, is a statement of the Prophet Muhammad based on considerations of arabic culture at that time. Socio-historical, Quraysh is a decent clan inherited the throne of leadership, due to the advantages that are not found in other ethnic groups at the time. Thus, the actual terms of the Quraysh merely symbolic terms.

  4. Toward common working tools: Arab League Documentation and Information Centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redissi, M.

    1990-05-01

    The adoption of Arab common working tools in information handling has been one of the priorities of Arab League Documentation and Information Centre (ALDOC). Problems arising from the processing of Arabic language have been progressively settled. The Tunisian experience in the elimination of transliteration is worth mentioning. (author). 17 refs

  5. Orthographic Competence among Multilingual School Children: Writing Moroccan Arabic in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weth, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents children's writing in their vernacular family language, Moroccan Arabic. It first provides some background to the family and school literacies of nine-year-old children of Moroccan Arabic (MA) background growing up in France with French literacy practices at school and Written Arabic literacy practices in the home. The paper…

  6. Working with Arab American Families: Culturally Competent Practice for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of Arab descent residing within the United States currently number between 1.2 million and 3.9 million. These families are characterized by considerable diversity depending upon their nationality, religion, and extent of acculturation to both Western and Arab cultures. More recently, Arab families have immigrated to the United States…

  7. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  8. Toward common working tools: Arab League Documentation and Information Centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redissi, M [ALDOC (Tunisia)

    1990-05-01

    The adoption of Arab common working tools in information handling has been one of the priorities of Arab League Documentation and Information Centre (ALDOC). Problems arising from the processing of Arabic language have been progressively settled. The Tunisian experience in the elimination of transliteration is worth mentioning. (author). 17 refs.

  9. The Usability of SEEQ in Quality Evaluation of Arabic Secondary Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Muslim, M.; Arifin, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of Arabic education in Malaysia needs to be conducted on a continuous basis to achieve the objectives of Arabic education. Student Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) was proposed as one of the evaluation instruments of the quality of Arabic education. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SEEQ in the context…

  10. Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

  11. Health Information in Arabic (العربية)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF ...

  12. School-Based Considerations for Supporting Arab American Youths' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Nichols, Lindsey M.; Stanick, Cameo F.; Shindorf, Zachary R.; Holter, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Arab Americans are a culturally, linguistically, and religiously diverse group. Although there are an estimated 3.6 million Arab Americans in the USA, there is little discussion about how to best provide culturally responsive school-based mental health supports to Arab American youths. The purpose of this article is to (1) briefly describe the…

  13. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...), entitled Certain Steel Nails from the United Arab Emirates: Investigation No. 731-TA-1185 (Preliminary). By... that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from the United Arab...

  14. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR) is... Administrative Review: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates...

  15. 77 FR 73010 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The... Strip from Brazil, the People's Republic of China and the United Arab Emirates: Antidumping Duty Orders...

  16. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... is materially injured by reason of imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails... of certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of...

  17. Recruiting Arab Fathers in a Center for Children at Risk in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Eli; Jammal-Abboud, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Arab society in Israel is positioned between the traditional, collective values of Arab culture and the more prevalent Western individualistic values of the Israeli society at large. This poses a challenge for the welfare services in Israel, especially in the case of Arab clients, who tend to receive and interpret the social workers' messages as…

  18. Leading a Quiet Revolution: Women High School Principals in Traditional Arab Society in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Shapira, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates why very few Arab women persevere to become principals in Arab high schools in Israel. It identifies these trailblazers' distinguishing characteristics through the narratives of two Arab women, high school principals, tracing their transition from teaching to management, describing the intertwining of their personal and…

  19. Location of navigation menus in websites: an experimental study with Arabic users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmerón, Ladislao; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Kammerer, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    While Arabic users represent by far the fastest growing language population on the Internet, research about how the peculiarities of Arabic language may shape users’ web interactions is still scarce. The preferences of Arabic users for menu location in websites have been studied. Two competing

  20. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  1. CASE Recognition Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  2. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  3. A STUDY ON OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Narendra Sahu; Manoj Sonkusare

    2018-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the process which enables a system to without human intervention identifies the scripts or alphabets written into the users’ verbal communication. Optical Character identification has grown to be individual of the mainly flourishing applications of knowledge in the field of pattern detection and artificial intelligence. In our survey we study on the various OCR techniques. In this paper we resolve and examine the hypothetical and numerical models of Opti...

  4. Braille Character Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Joko; Sardjono, Tri Arief; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Braille letter is characters designed for the blind, consist of six embossed points, arranged in a standard braille character. Braille letters is touched and read using fingers, therefore the sensitivity of the fingers is important. Those characters need to be memorized, so it is very difficult to be learned. The aim of this research is to create a braille characters recognition system and translate it to alpha-numeric text. Webcam camera is used to capture braille image from braille characte...

  5. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  6. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  7. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  8. The Scope and Impact of Workplace Diversity in the United Arab Emirates – An Initial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreya Al-Jenaibi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing workplace diversity has become a priority concern among organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE today. The UAE has one of the world's largest net migration rates, and the number of workers from India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, the USA, among other countries, has increased significantly in recent decades (Burns, 2005. The UAE's cross-border mobility has resulted in the interaction of people with diverse language, customs and ethnic backgrounds. Although diversity has been shown to have a number of benefits, including enhanced employee creativity and competence, this recognition is often found more in theory than actual practice. Diversity can also lead to miscommunication, dysfunctional adaptation behaviors and the creation of barriers that reduce the benefits diversity can bring to the organization. Due to the nature of the UAE workplace, which is dominated by a foreign workforce, this study critically analyzes the benefits and challenges organizations face in the diverse workplaces of the United Arab Emirates. The study used a multi-method approach combining survey data from 450 surveys of foreign workers with qualitative data from interviews with native officials of organizations. It is an attempt to compare the views of UAE workplace experience from two different groups—non-native workers and native officials. The research found a generally favorable view toward workplace diversity from the perspective of surveyed employees. However, when asked more detailed questions about company policy, a significant segment of respondents expressed reservations about their employer’s ability to implement successful intercultural communication and diversity practices.

  9. The Effect of Preprocessing on Arabic Document Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ayedh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Preprocessing is one of the main components in a conventional document categorization (DC framework. This paper aims to highlight the effect of preprocessing tasks on the efficiency of the Arabic DC system. In this study, three classification techniques are used, namely, naive Bayes (NB, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, and support vector machine (SVM. Experimental analysis on Arabic datasets reveals that preprocessing techniques have a significant impact on the classification accuracy, especially with complicated morphological structure of the Arabic language. Choosing appropriate combinations of preprocessing tasks provides significant improvement on the accuracy of document categorization depending on the feature size and classification techniques. Findings of this study show that the SVM technique has outperformed the KNN and NB techniques. The SVM technique achieved 96.74% micro-F1 value by using the combination of normalization and stemming as preprocessing tasks.

  10. Rebuilding the Arab Economies: New Regional and Global Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura - Ramona BENCHEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab countries are facing one of their most difficult periods of the modern history. The popular uprisings which broke out at the beginning of 2011 in Tunisia and then spread to Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Jordan, Bahrain and Syria, reflect profound economic and social hardships, but also major uncertainties regarding the political perspectives of these countries. The political transition carried out by several Arab countries could represent an incentive for profound economic reorganization and structural change all over the region. The aim of this paper is to assess the structural economic challenges the Arab countries had been confronted with over many decades and to identify possible regional and global strategies for economic development.

  11. PROFIL KOMPETENSI LULUSAN PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA ARAB PERSPEKTIF STAKEHOLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maswani Maswani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was purposed to describe the pedagogical, professional, personal, and social competences of Junior High Madrasah Arabic language teachers, the graduates of Department of Arabic Education (DAE FITK based on the perspective of the school principals, colleagues, and students in MGMP Madrasah Cooperation Group (KKMof South Tangerang city. The quantitative approach was applied with descriptive qualitative method. The data of the research were obtained from interview, observation, and document research related to the analysis in comprehensive way. The populations were involving the junior high madrasah Arabic language teachers, the graduates of DAE FITK UIN Jakarta in MGMP KKM South Tangerang with the certified teachers as the samples. The result showed that the teachers have pedagogical, professional, personal, and social competences within good/high categorized besides having strengths and weaknesses in certain aspects.DOI: 10.15408/a.v3i2.4163

  12. [Cardiovascular risk factors in an Arab and Hispanic working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, P; García, A; de Rus, I; Avila, J M; Andrade, R; Escolar, J L; González, P

    1991-07-01

    318 records of male workers, 169 Spanish and 149 Arab were retrospectively studied in 1987 at the "Gabinete de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo" (Council for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace) in Ceuta in order to prove the hypothesis that 2 different ethnic groups living in the same geographic area have a non-equal distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. The Spanish group showed a higher prevalence in blood hypertension, diabetes, glucose intolerance, obesity and alcohol intake, compared to the Arab group. Smoking and high levels of seric cholesterol were similar in both groups, however, medium levels of seric cholesterol were lower in the Arab group. Family histories of cardiovascular disease were very rare in the latter mentioned group. These observations suggested a major predisposition to ischemic cardiopathy in the Spanish group.

  13. Medicine Among New Immigrants and Arab Minorities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Seymour

    1965-01-01

    The reaction to modern medicine and the general health of the new immigrants and Arab populations of Israel are described. The material was gathered during a threemonth visit to Israel where the author participated in the medical care of these persons. While these peoples still share many of the traditional medical superstitions and practices, the new immigrants have progressed much more during the 16 years of Israel's existence. At present over 99% of Jewish women give birth in hospital, whereas only 65% of Israeli Arabs do. The infant mortality rate among the Jews in 1963 was about 21 deaths per 1000 live births, about one-half the rate for Arabs. The importance of understanding the cultural background and social conflicts of these people as a preliminary to the provision of proper medical care is stressed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14285305

  14. Syingir: Transformasi Puisi Arab ke dalam Puisi Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Hindun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Syingir is a advice poem that uses the daily Javanese Language and sung individually or together. Syingir developed in pesantren [lslamic boarding school] or in Islamic region, in Central Java and East Java. The creators are kyai or da'i. This poem created to spread the teachings of Islam including akidah, syariah, and muamalah by means of an easy to remember so it was easy to be understood. In terms of firm, syingir closer to the pattern of traditional Arabic poem, syi'ir known as the pattern of al-Khalil. Usage that pattern was caused by penyingir are kiais that had been familiar with ilmul arudl wal-'-qafiyah, the science of rhythm and rhyme in Arabic poetry. While in the term of content, syingir as a religious message is the transformation of the contents of the Arabic poetry which is at-ta'lim (education.

  15. Rational kernels for Arabic Root Extraction and Text Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nehar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problems of Arabic Text Classification and root extraction using transducers and rational kernels. We introduce a new root extraction approach on the basis of the use of Arabic patterns (Pattern Based Stemmer. Transducers are used to model these patterns and root extraction is done without relying on any dictionary. Using transducers for extracting roots, documents are transformed into finite state transducers. This document representation allows us to use and explore rational kernels as a framework for Arabic Text Classification. Root extraction experiments are conducted on three word collections and yield 75.6% of accuracy. Classification experiments are done on the Saudi Press Agency dataset and N-gram kernels are tested with different values of N. Accuracy and F1 report 90.79% and 62.93% respectively. These results show that our approach, when compared with other approaches, is promising specially in terms of accuracy and F1.

  16. Automatic extraction of ontological relations from Arabic text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G.H. Al Zamil

    2014-12-01

    The proposed methodology has been designed to analyze Arabic text using lexical semantic patterns of the Arabic language according to a set of features. Next, the features have been abstracted and enriched with formal descriptions for the purpose of generalizing the resulted rules. The rules, then, have formulated a classifier that accepts Arabic text, analyzes it, and then displays related concepts labeled with its designated relationship. Moreover, to resolve the ambiguity of homonyms, a set of machine translation, text mining, and part of speech tagging algorithms have been reused. We performed extensive experiments to measure the effectiveness of our proposed tools. The results indicate that our proposed methodology is promising for automating the process of extracting ontological relations.

  17. Health assessment of the Arab American community in southwest Brooklyn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Linda; Tong, Virginia S; Jaber, Omar; Talbi, Mohammed; Julliard, Kell

    2010-12-01

    Data on Arab American health is lacking nationwide. This survey of the Arab American community in southwest Brooklyn assessed perceptions of health status, needs, behaviors, and access to services. Bilingual interviewers administered a structured survey to community members in public gathering places. Of 353 surveyed, 43% were men and 57% women, most spoke Arabic and were Muslim, and most had moved to the U.S. after 1990. One quarter were unemployed. Over 50% reported household incomes below federal poverty level. Nearly 30% had no health insurance. 58% reported choosing their health care venue based on language considerations. 43% reported problems in getting health care, including ability to pay, language barriers, and immigration. 42% of men, and 8% of women reported current smoking. Almost half of respondents never exercised. Rates of poverty, lack of health insurance, and smoking in men are cause for concern and were high even for immigrant groups.

  18. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  19. Cruel and Unusual: Negative Images of Arabs in American Popular Culture. Third Edition. ADC Issue Paper No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Laurence

    This document addresses the negative image of Arabs among the U.S. public. While formal education has created many of the misconceptions about Arabs that abound in the west, many of the misconceptions come from the informal education of popular culture. The western image of the Arab is possibly more interesting than the reality of Arab culture.…

  20. Modified gum Arabic hydrogels as matrices for controlled release of curcumin supramolecular complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerola, Adriana P.; Silva, Danielle C.; Rubira, Adley F.; Muniz, Edvani C.

    2015-01-01

    Modified gum Arabic (GA) hydrogels show a pH-responsive behavior making them excellent matrices to be used for oral administration of drugs. Our goal is to study the behavior of those matrices in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. In this work we will present how the methacrylation degree of GA, by using glycidyl methacrylate, can affect the properties of these hydrogels for controlled release. The drug used in this work is the curcumin (Cur). Cur is associated with numerous pharmacological activities, but their application is limited by the low water solubility. We will present some studies involving the formation of host-guest complexes between Cur and natural cyclodextrins. Both modified GA and hydrogels were characterized by different techniques. The kinetics release of Cur complex-containing modified GA hydrogels was studied to have an insight on the release mechanism and rate constants. Toxicity studies on undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 were also carried out. (author)

  1. The Arabic Natural Language Processing: Introduction and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukhatem Nadera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is a Semitic language spoken by more than 330 million people as a native language, in an area extending from the Arabian/Persian Gulf in the East to the Atlantic Ocean in the West. Moreover, it is the language in which 1.4 billion Muslims around the world perform their daily prayers. Over the last few years, Arabic natural language processing (ANLP has gained increasing importance, and several state of the art systems have been developed for a wide range of applications.

  2. Arabic in the Specialised Literature on Translation and Interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Zanón, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the research activity on Arabic translation and interpretation, to explore the most widely discussed topics, and to depict their recent evolution. The most remarkable results can be summarized as follows. An interest on Arabic translation studies is confirmed: it starts in the XIX century and extends through the XX century, where there is a slight but constant increase on the number of publications up to the 1980s. From the 1990s onwards, a big bibli...

  3. The tenth Arab conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This conference includes the paper presented at the tenth Arab conference of the peaceful uses of Nuclear Atomic Energy that is organized by AAEA (Arab Atomic Energy Agency) in cooperation with Iraqi Ministry of Science and Technology and Kurdistan government , held in Erbil (Iraq) from 12-16 December 2010. This conference consists of three volumes covering the following concepts: Analysis and Material Improvement, Soil fertility, Water Recourse Management, Nuclear Medicine and Biological Irradiation, Isotopes Production, Improvement of Plant and Animal Production, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Safety and Security of Radiation Protection, Pest Control and Food Irradiation Processing

  4. Validation of a diabetes numeracy test in Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Alghodaier, Hussah; Jradi, Hoda; Mohammad, Najwa Samantha; Bawazir, Amen

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia is 24%, ranking it among the top ten Worldwide. Diabetes education focuses on self-management and relies on numeracy skills. Poor numeracy may go unrecognized and it is important to have an assessment tool in Arabic to measure such a skill in diabetes care. Objectives To validate a 15-item Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT-15) in the Arabic Language as a tool to assess the numeracy skills of patients with diabetes and to test its proper...

  5. THE ROOTS OF REGRESSION IN THE ARAB WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Del Roio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the popular mobilization that placed below the existing dictatorship in Tunisia the media spread the term “Arab spring” for the series of events that followed. You can tell now how different events and with many vectors, which manifest themselves almost all the armed conflict which undermines Syria. However, the objective of this text is to provide a broad overview to suggest the explanation of strong retroactive process present in the Arab world, even with the presence of micro regions of incredible wealth.

  6. The HISH-alliance and the Arab spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandan, Salem Ben Souhail

    , in terms of relative strength, as being essential in understanding the alliance. It then goes on to look at what the Arab-spring has so far meant for the different actors and how this has impacted the alliance. It is argued that the ability of the non-state armed entities, Hezbollah and Hamas...... within the global community, due to the current systemic situation and the Arab-spring. In short, the paper aims to establish a correlation between the international and regional changes, the newly found autonomy of the non-state entities and the decreasing capabilities of the states, in order...

  7. The Arab Spring: An Essay on Revolution and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni; Tushnet, Mark

    Approaching the concept of Islamic constitutionalism from a comparative perspective, this thought-provoking study by Antoni Abat i Ninet and Mark Tushnet uses traditional Western political theory as a lens to develop a framework for analyzing the events known as the ‘Arab Spring’. Writing...... with clarity and insight, the authors place Western and Arabic traditions into a constructive dialogue. They focus on whether we can develop a ‘theory of revolutions’ that helps us understand events occurring at divergent times at geographically separate locations....

  8. Recognition of knowledge – A step towards optimization of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Rebolj

    2011-03-01

    In her presentation of the knowledge recognition procedures, the author relies on constructivist theories on knowledge and highlights the importance of the achieved levels of knowledge, paying equal attention to the low levels (skills, higher levels and the highest levels (problem­solving, none of which should be omitted in the assessment and recognition procedures. The author then presents the experience in knowledge recognition gained in the last five years by several colleges providing part­time studies, starting with a course in accounting and proceeding with other programmes. It is essential that knowledge recognition should not be pushed into the domain of experts or become an administrative procedure; it must remain part of the regular teaching procedure and under control of the teacher. This requires implementation of appropriate teacher training. Despite the fact that the recognition procedures developed so far have proved to be valid and have gained on credibility, numerous new research issues are being raised in this field.

  9. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  10. What is modern standard Arabic NLP? Definition and tools (or how to understand Arabic even if you do not know a word)

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Morales, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been an increase of the interest on Modern Standard Arabic. There is where computational linguistics fits in. This paper analyses the intersection between Arabic and computational linguistics, focusing on text processing and the tools developed for this purpose. The fundamental functions of Arabic computational processing are: sentence segmentation, tokenization, morphosyntactic tagging, lemmatization, diacritization and base phrase chunking. After analysing e...

  11. Islamism, Secularism and the Woman Question in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring: Evidence from the Arab Barometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Fox

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The uprisings that led to regime change during the early period of the Arab Spring were initially inclusive and pluralistic in nature, with men and women from every political and religious orientation engaging actively in political activities on the street and in virtual spaces. While there was an opening of political space for women and the inclusion of demands of marginalized groups in the activists’ agenda, the struggle to reimagine national identities that balance Islamic roots and secular yearnings is still ongoing in many countries in the region. This paper seeks to deepen understanding of the extent to which the pluralistic sentiments and openness to accepting the rights women have persisted following the uprising. We aim to examine changes in attitudes towards women’s equality in countries that underwent regime change through popular uprisings during revolutionary upheavals of the Arab Spring and in countries where regimes have remained unchanged. Using available data from consecutive rounds of the Arab Barometer survey, we examine changes in attitudes in nine countries with two rounds of Arab Barometer during and post Arab Spring (Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Algeria, Lebanon, Sudan, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine. We find that support for “Muslim feminism” (an interpretation of gender equality grounded in Islam has increased over the period and particularly in Arab Spring countries, while support for “secular feminism” has declined. In most countries examined, relatively high degrees of support for gender equality co-exist with a preference for Islamic interpretations of personal status codes pertaining to women. We discuss the implications of these findings for academics and activists concerned with women’s rights in the Middle East North Africa (MENA.

  12. A Study of Moment Based Features on Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten digit recognition plays a significant role in many user authentication applications in the modern world. As the handwritten digits are not of the same size, thickness, style, and orientation, therefore, these challenges are to be faced to resolve this problem. A lot of work has been done for various non-Indic scripts particularly, in case of Roman, but, in case of Indic scripts, the research is limited. This paper presents a script invariant handwritten digit recognition system for identifying digits written in five popular scripts of Indian subcontinent, namely, Indo-Arabic, Bangla, Devanagari, Roman, and Telugu. A 130-element feature set which is basically a combination of six different types of moments, namely, geometric moment, moment invariant, affine moment invariant, Legendre moment, Zernike moment, and complex moment, has been estimated for each digit sample. Finally, the technique is evaluated on CMATER and MNIST databases using multiple classifiers and, after performing statistical significance tests, it is observed that Multilayer Perceptron (MLP classifier outperforms the others. Satisfactory recognition accuracies are attained for all the five mentioned scripts.

  13. SUMBANGAN BAHASA ARAB TERHADAP BAHASA INDONESIA DALAM PERSPEKTIF PENGEMBANGAN BAHASA DAN BUDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudin Nur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the Arabic contributions to the Bahasa Indonesia in the perspective of language and culture developments. The data are taken from Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI. Based on the analysis done shows that there are three important aspects of the Arabic contribution to the Bahasa Indonesia, namely vocabulary enrichment, grammar system, and cultural development. In the aspect of vocabulary enrichment, approximately 2.336 Arabic vocabularies have moved into Bahasa Indonesia. In the aspect of grammar, the Arabic grammatical system is used in the grammatical system of Bahasa Indonesian such as gender formation and formation of word that shows the meaning of nature. In the cultural aspect, the Arabic language also contribute to the development of Indonesian culture, such as the use of proper names in Arabic by the Indonesian Muslims, religious institutions, and state. Moreover, the Arabic terms are also used in everyday expressions, literature, and in the constitutional system of the Republic of Indonesia.

  14. Arab strategy for peaceful uses of nuclear energy until the year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The peaceful use of atomic energy in the Arab region constitutes an important contributor to economic and social development, and nuclear technologies are involved in various areas of life. Since the Khartoum Arab Summit in 2006, the Council of the League of Arab States has issued successive resolutions calling for the need of Arab cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. These decisions were embodied in the Arab strategy for peaceful uses of nuclear energy until the year 2020 - to which Arab Atomic Energy Agency developed with Arab experts an implementation program. Scientific research in the field of peaceful atomic energy applications is among the key elements of this strategy as it is an important factor for the implementation of these applications in order to improve their performance and achieve the targeted benefits.

  15. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...... quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage...... of the Arab Spring. The findings indicate that media coverage of the Arab Spring points in different directions. On the one hand there has been a remarkable increase in media attention to the Middle East in purely quantitative terms. On the other hand the study finds that a number of traditional media...

  16. Syllabus Development Studies in Turkey and in the World for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language - Some Suggestion for Teaching Arabic in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arabic in Turkey and in the world is rising in the last years because of some developments in Middle East. Beside this, Arabic is the language o f Holy Quran and hadiths. As it is known the non - Arab, Muslims need to learn this language in order to understand their religion. After all, of these needs, some countries opened some courses for teaching Arabic. In addition , people started to write some new materials for teaching Arabic in these courses as a foreign language. In Turkey, there are Arabic lessons in intermediate, middle and high school periods. The Education Ministry is publishing syllabus for these lessons. A s Turkey, some countries are teaching Arabic as a foreign language in their schools. In this paper, we tried to analyze the similarities and differences between the syllabuses of these countries and Turkey for teaching Arabic as a foreign language. At the end of the analyze we suggested some suggestions for teaching Arabic in primary schools in Turkey.

  17. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  18. Foundations of children's numerical and mathematical skills: the roles of symbolic and nonsymbolic representations of numerical magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Ansari, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Numerical and mathematical skills are critical predictors of academic success. The last three decades have seen a substantial growth in our understanding of how the human mind and brain represent and process numbers. In particular, research has shown that we share with animals the ability to represent numerical magnitude (the total number of items in a set) and that preverbal infants can process numerical magnitude. Further research has shown that similar processing signatures characterize numerical magnitude processing across species and developmental time. These findings suggest that an approximate system for nonsymbolic (e.g., dot arrays) numerical magnitude representation serves as the basis for the acquisition of cultural, symbolic (e.g., Arabic numerals) representations of numerical magnitude. This chapter explores this hypothesis by reviewing studies that have examined the relation between individual differences in nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing and symbolic math abilities (e.g., arithmetic). Furthermore, we examine the extent to which the available literature provides strong evidence for a link between symbolic and nonsymbolic representations of numerical magnitude at the behavioral and neural levels of analysis. We conclude that claims that symbolic number abilities are grounded in the approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of numerical magnitude are not strongly supported by the available evidence. Alternative models and future research directions are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  20. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  1. Investigating Students' Beliefs about Arabic Language Programs at Kuwait University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaye, Shaye S.

    2009-01-01

    The current study attempted to identify students' of Arabic programs beliefs about their chosen programs. To achieve this purpose, a survey was developed to collect the data from randomly selected students in liberal-arts and education-based programs at Kuwait University. The results showed that students were statistically differentiated as a…

  2. Appui aux transitions dans le monde arabe | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    étudieront l'évolution du rôle de l'État face aux enjeux économiques et sociaux; - appuieront les ... ARI Centre pour une initiative arabe de réforme. Institution Country. France ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  3. Culture and English Language Teaching in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between culture and English language teaching (ELT) in the Arab World. A critical question arises in terms of ELT, that is, whether to teach culture along with English. To answer such a bewildering question, this article presents related literature and studies and discusses a theoretical frame based on…

  4. BUKU BAHASA ARAB MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH (MI DI PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Lukluil Maknun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is qualitative research that aims to describe the suitability of teaching Arabic books (class I and IV in MI using KTSP curriculum with Content and Competency Standards set government policy, and a description of the book to teach Arabic MI is needed to cope with the new curriculum in 2013. The method used is a qualitative method, using content analysis of BSNP (National Education Standards Agency and needs analysis. Suitability of the Arabic book by SK KD government set on average for class I applied sufficiently and still need to be further improved. As for class IV, SK KD can be applied with good and balanced, but to listening competencies, especially in the identification of letters hijaiyah not get enough servings. There are two possible models that can be created for teach book in the coming school year, the first is a thematic integrative book of PAI MI according to the new curriculum in 2013, or second is a Arabic books MI generally for the new school year.

  5. Biological data from sharks landed within the United Arab Emirates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landing site and market surveys of sharks landed along the Arabian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates were undertaken between October 2010 and September 2012 to obtain biological data from this artisanal fishery. Data were collected on the size and sex of 12 482 individuals representing 30 species. Maximum ...

  6. Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamloumi, Jilani

    2013-01-01

    The report involves the findings of the final evaluation of the regional entrepreneurship education project in Arab States component II (2011-2012) (see ED560497), which is a joint activity between UNESCO and StratREAL Foundation. It aims to help the development of educational policies enabling the integration of entrepreneurship education within…

  7. Surveying Public Attitudes of Security Sector Reforms in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The notion that the security sector's primary responsibility is to protect and preserve autocratic Arab regimes is widely discredited today. ... of public opinion in security sector reform by providing evidence-based information on public perceptions, and in so doing, encouraging civilian oversight and transparency in the sector.

  8. Arabic web pages clustering and annotation using semantic class features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Alghamdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage the great amount of data on Arabic web pages and to enable the classification of relevant information are very important research problems. Studies on sentiment text mining have been very limited in the Arabic language because they need to involve deep semantic processing. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to retrieve machine-understandable data with the help of a Web content mining technique to detect covert knowledge within these data. We propose an approach to achieve clustering with semantic similarities. This approach comprises integrating k-means document clustering with semantic feature extraction and document vectorization to group Arabic web pages according to semantic similarities and then show the semantic annotation. The document vectorization helps to transform text documents into a semantic class probability distribution or semantic class density. To reach semantic similarities, the approach extracts the semantic class features and integrates them into the similarity weighting schema. The quality of the clustering result has evaluated the use of the purity and the mean intra-cluster distance (MICD evaluation measures. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a set of common Arabic news web pages. We have acquired favorable clustering results that are effective in minimizing the MICD, expanding the purity and lowering the runtime.

  9. Deriving ontological semantic relations between Arabic compound nouns concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Bouaziz Mezghanni

    2017-04-01

    Experiments carried out on Arabic legal dataset showed that the proposed approach reached encouraging performance through achieving high precision and recall scores. This performance affects positively the retrieval results of legal documents based on a powerful ontology, which presents our main objective.

  10. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  11. Best Practices: Intercultural Integration of Arabic Refugees in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuchukov, Hristo; New, William

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the work of a Berlin-based NGO (ANE) in Germany, which works with migrants and Arab refugees. The organisation has a strong record publishing a Parents Newsletter and conducting family counselling for migrants and refugees in Berlin. One of the major activities of the organisation in 2016 was an international conference with…

  12. Optimising the Blended Learning Environment: The Arab Open University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Tahrir; Abu Qudais, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    This paper will offer some insights into possible ways to optimise the blended learning environment based on experience with this modality of teaching at Arab Open University/Jordan branch and also by reflecting upon the results of several meta-analytical studies, which have shown blended learning environments to be more effective than their face…

  13. [Imbalance of distribution of physicians in the Arab world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Matri, A

    1990-01-01

    The Arab world, as a whole, now has 8.5 medical doctors per 10,000 population. This average covers a great diversity of national situations; for example 0.6 doctors per 10,000 population in Somalia, and 17.5 doctors per 10,000 population in Qatar. From the viewpoint of medical staffing, the Arab countries can be grouped into four categories: (i) Countries with low medical density: their national staff is scarce, they do not have a long academic tradition, and they have to rely on foreign physicians (Yemen, Djibouti, Somalia, Mauritania). (ii) Countries with acceptable medical density: they have strengthened their medical training system during the last decades, their production of medical graduates is now fairly high, and there is seemingly a threat of oversupply (Algeria, Tunisia, Syria, Iraq). (iii) Countries with relatively high medical density: their medical staffing is below that of developed countries, but their economic possibilities are reduced, which leads to an oversupply; these countries are exporters of medical manpower (Egypt, Jordan). (iv) Countries that import medical manpower although their own medical density is quite high: their medical training is recent or non-existent and their health system relies to a great extent on foreign doctors (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Libya, Kuwait). They are all oil producers. In brief, a shortage and an oversupply of medical doctors coexist in the Arab world, and concerted action is required.

  14. Nuclear weapons and the Arab-Israeli conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomas, P.

    1989-01-01

    The implications of the clandestine Israeli nuclear arsenal for the conflict in the Middle East are studied in the light of emerging Arab reactions to it. The opportunities for European influence on the policy and programmes of this threshold state are described

  15. Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastatin has been known as candidate gene in muscle growth efficiency and meat quality. This gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep. In order to evaluate the calpastatin gene polymorphism, random blood sample were collected from 111 Arabic ram sheep from different regions. The DNA extraction was ...

  16. Management of Arabic and Ajami Manuscript Resources In Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arabic manuscripts are not new phenomena in Nigeria, Africa and the world over. Their importance to the educational development and societal reconstruction along moral, ethics, spiritual, social, economic, political and what have you, is yet to be known, due to the poor understanding of where they can be found and ...

  17. Arabic Afrikaans – early standardisation of Afrikaans orthography: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, the published Master's dissertation of the late Achmat Davids on the historical phenomenon of Arabic Afrikaans is examined from a linguistic viewpoint, one of a variety of possible perspectives offered by the material documented and investigated by the author. Of special interest for this perspective is the ...

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  19. The use of the Arabic script in northern Mozambique | Bonate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Mozambican Muslim population has been using the Arabic script for writing in KiSwahili and local African languages for centuries. Even today, many people continue using this script in private correspondence. Despite the abundance of the documents in this script that are housed at the Mozambique Historical ...

  20. Assessment of resources and services of the Nigerian Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed resources and services of the Nigeria Arabic Language Village (NALV) Library, Ngala. Four objectives and four research questions guided the study. Survey research design was adopted. The target population of the study was 1,030, out of which, 206 was drawn as the sample for the study. The data ...