WorldWideScience

Sample records for arabian gulf region

  1. Geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf region and the implication for the archaeology of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Adrian G.; Goudie, Andrew S.

    2008-10-01

    During the Late Quaternary, the climate of Arabia has fluctuated between periods of higher rainfall and fluvial activity, dominated by the influence of the Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) and drier/arid conditions under the influence of the westerlies. This has left a rich legacy of landforms from which temporal and spatial patterns of environmental change are reconstructed. The coastal desert region of the southeastern Arabian Gulf has been a focal point for human settlement since ~ 8000 cal yr BP. The region is strategically located on an important trade route between two 'cradles of civilization', namely, Mesopotamia and the Indus. Changes in the evolution and modification of this landscape under varying climatic conditions have influenced humans living in and exploiting this landscape for food and water, raw materials and trade routes. In this study, geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations are integrated to provide a framework of environmental change for the Late Glacial and early-mid Holocene periods against which the archaeology of the area can be set. The Late Glacial and earliest Holocene was characterised by intense aridity and accumulation of mega linear dunes driven by the Shamal winds. In the Arabian Gulf region, this continued into the earliest part of the Holocene, whilst southern Arabia was under the influence of the IOM. The monsoon rains migrated into the Gulf region between 8500-6000 cal BP. During this time, semi-nomadic herders occupied this region and grazing their animals in a landscape covered with C3 savanna grassland. The Neolithic peoples also practised hunting and fishing and the collection of shellfish was an important activity. Pottery shows links with Mesopotamia at this time. From 6000 cal BP the IOM retreated south and rainfall was derived from winterly westerly sources. Under drier conditions a switch occurred to a sparser cover of C4 grasses. From 4500 cal BP the climate became much drier with the development of stronger

  2. Review on the national and regional response to oil spill in the Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decades, the oil industry has grown enormously, resulting in a considerable number of island's oil and gas fields being fully developed. Over 30% of all oil carried by ships is produced in this region. It is exported through a narrow bottle-neck passage, Straight of Hormuz creating a continuous heavy traffic that increases the daily risk potential for ships collision, grounding or explosion that threaten the marine environment and the economy of the coastal states, should a major oil spill occur anytime. The paper reviews some major spills in the area and the action taken by the responsible authorities. The high risk potential of pollution by oil or any other harmful substances in the Arabian Gulf always exists and the need for a competent national and regional bodies was felt necessary to co-ordinate efforts in combating or mitigating marine oil pollution. The paper reviews and discusses the status of such bodies and concludes with an emphasis on strengthening them

  3. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  4. Understanding causes of fall and struck-by incidents: What differentiates construction safety in the Arabian Gulf region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Simon; Yousef, Rami; Liginlal, Divakaran; Vyas, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth in the Arabian Gulf region has fueled an explosive pace of construction and a rise in risks of occupational injury. Scarcity of pertinent data, however, makes it hard to determine whether accident characteristics, causal factors and remedial interventions identified elsewhere apply to the Gulf in comparable ways. This difficulty stems from unusual construction sector characteristics, notably a heterogeneous mix of expatriate laborers and firms working without a common language, work culture or labor practices. Does this change the mix of accident types or the ranking of main causes and priority remedies? To answer this question, a sample of 519 incident records was analyzed to determine whether accident types and frequencies are comparable to elsewhere. Site safety experts were then interviewed to determine whether rankings of factors and interventions should be similar. Findings are that types are indeed comparable, but the rankings of factors and interventions may not be. Main factors have to do with worker skills and training, experience, use of safety gear and risk perception. The overarching safety issue, however, is that firms and governments do not have strong incentive to address these factors.

  5. Investigation of the relative fine and coarse mode aerosol loadings and properties in the Southern Arabian Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Kathleen C.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Ross-Langerman, Kristy; Piketh, Stuart; Cliff, Steven; Al Mandoos, Abdulla; Broccardo, Stephen; Zhao, Yongjing; Zhang, Jianglong; Perry, Kevin D.

    2016-03-01

    The aerosol chemistry environment of the Arabian Gulf region is extraordinarily complex, with high concentrations of dust aerosols from surrounding deserts mixed with anthropogenic aerosols originating from a large petrochemical industry and pockets of highly urbanized areas. Despite the high levels of aerosols experienced by this region, little research has been done to explore the chemical composition of both the anthropogenic and mineral dust portion of the aerosol burden. The intensive portion of the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2), conducted during August and September 2004 was designed in part to resolve the aerosol chemistry through the use of multiple size-segregated aerosol samplers. The coarse mode mass (derived by subtracting the PM2.5 aerosol mass from the PM10 mass) is largely dust at 76% ± 7% of the total coarse mode mass, but is significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, primarily sulfate and nitrate. The PM2.5 aerosol mass also contains a large dust burden, at 38% ± 26%, but the anthropogenic component dominates. The total aerosol burden has significant impact not only on the atmosphere, but also the local population, as the air quality levels for both the PM10 and PM2.5 aerosol masses reached unhealthy levels for 24% of the days sampled.

  6. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W.; Rohner, Christoph A.; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C.; Mair, James M.; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P 9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720–6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  7. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    Following the enormous oil spills resulting from the 1990-91 military conflict in the Gulf, fears were expressed concerning dissipation of oil from the Gulf into the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. To investigate contamination of the northern Arabian...

  8. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  9. The Neolithic origins of seafaring in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carter

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of the Arabian Gulf were among the world’s earliest maritime traders. Their ships sailed regularly between the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia, Bahrain and the Indus Valley, and they reached China by sea in the eighth century AD, thus bypassing the long and perilous overland Silk Road route across Central Asia. Now excavations at a coastal site in Kuwait by a team from the Institute have revealed even earlier evidence of maritime activity in the Gulf.

  10. "Going Mobile" in Business Communication at an Arabian Gulf University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Nickerson, Catherine; Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a project in which undergraduate business seniors at a university in the Arabian Gulf created or evaluated the chapters of an iBook as part of their final course in business communication. Students were surveyed throughout the project, and they also participated in a focus group discussion at the end. The aim was to…

  11. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean.

  12. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  13. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W.; Rohner, Christoph A.; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C.; Mair, James M.; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720–6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  14. Learner Involvement at Arabian Gulf University Self-Access Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Malcolm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabian Gulf University (AGU College of Medicine and Medical Sciences was established around 25 years ago to train students in the Arab Gulf states, including Bahrain, where it is located, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to become doctors of medicine (MDs using the problem-based learning approach (PBL. As is the case in most regional higher education institutions, entering students are expected to be proficient in English, the language through which course content is delivered. In reality, many students do not achieve the desired standard in English, thus must take one or more semesters of English language training before beginning their academic studies. IAGU has an annual intake of around 150 students of widely varying English proficiency levels, but has only recently begun to accept some students to a foundation English programme. Before that, our small English unit had to find ways of helping the least proficient improve their English skills, while providing a basis in English for medical purposes for all students, within the same course framework. Our self-access centre (SAC, though small and definitely not state of the art, has had an important role to play in accommodating the different students’ needs and interests, supplementing their course material and providing opportunities for increased language exposure.

  15. Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) embryos: A model organism for the risk assessment of the Arabian Gulf coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Suhur; Al-Naema, Nayla; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Fish embryos are excellent models for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and indications of possible acute and chronic effects. For the past 3 yr, an Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) fish embryo test has been developed in the authors' laboratory as a routine ecotoxicological test that can be used to support risk assessment of potential contaminants in Arabian Gulf coastal waters. Tests were conducted with 3 reference toxicants (3,4-dichloroaniline [DCA], sodium dodecyl sulfate, and zinc sulfate [Zn]) and chlorine, a disinfectant used widely in industrial cooling systems around the Arabian Gulf region. The 50% effect concentration (EC50) for DCA was 0.47 mg/L and 1.89 mg/L for embryos exposed before 6 hpf and after 168 hpf, respectively. Sublethal effects were mainly observed at concentrations above 2.5 mg/L, the effects included severe pericardial edema and tail shortage. The sodium dodecyl sulfate ionic surfactant caused mortality at both early and late stages of embryo development; it caused coagulation, severe deformity, and hemolysis. Both the EC50 and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for sodium dodecyl sulfate were 9.37 mg/L. Salinity influenced the toxicity of Zn to killifish embryos: at 40 psu Zn was found not to be toxic, whereas at 20 psu toxicity had increased significantly (p experiment. The LC50 for chlorine was determined to be 0.08 mg/L. Examination of the existing literature showed similar results to the present study's findings. The results suggest a more comparable sensitivity of killifish embryos to that of other fish embryo test recommended species. The present study's findings support the ability of killifish to be an indicator organism for environmental risk assessments of Arabian Gulf waters. Benefits include sensitivity to a wide range of substances and conditions, animal alternative, ease of fish breeding, and clarity of the embryos. PMID:26184573

  16. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  17. Renewable energies management strategy challenges in the Arabian Gulf countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aloughani, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London The main source of energy in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) remains fossil fuels (oil and gas). The massive and accelerated used of such sources of energy not only depletes the traditional energy sources in those states and thus undermines exports and long-term prosperity; it also causes devastating damages to the environment and to human health. The nature of the Arabian Peninsu...

  18. Sea level rise within the west of Arabian Gulf using tide gauge and continuous GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, M. E.; Alothman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and located in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. To investigate sea level variations within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed individually the monthly means at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Vertical land motions are included into the relative sea level measurements at the tide gauges. Therefore sea level rates at the stations are corrected for vertical land motions using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model then we found the average sea level rise rate of 2.27 mm/yr. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS) GPS station, which is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain, is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are downloaded from http://www-gps.mit.edu/~tah/. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and one break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.48 ± 0.11 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate at each of the other tide gauge stations studied here in the region, we computed average sea level rise rate of 2.44 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf.

  19. Long-Period Ground Motion in the Arabian Gulf from Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarka, Arben; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Pasyanos, Michael E.; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    The Arabian Gulf is adjacent to the Zagros Mountains, one of the most seismically active regions in the world. We observe that broadband seismic records of Zagros earthquakes recorded on the Arabian side of the Gulf display long-duration surface waves. While shorter periods (10 km) of the Gulf basin, the long-period energy is enhanced and transmitted efficiently. Consequently, large earthquakes in the Zagros could result in amplified ground motions at long periods (2-10 s) relative to average behavior. Such ground motions are of concern for large engineered structures, such as tall buildings and long bridges with resonant periods in the same period range. Here we present results of investigations of the characteristics of ground motions recorded on the western shore of the Gulf from selected earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains region. Exceptionally, long-duration seismic waves, as compared with standard models, are shown to occur with periods of 2-10 s. This may be due to waveguide effects in the deep sedimentary basin structure of the Arabian Platform. In addition to analyzing recorded ground motion we performed 3D wave propagation simulations using a finite difference method and experimental velocity models of the Gulf, with different shallow sedimentary layers structures. The simulation results confirm our hypothesis that long-period waves with extremely long duration and relatively large amplitudes are caused by the geometry of the basin sedimentary layers and, to some extent, by shallow earthquake depths. Combined effects of basin edge geometry with sharp velocity contrasts and shallow sources (<10 km) on the eastern side of the Arabian Gulf can cause large long-period ground motion on the western side of the Gulf. In contrast, the short-period content of ground motion (<2 s) at long distances is relatively weak. This is mainly due to wave propagation scattering and attenuation in the shallow sedimentary layers of the Gulf basin.

  20. ZFAT gene variant association with multiple sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf population: A genetic basis for gender-associated susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguiba-Hachemi, Sonia; Ashkanani, Tebah K.; Kadhem, Fatema J.; Almawi, Wassim Y.; Alroughani, Raed; Fathallah, M. Dahmani

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful genetic markers to investigate the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). A genome wide association study identified 7 SNPs associated with interferon-β therapy response, however, not with MS risk in a Spanish population. To investigate these findings in a different cohort, the 7 SNPs were investigated in an Arabian Gulf population. The SNPs were analyzed in 268 subjects (156 patients and 112 healthy volunteers) from the Arabian Gulf region using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and KBioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping methods. Associations between the SNPs and MS were investigated using logistic regression. The present study observed, for the first time, that in an Arabian Gulf population, the ZFAT rs733254 polymorphism (T>G) is a gender-specific risk marker for MS. ZFAT was associated with MS in women but not in men. The G variant was highly associated with the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR)=2.38 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45–3.91); P=0.0014]. Whereas variant T was a significantly protective factor [OR=0.420 (95% CI, 0.25–0.69); P=0.0014, recessive model]. The findings of the present study provide a genetic basis for the gender-associated susceptibility to MS. In addition, this MS-associated rs733254 SNP may predict MS onset in females from the Arabian Gulf population. PMID:27572828

  1. Seasonal spreading of the Persian Gulf water mass in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prasad, T.G.; Ikeda, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The characteristics of the subsurface salinity maximum associated with the Persian Gulf Water mass (PGW) are used to quantify the spreading and mixing of PGW in the thermocline of the Arabian Sea based on a bimonthly climatology of temperature...

  2. Coral-associated Actinobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: diversity, abundance and biotechnological potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Huda Mahmoud Mahmoud; Aisha Ahmad Kalendar

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in terrestrial environments, where they are considered a significant source of bioactive compounds, mainly antibiotics. Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni, north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. The corals of the Arabian Gulf, one of the world’s...

  3. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  4. Seasonal Variations in the Number of the Summer Shamal Days in the Southern Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    effect on the region. The high number of Summer Shamal days is associated with the strong summer monsoon or eastward-shift of the Azores High over land. Conversely, the low number of Summer Shamal days is associated with a westward-shift of the Azores High over the Atlantic or weak summer monsoon. References Al Aali, H. (2011); Collected wind data, over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010), from Bahrain Bahrain International airport wind data set, submitted by official communication using official email Hhalaali@caa.gov.bh. Govinda, R., Al-Sulaiti, M., Al-Mulla, A., (2001); Winter Shamals in Qatar, Arabian Gulf, Weather, Vol 56, No.12, PP 444-451. Govinda R., Hatwar, H., Al-Sulaiti, M., Al-Mulla, A., (2003); Summer Shamal over the Arabian Gulf, Weather, Vol 58, No.12, PP 471-477. Nazemosadat, M., Samani, N., Barry, D., and Niko, M., (2006); ENSO forcing on climate change in Iran: Precipitation analysis, Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Transaction B, Engineering, Vol. 30, No B4, p. 555-565 NCEP, 2013; Monthly/Seasonal Climate Composites

  5. An overview of the Tertiary geology and hydrogeology of the northern part of the Arabian Gulf region with special reference to Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Sulaimi, J.; Al-Awadi, E.; Al-Ruwaih, F.

    1996-06-01

    Tertiary sediments constitute the main source of usable groundwater in Kuwait. Tectonics, depositional environment, lithology and the hydrogeology of these sediments have been reviewed on a regional scale, with special reference to Kuwait. The review showed that Kuwait was situated at the boundary of the stable shelf towards southwest and the unstable shelf towards northeast throughout the Tertiary period. The Tertiary sedimentation started in this area with a marine transgression in the Palaeocene. Shallow marine to sabkha conditions prevailed in the area until the end of the Eocene; a carbonate-evaporite sequence (Umm Er-Radhuma, Rus and Dammam Formation) was deposited during this period. The sea regressed at the end of Eocene, and a widespread unconformity, causing the absence of Oligocene deposits over most of the area, marked the event. The karstification of the Dammam Limestone Formation, that provides localized easier pathways for ground water, took place during this period. The deposition of the clastic sediments of the Kuwait Group and its equivalents on the stable shelf, under mostly continental conditions, started in the early Miocene. The Tertiary aquifers of the area are recharged by occasional rainstorms in the outcrops of Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The water flows towards the north and east in the direction of the regional dip and discharges along the present-day coast of the Gulf. The water quality deteriorates in the same direction, being more mineralized as it flows through the aquifers. The aquifers are presently being exploited at a comparatively high rate. Since the aquifers extend beyond the political boundaries, cooperation among the countries of the region is recommended to ensure the optimum utilization of the scarce water resources of this desert environment.

  6. Mapping of Coral Reef Environment in the Arabian Gulf Using Multispectral Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Romdhane, H.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs of the Arabian Gulf are subject to several pressures, thus requiring conservation actions. Well-designed conservation plans involve efficient mapping and monitoring systems. Satellite remote sensing is a cost-effective tool for seafloor mapping at large scales. Multispectral remote sensing of coastal habitats, like those of the Arabian Gulf, presents a special challenge due to their complexity and heterogeneity. The present study evaluates the potential of multispectral sensor DubaiSat-2 in mapping benthic communities of United Arab Emirates. We propose to use a spectral-spatial method that includes multilevel segmentation, nonlinear feature analysis and ensemble learning methods. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used for comparison of classification performances. Comparative data were derived from the habitat maps published by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. The spectral-spatial method produced 96.41% mapping accuracy. SVM classification is assessed to be 94.17% accurate. The adaptation of these methods can help achieving well-designed coastal management plans in the region.

  7. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf.

  8. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The greater Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems of the Arabian Peninsula form two of the most prolific petroleum-producing systems in the world. Source rocks of these systems extend throughout the eastern Arabian Peninsula and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Primary elements of these Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems - source, reservoir, and seal rocks - are of great areal extent and exceptional quality. The combination of these regionally extensive, exceptional petroleum-system elements, and the formation of large subtle structural closures prior to, or coincident with, peak oil generation and migration, have produced oil and gas fields with reserve volumes second to none.

  9. Dtection of Sea Level Rise within the Arabian Gulf Using Space Based GNSS Measurements and Insitu Tide Gauge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Ayhan, Mehmet

    In the 21st century, sea level rise is expected to be about 30 cm or even more (up to 60 cm). Saudi Arabia has very long coasts of about 3400 km and hundreds of islands. Therefore, sea level monitoring may be important in particular along coastal low lands on Red Sea and Arabian Gulf coasts. Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and lying along a parallel course in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. We expect vertical land motion within the area due to both tectonic structures of the Arabian Peninsula and oil production activities. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Continues observations were used to estimate the vertical crustal motion. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS-GPS) station is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region, and it is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are used in the computation. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and a break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.46 0.11 mm/yr. To investigate sea level variation within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed separately the monthly mean sea level measurements at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Sea level rates at the stations are first corrected for vertical land motion contamination using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, and the average sea level rate is found 2.27 0.21 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate

  10. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sedigh Marvasti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1° models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6 with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature. We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  11. Dust storms over the Arabian Gulf: a possible indicator of climate changes consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, W.; Enan, M.R.; Al-Hassini, H.; Stuut, J.B.; de-Beer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Dust storm frequencies and strengths were monitored during 2009 at various locations along the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), as representative sites of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. The results have been compared with a pre-2009 five-year data set. Mineralogical components of dust

  12. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  13. Living Behaviors and Molecular Characterization of Benthic Foraminifera in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Khalil, Amjad; Holzmann, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The benthic foraminifera are among the major carbonate producers in modern Arabian Gulf waters and are found living in all marine habitats. They have been recognized as proxies to assess paleoenvironmental changes, however, their biological behaviors in modern environments needs to be further studied. The current study attempts to explain the biology of benthic foraminifera in terms of their living behaviors and molecular characterization, from different regions of the western side of the Arabian Gulf. Accordingly, two major groups of benthic foraminifera, namely rotaliids and miliolids, are examined under laboratory conditions. Results illustrate that the rotaliids are more resistant to environmental changes than miliolids, as their granular reticulopodial network is stronger than among the miliolids, with high cytoplasmic streaming. The pseudopodia extend out from both primary and secondary apertures, and aid the organism in locomotion by attaching to the wall of hard substrate. As a result they drag their whole bodies toward the direction of motion. In rotaliids, the movement rate is high and is attributed to the extension of pseudopodia through all apertures, compared with miliolids in which pseudopodia extend out from the primary aperture only. The innate behavior of both groups was observed as a function of external stimulus, i.e., light, nutrients, and availability of substrate. The observation on average life span reflected that the rotaliids was able to survive longer than miliolids. Molecular analysis reveals the presence of four groups, i.e., Ammonia, Murrayinella, Glabratellina, and Elphidium which support the morphological taxonomy at the genus level. However, BLAST analysis contradicts the species level taxonomy, which challenges the classification based upon hard-shell morphology. Nevertheless, monophyletic clustering is observed among all major groups. The study concludes that the morphological taxonomy needs to be augmented by molecular analysis

  14. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.

  15. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. PMID:26506023

  16. Westward movement of eddies into the Gulf of Aden from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.; Shenoi, S.S.C; Shankar, D.; Aparna, M.; Kurian, J.; Durand, F.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    stream_size 44732 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Geophys_Res_C_112_C11004.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Geophys_Res_C_112_C11004.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Westward... movement of eddies into the Gulf of Aden from the Arabian Sea M. A. Al Saafani, 1,2 S. S. C. Shenoi, 3 D. Shankar, 3 M. Aparna, 3 J. Kurian, 4 F. Durand, 2,5 and P. N. Vinayachandran 4 Received 18 November 2006; revised 6 April 2007; accepted 13 June 2007...

  17. Modeling of Regional Climate over Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2011-04-09

    Observations, re-analyses, and climate model simulations show strong surface temperature trends in Middle East and Arabian Peninsula in the last 30 years. Trends are especially pronounced in summer exceeding +1K/decade. However, some regions, e.g., the So

  18. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  19. Oil price movements and the Arabian Gulf economies: a sectoral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six of the Arabian Gulf countries are founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and are known as GCC member states. Jointly, in 1997, they held close to 46 per cent of the world crude oil reserves and derived a major part of their national income from oil revenues. The study analyzes the response of these states to the changes in world oil prices over two major time periods: a 1972-1980 period (Phase I) of steadily increasing prices and a 1981-1996 period (Phase II) of steadily declining and then weakly recovering prices. Phase I is characterized in the member States by an unprecedented economic boom and Phase II by an adjustment to strong recessionary pressures. (Author)

  20. Mesoscale variability in the Arabian Sea from HYCOM model results and observations: impact on the Persian Gulf Water path

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Duarte, R.; Carton, X.; Vic, C.; Ciani, D.; Baraille, R.; Corréard, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyze this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM - Generalized Digital Environmental mode - climatology), satellite altimetry (from AVISO) and a regional simulation with a primitive equation model (HYCOM - the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model). The model and observations display comparable variability, and the model is then used to analyze the three-dimensional structure of eddies and water masses with higher temporal and spatial resolutions than the available observations. The mesoscale features are highly seasonal, with the formation of coastal currents, destabilizing into eddies, or the radiation of Rossby waves from the Indian coast. The mesoscale eddies have a deep dynamical influence and strongly drive the water masses at depth. In particular, in the Sea of Oman, the Persian Gulf Water presents several offshore ejection sites and a complex recirculation, depending on the mesoscale eddies. The associated mechanisms range from coastal ejection via dipoles, alongshore pulses due to a cyclonic eddy, to the formation of lee eddies downstream of Ra's Al Hamra. This water mass is also captured inside the eddies via several mechanisms, keeping high thermohaline characteristics in the Arabian Sea. The variations of the outflow characteristics near the Strait of Hormuz are compared with variations downstream.

  1. Mesoscale variability in the Arabian Sea from HYCOM model results and observations: impact on the Persian Gulf Water path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L'Hégaret

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to the monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyse this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses, in-situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM climatology, satellite altimetry (from AVISO and a regional simulation with a primitive equation model (HYCOM. The EOFs of the seasonal variability of the water masses quantify their main changes in thermohaline characteristics and in position. The model and observations display comparable variability, and the model is then used to analyse the three-dimensional structure of eddies and water masses with a higher resolution. The mesoscale eddies have a deep dynamical influence and strongly drive the water masses at depth. In particular, in the Sea of Oman, the Persian Gulf Water presents several offshore ejection sites and a complex recirculation, depending on the mesoscale eddies. This water mass is also captured inside the eddies via several mechanisms, keeping high thermohaline characteristics in the Arabian Sea. These characteristics are validated on the GOGP99 cruise data.

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. PMID:26895593

  4. Symbiodinium thermophilum sp. nov., a thermotolerant symbiotic alga prevalent in corals of the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, B C C; D'Angelo, C; Smith, E G; Stevens, J R; Burt, J; Wiedenmann, J

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in rapid decline on a global scale due to human activities and a changing climate. Shallow water reefs depend on the obligatory symbiosis between the habitat forming coral host and its algal symbiont from the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). This association is highly sensitive to thermal perturbations and temperatures as little as 1°C above the average summer maxima can cause the breakdown of this symbiosis, termed coral bleaching. Predicting the capacity of corals to survive the expected increase in seawater temperatures depends strongly on our understanding of the thermal tolerance of the symbiotic algae. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analysis of four genetic markers to describe Symbiodinium thermophilum, sp. nov. from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, a thermally tolerant coral symbiont. Phylogenetic inference using the non-coding region of the chloroplast psbA gene resolves S. thermophilum as a monophyletic lineage with large genetic distances from any other ITS2 C3 type found outside the Gulf. Through the characterisation of Symbiodinium associations of 6 species (5 genera) of Gulf corals, we demonstrate that S. thermophilum is the prevalent symbiont all year round in the world's hottest sea, the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. PMID:25720577

  5. Accumulation of Trace Metals, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marine Copepods from the Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    El-Din, N.M. Nour; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, zooplankton samples were collected from the coastal waters of Qatar during winter and summer 1998 to assess the impact of growing industrialization on the bioaccumulation of trace metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in copepods, the dominant zooplankton group and main food for fish in the Arabian Gulf.

  6. Coral-associated Actinobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: diversity, abundance and biotechnological potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mahmoud Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria are widely distributed in terrestrial environments, where they are considered a significant source of bioactive compounds, mainly antibiotics. Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni, north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. The corals of the Arabian Gulf, one of the world’s hottest seas, are thriving under extreme water temperatures that exceed 39°C during the summer. Similar water temperatures cause coral bleaching and death in other water bodies. For this reason, the corals of the Gulf are living models for investigating how corals in other settings may survive at the end of the current century.Different coral hosts have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though

  7. Corrosion Inhibition of Cast Iron in Arabian Gulf Seawater by Two Different Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the corrosion inhibition of cast iron in Arabian Gulf seawater by two different ionic liquids namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride ([Py1,4]Cl. The inhibiting influence of the employed ionic liquids was investigated by weight loss, open circuit potential electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization. The results show the corrosion inhibition impact of the employed ionic liquids (ILs. Compared with [Py1,4]Cl, [EMIm]Cl shows a higher inhibition efficiency at a short immersion time, for the examined ILs concentrations. However, [Py1,4]Cl exhibits a higher efficiency upon increasing the immersion time indicating the persistence of the inhibiting influence. The corrosion inhibition of the employed ionic liquids is attributed to the adsorption of the cations of the ionic liquids onto the surface of cast iron forming a corrosion barrier.

  8. Anodic Dissolution of API X70 Pipeline Steel in Arabian Gulf Seawater after Different Exposure Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of API X70 pipeline steel in Arabian Gulf seawater (AGSW was investigated using open-circuit potential (OCP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP, and current-time measurements. The electrochemical experiments revealed that the X70 pipeline steel suffers both general and pitting corrosion in the AGSW solution. It was found that the general corrosion decreases as a result of decreasing the corrosion current density (jcorr, corrosion rate (Rcorr and absolute currents as well as the increase of polarization resistance of X70 with increasing the exposure time. On the other hand, the pitting corrosion was found to increase with increasing the immersion time. This was confirmed by the increase of current with time and by the SEM images that were obtained on the steel surface after 20 h immersion before applying an amount of 0–.35 V versus Ag/AgCl for 1 h.

  9. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Fish Parasites as Biological Indicators at Arabian Gulf off Dammam Coast, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed M. Bayoumy; Sanaa K.A. Abou-El- dobal; Mohey A. Hassanain

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is chosen to visualize ecosystem health by using parasite bioindicators in Arabian Gulf off Dammam cost. Three hundred and sixty fish specimens belonging to three species of fish were examined parasitological for external and internal metazoan parasites. The seasonal prevalence of the detected parasites was differing from season to another. The highest rate occurred in summer and spring while, the lowest rate was in autumn and winter, respectively. The obtained data showed that...

  11. E-mail use by the faculty members, students and staff of Saudi Arabian and Gulf states Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alturise

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail systems (Email constitute one of the most important communication and business tools that people employ. Email in the workplace can help a business improve its productivity. Many organisations now rely on email to manage internal communications as well as other communication and business processes and procedures. This paper compares email use by university stakeholders (i.e. faculty members, staff and students between Saudi Arabia on one hand, and the Gulf States - Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Bahrain – on the other. A questionnaire that was expertreviewed and pilot-tested, was used to collect data from ten universities in Saudi Arabia and five universities in the Gulf States. Slight differences emerged in the Saudi Arabia and Gulf States universities’ stakeholders’ use of email in terms of having email, frequency of checking email, and skills in using email. The Saudi Arabian universities must improve their IT infrastructure, including the provision of suitable connection networks and formal training of staff in utilising IT resources. This study’s findings aim to advise the Saudi Arabian and Gulf States’ universities on their plans and programmes for e-learning and the consolidation of required resources.

  12. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  13. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  14. Weathering performance of industrial atmospheric coating systems in the Arabian Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A.; Riad, W.T. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.; Othman, M. [Shuaiba Area Authority, Safat (Kuwait); Islam, M. [Cortest Columbus Technologies Inc., OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The performance and durability of a number of industrial coating systems have been studied for two and a half years at five weathering sites in the industrial belt of Shuaiba Area, Kuwait, in the Arabian Gulf. The outdoor weathering performance of eleven coating systems was related to the prevailing industrial atmospheric conditions, and comparison made to their behavior under laboratory accelerated conditions. The coating systems studied included acrylic enamel, micaceous iron oxide epoxy, alkyd enamel, alkyd gloss, chlorinated rubber, polyurethane, and water-based acrylic. Experience in Kuwait has shown that with the longer hours of strong sunshine and ambient temperatures, as well as the chemical content of the atmosphere (e.g. O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NH{sub 3}, Cl), dust retention and sandstorm, degrading of coatings has tended to be faster than in Western countries which most of these generic coating system were developed. Two accelerated test methods were used to evaluate the protective properties of the above mentioned coatings when applied to steel panels.

  15. Fisheries studies and stock evaluation of shrimp scad, Alepes djedaba (Teleostei:Carangidae) caught from Arabian Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Medhat Abdel Barr; Amany Mohammed Osman; Hayam Abdulla Al Abdulhadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stock of Alepes djedaba (A. djedaba) by describing the length composition, growth parameters, mortality rates of A. djedaba captured in Arabian Gulf off Saudi Arabia and adopting yield per recruit and biomass per recruit models. Methods:A random sample of 490 fish representing a moderate range of total lengths (16.5-32.4cm) and weights (60-410 g) were sampled in Arabian Gulf off Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from August 2008 to July 2009. LFD5 software was used for estimation of growth parameters. Total mortality was calculated using the length converted catch curve. Natural mortality was estimated using Pauly and David's formula. Fishing mortality was computed by subtracting natural mortality from total mortality. Per recruit analysis was made using Beverton and Holt model. Results:Length-frequency analysis revealed four peaks and the length range from 22 cm to 27 cm dominated the catch, constituting about 71% of the catch. Values of the von Bertalanffy growth parameters were computed using LFD5 software as follows: the asymptotic length (Lg)=41.71 cm, curvature parameter (K)= 0.36 year-1, and hypothetic age at zero length (t0) = -0.76 year. The total mortality (Z) was estimated as 2.07 year-1, and natural mortality was 0.8 year-1. Fishing mortalityF=1.27 year-1 , which was higher than F0.1 (0.3 year-1), FSB(50) (0.59 year-1) and FSB(40) (0.86 year-1). Atthe current levels of fishing and natural mortality, the biomass per recruit is 34% of the virgin biomass. Conclusions:These may indicate an overexploitation state of the fisheries of A. djedaba in Arabian Gulf .

  16. Fidelity of life and death molluscan assemblages from carbonate tidal flats in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Live-dead (LD) studies aim to help understand how faithfully fossil assemblages can be used to quantitatively infer the structure of the original living communities that generated them. To this purpose, LD comparisons have been conducted in different terrestrial and aquatic environments to assess how environment-specific differences in quality and intensity of taphonomic factors affect LD fidelity. In sub-tropical and tropical settings, most LD studies have focused on hard substrates or seagrass bottoms. Here we present results on molluscan assemblages from soft carbonate sediments in tidal flats of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf (Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province). We analyzed a total of 7193 mollusks collected from six sites comprising time-averaged death assemblages (DAs) and snapshot living assemblages (LAs). All analyses were performed at site and at habitat scales after correcting for sample-size differences. We found a good match in proportional abundance and a notable mismatch in species composition. In fact, species richness in DAs is 6 times larger than in LAs at site scale, and 4 times at habitat scale. Additionally, we found a good fidelity of evenness, and rank abundance of feeding guilds. Other studies have shown that molluscan DAs from subtidal carbonate environments can display lower time-averaging than those from siliciclastic environments due to high rates of shell loss to bioerosion and dissolution. For our case study of tidal flat carbonate settings, we interpret that despite temporal autocorrelation (good fidelity of proportional abundance), substantial differences in species richness and composition can be explained by early cementation, lateral mixing, intense bioturbation and moderate sedimentation rates. Our results suggest that tidal flat carbonate environments can potentially lead to a wider window of time-averaging in comparison with subtidal carbonate settings.

  17. Trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in the Arabian Gulf States: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, NS; Almutari, R; Jones, S; Al-Daghr, N; Khunti, K; de Lusignan, S

    2014-01-01

    We report trends in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in adults residing in the Arabian Gulf States. Among the Saudi population, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 10.6% in 1989 to 32.1% in 2009. Prevalence of the disease increased faster among Saudi men than women, with growth rates of 0.8% and 0.6% per year, respectively.

  18. Detection and monitoring of super sandstorm and its impacts on Arabian Sea-Remote sensing approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Aswini, M.A.

    The present study addresses an intense sandstorm event over the Persian Gulf and its transport over the Arabian Sea region and the Indian sub-continent using satellite observations and measurements. MODIS data are used to analyze the temporal...

  19. Prospects for Gulf Region with closed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    In countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, water is scarce as rainfall is minimal. Growers in the Gulf Region rely on groundwater for evaporative cooling and irrigation. This source of water is running out and growers are deciding to end production. The governments of the Kingdo

  20. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Jabado, Rima W; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M; Al Malki, Ameena A; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A; Henderson, Aaron C; Pierce, Simon J; Ormond, Rupert F G

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2) were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs.

  1. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf.

  2. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Jabado, Rima W; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M; Al Malki, Ameena A; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A; Henderson, Aaron C; Pierce, Simon J; Ormond, Rupert F G

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2) were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs. PMID:23516456

  3. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin of the Arabian region: a status review

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, R. M.; Collins, M; Van Waerebeek, K.; Minton, G

    2004-01-01

    Records of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin sightings, strandings, and museum specimens in the Arabian region were compiled and used to review the distribution and status of this species. Nominal usage of Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765) has been retained as a pragmatic measure, although the species present in the region resembles Sousa plumbea (Cuvier, 1828). Little is known about the ecology of this species in the region. Most available information on S. chinensis in the region originates fr...

  4. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Fish Parasites as Biological Indicators at Arabian Gulf off Dammam Coast, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed M. Bayoumy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is chosen to visualize ecosystem health by using parasite bioindicators in Arabian Gulf off Dammam cost. Three hundred and sixty fish specimens belonging to three species of fish were examined parasitological for external and internal metazoan parasites. The seasonal prevalence of the detected parasites was differing from season to another. The highest rate occurred in summer and spring while, the lowest rate was in autumn and winter, respectively. The obtained data showed that Monogeneans prevalence showed highly significant positive correlations with Crustaceans, external parasites, Digeneans. Monogeneans and external parasites prevalence showed highly significant positive correlations with Zn and Se. While, external parasites and Digeneans showed significant positive correlations with Se only. On the other hand, Monogeneans there is antagonist action with Cr and Fe and Ni. Crustaceans showed highly significant positive correlations with Zn and Se. On the other hand, Crustaceans showed highly significant negative correlations with Cr, Fe and Ni. While, digeneans showed a significant negative correlation with Cr. On the same manner, external parasites showed highly significant negative correlations with Cr and Fe.

  6. Pattern of Survival and Mortality of Mangrove Populations Grown at Al-Jubail Area (Saudi Arabia of the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The life table and fecundity schedule were produced for [Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh] populations of four habitat types at Al-Jubail area, KSA. These types are sand mounds, salt flats, shoreline and intertidal sites. Survivorship (lx was least in sand mounds and similar in all other sites. Age-specific-mortality rates (qx where parallel in the flower bud, flower, fruiting and seedling stages in all sites, while demonstrated site-specific variations in adult stages with highest values in the shoreline and salt flat sites. The killing power (kx values were parallel in all sites except for the sand mounds. The expectations of future life (ex were variable at different age classes and sites with highest values attained in the intertidal and shoreline sites. Plants in the sand mounds and salt flats showed lower expectations for future life than in the other habitats. The reproductive values were close to zero in all age classes of the salt flats site. The net reproduction rate (R0 ranged from 0.023 to 0.4 with negative or close to zero intrinsic rate of increase per capita (r. The generation time (T ranged from 25.6 years in the sand flats to 53.75 years in the sand mounds. This study supported that the conservation of Avicennia marina may allow for continued dynamic adaptation to different habitat types in the Arabian Gulf coast.

  7. Tidal flat molluscan life and death assemblages from the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The comparison of life assemblages (LAs) and death assemblages (DAs) of marine invertebrate fauna is of great importance to analyze how accurately fossil assemblages provide information on the original living communities. Furthermore, since death assemblages are originated by accumulation and preservation of dead shells subjected to time averaging, they can also be used to describe the biodiversity of an area with less sampling effort than that required in surveys focused exclusively on LAs. The current note presents an overview of our study on molluscan LAs and DAs from the Persian Gulf, a shallow sea situated in the northwestern part of the tropical Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province. The study of a subtropical fauna is especially interesting, because most of the research on this subject has been conducted in temperate regions. In particular, our samples were retrieved from tidal flat settings, which undergo high temporal variations as regards salinity, oxygen content and temperature. Samples were collected from two localities in Dubai. Seven samples were taken from stations which cover different sub-environments: upper intertidal (close to the algal mat zone), tidal flat in the proximity of a major channel, tidal channel, outer tidal flat, "beachrock" surface in the upper intertidal, and a tidal flat close to Avicennia shrubs (mangrove). Environmental parameters such as salinity, pH, and temperature of air and water, have been recorded. The samples consist of bulks of the uppermost 1-3 cm of sediment at the interface with sea water to avoid subfossil material as far as possible. The shell fraction > 1 mm has been sorted and segregated into morphospecies, and identified to species level whenever possible. Over 1000 specimens have been counted per sample. We found, as in many other studies that most of the specimens belong to the DA. In this sample, however, there is still a good match between the DA and the LA. The most important taxa are the gastropods

  8. Molecular and morphometric characteristics of Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2015-01-01

    Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. was found to infect the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides located off the Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf. The infection was reported as a free-floating spore in the bile, and pseudoplasmodia were not observed. Mature spores were crescent-shaped and measured on average 7 μm in length and 16 μm in thickness. The polar capsule, meanwhile, had length to width measurements of 4 μm and 3 μm on average. A periodical survey was conducted throughout a sampling period between December 2012 and December 2013, with the results showing that the parasite was present throughout the year with a mean prevalence of 32.6%. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological and molecular differences from previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, showed the highest similarity (97.8%) to Ceratomyxa buri, reported in the cultured yellow tail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan. Indeed, C. buri and the new species described here formed an individual cluster with a high degree of bootstrap support. This is the first reported species of genus Ceratomyxa from the Arabian Gulf fishes off Saudi Arabia.

  9. Molecular and morphometric characteristics of Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2015-01-01

    Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. was found to infect the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides located off the Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf. The infection was reported as a free-floating spore in the bile, and pseudoplasmodia were not observed. Mature spores were crescent-shaped and measured on average 7 μm in length and 16 μm in thickness. The polar capsule, meanwhile, had length to width measurements of 4 μm and 3 μm on average. A periodical survey was conducted throughout a sampling period between December 2012 and December 2013, with the results showing that the parasite was present throughout the year with a mean prevalence of 32.6%. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological and molecular differences from previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, showed the highest similarity (97.8%) to Ceratomyxa buri, reported in the cultured yellow tail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan. Indeed, C. buri and the new species described here formed an individual cluster with a high degree of bootstrap support. This is the first reported species of genus Ceratomyxa from the Arabian Gulf fishes off Saudi Arabia. PMID:25041508

  10. Response of the Arabian Sea to global warming and associated regional climate shift

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Roshin, R.P.; Narvekar, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Vivekanandan, E

    version: Marine Environmental Research: 68(5); 2009; 217-222 Response of the Arabian Sea to global warming and associated regional climate shift S. Prasanna Kumar 1* , Raj P. Roshin 1 , Jayu Narvekar 1 , P.K. Dinesh Kumar 2 and E. Vivekanandan 3...; winter temperature; wheat production; food quantity; vegetation cover. _____________________________________________________________ * Corresponding Author. S. Prasanna Kumar, Tel. +91 832 2450300; Fax +91 2450608, E-mail address: prasanna...

  11. Characterization of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using MERIS fluorescence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-03-01

    In this study, MERIS fluorescence data were utilized to monitor a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium bloom in 2008 in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. The bloom was characterized using modified fluorescence line height (MFLH), enhanced Red-Green-Blue (ERGB) and true color composites, and the ratio of particulate backscattering (bbp) to MFLH (bbp/MFLH). In addition to high MFLH values and dark colors in ERGB images which are generally observed when blooms happen, it was found that the Cochlodinium bloom indicated species-specific signatures which consisted of reddish brown colors in true color composites and bbp/MFLH values below 0.2 mW-1 cm2 μm m-1 sr. Based on these findings, Cochlodinium blooms were successfully distinguished from blooms dominated by other species that were found in the study area, like diatom, Noctiluca, and Trichodesmium. Qualitative analysis showed that the fluorescence-based approach presented better performance than the chlorophyll-a anomaly approach for HAB detection, despite the sensitivity to atmospheric perturbations, benthic vegetation in coastal shallow waters, and variations in environmental conditions. The applicability of the HAB characterization approach tested for the first time over the study area using MERIS data was discussed and can be anticipated with sufficient knowledge of local bloom history. Combing different ocean color products is strongly recommended to improve our understanding of HAB dynamics and enhance our ability to characterize them. This is of great importance for marine environment protection and management and can lead to valuable information for contingency planning.

  12. Molecular phylogeny and community fingerprinting of coral-associated Symbiodinium north of the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda M; Al-Sarraf, Mohammad

    2016-07-15

    Understanding coral-Symbiodinium relationships including changes in the genotypes and the numbers of Symbiodinium can explain the ability of Kuwait coral to survive high fluctuations in water temperature. In the current study, the diversity of Symbiodinium associated with fourteen coral species from six reef systems south of Kuwait was investigated. The results proved the predominance of clade C members in all corals tested, which reflects the importance of this type in helping corals thrive in the Gulf's harsh conditions. Platygyra daedalea was the only coral found that harbored clades A, B and C in their tissue but it is the most vulnerable coral for bleaching. The total number of Symbiodinium-like cells in the seawater was 10(4) cell ml(-1) while in coral tissue and mucus 10(7) cell g(-1) and 10(7) cell ml(-1) were found, respectively, and a strong positive correlation with the seawater temperature, salinity and conductivity was found. PMID:27179998

  13. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  14. A comparison of Globigerinoides ruber calcification between upwelling and nonupwelling regions in the Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushant S Naik; Shital P Godad; P Divakar Naidu; V Ramaswamy

    2013-08-01

    Shell weights of planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber in the size range of 300–355 μm were measured from sediment traps in the western and eastern Arabian Sea which represent upwelling and non-upwelling conditions respectively. In the Western Arabian Sea Trap (WAST), G. ruber flux ranged from 33.3 to 437.3#/m2/day and shell weights ranged from 6.7 to 14.2 g. Whereas, in the Eastern Arabian Sea Trap (EAST), flux ranged from 0.7 to 164.6#/m2/day and shell weights ranged from 10.4 to 14.8 g. Shell weights of G. ruber versus flux showed significant correlation at both the sites which reveals that shell calcification mainly depends on optimal growth conditions. Though the WAST and EAST location have distinct difference in pCO2 and sea surface temperature (SST), the shell weights of G. ruber are similar in these two regions which suggest that surface water pCO2 and SST do not show dominant influence on shell calcification on a seasonal timescale.

  15. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal.

  16. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal. PMID:27165413

  17. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  18. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  19. Ghogha: An Indo-Arabian Trading Post in the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    and hence rest anchors were only photographed. Many stone anchors are fragmented in nature (Figure 8). Majority of the anchors are parted with lower 2 holes and sometimes holes also broken which might have been broken during manufacturing stage. The raw... of the surface suggests that they were broken during the manufacturing stage and not during the lowering or lifting the anchor. An anchor from Gogha and two from Hathab are without any hole suggests that this region may be a manufacturing center. Another...

  20. Investigation of Channel Modeling and Simulation of OFDM Based Communication Near Northern Regions of Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Khan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wideband nature of oceanic channel when dealing with multicarrier acoustic subcarriers introduces severe Doppler shifts, little variations may cause overlapping of subcarriers such that entire signal can get completely distorted. Therefore, one of the major problems in OFDM based underwater acoustic communication is the sensitive nature of wideband acoustic subcarriers. In this study, Bellhop beam tracing is used to model two regions in the north of Arabian Sea and the two-step receiver algorithm is used over these channel models. Multipath with delay channel model is obtained using the Bellhop ray tracing algorithm while random Doppler shift is induced in MATLAB on each block and also in the complete OFDM packet. In the first step, resembling converts a wideband problem in to narrowband problem and in the second step; high resolution Carrier Offset Frequency (CFO tracking compensates the residual Doppler. Cyclic Prefix (CP OFDM scheme based on block-by-block processing is deliberated here for fast varying channel. In the proposed algorithm, null subcarriers are facilitated for Doppler removal while pilot bits are used for Least Square (LS channel estimation. Simulation on MATLAB is carried out on both channels, i.e., near Gawadar Coast and Karachi Harbor; satisfactory results are achieved in terms Low Bit Error Rates (BER even in high relative speed between transmitter and receiver. These results further suggested and make convinced for the experimental test/ trials, specifically in the region of north Arabian Sea.

  1. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shalaby

    2015-01-01

    to the Arabian Gulf. The AERONET shortwave Top of Atmosphere Radiative Forcing (TOARF and at the Bottom of Atmosphere Radiative Forcing (BOARF have been analyzed and compared with the modeled direct radiative forcing of mineral dust aerosol. The annual modeled TOARF and BOARF are −3.3 and −12 W m−2, respectively. However, the annual observed TOARF and BOARF are significantly different at −10 and −52 W m−2, respectively. The analysis of observed and modeled TOARF agrees with previous studies in highlighting the need for more accurate specification of surface albedo over the region. Due to the high surface albedo of the central Arabian Peninsula, mineral dust aerosols tend to warm the atmosphere in summer (June–August.

  2. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark

    2015-12-12

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Technical feasibility of a seabed gallery seawater intake at Ras Abu Ali Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2014-07-23

    Open-ocean intake systems require extensive and advanced pretreatment unit operation to produce feed water with low membrane fouling potential in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) facilities. Alternatively, subsurface intake systems tend to produce high quality raw seawater even before pretreatment. Subsurface intakes extract seawater indirectly through the geological structure of shoreline or nearshore sediments. Water percolation through geological units provides physical and biological treatment, so that the raw seawater is microbiologically stable with relatively low particulate and organics content. Overall, utilization of subsurface intakes will reduce the intensity of pretreatment, which reduces operating cost, lowers chemical and energy consumption, and reduces environmental impacts. An important aspect in the feasibility of a subsurface intake is the compatibility of the local geological environment. In this study, a field investigation was conducted at Ras Abu Ali Island in the Arabian Gulf. This location currently contains an of existing oil company facilities and a proposed governmental marine fish hatchery facility. Recreational, commercial, and domestic potable water uses require the need to use the SWRO process to meet demands. Characterization of the shoreline and marine offshore bottom were performed as well as observation of tidal fluctuations and wave heights. A specific grid area was chosen where 35 sediment samples were collected from the seabed floor for laboratory analysis of grain size distribution, sediment porosity, and hydraulic conductivity. Onsite observation showed that the marine bottom has a low slope creating a wide intertidal area. The lowest tidal zone is more than 150 m from the shoreline defining a far seaward boundary for the intake construction point. A relatively thin layer of mixed-type sediment (carbonate and siliciclastic) covers the marine hardground bottom. The unlithified bottom sediment contains a low mud percentage

  4. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  5. Potential new production in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea: Estimation and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Du, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Using satellite-derived and in situ data, the wind-driven potential new production (nitrate supply) for the 300 km wide coastal band in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea (AS) during the southwest monsoon is estimated. The upward nitrate flux to the euphotic zone is generally based on the physical processes of coastal transport (Ekman transport and geostrophic transport) and offshore Ekman pumping. The coastal geostrophic current in the western AS influences the upwelling intensity and latitudinal distributions of nitrate supply. The Oman and Somalia upwelling regions have similar level of potential new production (nitrate supply) during the summer monsoon, while the satellite estimates of primary production off Oman are 2 times greater than those off Somalia. The much higher potential f-ratio in the Somalia upwelling region indicates that the primary production could be limited by availability of other macronutrients (e.g., silicate). The correlation analysis of the primary production and the aerosol optical thickness shows that the Oman upwelling region displays a stronger coupling between the atmospheric deposition and the phytoplankton abundance. The high summertime dust levels in the atmosphere are suggested to contribute to the high primary production in the Oman upwelling region.

  6. AoA Region: Red Sea And Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Programme (SAP) for the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, executed by PERSGA with support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), was one of the most ambitious programmes undertaken in the region. The SAP was largely executed through a diverse set...

  7. Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of the Arabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined with cultivation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.; Behnke, A.; Stoeck, T.

    Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of the Arabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined with cultivation Cathrine S Jebaraj 1, 2 , Chandralata Raghukumar 1 , Anke Behnke 2 , Thorsten Stoeck 2 1 National Institute... of Oceanography, (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India; 2 School of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany. Correspondence: Thorsten Stoeck, School of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern...

  8. 76 FR 18723 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper IFQ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Region Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper IFQ Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Act. NMFS manages the red snapper fishery in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico under the Reef Fish...

  9. Dynamics of microbial communities in an integrated ultrafiltration–reverse osmosis desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-08-27

    This study demonstrated the use of high-throughput sequencing to assess the efficacy of an integrated ultrafiltration (UF)–reverse osmosis (RO) desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf, and to identify potential microbial-associated problems that may arise in this plant. When integrated into the desalination treatment system, the UF membranes were able to serve as a good pretreatment strategy to delay RO fouling by achieving up to 1.96-log removal of cells from the seawater. Consequently, the differential pressure of the RO membrane remained around 1 bar for the entire six-month study, suggesting no significant biofouling performance issue identified for this RO system. Examples of microbial populations effectively removed by the UF membranes from the feed waters included Nitrosoarchaeum limnia and phototrophic eukaryotes. Microbial-associated problems observed in this pilot plant included the presence of Pseudomonas spp. in coexistence with Desulfovibrio spp. These two bacterial populations can reduce sulfate and produce hydrogen sulfide, which would in turn cause corrosion problems or compromise membrane integrities. Chemical-enhanced backwashing (CEB) can be used as an effective strategy to minimize the associated microbial problems by removing bacterial populations including sulfate reducers from the UF membranes.

  10. Lipid biomarkers, pigments and cyanobacterial diversity of microbial mats across intertidal flats of the arid coast of the Arabian Gulf (Abu Dhabi, UAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Raeid M M; Kohls, Katharina; Schoon, Raphaela; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Schacht, Marion; Palinska, Katarzyna A; Al-Hassani, Huda; Hamza, Waleed; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Golubic, Stjepko

    2008-09-01

    Variations in morphology, fatty acids, pigments and cyanobacterial community composition were studied in microbial mats across intertidal flats of the arid Arabian Gulf coast. These mats experience combined extreme conditions of salinity, temperature, UV radiation and desiccation depending on their tidal position. Different mat forms were observed depending on the topology of the coast and location. The mats contained 63 fatty acids in different proportions. The increased amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (12-39%) and the trans/cis ratio (0.6-1.6%) of the cyanobacterial fatty acid n-18:1omega9 in the higher tidal mats suggested an adaptation of the mat microorganisms to environmental stress. Chlorophyll a concentrations suggested lower cyanobacterial abundance in the higher than in the lower intertidal mats. Scytonemin concentrations were dependent on the increase in solar irradiation, salinity and desiccation. The mats showed richness in cyanobacterial species, with Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Lyngbya aestuarii morphotypes as the dominant cyanobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns suggested shifts in the cyanobacterial community dependent on drainage efficiency and salinity from lower to higher tidal zones. We conclude that the topology of the coast and the variable extreme environmental conditions across the tidal flat determine the distribution of microbial mats as well as the presence or absence of different microorganisms.

  11. Geology Arc Export Layer From Coal Bearing Geology of the Gulf Coast Coal Region (gulf_geol_dd.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon vector coverage of coal bearing geologic units that occur in states which comprise the Gulf Coast Coal Assessment Region as defined by the...

  12. Perspective on eastern migration studies: stopover ecology of migratory landbirds in the Gulf Coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, W.C.; Johnson Randall, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal habitats of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the Gulf. Migration routes in the Gulf region are not static and they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Using data from field and radar studies, we mapped patterns of migration movement and landfall in the Gulf of Mexico region. Map categories include coastal areas where migrant numbers are consistently high, consistently common, sporadically common-abundant, sporadically common, or sparse. Weather surveillance radar data indicates that habitats along the Northwest Gulf Coast are consistently used each year.

  13. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  14. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The response of the eastern Arabian Sea to prevailing winds during an upwelling event, in the peak of southwest monsoon, was studied at both coastal and open ocean environment based on the data collected as a part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean...

  15. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region

    OpenAIRE

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased sub...

  16. Preliminary report on the levels of elements in four fish species from the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune

    2002-08-01

    This manuscript presents preliminary information on the concentrations of heavy metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in 66 fish samples of four different species collected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where there are agricultural, municipality and petroleum industrial activities. Fish species; highly consumed by the local population were selected: Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar-bream and Greasy-grouper to ascertain the fish quality for human consumption. The concentration of metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). The average mean concentrations (ng/g wet wt.) of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in fish tissues were as follows: 4.6 +/- 7.2, 20.0 +/- 20.8, 60.6 +/- 63.2, 73.6 +/- 27.1 and 42.7 +/- 17.4 ng/g wet wt. respectively. The concentration of metals was significantly affected by the sampling site and fish species. In Maniefa site, the concentrations of all tested metals were higher than in Al-Dammam and Dareen sites with the exception of nickel where no significant differences were found. Levels of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic varied depending on the fish species. The concentration of metals was below the maximum allowed limit by the Saudi and international legislations for fish human consumption permissible limit.

  17. Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Shankar; S S C Shenoi; R K Nayak; P N Vinayachandran; G Nampoothiri; A M Almeida; G S Michael; M R Ramesh Kumar; D Sundar; O P Sreejith

    2005-10-01

    Hydrographic observations in the eastern Arabian Sea (EAS)during summer monsoon 2002 (during the first phase of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX))include two approximately fortnight-long CTD time series.A barrier layer was observed occasionally during the two time series. These ephemeral barrier layers were caused by in situ rainfall,and by advection of low-salinity (high-salinity)waters at the surface (below the surface mixed layer).These barrier layers were advected away from the source region by the West India Coastal Current and had no discernible effect on the sea surface temperature.The three high-salinity water masses,the Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW),Persian Gulf Water (PGW),and Red Sea Water (RSW),and the Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum also exhibited intermittency:they appeared and disappeared during the time series.The concentration of the ASHSW,PGW,and RSWdecreased equatorward,and that of the RSW also decreased offshore.The observations suggest that the RSW is advected equatorward along the continental slope off the Indian west coast.

  18. Concentrations of trace elements in a rare and threatened coastal shark from the Arabian Gulf (smoothtooth blacktip Carcharhinus leiodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alec B M; Bolam, Thi; Lyons, Brett P; Ellis, Jim R

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait's waters are one of only two locations where the smoothtooth blacktip shark Carcharhinus leiodon is known to occur. Concentrations of 11 trace elements were analysed in five juvenile and two adult specimens of this coastal predator. Concentrations of lead in muscle increased with length, whilst manganese concentration decreased. Arsenic concentrations in muscle were among the highest reported in elasmobranchs, and the concentration in the liver increased significantly in relation to length. In comparison to published literature, concentrations of manganese (liver), lead (muscle) and iron (muscle and liver) were high. Mercury concentrations in the muscle exceeded European Food Safety Authority limits and were among the highest reported in any elasmobranch. Concentrations of selenium, which may inhibit mercury toxicity, were also high. These results and previous studies indicate that potentially hazardous levels of mercury and other contaminants may occur in sharks in this region, adding further stressors to these vulnerable populations. PMID:26088541

  19. The Arabian Sea as a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region during the late Southwest Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. A. Naqvi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive observations were made during the late Southwest Monsoon of 2004 over the Indian and Omani shelves, and along a transect that extended from the southern coast of Oman to the central west coast of India, tracking the southern leg of the US JGOFS expedition (1994–1995 in the west. The data are used, in conjunction with satellite-derived data, to investigate long-term trends in chlorophyll and sea surface temperature, indicators of upwelling intensity, and to understand factors that control primary production (PP in the Arabian Sea, focussing on the role of iron. Our results do not support an intensification of upwelling in the western Arabian Sea, reported to have been caused by the decline in the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover since 1997. We also noticed, for the first time, an unexpected development of high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition off the southern Omani coast. This feature, coupled with other characteristics of the system, such as a narrow shelf and relatively low iron concentrations in surface waters, suggest a close similarity between the Omani upwelling system and the Peruvian and California upwelling systems, where PP is limited by iron. Iron limitation of PP may complicate simple relationship between upwelling and PP assumed by previous workers, and contribute to the anomalous offshore occurrence of the most severe oxygen (O2 depletion in the region. Over the much wider Indian shelf, which experiences large-scale bottom water O2-depletion in summer, adequate iron supply from reducing bottom-waters and sediments seems to support moderately high PP; however, such production is restricted to the thin, oxygenated surface layer, probably because of the unsuitability of the O2-depleted environment for the growth of oxygenic photosynthesizers.

  20. Home exposure to Arabian incense (bakhour and asthma symptoms in children: a community survey in two regions in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Riyami Bazdawi M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incense burning has been reported to adversely affect respiratory health. The aim of this study was to explore whether exposure to bakhour contributes to the prevalence of asthma and/or triggers its symptoms in Omani children by comparing two Omani regions with different prevalence of asthma. Methods A randomly selected sample of 10 years old schoolchildren were surveyed using an Arabic version of ISAAC Phase II questionnaires with the addition of questions concerning the use and effect of Arabian incense on asthma symptoms. Current asthma was defined as positive response to wheeze in the past 12 months or positive response to "ever had asthma" together with a positive response to exercise wheeze or night cough in the past 12 months. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of bakhour exposure and other variables on current asthma diagnosis and parents' response to the question: "Does exposure to bakhour affect your child breathing?" Results Of the 2441 surveyed children, 15.4% had current asthma. Bakhour use more than twice a week was three times more likely to affect child breathing compared to no bakhour use (adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI 2.23–4.08 and this effect was 2.55 times higher in asthmatics (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.97–3.31 compared to non-asthmatics. In addition, bakhour caused worsening of wheeze in 38% of the asthmatics, making it the fourth most common trigger factor after dust (49.2%, weather (47.6% and respiratory tract infections (42.2%. However, there was no significant association between bakhour use and the prevalence of current asthma (adjusted OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.63–1.20. Conclusion Arabian incense burning is a common trigger of wheezing among asthmatic children in Oman. However, it is not associated with the prevalence asthma.

  1. Outer Continental Shelf 200 Nautical Mile Limit - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of...

  2. 77 FR 22760 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Gulf of Mexico Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Region Gulf of Mexico Electronic Logbook Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing...

  3. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus activity in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paige Adams

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003-2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas.

  4. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  5. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in five species of fish from three sites in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam

    2002-06-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrmetroic (GC-MS) method was developed to measure six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 54 fish samples. Five fish species highly consumed by the local population (shrimps, Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar Bream and Greasy Grouper) were selected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where agricultural, municipal and petroleum industry activities take place. Variations in PAH levels among the three sites were not significant. Total concentrations of PAHs benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene ranged from non-detectable to 44.9 microg kg(-1). In this study, concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and total PAHs greater than the acceptable tolerance limit (1 microg kg(-1)) were found in 68.5, 40.7, 51.9 and 83.3% of the fish samples, respectively. PAH contents in fish vary considerably with species; Doublebar bream contain the highest while shrimps contain the lowest. This pilot study clearly shows that the consumption of fish could be a source of exposure of the local population to PAHs. Since there is a consensus on the substantial contribution of PAHs to cancer in humans, it would be interesting to conduct further research in order to determine the magnitude of the problem along other coastal regions of Saudi Arabia.

  6. Multicultural healthcare providers in hospitals in the Gulf region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Ibrahim Alabed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Gulf areas, most of the population more than 50% comprises of people form the other nationalities and hence the doctors in gulf area also belong from the different nationalities. The patient and ndash;physician relationship is inherently unequal given the status differences between clinicians and help-seekers. The multiculturalism / or due to different nationalities raises a lot of problems for doctors as well as the patients and this affect the satisfaction level of the patients. The absence of physician trust on behalf of this issue is considered to be a key mechanism underlying health care disparities. This study have been conducted to Gulf area are from different countries and this may lead to different ways of results in dealing with the patients at the same hospital which affects the patients' satisfaction level. The study have found out that patients' satisfaction level is highly dependent upon the nationality of doctors and similarity of the nationality. This issue can be overcome by training the healthcare professionals in leadership, communication, emotional intelligence and other skills in the hospital to have a higher patient satisfaction and to overcome the barriers that are aroused due to the different nationalities of the doctors. Descriptive research design is selected for this study because of its significance to the studies that will be directed in future and it is utilized to depict the specifications of the population under study. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2444-2448

  7. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Carton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter.

    The Persian Gulf Water (PGW is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N, again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18–19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season.

    Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea, in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  8. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  9. 30 CFR 250.150 - How do I name facilities and wells in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I name facilities and wells in the Gulf of Mexico Region? 250.150 Section 250.150 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... and wells in the Gulf of Mexico Region? (a) Assign each facility a letter designation except for...

  10. Tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea region: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Clift, Peter D.; Kroon, Dirk; Gaedicke, Christoph; Craig, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    ExtractThe evolution of the global oceanic and atmospheric circulation systems has been affected by several forcing processes, with orbital variations being dominant on shorter geological time scales. Over longer periods of time (> 10 Ma) the tectonic evolution of the solid Earth has been recognized as the major control on the development of the global climate system. Tectonic activity acts in one of two different ways to influence regional and global climate. The earliest solid Earth-clim...

  11. SOFT PATH WATER MANAGEMENT IN DRY AND ARID REGIONS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA BY RAINWATER HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has limited renewable water resources and the groundwater is the main source of water in Saudi Arabia which. With an arid climate, it receives about 50-100 mm/year of rainfall in Central, Eastern and Northern regions. There are few studies investigating the future regional climate change and some has predicted a decrease in precipitation but with extreme climate events such as flood and stormy rainfall events. Authors have evaluated the thirty-one years record of the rainfall in different parts of the Kingdom and found an increasing trend in annual maximum daily rainfalls at investigated locations signifying the more extreme rainfall evens and resulting floods of short-durations. A brief review of the Rainwater Harvesting and Management (RWHM practices in the Arab region and the current use of rainwater in Saudi Arabia is presented and keeping in mind the climate impacts on the water resources, authors have suggested rooftop RWHM as a soft-path water management strategy to avoid short-term flooding problems in urban areas. Cooperation between government and non-government sectors is also recommended for successful implementations of small-scale, decentralized and cost-effective practice of RWHM at individual/community levels.

  12. Detection and monitoring of super sandstorm and its impacts on Arabian Sea-Remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunte, Pravin D.; M. A., Aswini

    2015-06-01

    The present study addresses an intense sandstorm event over the Persian Gulf and its transport over the Arabian Sea region and the Indian sub-continent using satellite observations and measurements. MODIS data are used to analyze the temporal variation of the dust events that occurred from 17 to 24 March 2012 with the strongest intensity on 20 March over the Arabian Sea. MODIS images are examined to provide an independent assessment of dust presence and plume location and its migration over the Arabian Sea to the Indian sub-continent. Dust enhancement and dust detection procedure is attempted to demarcate the dust event. Dust source, formation, transportation path, and dissipation is studied using source-back-tracking, surface wind, and surface pressure, wind speed and direction, geo-potential height for different pressure level, and remote sensing methods. Finally, an attempt is made to investigate the impact of super sandstorm on the Arabian Sea by studying sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a variability during the events. It is noted that sea surface temperature is decreased and chlorophyll a concentration increased during the post-event period. The present study demonstrates the use of remote sensing data and geospatial techniques in detecting and mapping of dust events and monitoring dust transport along specific regional transport pathways over land and ocean.

  13. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas-Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32 cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  14. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, James Ray

    1974-01-01

    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32.cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  15. OCSLA Sec. 8(g) Revenue Zone Boundary - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Limit of '8(g) Zone' line in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM gulf of Mexico Region. The '8(g) Zone' lies between the Submerged Lands...

  16. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives, post-secondary…

  17. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines (clipped) to the GOM Planning Area Boundary in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region. OCS blocks are...

  18. Study on Issues Concerning Regional Intergovernmental Cooperative Governance in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone has taken the initiative to explore how to promote public administration of interregional local governments and achieved some success in recent years. However, there are still many problems as follows: the cooperation never goes deep;the cooperative governance is devoid of necessary system guarantee and information exchange and share platform. We analyse the status quo of cooperation in regional intergovernmental public administration as follows: it integrates the hierarchy power of government; it sponsors the forum for strengthening public administration and deepening cooperation in Beibu Gulf Economic Zone; it accelerates regional transportation system building; it sets up public administration institution; it quickens the pace of innovation of management and system in Beibu Gulf Economic Zone. Finally we put forward the path to construction of regional government cooperative governance so as to promote sustainable regional development as follows: construct the composite regional administrative cooperative governance model; construct the regional administrative network organization governance model; construct regional administrative special-project-based intergovernmental cooperative governance model; construct long-term flexible regional administrative cooperative mechanism.

  19. Variability of the Arabian Sea upwelling and intensity of the oxygen minimum zone over the late Pleistocene and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, Birgit; Böll, Anna; Rixen, Tim; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani

    2016-04-01

    The northern Arabian Sea is one of the main oceanic regions with a permanent low oxygen layer at intermediate water depth that results in water column denitrification. While glacial/interglacial variations in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) are relatively well studied, little is known about the spatial and temporal extent of mid-water oxygen throughout the Holocene. We compared alkenone derived sea surface temperatures of the last 25 kyrs from a core in the northern Arabian Sea with a core from the monsoonal upwelling area off Oman. The difference between the two temperature reconstructions indicates that monsoonal upwelling occurred during warm interstadials and during the entire Holocene. δ15N curves show that denitrification also matched with monsoonal upwelling. Comparison of δ15N records from different locations in the Arabian Sea reveal a Holocene shift in the location of the core OMZ from the northwestern (early Holocene) to the northeastern Arabian Sea (late Holocene). This shift was caused by (i) spatial differences in oxygen demand, caused by changes in SW- and NE-monsoon intensities and associated productivity changes, as well as (ii) changes in mid-water ventilation facilitated by sea level rise and inflow of Persian Gulf and Red Sea Water leading and changes of ventilation by Indian Ocean Central Water .

  20. Direct effects and feedback of desert dust on the climate of the Arabian Peninsula during the wet season: a regional climate model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.N.; Almazroui, Mansour [King Abdulaziz University, Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research, Department of Meteorology, PO Box 80234, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    We investigate the dust radiative forcing and its feedback on the Arabian Peninsula's wet season climate using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics-Regional Climate Model (ICTP-RegCM4). We have found that the dust plumes exert a negative (positive) radiative forcing at the surface (top of the atmosphere) by reducing incoming solar radiation reaching the ground and locally heating up the atmosphere column. Consequently, the surface air temperature is cooler, hence indicating a decrease in the warm bias and an increase in the temperature gradient. This reduces the geopotential heights and enhances the low-level wind convergence, suggesting stronger upward motion. These changes increase evaporation, the difference between precipitation and evaporation in the atmosphere and rainfall over the Peninsula, indicating an intensification of the hydrologic cycle. The decrease in the precipitation dry bias and the large reduction in the temperature warm bias caused by the impact of dust over the entire Peninsula represent a significant success for the RegCM4 simulation. Therefore, the inclusion of dust in the simulation of the Arabian Peninsula's climate for the wet season contributes to an improved performance of this regional climate model over the region. (orig.)

  1. Regional Geophysical Surveys and Crustal Structure of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chavez, F.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2007-05-01

    Results of processing and modeling of anomaly data from regional geophysical surveys in the southern sector of the Gulf of Mexico are presented. The Gulf of Mexico has been intensively studied for several years, mainly because of the economic potential of the oil and gas resources. The basin may have formed by sea-floor spreading, rifting and lateral translation/rotation of continental slivers ssociated with major break-up and drifting apart of North and South America continental plates in the mid Mesozoic. Major structural features and crustal structure, including the continent-ocean transition and Gulf coastal passive margin are relatively poorly understood. Aerogeophysical gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted and data are processed and modeled to investigate on the Gulf crustal structure. Spectral statistical estimates of regional basement depths derived from aeromagnetics give mean depths of 8000 m. Estimates derived from gravity anomalies are in the order of 10000 m. Depths derived from 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys conducted for oil exploration purposes in selected areas indicate average depths to basement from 6000 m to values grater than those derived from potential field data.

  2. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  3. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

  4. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  5. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  6. Estimating the spatial distribution of power outages during hurricanes in the Gulf coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurricanes have caused severe damage to the electric power system throughout the Gulf coast region of the US, and electric power is critical to post-hurricane disaster response as well as to long-term recovery for impacted areas. Managing power outage risk and preparing for post-storm recovery efforts requires accurate methods for estimating the number and location of power outages. This paper builds on past work on statistical power outage estimation models to develop, test, and demonstrate a statistical power outage risk estimation model for the Gulf Coast region of the US. Previous work used binary hurricane-indicator variables representing particular hurricanes in order to achieve a good fit to the past data. To use these models for predicting power outages during future hurricanes, one must implicitly assume that an approaching hurricane is similar to the average of the past hurricanes. The model developed in this paper replaces these indicator variables with physically measurable variables, enabling future predictions to be based on only well-understood characteristics of hurricanes. The models were developed using data about power outages during nine hurricanes in three states served by a large, investor-owned utility company in the Gulf Coast region

  7. Seasat altimeter observations of dynamic topography in the Gulf Stream region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, R. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    A straightforward approach to altimeter data analysis in the Gulf Stream system is presented, using a detailed geoid model to remove the gravitational component. The resulting sea surface height profiles compare remarkably well with independent oceanographic observations. Specific features such as cold rings, warm rings, and no anomaly regions are analyzed and it is shown that known positions of cyclonic and anticyclonic rings correspond with depressions and elevations, respectively, with amplitudes as large as 95 cm. The apparent fluctuation of the Gulf Stream is indicated by the results, as in the finding that on time scales of a few days, surface transport indicated by the sea surface height difference across the stream varied by nearly 30%

  8. Interpretation of crustal structure from regional gravity anomalies, Ouachita Mountains area and adjacent Gulf coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, J.M.; Keller, G.R.

    1986-06-01

    A gravity data base from more than 35,000 stations was used to generate a series of regional gravity maps of the Ouachita Mountains area including adjacent parts of the craton and the Gulf coastal plain. These maps were used in conjunction with information from 96 wells, data from preexisting geophysical and geological investigations, and computer models to interpret four gravity profiles that transect the study area (approximately lat. 30-37/sup 0/N, long. 91.5-99/sup 0/W). These models, gravity maps, and previous investigations were then used to analyze various regional gravity anomalies and to interpret the gross crustal structure of the region and its tectonic implications. These data suggest that variably attenuated continental crust lies beneath the Gulf coastal plain, south of the Ouachita system gravity gradient, as opposed to typical continental crust of the craton north of this gradient. This variation in crustal structure probably reflects the complexity of Eocambrian and early Mesozoic rifting in the area. The Arkoma basin gravity minima may result from the combined effect of a late Paleozoic foreland basin and an Eocambrian northwest-trending, rift-related basin. The Ouachita system interior zone gravity maximum varies along strike of this orogenic belt. This anomaly appears to be a good indicator of the position of the Eocambrian continental margin and associated rift zone. Gravity anomalies in the Gulf coastal plain appear to be a combined effect of variable crustal attenuation, basins and uplifts, and mafic intrusions. Gravity maxima in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen result from uplifts and deep-seated mafic intrusions; gravity minima result from deep sedimentary basins.

  9. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2016-05-23

    Severe dust outbreaks and high dust loading over Eastern Africa and the Red Sea are frequently detected in the summer season. Observations suggest that small-scale dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand these processes, we present here the first high resolution modeling study of a dust outbreak in June 2012 developed over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry component (WRF-Chem), we identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea, most of the dust transport occurs above 2 km height, whereas across the central and southern parts of the sea, dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations, but generally underestimate the observed maximum values of aerosol optical depth. The satellite-retrieved mean optical depth at some locations are underestimated by a factor of two. A sensitive experiment suggests that these large local differences may result from poor characterization of dust emissions in some areas of the modeled domain. In this case study we successfully simulate the major fine-scale dust generating dynamical processes, explicitly resolving convection and haboob

  10. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-06-01

    Severe dust outbreaks and high dust loading over Eastern Africa and the Red Sea are frequently detected in the summer season. Observations suggest that small-scale dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand these processes, we present here the first high-resolution modeling study of a dust outbreak in June 2012 developed over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) component, we identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea, most of the dust transport occurs above 2 km height, whereas across the central and southern parts of the sea; dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations but generally underestimate the observed maximum values of aerosol optical depth. The satellite-retrieved mean optical depth at some locations is underestimated by a factor of 2. A sensitive experiment suggests that these large local differences may result from poor characterization of dust emissions in some areas of the modeled domain. In this case study we successfully simulate the major fine-scale dust generating dynamical processes, explicitly resolving convection and haboob formation. The future

  11. 18th-century Al Zubarah and the genesis of the modern Gulf region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan; Al Na'imi, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    regional player; a busy conduit in which peoples from diverse backgrounds lived fully and communally, and soon attracted the direct intervention of neighbouring empires. In the study of the vibrant historical events that marked the subsequent emergence of a post-colonial Gulf from the 18th century onwards...... significant than the foundation and development of the modern emirate states along the south coast. The yoke of imperial control – real or threatened – was cast off and replaced with an indigenous political, cultural and economic independence; a transforming achievement, attained through astute leadership...

  12. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.

    2013-07-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  14. Regional maps of subsurface geopressure gradients of the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey created a comprehensive geopressure-gradient model of the regional pressure system spanning the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin, USA. This model was used to generate ten maps that included (1) five contour maps characterizing the depth to the surface defined by the first occurrence of isopressure gradients ranging from 0.60 psi/ft to 1.00 psi/ft, in 0.10-psi/ft increments; and (2) five supporting maps illustrating the spatial density of the data used to construct the contour maps. These contour maps of isopressure-gradients at various increments enable the identification and quantification of the occurrence, magnitude, location, and depth of the subsurface pressure system, which allows for the broad characterization of regions exhibiting overpressured, underpressured, and normally pressured strata. Identification of overpressured regions is critical for exploration and evaluation of potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations based on petroleum-generation pressure signatures and pressure-retention properties of reservoir seals. Characterization of normally pressured regions is essential for field development decisions such as determining the dominant production drive mechanisms, evaluating well placement and drainage patterns, and deciding on well stimulation methods such as hydraulic fracturing. Identification of underpressured regions is essential for evaluating the feasibility of geological sequestration and long-term containment of fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide for alternative disposal methods of greenhouse gases. This study is the first, quantitative investigation of the regional pressure systems of one of the most important petroleum provinces in the United States. Although this methodology was developed for pressure studies in the Gulf of Mexico basin, it is applicable to any basin worldwide.

  15. Petrographic studies on a newly discovered Indo-Arabian stone anchor from the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat: Implications for source area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Mudholkar, A.; Khedekar, V.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 102, NO. 9, 10 MAY 2012 1309 *For correspondence. (e-mail: sila@nio.org) resulted in either underestimation or overestimation of SOC stock for a farm scale. This is because most of the previous studies on SOC stock assessment were... based on mean SOC content for a region or for a specific soil type, and the methods of SOC estimation were different in most cases. Consideration of spatial variation may result in accurate estimation of SOC stock of a farm and will also lead to a...

  16. IOC regional workshop on marine debris and waste management in the Gulf of Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that the extent and severity of the problems related to marine debris and the need for the action on mobilizing management solutions is widely acknowledged by the scientists in the Gulf of Guinea region, major challenges still lie ahead with regard to control and abatement of the complex pollution problem related to marine debris. The challenge is the magnitude of the developing and implementing phase connected to the MARPOL convention. This issue calls for an increase of existing co-operation among regional scientists, decision makers and the general public and has to be well co-ordinated by a competent body possessing capabilities to carry out a multidisciplinary and international programme. The purpose of this Marine Debris Waste Management Workshop is to specify the main activities needed to start reducing, and eventually, eliminate marine debris in this area

  17. The atmospheric frontal response to SST perturbations in the Gulf Stream region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Rhys; Czaja, Arnaud; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-03-01

    The link between sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and atmospheric fronts is explored in a general circulation model across the Gulf Stream (GS) region from December to February 1981-2000. Two model experiments are analyzed, one with a realistic control SST distribution and one with a spatially smoothed SST distribution. The analysis shows a noticeable change in regional atmospheric frontal frequency between the two experiments (up to 30%), with the distribution of change exhibiting a clear imprint of the GS SST front. Further analysis of the surface sensible heat flux gradient across cold fronts reveals the pattern of change to be mediated by a thermal interaction between the oceanic and atmospheric fronts ("thermal damping and strengthening"). These results not only emphasize the significance of the GS SST gradient for storm development in the North Atlantic but also highlight the importance of resolution in assessing the role of frontal air-sea interaction in midlatitude climate variability.

  18. The Global Burden of Disease: A critical resource for informed policy making in the Gulf region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Mokdad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf countries have made tremendous improvements in their health systems in a short period of time due to extensive investments. However, during the same time period, rapid changes in lifestyle habits led to a changing burden of disease. In this manuscript, we report the burden of disease and risk factors for the Gulf countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen measured by causes of death, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs, years of life lived with disability (YLDs, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs for the years 1990 to 2013. Our findings showed a decline of infectious diseases and a rising burden of road traffic accidents and non-communicable diseases while Yemen is still facing a large burden from communicable diseases. Our findings call for the development and implementation of programmes to reduce these burdens and engage other sectors such as the Government and the community in these efforts. These programmes need to be developed and adopted locally since many of the programmes found in the literature may not succeed in the region. Moreover, there is an urgent need for a political will and legislations to ensure their success.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaper, J B; Nataro, J P; Roberts, N C; Siebeling, R J; Bradford, H B

    1986-01-01

    Ten toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and V. mimicus strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in the U.S. Gulf Coast region were examined for genetic relatedness. Restriction digest patterns of chromosomal DNA and Southern blot analysis with a cholera toxin gene probe revealed that the strains exhibited greater genetic divergence than the highly conserved V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from clinical and sewage samples in this region.

  20. Patient and System-Related Delays of Emergency Medical Services Use in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHabib, Khalid F.; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Almahmeed, Wael; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Amin, Haitham; Al Jarallah, Mohammed; Alfaleh, Hussam F.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Hersi, Ahmad; Kashour, Tarek; Al Aseri, Zohair; Ullah, Anhar; Altaradi, Hani B.; Nur Asfina, Kazi; Welsh, Robert C.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use and pre-hospital triage of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Arabian Gulf countries. Methods Clinical arrival and acute care within 24 h of STEMI symptom onset were compared between patients transferred by EMS (Red Crescent and Inter-Hospital) and those transferred by non-EMS means. Data were retrieved from a prospective registry of 36 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries, from January 2014 to January 2015. Results We enrolled 2,928 patients; mean age, 52.7 (SD ±11.8) years; 90% men; and 61.7% non-Arabian Gulf citizens. Only 753 patients (25.7%) used EMS; which was mostly via Inter-Hospital EMS (22%) rather than direct transfer from the scene to the hospital by the Red Crescent (3.7%). Compared to the non-EMS group, the EMS group was more likely to arrive initially at a primary or secondary health care facility; thus, they had longer median symptom-onset-to-emergency department arrival times (218 vs. 158 min; p˂.001); they were more likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary interventions (62% vs. 40.5%, p = 0.02); they had shorter door-to-needle times (38 vs. 42 min; p = .04); and shorter door-to-balloon times (47 vs. 83 min; p˂.001). High EMS use was independently predicted mostly by primary/secondary school educational levels and low or moderate socioeconomic status. Low EMS use was predicted by a history of angina and history of percutaneous coronary intervention. The groups had similar in-hospital deaths and outcomes. Conclusion Most acute STEMI patients in the Arabian Gulf region did not use EMS services. Improving Red Crescent infrastructure, establishing integrated STEMI networks, and launching educational public campaigns are top health care system priorities. PMID:26807577

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Arabian Sea, Arctic Ocean and others from 1997-06-11 to 1997-07-03 (NODC Accession 0115159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115159 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Arabian Sea, Arctic Ocean, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of...

  2. Postglacial uplift of the eastern Gulf of Finland-Lake Ladoga region: models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Fjeldskaar, Willy; Amantova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The eastern Gulf of Finland - Lake Ladoga region - is at the peripheral part of the Fennoscandian post-glacial uplift. We compared different modeling results for this region with observations, including our revision of geomorphological traces of paleo shorelevel. As in many parts of the general Baltic-White Sea bedrock lowland at the margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, the bedrock landscape was modified by glaciers, but it was also the major controlling factor for the history of glacial grows and decays. First-order landforms of this segment are: Lake Ladoga-Lake Ilmen lowland, Lembolovo High of the Karelic Isthmus and Neva-Gulf of Finland lowland. The range of the bedrock topography is close to 350 m. The landforms reflect different glacial behavior during stadials, with fast movement and strong erosion in northern Ladoga, but passive motion and accumulation around Lembolovo High. The differences influenced the ice sheet and deglaciation history. The shore level displacements in this area are slightly different than westwards in the Baltic area; the shoreline tilts are usually lower in southern-central part of the eastern Gulf of Finland-lake Ladoga region. For example, the shoreline tilts at 11 600 BP in the Baltic Ice Lake in the south-east range from 0.55 to 0.31 m/km. The slope of the Ancylus shoreline varies from 0.12 to 0.18 m/km, increasing to almost the double in the north-western area. Similarly, the Littorina shore level is tilted only 0.08 m/km, rising to 0.14 m/km in the north-west. We have used this data in our high resolution modeling involving glacial isostasy, hydro isostasy, sediment isostasy, and gravity field changes. The mopdeling is based on Earth rheology model with a low-viscosity asthenosphere of thickness less than 150 km and viscosity less than 7.0x10**19 Pa s above a mantle of viscosity 10**21 Pa s, and an effective elastic lithosphere thickness of 30-40 km (flexural rigidity 10**24 Nm). The specific uplift features in the area are

  3. Uppermost mantle Pn Velocity of the Arabian Plate, a Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lazki, A. I.; Al-Damegh, K. S.; Al-Enizi, A.; Elhusain, I.; Al-Mahrooqi, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Arabian plate represents a unique tectonic setup. The uniqueness of this plate is its boundaries that constitute the three known types of plate boundaries. The Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden represent the south and southwest plate boundary with Africa plate. Farther north the Dead Sea Fault system represents the remainder of the northwestern boundary with Africa plate. Continent-continent collision along the Bitlis-Zagros Suture zones represents the northern and northeastern boundary with Eurasia plate. Farther south the convergent plate boundary is manifested by the Makran Subduction Zone. Finally, the Owen and Murray Transform Faults represent the southeast boundary of Arabia with India plate. The broad objective of this study is to map uppermost mantle Pn velocity and anisotropy within the Arabian plate and around its boundaries. Zones that are along the north and the northeast boundaries of Arabia plate historically and in recent years has been effected by devastating earthquakes, a recent example is the Bam earthquake on December, 2003. In this region, accurate earthquake location is essential to delineate seismically active zones, where, without proper velocity models for the region, located earthquake may have large location error. In this preliminary study we present uppermost mantle Pn velocity tomography results of the north and northeastern regions of Arabia plate. We used in this study Pn phase data from the bulletins of Oman Seismic Network, Saudi Seismic Network, Kuwait Seismic Network, International Seismological Center and the National Earthquake Information Center,USA.

  4. A comparison of Globigerinoides ruber calcification between upwelling and non-upwelling regions in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Godad, S.P.; Naidu, P.D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    distinct difference in pCO2 and sea surface temperature (SST), the shell weights of G. ruber are similar in these two regions which suggest that surface water pCO2 and SST do not show dominant influence on shell calcification on a...

  5. Observed tides at Mumbai High offshore region near the continental shelf break in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Vijaykumar, K.; Mehra, P.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Sundar, D.; Desai, R.G.P.

    The observed large tidal range (up to 3 m during spring tide) at the Mumbai High offshore region located near the continental shelf break, off the central west coast of India, is described based on simultaneous tidal measurements (30 s average...

  6. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jish Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred on 18–20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem. This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, North-Eastern Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front and associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates, Rub al Khali, An Nafud and Ad Dahna deserts, and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. The total amount of dust generated by the storm reached 93.76 Mt. About 80% of this amount deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt, and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligothrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we roughly estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea to be 6 Mt.

  7. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.

    2015-01-12

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  8. GPS derived ground motions (2005-2014) within the Gulf of Mexico region referred to a stable Gulf of Mexico reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates current ground motions derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term (> 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr-1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr-1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. GPS observations in southeastern Louisiana indicate minor (4.0-6.0 mm yr-1) but consistent subsidence over time and space. This poses a potential threat to the safety of costal infrastructure in the long-term.

  9. GPS-derived ground deformation (2005-2014) within the Gulf of Mexico region referred to a stable Gulf of Mexico reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Guoquan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates current ground deformation derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term (> 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root mean square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr-1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr-1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. The subsidence rate in southeastern Louisiana is relatively smaller (4.0-6.0 mm yr-1) but tends to be steady over time. This poses a potential threat to the safety of coastal infrastructure in the long-term.

  10. Estimation of the spectral parameter kappa in the region of the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Ávila-Barrientos, Lenin

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed records from the Broadband Seismological Network of the Gulf of California (RESBAN) and from stations of the NARS-Baja array, operated by CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, to make estimates of the spectral decay parameter kappa ( κ). This attenuation parameter is important for evaluating the seismic risk and hazard of this region. Thirteen shallow earthquakes with focal depths less than 20 km and magnitudes between 5.1 and 6.6 were selected to calculate κ and the near-site attenuation κ 0. We used three different approaches to estimate κ 0: (a) with individual measurements of κ from vector modulus of three-component spectral amplitudes at different epicentral distances and extrapolating to zero distance to estimate κ 0, (b) with individual measurements using vertical component spectra, and (c) measuring from the high-frequency part of the site transfer function determined calculating the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. For most stations, the three methods give similar results. At short distances (50-60 km), κ takes values close to 0.04 s at NE76, the station located in the middle of the array. κ increases with distance taking an average value of up to 0.18 s for distances close to 500 km. κ 0 at most sites is close to 0.03 s, except for GUYB (Guaymas) that has a κ 0 = 0.05 s and NE83 (Navolato) with κ 0 = 0.065 s, both stations located in the continent, on the eastern side of the gulf, where the soils are less consolidated. Finally, we analyze if κ 0 correlates with magnitude and back azimuth, and we found that for most stations, κ 0 does not correlate with either one. However, station TOPB, located on basalt, shows a moderate correlation with magnitude, with κ 0 increasing with increasing M W in a short back-azimuth range. We also found that for station NE74, located on soft soil, κ 0 correlates with back azimuth, having lower values for azimuths near 120°.

  11. Plan for the long term environmental assessment of geopressured resource development in the Louisiana Gulf Coast Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Wilcox, R.E.; Bachman, A.L.; Newman, J.P.; Cunningham, K.J.; Hilding, R.K.; Rehage, J.A.

    1978-07-15

    Results of research to develop a plan for the long-term environmental assessment of geopressured/geothermal resource development in the Louisiana Gulf Coast region are reported. An overall view of the environmental issues facing decision-makers in the area of geopressured resource development is presented, along with a plan for monitoring potential environmental impacts. Separate assessments and plans are presented for geological effects, air and water quality, ecosystem quality, and socioeconomic and cultural considerations. (JGB)

  12. Diagnosis of Physical and Biological Control over Phytoplankton in the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank Region Using an Adjoint Data Assimilation Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Caixia; Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli

    2014-01-01

    The linkage between physical and biological processes, particularly the effect of the circulation field on the distribution of phytoplankton, is studied by applying a two-dimensional model and an adjoint data assimilation approach to the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region. The model results, comparing well with observation data, reveal seasonal and geographic variations of phytoplankton concentration and verify that the seasonal cycles of phytoplankton are controlled by both biological sources and ad-vection processes which are functions of space and time and counterbalance each other. Although advective flux divergences have greater magnitudes on Georges Bank than in the coastal region of the western Gulf of Maine, advection control over phytoplankton concentration is more significant in the coastal region of the western Gulf of Maine. The model results also suggest that the two separated populations in the coastal regions of the western Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank are self-sustaining.

  13. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Platforms - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains point locations for oil and gas platforms (structures) located in the Gulf of Mexico federal waters. Note: Platforms are being added or...

  14. 500mCONTOUR - 500 meter bathymetric contours of the Gulf of the Farallones region

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a major geologic and oceanographic investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones continental shelf system, designed...

  15. 10mCONTOUR - 10 meter bathymetric contours of the Gulf of the Farallones region

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a major geologic and oceanographic investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones continental shelf system, designed...

  16. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  17. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  18. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Northern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  19. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  20. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Northern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  1. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  2. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This polyline data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf federal waters that are associated with the oil...

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Gulf of Mexico federal waters. Note: Wells are being added or modified continuously;...

  4. Bottlenose dolphin age structure and growth in the Mississippi Sound region of the Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Teeth were collected from bottlenose dolphins that stranded within the north-central Gulf of Mexico between 1986-2003. These teeth were sectioned and growth rings...

  5. The Arabian Sea as a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region during the late Southwest Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. A. Naqvi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive observations during the late Southwest Monsoon of 2004 over the Indian and Omani shelves, and along an east-west transect reveal a mosaic of biogeochemical provinces including an unexpected high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition off the southern Omani coast. This feature, coupled with other characteristics of the system, suggest a close similarity between the Omani upwelling system and the Peruvian and California upwelling systems, where primary production (PP is limited by iron. An intensification of upwelling, reported to have been caused by the decline in the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover since 1997, is not supported by in situ hydrographic and chlorophyll measurements as well as a reanalysis of ocean colour data extending to 2009. Iron limitation of PP may complicate simple relationship between upwelling and PP assumed by previous workers, and contribute to the anomalous offshore occurrence of the most severe oxygen (O2 depletion in the region. Over the Indian shelf, affected by very shallow O2-deficient zone, high PP is restricted to a thin, oxygenated surface layer probably due to unsuitability of the O2-depleted environment for the growth of oxygenic photosynthesizers.

  6. Examination of aerosol distributions and radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea region during ICARB using satellite data and a general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cherian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse aerosol loading and its direct radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal (BoB and Arabian Sea (AS regions for the Integrated Campaign on Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB undertaken during 2006, using satellite data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Terra and Aqua satellites, the Aerosol Index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on board the Aura satellite, and the European-Community Hamburg (ECHAM5.5 general circulation model extended by Hamburg Aerosol Module (HAM. By statistically comparing with large-scale satellite data sets, we firstly show that the aerosol properties measured during the ship-based ICARB campaign and simulated by the model are representative for the BoB and AS regions and the pre-monsoon season. In a second step, the modelled aerosol distributions were evaluated by a comparison with the measurements from the ship-based sunphotometer, and the satellite retrievals during ICARB. It is found that the model broadly reproduces the observed spatial and temporal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD over BoB and AS regions. However, AOD was systematically underestimated during high-pollution episodes, especially in the BoB leg. We show that this underprediction of AOD is mostly because of the deficiencies in the coarse mode, where the model shows that dust is the dominant component. The analysis of dust AOD along with the OMI Aerosol Index indicate that missing dust transport that results from too low dust emission fluxes over the Thar Desert region in the model caused this deficiency. Thirdly, we analysed the spatio-temporal variability of AOD comparing the ship-based observations to the large-scale satellite observations and simulations. It was found that most of the variability along the track was from geographical patterns, with a minor influence by single events. Aerosol fields were homogeneous enough to yield a good statistical agreement

  7. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region is located on the Atlantic side of Africa; the sub region has a total population of approximately 190million people. It comprises of five different countries and their territorial waters, which are as follows: Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Cameroon. The sub region is blessed with so many types of natural resources ranging from petroleum, Natural gas, Bitumen, Uranium Diamond and Gold to mention but a few. However the region since the last two decades started attracting the World's attention as a result of the continuous increasing discoveries of new oil fields on both its on shores and off shores. In view of this extra ordinary increasing discoveries of new oil fields in the region, the Gulf of Guinea has become a "Gold rush" to the oil companies and it has so far attracted almost all the top oil firms in the world including; Exxon Mobil, Shell, Total, Texaco, Agip, Chevron, Slumberger, Stat Oil and Conoco Phillips among many other oil giants. In the more recent time even the U.S. Marine Corp have stationed their War Ship in the territorial waters of the Gulf in the name of providing protection to the "Liquid Gold" (Petroleum) underlying the beneath of the region. OIL ACTIVITIES AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS IN THE GULF OF GUINEA As a result of the geometrically increasing oil activities in the region ranging from Drilling, Gas flaring, Bunkering and Exploration activities, there was increase in the general pollution of the region. For example recent reports released in June, 2005 by the internationally renown nongovernmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice programme and the Nigeria's Environmental Rights Action, Under the aegis of friends of the Earth, had it that the region is ranked top on the world's total flare with Nigeria along accounting for 16 percent of the world's total flare. Another example is the increasing cases of oil spillages leading to the

  8. Planktonic percentage of foraminiferal fauna in surface sediments of the Arabian sea (Indian Ocean) and a regional model for paleodepth determination

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Henriques, P.J.

    with previous studies in other areas that planktonic percentage increased with depth. The resultant pattern is compared with results from the Atlantic margin of the northeastern United States, Gulf of Mexico, Timor Sea and Red Sea. Comparisons reveal...

  9. Chemical composition and potential health risks of raw Arabian incense (Bakhour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehya Elsayed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour is a common indoor practice in the Middle East and the Arabian Gulf region. However, the chemical composition of this substance has never been studied. Three different Bakhour brands were selected for this study. A complete chemical profile for the raw samples was determined using carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques. A wide range of elements and compounds were identified, many of which are hazardous to health. Nitrogen was found in all samples which should raise concerns due to the known health implications of amines, nitrogen oxides and nitrites. In addition toxic metals such as cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, lead, and zinc were also determined in all samples. The amounts of these metals are equivalent to those in raw tobacco, where they are known to pose health risks. Three types of solvents (acetone, dichloromethane and toluene were used for the extraction of organic compounds. Carcinogens, toxins and irritants were found along others of different health implications. Isolation of these compounds provides preliminary evidence on the harmful consequences of being exposed to Bakhour.

  10. Arab Women in the Gulf and the Narrative of Change: the Case of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golkowska Krystyna Urbisz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic transformation of the Arabian Gulf since the discovery of petroleum resources has called for a new perspective on the situation of women in the region. Qatar is an example of fast-paced industrialization, modernization and profound socio-cultural changes. As the environment transforms literally from day to day, new identities are being forged and social roles renegotiated. The leadership’s vision for the country speaks of gender equality and opportunity for all. This article asks how young Qatari women’s personal stories fit into the national narrative of change and what they see as the best path to agency and empowerment.

  11. Imported Expertise in World-class Knowledge Infrastructures: The Problematic Development of Knowledge Cities in the Gulf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosior, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the oil business, settlements in the Gulf Region developed into prosperous cities. But in the near future, oil is off. The plans of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC states bank on diversified and knowledge-intensive economies. Are those development plans realistic? What is the state of the art of knowledge institutions in the GCC countries? Applying the theoretical frameworks of Knowledge City and Science Indicators research, we empirically and theoretically studied the emerging Gulf cities Kuwait City (Kuwait, Manama (Bahrain, Doha (Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah (all UAE, and Muscat (Oman. Our methodological framework includes grounded theory, ethnographic field study, ServQual-like quantitative questionnaires and semi-standardized qualitative interviews conducted on-site with informed people, informetrics, and, finally, the use of official statistics. In particular, we describe and analyze the cities' knowledge infrastructures, their academics, and expenditure on R&D as input indicators; and publications as well as graduates as output indicators. A further crucial aspect of a knowledge society is the transition of graduates into knowledge-intensive public services and private companies.

  12. Zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Srivastava, Y.

    The effects of large scale oil spill, which occurred during the Gulf War in 1991 on zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea were studied. Surface (1-0 m) and vertical zooplankton hauls (200-0 m, 250...

  13. NOAA tools to support CSC and LCC regional climate science priorities in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. P.; Marcy, D.; Robbins, K.; Shafer, M.; Stiller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an active regional partner with the Department of Interior (DOI) in supplying and supporting the delivery of climate science and services. A primary mechanism for NOAA-DOI coordination at the regional scale is the Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) network, which is supported in part by DOI Climate Science Centers (CSC). Together, the CSCs and LCCs provide a framework to identify landscape-scale science and services priorities for conservation and management. As a key partner of the CSCs and an active member of many LCCs, NOAA is working to ensure its own regional product and service delivery efforts will help address these conservation and management challenges. Two examples of NOAA's regional efforts are highlighted here, with a focus on the coastal and interior geographies of the western Gulf of Mexico where NOAA partners with the South Central CSC and participates as a member of the Gulf Coast Prairie LCC. Along the Texas coastline, a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer, produced by NOAA's Coastal Services Center and available via its Digital Coast interface, allows constituents to visualize estimates of sea level rise, measures of uncertainty, flood frequencies, and environmental (e.g., marsh migration) and socioeconomic (e.g., tidal flooding of built environments) impacts. In the interior of Texas and Louisiana, NOAA's Southern Regional Climate Center is leading a consortium of partners in the development of a unified source of regional water reservoir information, including current conditions, a historical database, and web-based visualization tools to illustrate spatio-temporal variations in water availability to a broad array of hydrological, agricultural, and other customers. These two examples of NOAA products can, in their existing forms, support regional conservation and management priorities for CSCs and LCCs by informing vulnerability assessments and adaptation

  14. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  15. Multiscale Local Forcing of the Arabian Desert Daytime Boundary Layer, and Implications for the Dispersion of Surface-Released Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Sheu, Rong-Shyang

    2000-05-01

    -breeze circulation on the west side of the Persian Gulf, where PBL depths were suppressed as far as 100 km inland. On the finest scales, significant PBL-depth variability resulted from surface thermal differences associated with contrasts between barren desert and partially vegetated desert.The average 1500 LT ventilation over the Arabian Desert for the 6-day period varied spatially from less than 4000 m2 s1 to over 24000 m2 s1. This range represents over a factor-of-6 variation in the ability of the atmosphere to transport contaminants away from a source region.

  16. Seismic potential of Bushehr region, NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to geological and seismological information and proposed model for plate tectonics of Iran, plates of Iran Arabia move north-eastwards with different velocities. This causes subduction of Iran plate by Arabian plate, folding of Zagros Range and seismic activities in the region. Investigation of recorded shocks in Bushehr Seismographic Network in recent 10 years, and historical seismicity record show that southern Zagros region should not be considered a single seismotectonic province, since it demonstrates at least distinct seismic characteristics in two aspects. First, eastern part of Qatar-Kazerun flexure suffers severe seismic activity, and Lar region has been devastated several times by destructive earthquakes in the present century. Second, Bushehr environment, which is located at the western part of Qatar-Kazerun line, according to historical records, bears considerable quiescence and is one of the seismically pacific quarters of the Iranian plateau. It is worth mentioning that, during the past 1000 years, the strongest earthquake close to Bushehr was a shock with a magnitude of 5, 50 Km distant. Accordingly, despite geographical proximity to seismically active Zagros belt, Bushehr bears considerably low seismicity and has relative quiescence and stability, and from this point, seismic characteristics of the region, relates to Arabian and Persian Gulf region than Iranian plateau. It follows that Bushehr region could be considered northern most part of Arabian plate. Should the complementary studies confirm the above conclusion, Bushehr would be the most promising region for development of important industrial projects. (Author)

  17. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  18. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  19. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and adjacent areas based on the tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Petrunin, Alexey G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first 3-D model of seismic P and S velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and surrounding areas based on the results of passive travel time tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed based on travel time data from ˜ 9000 regional earthquakes provided by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), and this was complemented with data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC). The resulting P and S velocity patterns were generally consistent with each other at all depths. Beneath the northern part of the Red Sea, we observed a strong high-velocity anomaly with abrupt limits that coincide with the coastal lines. This finding may indicate the oceanic nature of the crust in the Red Sea, and it does not support the concept of gradual stretching of the continental crust. According to our results, in the middle and lower crust, the seismic anomalies beneath the Gulf of Aqaba seem to delineate a sinistral shift (˜ 100 km) in the opposite flanks of the fault zone, which is consistent with other estimates of the left-lateral displacement in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform fault. However, no displacement structures were visible in the uppermost lithospheric mantle.

  20. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region oil and gas operation. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) work included analyses of samples. Task 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved the continued analyses of samples and field sampling at Bay de Chene. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) activities included preparing a draft final report. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) work also involved preparing a draft final report. Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities included a presentation at the Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting for the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management

  1. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also s...

  2. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  3. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.; Haridas, P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The physical and chemical forcing which drive the Arabian production is now fairly well understood. The main attributes, which contribute to the productivity are (1) the boundary processes which manifest as upwelling during summer monsoon and (2...

  4. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  5. A high-resolution hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the Gulf of Cadiz – Alboran Sea region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. MACIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberia regional seas comprise the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea sub-basins connected by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. Both basins are very different in their hydrological and biological characteristics but are, also, tightly connected to each other. Integrative studies of the whole regional oceanic system are scarce and difficult to perform due to the relative large area to cover and the different relevant time-scales of the main forcings in each sub-basin. Here we propose, for the first time, a fully coupled, 3D, hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model that covers, in a single domain (~2km resolution both marine basins for a 20 years simulation (1989-2008. Model performance is assessed against available data in terms of spatial and temporal distributions of biological variables. In general, the proposed model is able to represent the climatological distributions of primary and secondary producers and also the main seasonality of primary production in the different sub-regions of the analyzed basins. Potential causes of the observed mismatches between model and data are identified and some solutions are proposed for future model development. We conclude that most of these mismatches could be attributed to the missing tidal forcing in the actual model configuration. This model is a first step to obtain a meaningful tool to study past and future oceanographic conditions in this important marine region constituting the unique connection of the Mediterranean Sea with the open world’s ocean.

  6. A multi-model analysis of the resolution influence on precipitation climatology in the Gulf Stream region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuelei; Huang, Bohua; Kirtman, Ben P.; Kinter, James L.; Chiu, Long S.

    2016-05-01

    Using climate simulations from coupled and uncoupled general circulation models, this study investigates the influence of horizontal resolution in both atmospheric and oceanic model components on the mean precipitation over the Gulf Stream (GS) region. For this purpose, three sets of model experiments are analyzed. The first two examine the effects of increasing horizontal resolution of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) gradually from 100 to 10 km under fixed oceanic settings. Specifically, the AGCM is either forced with prescribed observed sea surface temperature (SST) (the first case) or coupled to a non-eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) at a fixed horizontal resolution near 100 km (the second case). The third set of experiments examines the effects of the oceanic resolution with a pair of long-term simulations by another coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM), in which the OGCM is run respectively at non-eddy-resolving (100 km) and eddy-resolving (10 km) resolutions, while the AGCM resolution remains fixed at 50 km for both runs. In general, all simulations qualitatively reproduce the gross features of the mean GS precipitation and its annual cycle. At similar AGCM resolutions, the uncoupled models produce a GS rain band that is more realistic in both structure and strength compared to the coupled models with non-eddy-resolving oceans. This is because the prescribed observed SST better represents the gradient near the oceanic front than the non-eddy-resolving OGCMs simulate. An increase from the baseline AGCM resolution produces enhanced climatological GS precipitation, both large-scale and convective, with the latter more tightly confined to the oceanic front. The enhancement, however, is moderate and further increases in resolution achieves diminishing results. On the other hand, an increase in oceanic resolution from non-eddy-resolving to eddy resolving scheme results in more consistent simulations with

  7. Coastal Kelvin waves and dynamics of Gulf of Aden eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, Vinu K.; Rao, Rokkam R.

    2016-10-01

    The Gulf of Aden (GA) is a small semi-enclosed oceanic region between the Red Sea and the western Arabian Sea. The GA is characterised with westward propagating cyclonic and anti-cyclonic eddies throughout the year. The genesis and propagation of these eddies into the GA have been the focus of several studies which concluded that oceanic instabilities (both barotropic and baroclinic) as well as the Rossby waves from the Arabian Sea are the responsible mechanisms for the presence and maintenance of these eddies. Using a high-resolution (~11 km) reduced gravity hydrodynamic layered model with controlled lateral boundary conditions at the three sides of the GA here we show yet another factor, the coastally propagating Kelvin waves along the coastal Arabia (coasts of Oman and Yemen), is also critically important in setting up a favourable condition for the oceanic instabilities and sustenance of meso-scale eddies in the GA. These Kelvin waves at both seasonal and intra-seasonal time scales are found play an important role in the timing and amplitudes of eddies observed in the GA.

  8. Influence of winds on temporally varying short and long period gravity waves in the near shore regions of Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glejin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, west coast of India during 1 May 2010 to 30 April 2012 is used in the study. Seasonal and annual variation in wave data controlled by the local wind system such as sea breeze and land breeze, and remote wind generated long period waves observed along the west coast of India, is studied. Sea breeze plays an important role in determining the sea state during pre and post monsoon seasons and the maximum wave height is observed during peak hours of sea breeze at 15:00 UTC. Long period waves (peak period over 13 s are observed mainly during the pre and the post monsoon season. Maximum peak period observed during the study is 22 s and is in the month of October. Long period waves observed during the south west monsoon period of 2011 are identified as swell propagated from the Southern Ocean with an estimated travelling time of 5–6 days. The swells reaching the Arabian Sea from the South Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean, due to storms during the pre and post monsoon periods will modify the near surface winds, due to the dominant wave induced wind regime. Energy spectrum of observed waves indicates onset and decline of strong south west monsoon winds. Convergence of energy-containing frequency bands corresponding to short period waves (Tp < 8 s and long period waves (Tp > 13 s to intermediate period waves (8 < Tp < 13 s are observed at the end of the pre monsoon season; divergence is observed during the start of the post monsoon period from intermediate period waves to short period waves and long period waves. South west monsoon period is characterized by the energy corresponding to the frequency band of intermediate period waves along the west coast of India.

  9. Active NE-SW Compressional Strain Within the Arabian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M. A.; ArRajehi, A.; King, R. W.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.; Douad, M.; Sholan, J.; Bou-Rabee, F.

    2012-12-01

    Motion of the Arabian plate with respect to Eurasia has been remarkably steady over more than 25 Myr as revealed by comparison of geodetic and plate tectonic reconstructions (e.g., McQuarrie et al., 2003, GRL; ArRajehi et al., 2010, Tectonics). While internal plate deformation is small in comparison to the rate of Arabia-Eurasia convergence, the improved resolution of GPS observations indicate ~ NE-SW compressional strain that appears to affect much of the plate south of latitude ~ 30°N. Seven ~ NE-SW oriented inter-station baselines all indicated shortening at rates in the range of 0.5-2 mm/yr, for the most part with 1-sigma velocity uncertainties < 0.4 mm/yr. Plate-scale strain rates exceed 2×10-9/yr. The spatial distribution of strain can not be resolved from the sparse available data, but strain appears to extend at least to Riyadh, KSA, ~ 600 km west of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt that forms the eastern, collisional boundary of the Arabian plate with Eurasia (Iran). Geodetic velocities in the plate tectonic reference frame for Arabia, derived from magnetic anomalies in the Red Sea (Chu and Gordon, 1998, GJI), show no significant E-W motion for GPS stations located along the Red Sea coast (i.e., geodetic and plate tectonic spreading rates across the Red Sea agree within their resolution), in contrast to sites in the plate interior and along the east side of the plate that indicate east-directed motions. In addition, NE-SW contraction is roughly normal to ~ N-S striking major structural folds in the sedimentary rocks within the Arabian Platform. These relationships suggest that geodetically observed contraction has characterized the plate for at least the past ~ 3 Myr. Broad-scale contraction of the Arabian plate seems intuitively reasonable given that the east and north sides of the plate are dominated by active continental collision (Zagros, E Turkey/Caucasus) while the west and south sides are bordered by mid-ocean ridge spreading (Red Sea and Gulf of

  10. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. P.; Donnelly, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Kemp, A.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2012-12-01

    Future inundation of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon both sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. In this proposal, we will employ new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea-level rise along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts has increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic distribution. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. Here, we produce new high resolution proxy data of sea-level and temperature to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset will span the alternation between the "Medieval Climate Anomaly" and "Little Ice Age". Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from six study areas (Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Georgia and Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, in the future, the resultant

  11. Regional variation in mercury and stable isotopes of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp Sluis, Michelle; Boswell, Kevin M; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wells, R J David; Soulen, Brianne; Cowan, James H

    2013-02-01

    The presence of total mercury (Hg) in fish tissue and the potential associated health risks has become a global concern in marine ecosystems. Few studies have examined basin-scale variation in Hg accumulation in marine ecosystems, and determining if Hg concentrations in fish tissue vary across marine ecosystems is a key monitoring question. The present study evaluated Hg concentrations in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) tissue across three regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, USA) and between two habitat types (oil and gas platforms and nonplatforms) within each region. Nitrogen (δ(15)N), carbon (δ(13)C), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes were used to investigate ecological differences that may affect Hg concentrations among regions and between habitats. Mercury concentrations in red snapper tissue were positively correlated with fish total length. Regional differences in Hg concentrations were significant, with fish collected from Alabama having the highest concentrations and fish collected from Louisiana having the lowest. No significant difference existed in Hg concentrations between habitats, suggesting that association with platforms may not be a significant factor contributing to red snapper Hg concentrations. While δ(15)N did not differ significantly among the three regions, Texas red snapper were more enriched in δ(34)S and depleted in δ(13)C compared with Alabama and Louisiana red snapper. Although the majority of red snapper collected in the present study had Hg concentrations below safe consumption guidelines, regional differences suggest that spatially explicit monitoring programs may be important for basin-wide assessments.

  12. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  13. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2012-02-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. GROWTH RATE OF ARABIAN FOALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are treated as one of the most noble horse breed in the world. It isalso one of the oldest breed known as a root of many other breeds. Opposite toThoroughbred horses Arabian ones are very healthy, easy to keep with low fodderdemand. They are still incredibly resistant to environmental conditions. Growth anddevelopment of foals is also very interesting because it is more similar to growth ofprimitive than to noble foals. The object of this study was to analyse the growth rateof Arabian foals bred in Poland. 382 foals born in Bialka Stud in 1983-2003 weretaken under consideration. The height at withers, girth and cannon circumferencemeasured at 1 day and 6 and 18 months of life were analysed. On this base thegrowth rate was calculated. Horses were divided into different groups accordingtheir year of birth, sex, coat colour and sire and dam lines. The statistical differencesbetween particular groups were evaluated. It was stated that year of birth affectedsignificantly the growth rate of Arabian foals. Colts were characterized bysignificantly higher growth rate of cannon circumference. Horses of different coatcolour did not differ in growth rate of any parameter. Affiliation to particular sireand dam lines had some effects on growth rate of Arabian foals.

  15. Marine sediments and palaeoclimatic variations since the Late Pleistocene: An overview for the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    A large number of surfacial and sub-surface sediments from the Arabian Sea have been studied to enhance our understanding of palaeoclimatic variations over the Indian region. Bsically the surficial sediments have been studied for their living...

  16. Temporally invariable bacterial community structure in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Bandekar, M.; Gomes, J.; Shenoy, D.M.; Meena, R.M.; Naik, H.; Khandeparkar, R.; Ramaiah, N.

    The Northeastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) is a recognized region of intense denitrification, with a 200 to 1200 m anoxic water column. We studied the abundance of bacteria, viral particles and the bacterial community (BC), in addition to various chemical...

  17. Microbial iron reduction and methane oxidation in subsurface sediments of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Judith, M.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Nazareth, D.R.; Nagarchi, L.; Kamaleson, A.S.

    Arabian Sea is one of the most productive regions of the world's ocean with seasonal upwelling and a characteristic oxygen minimum zone. It receives a continuous input of windborne iron-rich dust which possibly stimulates phytoplankton productivity...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 1972-07-18 to 1978-04-28 (NODC Accession 0117677)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117677 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Bering Sea, Gulf of...

  19. An oilspill risk analysis for the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf lease area; regional environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)lease area region. Results of the analysis can be used to determine relative risks associated with oil production in different regions to be offered in OCS Lease Sales 72, 74, and 79. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model; and locations of major environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were (1) that oil exists in the lease area, and (2) that oil will be, found and produced from tracts sold in sales 72, 74, and 79. On the basis of a most likely resource estimate of 241 million barrels of oil to be produced over an 18-year production life from sales to be held in 1983 (sales 72, 74, 79), it was calculated that approximately one oilspill of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is 41-percent. For a high resource estimate case of sales to be held in 1983, 717 million barrels are estimated to be produced over an 18-year production life with an 83-percent chance of one or more spills of 1,000 barrels or larger occurring and contacting land within 30 days. These results depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given a total development scenario in which 5.6 billion barrels of oil are estimated to be present and produced, it was calculated that 18 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur over the 40-year production life of the proposed lease area. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than

  20. Ecology, genetic population structure, and molecular phylogeny of fishes on coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kochzius, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is the study of biogeography and ecology, genetic population structure, and molecular phylogeny of fishes on coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea. Ecological and genetic pattern are compared on different spatial scales and molecular markers add a temporal scale to study of evolutionary processes.Biogeographic analysis supported the differentiation of the Arabian sub-province from the Indian Ocean, but the affiliation of the Arabian Gulf is not clear.The ana...

  1. APPLICATION OF ROVIS IN HUMAN RESOURCE APPLICATION IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Tewari

    2011-10-01

    levels. The ROVIS theory also emphasizes making the right decision at the right time in the right situation which would minimize over-spending occurring out of short-sighted business decisions or irregularities in decision making. Though industries vary in operational level, we find that, the ROVIS Theory is definitely a evolving management concept which focuses on strategic thinking through rationalized approach and can be a universally acceptable role model in all industries globally. A brief example explains the usability of this theory in the Gulf Business environment.

  2. Sulfur biogeochemistry of cold seeps in the Green Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formolo, Michael J.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2013-10-01

    Cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico provide a natural laboratory to study biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen at hydrate- and hydrocarbon-rich deep marine settings with obvious additional relevance to studies of diverse modern and ancient seeps. Of particular interest are the sulfur isotope signatures of microbial sulfate reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane and other non-methane liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Whereas most of the published sulfur isotope data from cold seep systems pertain to pore-water species, our study integrates both solid and dissolved sulfur: acid-volatile sulfides (SAVS), pyrite (Spy), elemental sulfur (S°), dissolved sulfate and ΣH2S. Modeled and 35SO42- reduction rates and δ13C and δ18O data for authigenic carbonates are integrated within this sulfur framework. Our results indicate extreme variability over narrow spatial and temporal scales within short distances (meters) from active seeps. High rates of microbial sulfate reduction can lead to complete consumption of the sulfate within the upper few centimeters of burial, while meters away the sulfate profile shows little depletion. Such small-scale variability must reflect the structure and temporal dynamics of hydrocarbon migration in the presence of low amounts of background organic matter. Our past work demonstrated that electron donors other than methane drive significant levels of microbial activity at these seeps, and very recent work has demonstrated that oxidation of higher chain volatile hydrocarbons can contribute to the high levels of microbial activity. These findings are consistent with our new results. Elevated concentrations of pyrite and diagenetic carbonate relative to background sediments are diagnostic of active seepage, yet the S isotopes tell more complex stories. Low levels of the transient, 'instantaneous' products of S cycling-AVS and S°-show high δ34S values that increase with depth. Most of the pyrite formation, however, seems

  3. Province Boundaries for the National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Gulf Coast Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  4. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  5. High-resolution Sr/Ca ratios in a Porites lutea coral from Lakshadweep Archipelago, southeast Arabian Sea: An example from a region experiencing steady rise in the reef temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Netramani; Hetzinger, Steffen; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Masood Ahmad, Syed; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the first record of Sr/Ca variability in a massive Porites lutea coral from the Lakshadweep Archipelago, Arabian Sea. The annual mean sea surface temperature (SST) in this region and the surrounding areas has increased steadily in the recent past. During some major El Niño events, SSTs are even higher, imposing additional thermal-stress on corals, episodically leading to coral bleaching. We infer from the coral-Sr/Ca record (1981-2008) that during some of these events high and persistent SSTs lead to a dampening of the temperature signal in coral-Sr/Ca, impairing the coral's ability to record full scale warming. Thus, coral-Sr/Ca may provide a history of past El Niño Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) induced thermal-stress episodes, which are a recurrent feature also seen in cross-spectral analysis between coral-Sr/Ca and the Nino3.4 index. Despite the impact of episodical thermal-stress during major El Niño events, our coral proxy faithfully records the seasonal monsoon-induced summer cooling on the order of ˜2.3°C. Calibration of coral-Sr/Ca with instrumental grid-SST data shows significant correlation to regional SST and monsoon variability. Hence, massive Porites corals of this region are highly valuable archives for reconstructing long-term changes in SST, strongly influenced by monsoon variability on seasonal scales. More importantly, our data show that this site with increasing SST is an ideal location for testing the future effects of the projected anthropogenic SST increase on coral reefs that are already under thermal-stress worldwide.

  6. Bioactive potential of some economically important marine gastropods along the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JayanthiGovindarajalu; Muthusamy Anand; Gurusamy Chelladurai; Arumugam Kumaraguru

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyse the economically important gastropods for prospective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Methods: The bioactive potential of some gastropodsi.e. Babylonia spirata (B. spirata), Phalium glaucum, Tonna dolium, Hemifusus pugilinus, Xancus pyrum, Chicoreus ramosus (C. ramosus), Harpa articularis, Ficus ficus andBabylonia zeylanica were analysed. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against 8 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains by well diffusion method. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were analyzed by standard methods. Results: In antibacterial and antifungal activities, methanolic extract ofB. spirata significantly showed the highest inhibition zone againstAeromonas hydrophila andFusarium spp. (P > 0.05). In the total antioxidant activity, the maximum activity was observed inB. spirata (510µg/mg) and in the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazylscavenging activity,B. spiratashowed the highest percentage of inhibition (76.7%). In the case of cytotoxicityi.e. brine shrimplethality tests the methanolic extract ofC. ramosus showed the lowest percentage of mortality and the LC50 values were found to be 523.9µg/mL. Conclusions: The results revealed that all the gastropods in the present study possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects. However, species likeB. spirata andC. ramosus exhibited potent activity andcan be used for further clinical studies.

  7. Bioactive potential of some economically important marine gastropods along the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JayanthiGovindarajalu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the economically important gastropods for prospective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Methods: The bioactive potential of some gastropods i.e. Babylonia spirata (B. spirata, Phalium glaucum, Tonna dolium, Hemifusus pugilinus, Xancus pyrum, Chicoreus ramosus (C. ramosus, Harpa articularis, Ficus ficus and Babylonia zeylanica were analysed. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against 8 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains by well diffusion method. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were analyzed by standard methods. Results: In antibacterial and antifungal activities, methanolic extract of B. spirata significantly showed the highest inhibition zone against Aeromonas hydrophila and Fusarium spp. (P > 0.05. In the total antioxidant activity, the maximum activity was observed in B. spirata (510 µg/mg and in the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, B. spirata showed the highest percentage of inhibition (76.7%. In the case of cytotoxicity i.e. brine shrimp lethality tests the methanolic extract of C. ramosus showed the lowest percentage of mortality and the LC50 values were found to be 523.9 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results revealed that all the gastropods in the present study possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects. However, species like B. spirata and C. ramosus exhibited potent activity and can be used for further clinical studies.

  8. The contribution of gravity method in geothermal exploration of southern part of the Gulf of Suez-Sinai region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef, H.; Abd El-Gawad, A. M. S.; Abdel Zaher, M.; Farag, K. S. I.

    2016-06-01

    The Gulf of Suez region represents the most promising area in Egypt for geothermal exploration which is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations represented by a cluster of hot springs with varying temperatures from 35 to 72 °C. The main purpose of the present study was to shed the light on the integration between gravity work and geothermal data in detecting the main subsurface structures in addition to expecting the geothermal sources in the area under consideration. Correction was applied on the bottom hole temperature data to obtain the true formation equilibrium temperatures that can provide useful information about the subsurface thermal regime. Based on these logging data, temperature gradient and heat flow values were computed at each well, and it is found that the mean geothermal gradient of the study area is 32 °C/km; nevertheless, some local geothermal potential fields were located with more than 40 °C/km. Also, heat flow values are ranging from 45 to 115 mW/m2. The Bouguer anomaly map of the study area was used for delineating the subsurface structures and tectonic trends that have resulted in a potential heat source. The gravity inversion revealed a good correlation between areas of high temperature gradients, high heat flow and positive gravity anomalies. The high temperature gradient and heat flow values suggested being associated with a noticeable hydrothermal source of heat anomaly located at relatively shallow depths which is expected to be due to the uplift of the basement in the area.

  9. France and the Gulf of Tonkin Region: Shipping Markets and Political Interventions in South China in the 1890s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Becker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the period of “new” imperialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, France strived to create a sphere of influence in southwest China. To foster such imperialist policies, France’s policy makers regarded French companies operating in East Asia as instrumental. One such firm was Auguste Raphael Marty’s Tonkin Shipping Company, based in Haiphong, French Indochina, which operated steam coasters across the wider Gulf of Tonkin region. In the region’s highly competitive shipping market, Marty strived to achieve a monopoly when favorable conditions permitted during the final phase of the Sino-Japanese War. His profit-driven strategy caused huge losses for Chinese shippers and ultimately resulted in their boycotting his ships through the Tsap Yet syndicate. When French officials intervened on Marty’s behalf in negotiations with the Chinese government, the Syndicate was finally dissolved. It was followed by an agreement between the Chinese firm of Yuen Cheong Lee and Co. and the German firm of Jebsen and Co., based on long-established mutual trust between the owners. Although Marty received monetary compensation for his losses, he ruined his relationship with Chinese merchants. This case study presents little-known facts about the interactions among foreign firms in China and demonstrates the Chinese ability to react efficiently to unfair business practices.

  10. Spatial distribution and historical trends of heavy metals in the sediments of petroleum producing regions of the Beibu Gulf, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The spatial distribution and historical trend of heavy metals were discussed. • The contents of heavy metals reached their highest level near the platforms. • The trend of heavy metals corresponded with the history of petroleum industry. • The environment around the platforms had a very high ecological risk. • The petroleum production was the cause of the severe enrichment of heavy metals. - Abstract: The concentrations of As, Sb, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Ba in the surface and core sediments of the oil and gas producing region of the Beibu Gulf were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS), and the spatial distribution and historical trends of these elements are discussed. The results show that the concentrations of these elements are highest near the platforms. The results of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) also reveal significantly higher enrichment around the platforms, which imply that the offshore petroleum production was the cause of the unusual distribution and severe enrichment of these elements in the study area. The environment around the platforms was highly laden with toxic elements, thereby representing a very high ecological risk to the environment of the study area

  11. Behavioral health in the gulf coast region following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: findings from two federal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Deborah W; Teich, Judith L; Pemberton, Michael R; Pierannunzi, Carol; Larson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes findings from two large-scale, population-based surveys conducted by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Gulf Coast region following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, to measure the prevalence of mental and substance use disorders, chronic health conditions, and utilization of behavioral health services. Although many area residents undoubtedly experienced increased levels of anxiety and stress following the spill, findings suggest only modest or minimal changes in behavioral health at the aggregate level before and after the spill. The studies do not address potential long-term effects of the spill on physical and behavioral health nor did they target subpopulations that might have been most affected by the spill. Resources mobilized to reduce the economic and behavioral health impacts of the spill on coastal residents-including compensation for lost income from BP and increases in available mental health services-may have resulted in a reduction in potential mental health problems.

  12. Regional resource depletion and industry activity: The case of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Stable and declining oil and gas prices have changed the industry's price expectations and, along with depletion of promising exploration prospects, has resulted in reduced exploration. Even with intensive additional exploration, production in most U.S. areas is expected to decline. What does this imply for the drilling and petroleum industry suppliers in particular regions? How should planners in government and the private sector project and incorporate the consequences of these changes in their strategies? This paper answers these questions for the industry operating in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Future oil and gas production, as well as demand for offshore drilling and production facilities, are shown to depend on the size distribution of undiscovered fields, their associated production costs, and oil and gas prices. Declining well productivity is a consequence of development of progressively smaller fields so that long-run drilling demand should not decline in proportion to the expected production decline. Calculations show a substantial payoff to the drilling industry, in terms of potential demand increases, if it can develop and implement cost reducing technologies. Implications of these results for other offshore producing areas such as the North Sea are also discussed. ?? 1986.

  13. Profiles of the petroleum sectors in Caspian region countries and the potential for a new Caspian to Middle East Gulf export line through Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys of the petroleum sectors of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are provided which are background to the proposal for a new export pipeline. A petroleum export line from the Caspian via Iran to the middle East Gulf would have many advantages. It would improve the security of supply of Caspian oil, it would improve social stability in the region and it would encourage additional oil exploration and possibly upgrading of Caspian region refineries. A detailed comparison is provided between the petroleum production potential for the Middle East and for the Caspian region. Two options for export pipelines through Iran are described. (Author)

  14. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  15. Ammolagena clavata (Jones and Parker, 1860), an agglutinated benthic foraminiferal species - first report from the Recent sediments, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Saraswat, R.

    The rare presence of the agglutinated foraminiferal species Ammolagena clavata is presented for the first time from the Recent sediments of the Indian Ocean region. This species has previously been reported in Recent sediments from all other oceans...

  16. New records of species of Saemundssonia (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) infesting breeding terns in the Arabian Peninsula, with notes on their phylogeny and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed; Alahmed, Azzam; Palma, Ricardo; Almalki, Mohammed; Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den

    2015-07-01

    Six species of terns, which breed on the Arabian Peninsula, were examined for head chewing lice of the genus Saemundssonia in four different islands around the coasts of Saudi Arabia, both in the Red Sea and in the Arabian Gulf. Four louse species were collected: Saemundssonia laticaudata, Saemundssonia melanocephalus, Saemundssonia meridiana and Saemundssonia sternae, of which three are recorded for the first time from this region. Also, we record three new host-louse associations for the world-Saemundssonia laticaudata and Saemundssonia sternae from white-cheeked terns and Saemundssonia melanocephalus from Saunders's terns-including a host-switch event of Saemundssonia laticaudata on white-cheeked terns in the Karan Island population. Gene bank data for the COI gene from seven species of Saemundssonia that infest marine birds were used to propose evolutionary trees using two different statistical methods: maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbour joining (NJ). The result indicated that the tree which was produced by NJ is likely to be more accurate as it appeared more compatible with hosts' phylogeny. The trees indicate relationships between tern Saemundssonia and congeneric species from other marine birds, especially from gulls. An ANOVA was also conducted to test the mean parasite load for each tern species studied, and results indicate that there is a relation between louse loads and colonization behaviour of the hosts. Data from lice examined and illustrations of lice and their hosts are also included. PMID:25924793

  17. Towards green buildings: Glass as a building element-the use and misuse in the gulf region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulnaga, Mohsen M. [College of Design and Applied Arts, Dubai University College, Dubai P.O. Box 14143 (United Arab Emirates)

    2006-04-15

    The recent economic growth in the Gulf region notably in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a colossal number of buildings that has been constructed in the past 5 years. In the last decade, a total glazed building's facades became the icon of Dubai. This large area of glazing in each facade needs protection against overheating and sun glare in summer. According to leader in energy and environmental design (LEED) glass selection becomes a main element in this equation to contribute towards achieving a green building. The aim of this paper is to investigate the problems associated with misuse of glass, as a building element in UAE particularly in Dubai. Inadequate design with ill-selected glass/glazing type may lead not only to poor daylighting in building interiors but also contribute significantly to fatigue, insomnia, seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and above all increase CO{sub 2} emission. The purpose of the study is to specify the required improvements to permit natural, 'free' daylight to filter through the building facade into interior space, especially with the right type of glass. This paper examines the status of buildings in Dubai in terms of glass type, visible light transmittance, reflection (out/in) and relative heat gain. A quantitative analysis is conducted to assess the impact of glass on the building users' performance in terms of daylight environment. A recent built high-rise office building was selected in the investigation to asses whether selected glass provide the recommended daylight factor (DF) and daylight level (DL) according to IES standards. The results revealed that most the glass/glazing was misused in 70% of buildings in intermediate and low performance groups. The DF and DD in the selected office building were unexpectedly tremendous and found far beyond the recommended level due to the use of spectrally selective glazing (clear on both sides). [Author].

  18. Measuring Capacity for Resilience among Coastal Counties of the US Northern Gulf of Mexico Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Margaret A.; Lam, Nina S. N.; Baker, Ariele

    2016-01-01

    Many have voiced concern about the long-term survival of coastal communities in the face of increasingly intense storms and sea level rise. In this study we select indicators of key theoretical concepts from the social-ecological resilience literature, aggregate those indicators into a resilience-capacity index, and calculate an index score for each of the 52 coastal counties of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. Building upon Cutter’s Social Vulnerability Index work [1], we use Factor Analysis to combine 43 variables measuring demographics, social capital, economic resources, local government actions, and environmental conditions within the counties. Then, we map the counties’ scores to show the spatial distribution of resilience capacities. The counties identified as having the highest resilience capacities include the suburban areas near New Orleans, Louisiana and Tampa, Florida, and the growing beach-tourist communities of Alabama and central Florida. Also, we examine whether those counties more active in oil and gas development and production, part of the region’s “energy coast”, have greater capacity for resilience than other counties in the region. Correlation analyses between the resilience-capacity index scores and two measures of oil and gas industry activity (total employment and number of business establishments within five industry categories) yielded no statistically significant associations. By aggregating a range of important contextual variables into a single index, the study demonstrates a useful approach for the more systematic examination and comparison of exposure, vulnerability and capacity for resilience among coastal communities.

  19. Insights into Seismic and Volcanic Processes around the Arabian Plate from InSAR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, Sigurjón; Wang, Teng; Akoglu, Ahmet; Feng, Guangcai; Xu, Wenbin; Harrington, Jonathan; Cavalié, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We use InSAR observations to study a variety of seismic and volcanic processes at the plate boundary surrounding the Arabian plate. The plate-boundary motion ranges from extension in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to the south, to compression in Turkey and Iran to the north, with transform motion to the west and to the east. Many large earthquakes have occurred during the past two decades in the region, some of which we are studying, including the 1995 magnitude 7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Aqaba, the 2011 magnitude 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey, the 2012 Ahar earthquake duplet in northwestern Iran, as well as the 2013 magnitude 7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake. These earthquakes took place in tectonic settings ranging from a transtension in the Gulf of Aqaba, to transpression in Baluchistan, to almost pure compression in eastern Turkey. For the Aqaba earthquake we add previously unused InSAR data and use modern data processing methods to improve earlier fault-model estimations. In the case of the Baluchistan earthquake we find surprisingly uniform and simple fault slip along the over 200 km long rupture, with maximum slip of almost 10 m near the surface. In addition, for the Van earthquake we use SAR-image offset tracking in the near-field, as some of the interferograms are almost completely incoherent. By identifying point-like targets within the images, we are able to derive better pixel offsets between SAR sub-images than with standard offset-tracking methods. We use the azimuth- and range offsets to derive the 3D coseismic displacements, which help constraining the geometry and slip of the causative northward-dipping thrust fault. Further west, in the region near the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian, and Anatolian plates, we use large-scale InSAR data processing to map the interseismic deformation near the triple junction and find very shallow locking depth of the eastern part of the East Anatolian Fault, indicating limited strain

  20. Burried MIS 5 abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic) confirm long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2016-04-01

    implies an average subsidence rate of the area between 0.28 and 0.38 mm/year, which agrees with previously published data for the Gulf of Trieste. This new dataset demonstrates that the Bay of Koper was connected to the Adriatic Sea approximately 125.000 ky ago during the MIS 5 sea-level highstand. Together with marine abrasion platforms and well data previously documented in the northeastern part of the Gulf of Trieste and well data from the northwestern part of the gulf our data corroborates the long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region.

  1. Five years MIQE guidelines: the case of the Arabian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif M Abdel Nour

    Full Text Available The quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has become a key molecular enabling technology with an immense range of research, clinical, forensic as well as diagnostic applications. Its relatively moderate instrumentation and reagent requirements have led to its adoption by numerous laboratories, including those located in the Arabian world, where qPCR, which targets DNA, and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR, which targets RNA, are widely used for region-specific biotechnology, agricultural and human genetic studies. However, it has become increasingly apparent that there are significant problems with both the quality of qPCR-based data as well as the transparency of reporting. This realisation led to the publication of the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines in 2009 and their more widespread adoption in the last couple of years. An analysis of the performance of biomedical research in the Arabian world between 2001-2005 suggests that the Arabian world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Hence we have analysed specifically the quality of RT-qPCR-based peer-reviewed papers published since 2009 from Arabian researchers using a bespoke iOS/Android app developed by one of the authors. Our results show that compliance with 15 essential MIQE criteria was low (median of 40%, range 0-93% and few details on RNA quality controls (22% compliance, assays design (12%, RT strategies (32%, amplification efficiencies (30% and the normalisation process (3%. These data indicate that one of the reasons for the poor performance of Arabian world biomedical research may be the low standard of any supporting qPCR experiments and identify which aspects of qPCR experiments require significant improvements.

  2. Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.

  3. DISCRIMINATION OF GRANITOIDS AND MINERALIZED GRANITOIDS IN THE MIDYAN REGION, NORTHWESTERN ARABIAN SHIELD, SAUDI ARABIA, BY LANDSAT MSS DATA-ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Grolier, Maurice J.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band and band-ratio databases of two scenes covering the Midyan region of northwestern Saudi Arabia were examined quantitatively and qualitatively to determine which databases best discriminate the geologic units of this semi-arid and arid region. Unsupervised, linear-discriminant cluster-analysis was performed on these two band-ratio combinations and on the MSS bands for both scenes. The results for granitoid-rock discrimination indicated that the classification images using the MSS bands are superior to the band-ratio classification images for two reasons, discussed in the paper. Yet, the effects of topography and material type (including desert varnish) on the MSS-band data produced ambiguities in the MSS-band classification results. However, these ambiguities were clarified by using a simulated natural-color image in conjunction with the MSS-band classification image.

  4. A Dynamic Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Pan-Beibu Gulf region will be the growth engine for China-ASEAN cooperation After running a travel company in Cambodia for more than a decade,Mo Chunrong decided to return to Nanning, capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,

  5. Composition of Atmospheric Dust from Qatar in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Ansari, I. S.; Abdel-Moati, M.; Al-Ansi, M.; Paul, B.; Nelson, A.; Turner, J.; Murray, J. W.; Alfoldy, B. Z.; Mahfouz, M. M. K.; Giamberini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Samples of atmospheric dust from Qatar have been collected and analyzed for major and trace elemental composition. Twenty-one samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 from Doha, Al Khor, Katara, Sealine, and Al Waab by a variety of techniques. Some samples were collected during the megastorms that occurred in April 2015. Back trajectories were determined for each sample using the NOAA HYSPLIT model over a 50 hour time interval. Our samples were about equally divided between northerly (n=12; northern Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or Iraq) and southerly (n=8; SE Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Oman) sources. One sample originated directly westward, in Saudi Arabia. Samples were microwave-assisted total acid digested (HF+HCl+HNO3) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). There are only 12 out of 23 elements for which the Qatari dust was enriched relative to upper continental crust (UCC). Calcium was especially enriched at 400% relative to UCC. About 33% of the total sample mass was CaCO3, reflecting the composition of surface rocks in the source areas. Of the elements typically associated with anthropogenic activity, Ag, Ni and Zn were the most enriched relative to UCC, with enrichment factors of 182%, 233% and 209%, respectively. Others like Pb and V were not significantly enriched, with enrichment factors of 25% and 3%, respectively. The major elements Al, Mn and Fe were depleted relative to UCC because of the strong enrichment in CaCO3, with enrichment factors of -58%, -35% and -45% respectively. We separately averaged the samples with northern and southern origins to see if composition could be used to identify source. Only three elements had a statistical difference. Pb and Na were higher in the samples from the Se while Cr was higher in those from the north.

  6. Phytochemical Studies On The Marine Algae Of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Heiba, H. I. [حلمي اسماعيل هيبة

    1990-01-01

    The most dominant twenty three algal species representing the main three groups of benthic macroalgae, Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae were collected from the coastal zones of the Qatar peninsula. These algae were screened for alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The moisture, ash, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, minerals and trace elements content of the investigated algal species were determined. يشمل البحث المسح الكيميائي لثلاثة وعشرين طحلبا تمثل أكثر الأنو...

  7. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Cretaceous-Tertiary Coal Beds of the Gulf Coast Region, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 4.06 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas in Cretaceous-Tertiary coal beds of the onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  9. Anthropogenic and authigenic uranium in marine sediments of the central Gulf of California adjacent to the Santa Rosalía mining region

    OpenAIRE

    Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Sapozhnikov, Dmitry; Sapozhnikov, Yuri; Choumiline, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the causes of uranium (U) enrichment in marine sediments in the eastern sector of the Gulf of California, surface sediments and sediment cores were collected adjacent to the Santa Rosalı´a copper mining region in the Baja California peninsula. Three coastal sediment cores were found to display high concentrations of U (from 54.2 ± 7.3 mg kg-1 to 110 ± 13 mg kg-1) exceeding those found in the deeper cores (1.36 ± 0.26 mg kg-1 in the Guaymas Basin to 9.31 ± 3.03 mg kg-1 in the SR...

  10. Biodiversity of the deep-sea continental margin bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic: relationships among sub-regions and to shelf systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen E Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1 assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39-43°N, 63-71°W, 150-3000 m depth; (2 compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3 estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life

  11. Comparative Study of the CSR Initiatives of Microsoft, IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems in the Gulf Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sikander, Huzaifa

    2008-01-01

    An integral part of the MBA degree at University of Nottingham is the management project worth 60 credits which marks the completion of the degree. I got a chance to do my management project with Microsoft Corporation Gulf and was working with three other friends of mine. The project was a comparative study of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives of Microsoft with IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems. I was working in the project with three other friends of mine an...

  12. Generation of Wind Waves in the Persian Gulf: A Numerical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Kaihatu, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Persian Gulf is a long shallow basin located between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Wind-wave generation processes in the region are often affected by the shamal, a strong wind caused by the passage of cold fronts over the mountains of Turkey and Kurdistan. This can set up sudden energetic wind seas, hampering marine traffic. It is not immediately clear whether present wind-wave models can predict this intense, short-term growth and evolution under these conditions. Furthermore, few wave measurements or models studies have been performed in this area. In advance of a wind-wave generation experiment to be conducted off the Qatar coast, we performed a climatological study of the wind wave environment in the Persian Gulf. Using the SWAN wave model as a baseline of the state of the art, five years (2004-2008)of wind field model hindcasts from COAMPS are used as forcing.To investigate the sensitivity of the results to bathymetry, the climatological analysis was run twice more, with refraction or wave breaking deactivated, in turn. The results do not show significant differences with and without refraction, which implies the wind-wave process in Persian Gulf is less dominated by the variation of bathymetry. However the results show that a large amount of wave is dissipated by wave breaking. Wide, flat and shallow bathymetry in Persian Gulf results in a long-fetch scenario, particularly for waves arriving from the northwest. It implies that long period wind-generated waves can be fully generated in this region. Wave height is therefore fully grown by the long-fetch condition, so as to lead in higher possibility of wave breaking and energy dissipation.

  13. Hydrography and water masses in the southeastern Arabian Sea during March-June 2003

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S C Shenoi; D Shankar; G S Michael; J Kurian; K K Varma; M R Ramesh Kumar; A M Almeida; A S Unnikrishnan; W Fernandes; N Barreto; C Gnanaseelan; R Mathew; K V Praju; V Mahale

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes the hydrographic observations in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS)during two cruises carried out in March –June 2003 as part of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment.The surface hydrography during March –April was dominated by the intrusion of low-salinity waters from the south;during May –June,the low-salinity waters were beginning to be replaced by the high- salinity waters from the north.There was considerable mixing at the bottom of the surface mixed layer,leading to interleaving of low-salinity and high-salinity layers.The flow paths constructed following the spatial patterns of salinity along the sections mimic those inferred from numerical models.Time-series measurements showed the presence of Persian Gulf and Red Sea Waters in the SEAS to be intermittent during both cruises:they appeared and disappeared during both the fortnight-long time series.

  14. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Albian Clastic and Updip Albian Clastic Assessment Units, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-03-11

    U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessments (NOGA) of Albian aged clastic reservoirs in the U.S. Gulf Coast region indicate a relatively low prospectivity for undiscovered hydrocarbon resources due to high levels of past production and exploration. Evaluation of two assessment units (AUs), (1) the Albian Clastic AU 50490125, and (2) the Updip Albian Clastic AU 50490126, were based on a geologic model incorporating consideration of source rock, thermal maturity, migration, events timing, depositional environments, reservoir rock characteristics, and production analyses built on well and field-level production histories. The Albian Clastic AU is a mature conventional hydrocarbon prospect with undiscovered accumulations probably restricted to small faulted and salt-associated structural traps that could be revealed using high resolution subsurface imaging and from targeting structures at increased drilling depths that were unproductive at shallower intervals. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 37 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 152 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL). Limited exploration of the Updip Albian Clastic AU reflects a paucity of hydrocarbon discoveries updip of the periphery fault zones in the northern Gulf Coastal region. Restricted migration across fault zones is a major factor behind the small discovered fields and estimation of undiscovered resources in the AU. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 1 MMBO and 5 BCFG for the Updip Albian Clastic AU.

  15. Cruise report for a seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Mississippi Canyon region, northern Gulf of Mexico; cruise M1-98-GM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan K.; Hart, Patrick E.; Pecher, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    During June 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of Mississippi Marine Minerals Technology Center (MMTC) conducted a 12-day cruise in the Mississippi Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico (Fig. 1). The R/V Tommy Munro, owned by the Marine Research Institute of the University of Southern Mississippi, was chartered for the cruise. The general objective was to acquire very high resolution seismic-reflection data across of the upper and middle continental slope (200-1200-m water depths) to study the acoustic character, distribution and potential effects of gas hydrates within the shallow subsurface, extending from the sea floor down to the base of the gas-hydrate stability zone. The Gulf of Mexico is well known for hydrocarbon resources that include petroleum and related gases. Areas of the Gulf that lie in waters deeper than about 250 m potentially have conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, near-surface gas content, etc.) that are right for the shallow-subsurface formation of the ice-like substance (gas and water) known as gas hydrate (Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrates have previously been sampled in sea-floor cores and observed as massive mounds in several parts of the northern Gulf, including the Mississippi Canyon region (e.g., Anderson et al., 1992). Extensive seismic data have been recorded in the Gulf, in support of commercial drilling efforts, but few very high resolution data exist in the public domain to aid in gas-hydrate studies. Studies of long-term interest include those on the resource potential of gas hydrates, the geologic hazards associated with dissociation and formation of hydrates, and the impact, if any, of gas-hydrate dissociation on atmospheric warming (i.e., via release of methane, a "greenhouse" gas). Several very high resolution seismic systems (surface-towed, deep-towed, and sea-floor) were used during the cruise to test the feasibility of using such data for detailed structural (geometric) and stratigraphic (physical

  16. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: a national reference and comparison with international standards

    OpenAIRE

    P J Foster, A S Al Herbish, M I El Mouzan, A A Al Salloum, M M Al Qureshi, A A Al Omar, T Kecojevic.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish ...

  17. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  18. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S; Shetye, S; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S

    Levitus (1982) climatology has been used to identify four extrema, three maxima and one minimum, in the vertical salinity profiles in the Arabian Sea. Their geographical distribution, depths, theta-S characteristics, and seasonal variability...

  19. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health website for more information on healthy travel. Health care workers People who are traveling to provide health care services in the Arabian Peninsula should review CDC’s recommendations for infection control of confirmed or ...

  20. Primary productivity of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pant, A.

    Reversal of surface circulation during the monsoons, patchy nutrient distributions and high light intensity drive phytoplankton production processes in the tropical Arabian Sea. Available data are discussed in the light of these driving phenomena...

  1. Temperature, salinity, and oxygen; measured with a Seabird CTD system; The Anatomy of Gulf Stream Meanders; Fall of 1988 and Spring of 1989; Gulf Stream region South of Cape Cod (NODC Accession 9900100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The object was to probe in greater detail than has been possible in the past, the dynamical balances of Gulf Stream meanders and their change with time....

  2. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  3. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2013-04-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m-3 per year) was related to lower levels of SO42- (0.2 μg m-3 per year) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3- particles (0.1 μg m-3 per year) was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities

  4. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 yr−1 was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 yr−1 due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m−3 yr−1 was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of

  5. Pliocene-Quaternary contourites along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin: sedimentary stacking pattern and regional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llave, Estefanía; Matias, Hugo; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Ercilla, Gemma; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Medialdea, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    This study reports novel findings on the Pliocene-Quaternary history of the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin and the spatiotemporal evolution of the associated contourite depositional system. Four major seismic units (P1, P2, QI and QII) were identified in the Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary record based on multichannel seismic profiles. These are bounded by five major discontinuities which, from older to younger, are the M (Messinian), LPR (lower Pliocene revolution), BQD (base Quaternary discontinuity), MPR (mid-Pleistocene revolution) and the actual seafloor. Unit P1 represents pre-contourite hemipelagic/pelagic deposition along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin. Unit P2 reflects a significant change in margin sedimentation when contourite deposition started after the Early Pliocene. Mounded elongated and separated drifts were generated during unit QI deposition, accompanied by a general upslope progradation of drifts and the migration of main depocentres towards the north and northwest during both the Pliocene and Quaternary. This progradation became particularly marked during QII deposition after the mid-Pleistocene (MPR). Based on the spatial distribution of the main contourite depocentres and their thickness, three structural zones have been identified: (1) an eastern zone, where NE-SW diapiric ridges have controlled the development of two internal sedimentary basins; (2) a central zone, which shows important direct control by the Guadalquivir Bank in the south and an E-W Miocene palaeorelief structure in the north, both of which have significantly conditioned the basin-infill geometry; and (3) a western zone, affected in the north by the Miocene palaeorelief which favours deposition in the southern part of the basin. Pliocene tectonic activity has been an important factor in controlling slope morphology and, hence, influencing Mediterranean Outflow Water pathways. Since the mid-Pleistocene (MPR), the sedimentary stacking pattern of contourite drifts has been

  6. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  7. Status of Flora and Fauna of Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    developments are planned in an ecofriendly manner to maintain the high productivity and biodiversity of the Gulf region. In this context, Department of Ocean Development, Government of India is planning a strategy for management of the Gulf adopting...

  8. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  9. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  10. How a seven-year ocean observatory is influencing our understanding of physical and biological processes in northern Arabian Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Dimarco, S. F.; Al-Kharusi, L. H.; Belabbassi, L.; Ingle, S.

    2012-12-01

    An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled system in the Sea of Oman and an internally-recording, autonomous mooring system recently upgraded to a cabled system in the northern Arabian Sea—was installed in 2005. The two arrays have collected a continuous seven-year time series record of current velocities, temperature, pressure, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity in a region where several water masses converge and subsequently spread southward to the Indian Ocean. The systems have provided new insights into physical and biological oceanographic processes of the northwestern Indian Ocean, which is strongly affected by the monsoonal oscillation, along with lessons learned and best practices in the operation and application of ocean observatories to ocean science. In this presentation, we show four recent studies for the scientific highlights derived from the data collected from the two systems and supporting data from other sources. The topics of those four studies include: (1) The seasonality associated with the upwelling of low oxygen water on the northern Oman coast and insights on the inter-annual variability of this process; (2) The deep-water oceanic responses excited by the passage of Cyclone Gonu, the largest-ever recorded cyclone in the region; (3) The temporal and spatial evolution of an acoustic backscatter layer; (4) The pulse-like salinity/temperature events in the northeastern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. In summary, the observatory provides a long-term time series with which to perform basic scientific research related to characterizing the general dynamical patterns of the region, quantifying seasonal variability of water column properties, and establishing a time series of sufficient duration to deduce the potential impacts of climate change. Furthermore, observations taken over the full, 20+ year lifetime of a typical cabled system will be extremely useful for evaluating numerical ocean circulation and coupled atmospheric

  11. Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nayak, R.K.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Nampoothiri, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; Michael, G.S.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Sundar, D.; Sreejith, O.P.

    Hydrographic observations in the eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) during summer monsoon 2002 (during the first phase of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX)) include two approximately fortnight-long CTD time series. A barrier layer was observed...

  12. Ecology and biology of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Extensive studies on occurrence, distribution and species composition of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea were carried out from various habitats. Luminous bacterial population was by far the highest in the environs of the Arabian Sea...

  13. A suggested local regions in the Southern Gulf of Mexico using a diatom database (1979-2002) and oceanic hidrographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licea, Sergio; Zamudio, Ma E; Moreno-Ruiz, J L; Luna, R

    2011-07-01

    A diatom data-base of 255 species obtained from 14 oceanographic cruises (14801 entries of 647 sampling sites) together with the analysis of oceanic features were used to establish four local regions in the southern Gulf of Mexico. In addition, common species for each region were designated. This study is based on the application of cluster analysis and the species frequency data. Material for this undertaking consisted of water and net samples obtained between June 1979 and December 2002. Results show that the most frequent species (> 40%) were: Asterionellopsis glacialis, Bacteriastrum delicatulum, B. hyalinum, Chaetoceros affinis, C. coarctatus, C. compresus, C. curvisetus, C. danicus, C. decipiens, C. diversus, C. lorenzianus, C. pelagicus, C. peruvianus, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Cylindrotheca closterium, Guinardia flaccida, Hemiaulus hauckii, H. membranaceus, H. sinensis, Leptocylindrus danicus, Neocalyptrella robusta, Nitzschia bicapitata, Pleurosigma diverse-striatum, Proboscia alata, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, Rhizosolenia imbricata, R. setigera, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema bacillare, T frauenfeldii, T nitzschioides and Thalassiosira eccentrica. The species composition for each region and season are discussed. Itis concluded that sampling site assemblages are related to oceanographic conditions. A total list of species composition is given, forty-seven species taxa being new records for this area. PMID:22315823

  14. Estimation of eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper layers of equatorial Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zavialov, P.O.; Murty, V.S.N.

    in the Central Equatorial Arabian Sea (CEAS). A comparison of the model computed K sub(h) values with those estimated from the heat balance of the upper layer (50 m) of the sea shows good agreement in the region of weak winds (CEAS) or low turbulent mixing regime...

  15. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

    2001-02-01

    The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

  16. Eddies reduce denitrification and compress habitats in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Smith, Shafer; Lévy, Marina; Pauluis, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The combination of high biological production and weak oceanic ventilation in regions, such as the northern Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific and Atlantic, cause large-scale oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that profoundly affect marine habitats and alter key biogeochemical cycles. Here we investigate the effects of eddies on the Arabian Sea OMZ—the world's thickest—using a suite of regional model simulations with increasing horizontal resolution. We find that isopycnal eddy transport of oxygen to the OMZ region limits the extent of suboxia so reducing denitrification, increasing the supply of nitrate to the surface, and thereby enhancing biological production. That same enhanced production generates more organic matter in the water column, amplifying oxygen consumption below the euphotic zone, thus increasing the extent of hypoxia. Eddy-driven ventilation likely plays a similar role in other low-oxygen regions and thus may be crucial in shaping marine habitats and modulating the large-scale marine nitrogen cycle.

  17. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean, frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  18. Local population structure in Arabian Peninsula revealed by Y-STR diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamali, Farida; Pereira, Luísa; Budowle, Bruce; Poloni, Estella S; Currat, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies have been underway on Arabian Peninsula populations because of their pivotal geographic location for population migration and times of occurrence. To assist in better understanding population dynamics in this region, evidence is presented herein on local population structure in the Arabian Peninsula, based on Y-STR characterisation in four Arabian samples and its comparison in a broad geographical scale. Our results demonstrate that geography played an important role in shaping the genetic structure of the region around the Near-East. Populations are grouped regionally but none of these groups is significantly differentiated from others and all groups merge in the Near-East, in keeping with this important migration corridor for the human species. Focusing on the Arabian Peninsula, we show that Dubai and Oman share genetic affinities with other Near-Eastern populations, while Saudi Arabia and Yemen show a relative distinctive isolated background. Those two populations may have been kept relatively separated from migration routes, maybe due to their location in a desert area.

  19. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sabbah, Ismail; Sorribas, Mar; Adame, José Antonio; Cuevas, Emilio; Sharifi, Faisal Al; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR) values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean), frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula) as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr) is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  20. Simulation of Surface Ozone Pollution in the Central Gulf Coast Region Using WRF/Chem Model: Sensitivity to PBL and Land Surface Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model is used to simulate air quality in the Mississippi Gulf coastal region at a high resolution (4 km for a moderately severe summer ozone episode between 18 CST 7 and 18 CST 10 June 2006. The model sensitivity is studied for meteorological and gaseous criteria pollutants (O3, NO2 using three Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL and four land surface model (LSM schemes and comparison of model results with monitoring station observations. Results indicated that a few combinations of PBL and LSMs could reasonably produce realistic meteorological fields and that the combination of Yonsei University (YSU PBL and NOAH LSM provides best predictions for winds, temperature, humidity and mixed layer depth in the study region for the period of study. The diurnal range in ozone concentration is better estimated by the YSU PBL in association with either 5-layer or NOAH land surface model. The model seems to underestimate the ozone concentrations in the study domain because of underestimation of temperatures and overestimation of winds. The underestimation of NO2 by model suggests the necessity of examining the emission data in respect of its accurate representation at model resolution. Quantitative analysis for most monitoring stations indicates that the combination of YSU PBL with NOAH LSM provides the best results for various chemical species with minimum BIAS, RMSE, and high correlation values.

  1. Acoustic estimates of methane gas flux from the seabed in a 6000 km2 region in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas C.; Mayer, Larry; Jerram, Kevin; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Rzhanov, Yuri; Lovalvo, Dave

    2014-05-01

    of free methane gas escaping the seabed can be found throughout the ocean basins. To understand the role of methane gas seeps in the global carbon cycle—including both gas added to the atmosphere and that which is dissolved and potentially oxidized in the ocean volume—it is important to quantify the amount of methane escaping the seabed. Few large-scale mapping projects of natural methane seeps have been undertaken, however, and even among these, quantitative estimates of flux are rare. Here we use acoustic mapping techniques to survey 357 natural methane seeps in a large region (6000 km2) of the northern Gulf of Mexico and outline a general approach for methane seep mapping using a combination of multibeam and split-beam echo sounders. Using additional measurements collected with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) together with the acoustic mapping results, we estimate the total gas flux within the 6000 km2 region to be between 0.0013 and 0.16 Tg/yr, or between 0.003 and 0.3% of the current estimates for global seabed methane seepage rates.

  2. Interannual variation in summer N2O concentration in the hypoxic region of the northern Gulf of Mexico, 1985–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.-N. Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence of temporal variation in nitrous oxide (N2O concentrations in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM hypoxic zone. The analysis is based on a conceptual model simulating N2O biogeochemical processes in conjunction with water-column O2 levels, derived from summer Texas–Louisiana shelf-wide hydrographic data for twenty Julys between 1985 and 2007. The mean modeled nGOM N2O concentration was 7.7 ± 6.7 nmol L−1, and was significantly correlated with the areal extent of hypoxia. Our modeling analysis indicates that the nGOM is a persistent summer source of N2O, and nitrification is a primary factor leading to its production in this region. Based on the ongoing increase in the areal extent of hypoxia in the nGOM, we conclude that N2O emission from this environmentally stressed region will continue to increase into the future contributing to the global increase in greenhouse gases.

  3. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Vicente M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546 and complete mtDNA (7 sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%, detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62% of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the

  5. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  6. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  7. Temperature Trends and Distribution in the Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. ElNesr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Temperature trend’s investigation is important for proper water resources management and urban planning. This study aims to investigate trends and distribution of temperature in the past thirty years for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, which represents about 86% of the Arabian Peninsula’s area. Approach: The trend in the temperature time series, including the recorded maximum, average and minimum daily values, were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. These were Mann-Kendall tau coefficient and Sen’s slope estimator. Results: (1: The study showed a warming trend through 9 months of the year except in November to January where non-significant cooling trends were observed. (2: The most significant warming trend appears in the summer months of June, August and September around the central region of KSA. (3 Spatially, The northwestern and southern regions were the least affected by the warming trend. Conclusion: The study concluded that KSA as well as the Arabian Peninsula are suffering from a considerable warming temperature trend, which is an important issue to be considered for rural development and water resources management.

  8. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  9. Precipitable Water Vapor Characterization In The Gulf Of Cadiz Region (Southwestern Spain) Based On Sun Photometer, GPS And Radiosonde Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, B.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Berjon, A.; de Frutos, A. M.; Bennouna, Yasmine; Laulainen, Nels S.

    2010-09-16

    Column integrated water vapor (IWV) data in the Gulf of Cádiz area (Southwestern Spain) are analyzed during the period 2001 to 2005 with two aims: 1) to establish the climatology over this area using three different techniques, such as Sun-Photometer (SP), Global Position System (GPS) and Radiosondes, and 2) to take advantage of this comparative process to assess the quality of radiometric IWV data collected at the RIMA-AERONET station. The 5 years of climatological series gives a mean value of about 2 cm (STD=0.72) and a clear seasonal behavior as a general feature, with the highest values in summer and the lowest in winter. In the multi-annual monthly means basis, the highest values are reached in August-September, with a mean value of 2.5-2.6 cm, whereas the lowest are obtained in January-February, with an average of 1.4-24 1.5. However the most relevant results for this area is the observed local minimum in July, occurring during the maximum of desert dust intrusions in the southern Iberian Peninsula. A comparison process allows us to evaluate the agreement of IWV data sets between these three different techniques at different temporal scales because of different time sampling. On a daily basis and taking GPS as the reference value we have a bias or difference between Radiosonde and GPS measurements for the entire data base of 0.07 cm (relative bias of 3%) and RMSE of 0.33. For SP-GPS we have a bias of 0.14 cm (about 7%) and RMSE of 0.37. On a monthly basis the differences between Radiosonde and GPS values varies from summer with 2% to winter with -8% and between SP and GPS values from 3% in summer to -14% in winter. The observed bias between GPS and SP varies during each SP operational period, with lower values at the beginning of the measurements and increasing until the end of its measurement term and with the bias values being quite dependent on each individual SP. The observed differences highlight the importance of drift in each Sun-Photometer, because

  10. Consequences of Chixculub Impact for the Tectonic and Geodynamic Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico North Carribean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangin, C.; Crespy, A.; Martinez-Reyes, J.

    2013-05-01

    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  11. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of the evaporation duct in the Gulf of Aden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An evaporation duct climatology is constructed for the Gulf of Aden using a 31-year high-resolution data set from the climate reanalysis product National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. The climatology reveals spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the evaporation duct height (EDH regulated by the strong interplay between the seasonal monsoon reversals and the related atmospheric and oceanic responses. It also reveals that the Gulf of Aden exhibits a special EDH distribution that is distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea when the south-west monsoon dominates the gulf. Under these conditions, the EDH of the entire gulf is significantly higher than that of the adjoining Arabian Sea. A cliff-style EDH drop (referred to as the EDH cliff forms at the mouth of the Gulf of Aden. Furthermore, the influence of the EDH cliff on marine radar was investigated using a ray-optics method. Based on the analysis, it was found that the local EDH significantly affects the radar detection ability beneath the evaporation duct for ships sailing in the Gulf of Aden.

  13. Past, present, and future changes in marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Katharina; Segschneider, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The work presented here aims at a better understanding of the Asian Monsoon system including the marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea. Changes in the past as recorded in marine sediments, as simulated over the past 1000 years, and under forcing by anthropogenic CO2 emissions by numerical model simulations are investigated. The investigation is based on three columns: a sediment core taken in the Arabian Sea (core SO130-275KL taken off Pakistan), a pre-industrial model run from 850 - 1850 with the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) including the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle and forced by solar variations and volcanic eruptions, and a continuation of this simulation to 2005 under the historical anthropogenic CO2 forcing which allows a comparison with present day climatology. In a first step we compare model results for a set of biogeochemical tracers within the water column and the sediment mixed with observations in the Arabian Sea. We further analyse correlations between Monsoon forcing (represented by zonal wind speed at 850 hPA, short wave radiation, Indian summer precipitation) and biogeochemical parameters, with particular focus on denitrification rates and fluxes to the sediment. This analysis is focused on three regions: off Somalia and off Oman for the summer monsoon, and the central Arabian Sea for the winter monsoon. For the summer monsoon, the highest correlation is found between zonal wind speed and calcite flux to the sediment off Somalia, for the winter monsoon the correlation is highest for short wave radiation in the central Arabian Sea. Time series of mixed layer depth and integrated primary production within the upper 100 m of the ocean from a CMIP5 historical experiment (1850-2005) show, at the location of the sediment core SO130-275KL, little correlation during the summer monsoon, but good correlation during the winter monsoon. As a result, the sediment core is more likely to document winter monsoon conditions

  14. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  15. Patterns of the loop current system and regions of sea surface height variability in the eastern Gulf of Mexico revealed by the self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Vignudelli, Stefano; Mitchum, Gary T.

    2016-04-01

    The Self-Organizing Map (SOM), an unsupervised learning neural network, is employed to extract patterns evinced by the Loop Current (LC) system and to identify regions of sea surface height (SSH) variability in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from 23 years (1993-2015) of altimetry data. Spatial patterns are characterized as different LC extensions and different stages in the process of LC eddy shedding. The temporal evolutions and the frequency of occurrences of these patterns are obtained, and the typical trajectories of the LC system progression on the SOM grid are investigated. For an elongated, northwest-extended, or west-positioned LC, it is common for the LC anticyclonic eddy (LCE) to separate and propagate into the western GoM, while an initially separated LCE in close proximity to the west Florida continental slope often reattaches to the LC and develops into an elongated LC, or reduces intensity locally before moving westward as a smaller eddy. Regions of differing SSH variations are also identified using the joint SOM-wavelet analysis. Along the general axis of the LC, SSH exhibits strong variability on time scales of 3 months to 2 years, also with energetic intraseasonal variations, which is consistent with the joint Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF)-wavelet analysis. In the more peripheral regions, the SSH has a dominant seasonal variation that also projects across the coastal ocean. The SOM, when applied to both space and time domains of the same data, provides a powerful tool for diagnosing ocean processes from such different perspectives.

  16. Reactivation of the Pleistocene trans-Arabian Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system (Saudi Arabia) during the Holocene humid phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Albert; Mahjoub, Ayman; Neubert, Eike; Preusser, Frank; Schwalb, Antje; Szidat, Sönke; Wulf, Gerwin

    2016-10-01

    The Wadi ad Dawasir fluvial system in central Saudi Arabia is investigated using remote sensing and sedimentology, in combination with bio-proxy analyses (molluscs and ostracods). Age control is provided by radiocarbon as well as luminescence dating, using both quartz and feldspar grains. It is shown that the fluvial system was active from the Asir Mountains across the partially sand-covered interior of the Arabian Peninsula to the Arabian Gulf during the Holocene humid period. Sedimentology and faunal analysis reveal the presence of perennial streams and a permanent freshwater lake in the distal reach of the Dawasir system that are synchronous with fluvial accumulation in the headwaters of its major tributary, Wadi Tathlith. The increased runoff during the Holocene led to a re-activation of streams that largely followed pre-existing Late Pleistocene courses and eroded into older sediments. The absence of Holocene lakes in most of the Rub' al-Khali implies that trans-Arabian rivers were mainly fed by precipitation in the Asir Mountains. Monsoonal rainfall was apparently stronger there as well as in the northern, south-eastern and southern part of the Arabian Peninsula (southern Yemen and Oman), but it apparently did not directly affect the interior during the Holocene. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows a narrow trans-Arabian green freshwater corridor as the result of phases of sustained flow lasting up to several centuries. The permanent availability of water and subsistence for wildlife provided a favourable environment for human occupation as documented by Neolithic stone tools that are found all along Wadi ad Dawasir.

  17. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1994-01-28

    Task 2 (Preparation of the Sampling and Analysis Plan) activities involved the incorporation of the offshore site selection process into the Sampling and Analysis Plan. Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) work included making decisions on tissue analyses and performing analyses of water and sediment samples. Task 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved the completion of the spring benthos samples collection on pre-termination samples at Four Isle Dome and the first post-termination samples at Delacroix Island. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gum of Mexico Region) activities included continued work on development of a base case production forecast, modeling future production, and determining economic impact of treatment technologies. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) work involved the completion of the fall survey season and the initiation of the survey data assembly. Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities included presentations at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry annual meeting and Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management.

  18. Metagenomics of Water Column Microbes Near Brine Pool NR1 and adjacent regions of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Collected in Fall 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. M.; Goodwin, K. D.; Brami, D.; Schwartz, A.; Toledo, G.

    2012-12-01

    High-throughput sequencing was applied to eight water column samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico in 2009 in regions SW and west of the 2010 Macondo oil spill. Samples were collected by Niskin-equipped CTD (~200 and ~650 m depths) at two locations, including a site over a methane brine pool (Brine Pool NR1). In addition, seawater was collected ~3m lateral of the pool (649m depth) via Niskin bottle equipped on the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible. Unassembled reads were submitted to the Synthetic Genomics bioinformatics pipeline for taxonomic analysis. The distribution of Bacteria (56-73%), Archae (7-16%), Eukaryotes (12-23%), and unclassified sequences (6-10%) were similar for all samples. However, certain taxonomic classifications were relatively more abundant in deeper samples, and differences were noted for samples collected by submersible. For example, Methylophaga was classified as 38% of the order Thiotrichales for the Niskin/submersible sample compared to 0% in the 200m-depth samples and 3-11% in the 650m samples. Methylophaga is a genus of indigenous methylotrophs reported to respond during the Deepwater Horizon event of 2010. In contrast, sequence abundance for Oceanospirillales, also reported to respond during the event, was similar for all samples (6-9% of the gamma-proteobacteria).

  19. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  20. The nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bange, H.W.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    to enhanced rates of denitrification that occur in suboxic portions of the water column in the Arabian Sea. Sedimentary denitrification is small compared to water column denitrification, and additions of fixed-N via N sub(2) fixation also are small compared...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients, and other variables collected from surface only or profile discrete sampling observations using Niskin bottle and other instruments in the Gulf of Alaska region from 2007-05-19 to 2013-07-22 (NCEI Accession 0132049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package includes environmental data from the Gulf of Alaska region. Samples were collected between May 2007 and July 2013.

  2. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  3. Latitudinal and longitudinal variation in aerosol characteristics from Sun photometer and MODIS over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumita Kedia; S Ramachandran

    2008-07-01

    Spatial variations in aerosol optical properties as function of latitude and longitude are analysed over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB cruise period of March–May 2006 from in situ sun photometer and MODIS (Terra, Aqua) satellite measurements. Monthly mean 550 nm aerosol optical depths (AODs) over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea show an increase from March to May both in spatial extent and magnitude. AODs are found to increase with latitude from 4°N to 20°N over the Bay of Bengal while over Arabian Sea, variations are not significant. Sun photometer and MODIS AODs agree well within ± 1 variation. Bay of Bengal AOD (0.28) is higher than the Arabian Sea (0.24) latitudinally. Aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) is higher than 0.6 over Bay of Bengal, while FMF in the Arabian Sea is about 0.5. Bay of Bengal (∼1) is higher than the Arabian Sea value of 0.7, suggesting the dominance of fine mode aerosols over Bay of Bengal which is corroborated by higher FMF values over Bay of Bengal. Air back trajectory analyses suggest that aerosols from different source regions contribute differently to the optical characteristics over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

  4. Carbon fluxes in the Arabian Sea: Export versus recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, Tim; Gaye, Birgit; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani

    2016-04-01

    The organic carbon pump strongly influences the exchange of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere. It is known that it responds to global change but the magnitude and the direction of change are still unpredictable. Sediment trap experiments carried out at various sites in the Arabian Sea between 1986 and 1998 have shown differences in the functioning of the organic carbon pump (OCP). An OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton operated in the upwelling region off Oman and during the spring bloom in the northern Arabian Sea. Cyanobacteria capable of fixing nitrogen seem to dominate the phytoplankton community during all other seasons. The export driven by cyanobacteria was much lower than the export driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton. Productivity and nutrient availability seems to be a main factor controlling fluxes during blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton. The ballast effect caused by inputs of dust into the ocean and its incorporation into sinking particles seems to be the main factor controlling the export during times when cyanobacteria dominate the phytoplankton community. C/N ratios of organic matter exported from blooms dominated by nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are enhanced and, furthermore, indicate a more efficient recycling of nutrients at shallower water depth. This implies that the bacterial-driven OCP operates more in a recycling mode that keeps nutrients closer to the euphotic zone whereas the OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton reduces the recycling of nutrients by exporting them into greater water-depth.

  5. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  6. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  7. Study of Diurnal Cycle Variability of Planetary Boundary Layer Characteristics over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Weigang

    2012-07-01

    This work is aimed at investigating diurnal cycle variability of the planetary boundary layer characteristics over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea region. To fulfill this goal the downscaling simulations are performed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We analyze planetary boundary layer height, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and surface air temperature. The model results are compared with observations in different areas, for different seasons, and for different model resolutions. The model results are analyzed in order to better quantify the diurnal cycle variability over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. The specific features of this region are investigated and discussed.

  8. The Pact of Baghdad on Account of its Effect to Relationship of Turkish - Arabian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bostancı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The base of Baghdad Pact, which was organized for the purposes of preventing penetration of the Soviet Union into Middle East, was laid by a convention entered by and between Turkey and Iraq on February 24, 1955, and Iran, Pakistan and England joined the pact at a later date. Effects of Baghdad Pact, which alienated Turkey from the region while reinforcing anti-western camp, on Arabian society were not positive at all; particularly Egypt protested against this pact accepting it to be the heaviest strike on Arabian Union. No Arabian state other than Iraq has taken part in this convention, which is kept open to member states of Arabian Union as well as governments of Middle East wishing to create cooperation. Iraq Government officially announced its secession from Baghdad Pact in 1959 upon the military coup of General Kasım, which was replaced by a new convention including the USA with the new center in Ankara. The name of pact was changed to be Central Treaty Organization (CENTO. Organization completed its historical mission after Iran’s Islamic Revolution in 1979.

  9. Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosley Thomas M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Regulation of eutrophication susceptibility in oligohaline regions of a northern Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors regulating the eutrophication susceptibility of seven oligohaline regions in the sub-estuaries of Mobile Bay, Alabama were examined in a comparative analysis. The oligohaline regions differed primarily by the dominant land-use of their upstream watersheds, with two of the regions being primarily urban, two being primarily agricultural, and three being primarily forested. A stepwise model selection procedure was used to determine a suite of multiple regression models describing eutrophication response, in terms of a chlorophyll a (chla) on a sampling event basis, in relation to estuarine mixing time scales, nutrient concentrations, light availability, and watershed delivery of freshwater and nutrients. The models indicated a strong positive relationship between chla and mixing time scales (i.e., residence time or freshwater flushing time). Mixing time scales longer than five days allowed maximum chla (64 μg l-1), while lowest chla (-1) occurred when mixing time scales were less than two days. Of the watershed inputs, chla exhibited opposing relationships with the components of freshwater load, having a negative relationship with discharge and a positive relationship with incoming freshwater nitrogen concentrations. Estuarine phosphorus concentrations and photosynthetically active radiation were also found to be good descriptors of chla. The comparative approach employed here allowed for the development of empirical models that were used to determine the nutrient concentration reductions required to achieve a trophic state of -1 chla. The average reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus needed to achieve this trophic state ranged from 0 to 32%

  11. Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-04-01

    The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating masses remains the same. We compare two alternative models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which cannot be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also, the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from existing seismic observations. The second isostatic model includes the Moho, which is based on seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). According to this model, the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield is less dense than under the Platform. In the Arabian platform, the maximum density coincides with the Rub' al Khali, one of the richest oil basin in the world. This finding agrees with previous studies, showing that such basins are often underlain by dense mantle, possibly related to an eclogite layer that has caused their subsidence. The mantle density variations might be also a result of variations of the lithosphere thickness. With the combined isostatic model, it is possible to minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies correspond well to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies, showing isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere, are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  12. Northern Gulf Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  13. Gulf cooperation council: Problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Few other regions in the world have as much strategic, economic, and political significance for the Western world as does the Persian Gulf. Oil and economics are only two factors. Geopolitics and strategic location are also critical.

  14. Thermocline regulated seasonal evolution of surface chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  15. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  16. Baseline concentration of {sup 210}Po in Sargassum from the Northern Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, S.; Bebhehani, M.; Talebi, L. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of the {sup 210}Po is of enormous interest because of its large contribution to the natural radiation dose received by marine organisms and human populations consuming seafood. In fact natural {sup 210}Po is responsible for higher radiation doses to humans consuming marine products than is plutonium and other man-made radionuclides. Many marine organisms are capable of concentrating {sup 210}Po in their tissues. {sup 210}Po is an alpha emitter in the {sup 238}U series, with 138-d half-life, that is supplied to seawater from atmospheric inputs and river runoff, however, the main source of {sup 210}Po in the environment is {sup 222}Rn exhalation from the ground. Assessing the impact of radionuclides in the environment requires the establishment of baseline levels in the environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to establish baseline levels in Sargassum. Two most common species of Sargassum found in the northern Gulf were analysed for {sup 210}Po. These macro-algae were collected from three different locations during January 2013. This study sets the baseline for {sup 210}Po concentration in northern Gulf, {sup 210}Po is absorbed from water and concentrated by Phytoplankton and macro-algae. This concentrated {sup 210}Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The {sup 210}Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (4.405 - 4.952 BqKg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (p>0.084) than Sargassum oligocystum (3.838 - 4.358 BqKg{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentration in these seaweeds from the Arabian/Persian Gulf were substantially lower than those found in various Phytoplankton and macro-algae species from other regions; this may be due to the lower background {sup 210}Po concentration in the Kuwait marine waters (0.282 - 0.382 mBq l{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentrations in seawater measured at the 3 stations during January 2013 were less than those reported previously from the same region

  17. Sensing Seasonality in the Arabian Sea: a coupled δ18O-Mg/Ca approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feldmeijer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Millennial scale climate variability punctuates the record of Northern Hemisphere glacials in the form of Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles. The coldest episodes within these cycles have a marked impact on the location of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone and thereby the intensity and extent of the Asian monsoon system. Arabian Sea oceanography is closely linked to the monsoon cycle and responds rapidly to changes therein. Seasonally varying upwelling intensity, adhesive mixing and the resulting variability on sea surface temperature and salinity, however, make it challenging to precisely reconstruct the behaviour of the Indian monsoon system through the Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles. To reconstruct impact of millennial-scale changes in the monsoon on the Arabian Sea, paired single-specimen Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotope analyses were performed on three species of planktonic foraminifera from the northern as well as the western Arabian Sea. Mismatches between Mg/Ca- and δ18O-derived temperatures reflect changes in salinity caused by regional variability in the hydrological cycle. Comparison of Mg/Ca-derived temperatures from Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei over Heinrich Event 4 and Interstadial 8 allows for reconstructing the seasonal range in temperatures (minima and maxima and vertical stratification of the water column during these intervals. Results show that Arabian Sea surface water temperatures were lower during the North Atlantic Heinrich Event 4, and that temperatures in the northern and western Arabian Sea differed relatively much. This implies that the north east monsoon (i.e. boreal winter was enhanced during this interval. In contrast, the summer upwelling related species G. bulloides reveals lower temperatures during Interstadial 8 in the western Arabian Sea, showing an enhanced summer monsoon during the warmers stages of millennial-scale climate variability. Together, these results show that

  18. Source Functions and Path Effects from Earthquakes in the Farallon Transform Fault Region, Gulf of California, Mexico that Occurred on October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Stock, Joann M.; Hauksson, Egill; Clayton, Robert W.

    2016-07-01

    We determined source spectral functions, Q and site effects using regional records of body waves from the October 19, 2013 (M w = 6.6) earthquake and eight aftershocks located 90 km east of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We also analyzed records from a foreshock with magnitude 3.3 that occurred 47 days before the mainshock. The epicenters of this sequence are located in the south-central region of the Gulf of California (GoC) near and on the Farallon transform fault. This is one of the most active regions of the GoC, where most of the large earthquakes have strike-slip mechanisms. Based on the distribution of the aftershocks, the rupture propagated northwest with a rupture length of approximately 27 km. We calculated 3-component P- and S-wave spectra from ten events recorded by eleven stations of the Broadband Seismological Network of the GoC (RESBAN). These stations are located around the GoC and provide good azimuthal coverage (the average station gap is 39°). The spectral records were corrected for site effects, which were estimated calculating average spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components (HVSR method). The site-corrected spectra were then inverted to determine the source functions and to estimate the attenuation quality factor Q. The values of Q resulting from the spectral inversion can be approximated by the relations Q_{P} = 48.1 ± 1.1 f^{0.88 ± 0.04} and Q_{S} = 135.4 ± 1.1 f^{0.58 ± 0.03} and are consistent with previous estimates reported by Vidales-Basurto et al. (Bull Seism Soc Am 104:2027-2042, 2014) for the south-central GoC. The stress drop estimates, obtained using the ω2 model, are below 1.7 MPa, with the highest stress drops determined for the mainshock and the aftershocks located in the ridge zone. We used the values of Q obtained to recalculate source and site effects with a different spectral inversion scheme. We found that sites with low S-wave amplification also tend to have low P-wave amplification, except

  19. OSL chronology of onshore cyclone deposits at Point Lefroy (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia) - Implications for washover fan formation and regional cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dominik; May, Simon Matthias; Shah-Hosseini, Majid; Leopold, Matthias; Callow, Nik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Although frequently occurring, little is known about the geological imprint of (pre)historical tropical cyclones (TCs) in Northwestern Australia. Large washover fans at Point Lefroy (Exmouth Gulf) provide unambiguous morphological evidence of flooding by TCs capable to overtop and breach the local coastal barrier. Based on ground penetrating radar, unmanned aerial vehicle survey techniques, as well as geomorphological, sedimentological and chronological investigations, this research aims at reconstructing the formation of the washover fans, and understanding their significance for recording past TC activity. The stratigraphy of the washover fans is characterized by multiple depositional units, which are separated by palaeosurfaces with initial pedogenesis. Combining the chronostratigraphical record of the different washover fans at Point Lefroy is assumed to reflect the regional TC magnitude-frequency pattern, reaching far beyond historical records. While reworking of calcareous faunal remains biases the application of radiocarbon dating, we carried out optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating in order to establish a robust chronology of TC-induced washover deposition. OSL dating was challenged by spatially heterogeneous dose rates within the poorly sorted mixture of quartz and coral fragments, by incomplete signal resetting, and by sediment mixing during and, most likely, after transportation. However, by successfully constraining the contribution of each of these factors - using a combination of single-grain quartz dating, quasi-continuous luminescence profiling, spatially resolved dose rate determination, and dose rate modelling - the final chronology gives insight into the evolution of the geo-archive and, ultimately, into the local to regional TC history. Based on up to three sediment profiles from each fan structure, two different washover fans were OSL dated. While contemporaneous deposition at both landforms suggest that the two geomorphological

  20. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region.

  1. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. PMID:26120422

  2. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  3. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir; Engelbrecht, Johann P.

    2016-09-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  4. A seismic-reflection investigation of gas hydrates and sea-floor features of the upper continental slope of the Garden Banks and Green Canyon regions, northern Gulf of Mexico: report for cruise G1-99-GM (99002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan; Twichell, David; Hart, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    During April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a 13-day cruise in the Garden Banks and Green Canyon regions of the Gulf of Mexico. The R/V Gyre, owned by Texas A&M University, was chartered for the cruise. The general objectives were (1) to acquire very high resolution seismic-reflection data and side-scan sonar images of the upper and middle continental slope (200-1200-m water depths), (2) to study the acoustic character and features of the sea floor for evidence of sea-floor hazards, and (3) to look for evidence of subsurface gas hydrates and their effects. The Gulf of Mexico is well known for hydrocarbon resources, with emphasis now on frontier deep-water areas. For water depths greater than about 250 m, the pressure-termperature conditions are correct for the development of shallow-subsurface gas hydrate formation (Anderson et al., 1992). Gas hydrates are ice-like mixtures of gas and water (Kvenvolden, 1993). They are known to be present from extensive previous sampling in sea-floor cores and from mound-like features observed on the sea floor in many parts of the northern Gulf, including the Green Canyon and Garden Banks areas (e.g., Roberts, 1995). Seismic-reflection data are extensive in the Gulf of Mexico, but few very-high-resolution data like those needed for gas-hydrate studies exist in the public domain. The occurrence and mechanisms of gas hydrate formation and dissociation are important to understand, because of their perceived economic potential for methane gas, their potential controls on local and regional sea-floor stability, and their possible effects on earth climates due to massive release of methane greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Three high-resolution seismic-reflection systems and one side-scan sonar system were used on the cruise to map the surface reflectance and features of the sea floor and the acoustic geometries and character of the shallow sub-surface. The cruise was designed to acquire regional and detailed local

  5. Physical control of primary productivity on a seasonal scale in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Prasanna kumar; M Madhupratap; M Dileep kumar; M Gauns; P M Muraleedharan; V V S S Sarma; S N De Souza

    2000-12-01

    Using in situ data collected during 1992-1997, under the Indian programme of Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), we show that the biological productivity of the Arabian Sea is tightly coupled to the physical forcing mediated through nutrient availability. The Arabian Sea becomes productive in summer not only along the coastal regions of Somalia, Arabia and southern parts of the west coast of India due to coastal upwelling but also in the open waters of the central region. The open waters in the north are fertilized by a combination of divergence driven by cyclonic wind stress curl to the north of the Findlater Jet and lateral advection of nutrient-rich upwelled waters from Arabia. Productivity in the southern part of the central Arabian Sea, on the other hand, is driven by advection from the Somalia upwelling. Surface cooling and convection resulting from reduced solar radiation and increased evaporation make the northern region productive in winter. During both spring and fall inter-monsoons, this sea remains warm and stratified with low production as surface waters are oligotrophic. Inter-annual variability in physical forcing during winter resulted in one-and-a-half times higher production in 1997 than in 1995.

  6. Simulation and performance Analysis of a Novel Model for Short Range Underwater Acoustic communication Channel Using Ray Tracing Method in Turbulent Shallow Water Regions of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Dargahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High data rate acoustic transmission is required for diverse underwater operations such as the retrieval of large amounts of data from bottom packages and real time transmission of signals from underwater sensors. The major obstacle to underwater acoustic communication is the interference of multipath signals due to surface and bottom reflections. High speed acoustic transmission over a shallow water channel characterized by small grazing angles presents formidable difficulties. The reflection losses associated with such small angles are low, causing large amplitudes in multi-path signals. In this paper, based on the results obtained from practical measurements in the Persian Gulf and available data about sound speed variations in different depths, we propose a simple but effective model for shallow water short-range multipath acoustic channel. Based on the Ray theory, mathematical modeling of multipath effects is carried out. Also in channel modeling, the attenuation due to the wave scatterings at the surface and its bottom reflections for deferent grazing angles and bottom types is considered. In addition, we consider the attenuations due to the absorption of different materials and ambient noises such as see-state noise, shipping noise, thermal noise and turbulences. We use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS in a fully prognostic mode to study the circulation and water mass properties of the Persian Gulf - a large inverse estuary. Maximum sound speed occurs during the summer in the Persian Gulf which decreases gradually moving from the Strait of Hormuz to the north western part of the Gulf. A gradual decrease in sound speed profiles with depth was commonly observed in almost all parts of the Gulf. However, an exception occurred in the Strait of Hormuz during the winter. The results of the model are in very good agreement with our observations.

  7. Neoproterozoic tectonics of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasband, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic tectonic development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) can be divided in three parts: 1) the oceanic stage; 2) the arc-accretion stage; 3) the extensional stage. Three key-areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, namely the Bi'r Umq Complex, The Tabalah and Tarj Complex and the Wadi K

  8. Africa and Arab Gulf states : Divergent Development Paths and Prospects for Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fofack, Hippolyte

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the similarities between Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab Gulf region (Gulf Cooperation Council states), development policies implemented in these two regions of the world have produced markedly different and even divergent outcomes. While Gulf Cooperation Council states have drawn on hydrocarbon revenues to dramatically transform their economic landscape, Sub-Saharan African co...

  9. The gulf implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry: Rationale, methodology, and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Gulf ICD is the first prospective, observational, multi-center, and multinational study of the characteristics and, the outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. The study will provide valuable insights into the utilization of and outcomes related to ICD therapy in the Gulf region.

  10. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Metzger

    Full Text Available Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT.

  11. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-12-13

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea. 

  12. Oil in nearshore subtidal sediments of Saudi Arabia from the Gulf War spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed sedimentological and dynamic-process studies of the shallow, subtidal habitats of Dawhats ad Dafi and al Mussallamiyah and the bays at Tanaqib on the Saudi Arabian coast were carried out one year after the Gulf War oil spill. These studies were part of Leg II of the NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell cruise. Satellite imagery and space shuttle photography were used extensively to develop detailed study plans. Work accomplished during the study included deployment of three current meters, a tide gauge, and suspended sediment traps (at seven locations). Bathymetric surveys were conducted along 14 transects, and 197 bottom observation dives were carried out. More than 170 bottom sediment samples were collected for chemical and/or textural analysis. Sediment hydrocarbon screening by HPLC fluorescence was conducted on board to verify and refine the sampling plan. The results to date show no evidence of large-scale sinking of oil as a result of the spill. Subtidal oil, as sparse tar balls, was visually observed by divers at three locations, all of which were associated with the erosion of oiled sand from outer beaches. On-board chemical results showed that subtidal sediments have been contaminated at levels ranging from 20 to 2,000 mg petroleum hydrocarbons/kg, with the highest contamination up in the sheltered, muddy basins. However, the oil initially stranded in the intertidal zone does not appear to be accumulating in the nearshore subtidal region in significant quantities one year later

  13. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, R.T.; Hamilton, E.L.

    1980-02-10

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s)=1.510+1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s)=1.510+1.200h-0.253h/sup 2/+ 0.034h/sup 3/, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  14. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    O. Matthew Oriowo; Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of congenital red-green colour vision defects among Saudi Arabian male and female children.Methods: The study involved 1638 elementary and high school participants (838 males, and 800 females), who were randomly selected and screened for red-green colour vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates) test. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies.Among the females, 0.75% of the 800 participa...

  15. Assessment of sea surface temperature changes in the Gulf of Cadiz during the last 30 ka: implications for glacial changes in the regional hydrography

    OpenAIRE

    Penaud, A.; F. Eynaud; Voelker, A.; Kageyama, M.; Marret, F.; Turon, J. L.; Blamart, D.; Mulder, T.; Rossignol, L.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; New dinocyst analyses were conducted on core MD99-2339 retrieved from the central Gulf of Cadiz. Dinocyst and foraminiferal assemblages from this core are combined with existing data off SW Portugal and NW Morocco to investigate past hydrological and primary productivity regimes in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean over the last 30 ka. Our results have revealed highest upwelling intensity during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS 1) and the Younger Dryas and weaker upwelling cells...

  16. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2014-11-21

    The monospecific scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia Klunzinger, 1879 was originally described from Al-Qusayr (Egypt) in the Red Sea based on a series of solitary specimens. Thenceforth, it has been considered a junior synonym of Symphyllia and Cynarina based on corallum macromorphology. In this study, several specimens of Sclerophyllia margariticola were collected on the coasts of Saudi Arabia in the northern and central Red Sea. Four molecular markers were sequenced, COI and the intergenic spacer between COI and l-rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and Histone H3 and ribosomal ITS2 from nuclear DNA. Phylogenetic trees and haplotype network analyses show that S. margariticola belongs to the family Lobophylliidae and that it is closely related to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters, such as the presence of free septa, high elliptical septal teeth perpendicular to the septal margin, irregular lobate tips, very wide tooth spacing, a very strong granulation with granules scattered all along the septal sides, and a palisade interarea structure, and their micromorphology differs substantially from that of Acanthastrea echinata, the type species of Acanthastrea. Therefore, we formally resurrect Sclerophyllia, provide a revised diagnosis for the genus, and move A. maxima into Sclerophyllia.

  17. NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

  18. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made.Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory 

  19. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  20. Size segregated aerosol mass concentration measurements over the Arabian Sea during ICARB

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijayakumar S Nair; K Krishna Moorthy; S Suresh Babu; K Narasimhulu; L Siva Sankara Reddy; R Ramakrishna Reddy; K Rama Gopal; V Sreekanth; B L Madhavan; K Niranjan

    2008-07-01

    Mass concentration and mass size distribution of total (composite) aerosols near the surface are essential inputs needed in developing aerosol models for radiative forcing estimation as well as to infer the environment and air quality. Using extensive measurements onboard the oceanographic research vessel, Sagar Kanya, during its cruise SK223B in the second phase of the ocean segment of the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB), the spatial distribution of the mass concentration and mass size distribution of near-surface aerosols are examined for the first time over the entire Arabian Sea, going as far as 58°E and 22°N, within a span of 26 days. In general, the mass concentrations () were found to be low with the mean value for the entire Arabian Sea being 16.7 ± 7 g m−3; almost 1/2 of the values reported in some of the earlier campaigns. Coarse mode aerosols contributed, on an average, 58% to the total mass, even though at a few pockets accumulation mode contribution dominated. Spatially, significant variations were observed over central and northern Arabian Sea as well as close to the west coast of India. In central Arabian Sea, even though the was quite low, contribution of accumulation aerosols to the total mass concentration was greater than 50%. Effective radius, a parameter important in determining scattering properties of aerosol size distribution, varied between 0.07 and 0.4 m with a mean value of 0.2 m. Number size distributions, deduced from the mass size distributions, were approximated to inverse power-law form and the size indices () were estimated. It was found to vary in the range 3.9 to 4.2 with a mean value of 4.0 for the entire oceanic region. Extinction coefficients, estimated using the number-size distributions, were well-correlated with the accumulation mode mass concentration with a correlation coefficient of 0.82.

  1. Modeling the Gulf Stream System: How Far from Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choa, Yi; Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Bryan, Frank O.; Holland, William R.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of a primitive equation ocean model simulation of the Atlantic Ocean circulation at 1/6 deg horizontal resolution are presented with a focus on the Gulf Stream region. Among many successful features of this simulation, this letter describes the Gulf Stream separation from the coast of North America near Cape Hatteras, meandering of the Gulf Stream between Cape Hatteras and the Grand Banks, and the vertical structure of temperature and velocity associated with the Gulf Stream. These results demonstrate significant improvement in modeling the Gulf Stream system using basin- to global scale ocean general circulation models. Possible reasons responsible for the realistic Gulf Stream simulation are discussed, contrasting the major differences between the present model configuration and those of previous eddy resolving studies.

  2. Interannual variation in summer N2O concentration in the hypoxic region of the northern Gulf of Mexico, 1985–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, I.-N.; Lee, K; H. W. Bange; Macdonald, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial nitrous oxide (N2O) production in the ocean is enhanced under low-oxygen (O2) conditions. This is especially important in the context of increasing hypoxia (i.e., oceanic zones with extremely reduced O2 concentrations). Here, we present a study on the interannual variation in summertime nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), which is well-known as the site of the second largest seasonally occurring hypoxic zon...

  3. Interannual variation in summer N2O concentration in the hypoxic region of the northern Gulf of Mexico, 1985–2007

    OpenAIRE

    I.-N. Kim; Lee, K; H. W. Bange; Macdonald, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present evidence of temporal variation in nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) hypoxic zone. The analysis is based on a conceptual model simulating N2O biogeochemical processes in conjunction with water-column O2 levels, derived from summer Texas–Louisiana shelf-wide hydrographic data for twenty Julys between 1985 and 2007. The mean modeled nGOM N2O concentration was 7.7 ± 6.7 nmol L−1, and was significantly correlated wit...

  4. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  5. Evaluation of sire and dam lines of Polish bred Arabian horses on the base of their show successes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pieszka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polish bred Arabian horses are very well known all over the world for their spectacular show and breeding successes. The aim of this study was to evaluate sire and dam lines of Polish Arabian horses on the base of their show successes in championships of a different range. The study was carried out on information concerning 278 Polish bred (national and private Arabian horses winning as champion or vice-champion in regional, national, international, European, All Nations Cup and World Championships between 1997 and 2010. Results of the study showed a spectacular domination of Saklawi I and Kuhailan Haifi sire lines and Milordka dam line among Polish Arabian horses winning championships all over the world. These lines were the most numerous, the highest scoring and with the highest points score for one horse. These results can help breeders to plan the breeding program for show horses based on the best sires descending from the mentioned above sire and dam lines.

  6. Sediment dispersal in the macro tidal Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S

    of the inner gulf is marked with U and V shaped cuttings extending in the parallel clays, deposited in an earlier phase of deposition. In the outer gulf, there exists a palaeo-channel, buried under 18 m thick sediments (in the central region). Existence...

  7. Geospatial compilation of historical water-level altitudes in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers 1977-2013 and Jasper aquifer 2000-13 in the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Ellis, Robert H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District has produced a series of annual reports depicting groundwater-level altitudes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. To produce these annual reports, contours of equal water-level altitudes are created from water levels measured between December and March of each year from groundwater wells screened completely within one of these three aquifers. Information obtained from maps published in the annual series of USGS reports and geospatial datasets of water-level altitude contours used to create the annual series of USGS reports were compiled into a comprehensive geodatabase. The geospatial compilation contains 88 datasets from previously published contour maps showing water-level altitudes for each primary aquifer of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, 37 for the Chicot (1977–2013), 37 for the Evangeline aquifer (1977–2013), and 14 for the Jasper aquifer (2000–13).

  8. Geospatial compilation of historical water-level changes in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers 1977-2013 and Jasper aquifer 2000-13, Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District has produced an annual series of reports that depict water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, from 1977 to 2013. Changes are determined from water-level measurements between December and March of each year from groundwater wells screened in one of the three aquifers. Existing published maps and unpublished geographic information system (GIS) datasets were compiled into a comprehensive geodatabase of all water-level-change maps produced as part of this multiagency effort. Annual water-level-change maps were georeferenced and digitized where existing GIS data were unavailable (1979–99). Existing GIS data available for 2000–13 were included in the geodatabase. The compilation contains 121 datasets showing water-level changes for each primary aquifer of the Gulf Coast aquifer system: 56 for the Chicot aquifer (1977; 1979–2013 and 1990; 1993–2013), 56 for the Evangeline aquifer (1977; 1979–2013 and 1990; 1993–2013), and 9 for the Jasper aquifer (2000; 2005–13).

  9. Characteristics of humic and fulvic acids in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from some of the shelf, slope and offshore sediments of the Arabian Sea were studied. The molecular weight, functional groups, elemental composition and infrared spectra were examined. Humic substances, dominated...

  10. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  11. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  12. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of congenital red-green colour vision defects among Saudi Arabian male and female children.Methods: The study involved 1638 elementary and high school participants (838 males, and 800 females, who were randomly selected and screened for red-green colour vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates test. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies.Among the females, 0.75% of the 800 participants showed CVD, with 0.25% and 0.5% demonstratingprotan and deutan defects, respectively.Conclusion: The results show that the prevalence of red-green colour deficiency among the female children from central Saudi Arabia is not significantly different from that of female populations inwestern countries.  The current prevalence among the males is higher than previously reported for central Saudi Arabia, but less than for Caucasian populations. 

  13. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    Arabian Sea shows a very strong locality. Surface layer temperature inversion in the south eastern Arabian sea and the south western Bay of Bengal is a small scale thermal feature very widely reported with little analysis (Panakala Rao et al., 1981... along the west coast of India. 1. Introduction Temperature inversion layers usually occur where the thermal structure is complicated and isotherms are rugged. Nagata (1968, 1979) studied temperature inversions in the seas adjacent to Japan using...

  14. A revised nitrogen budget for the Arabian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bange, Hermann W.; T. Rixen; Johansen, A. M.; Siefert, R. L.; Ramesh, R.; Ittekott, V.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Andreae, M. O.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its importance for the global oceanic nitrogen (N) cycle, considerable uncertainties exist about the N fluxes of the Arabian Sea. On the basis of our recent measurements during the German Arabian Sea Process Study as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in 1995 and 1997, we present estimates of various N sources and sinks such as atmospheric dry and wet depositions of N aerosols, pelagic denitrification, nitrous oxide (N_2O) emissions, and advective N input from the south...

  15. Source and dispersal of suspended sediment in the macro-tidal Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nath, B.N.; Vethamony, P.; Ilangovan, D.

    with the literature values of inter- preted source areas in Table 2. Geographic distribution map of Rb variation in the Gulf is shown in Fig. 8. Rb val- ues are higher toward the northern regions of the Gulf compared to the southern region and higher near the mouth... of Kachchh, during October–November 2002, range between 0.5 and 674 mg l C01 . Highly turbid waters are observed towards mouth of the Gulf, at the head of the Gulf and adjacent to numer- ous shoals present within the Gulf. Near-bottom SSC val- ues...

  16. A health risk assessment of Arabian incense (Bakhour) smoke in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalibalta, Sarah; Elsayed, Yehya; Alqtaishat, Fareedah; Gomes, Ioline; Fernandes, Nagelle

    2015-04-01

    Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour) is a common practice in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. Although the incense generates large amounts of chemicals and air pollutants, little is known with regard to the nature of these chemicals and their potential health risks. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical constituents emitted in Bakhour smoke, and subsequently to examine the associated health implications of these components. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to investigate the presence and the thermal profile of volatile organic compounds in three different samples of Bakhour smoke. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was then applied to isolate all the volatile and semi-volatile compounds present in the Bakhour smoke samples. Using a spectral library and an extensive literature search, all organic compounds detected were analyzed for potential health risks. A total of 859 compounds were emitted from burning the different Bakhour samples. The novel finding of this research shows that 42 detected compounds are suspected/known carcinogens, 20 are known to have toxic effects, and at least 200 compounds are known irritants to the eyes, skin, respiratory and digestive tracts, as reported in human and/or animal studies. Our study suggests that inhaled Bakhour smoke contains a substantial number of adverse compounds, which are known to be detrimental to human health. Moreover, the evidence presented shows that incense burning is a significant source of environmental pollution; with the potential of significant health concerns particularly with long term exposure. As the majority of the compounds detected have no reported clinical data, there is an urgent need for significant research in this field.

  17. Role of dynamics in the advection of aerosols over the Arabian Sea along the west coast of peninsular India during pre-monsoon season: A case study based on satellite data and regional climate model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marina Aloysius; S Sijikumar; S S Prijith; Mannil Mohan; K Parameswaran

    2011-04-01

    The circulation dynamics of an event marked by the formation of an aerosol cluster off the coast of Maharashtra on April 22, 2006, its southward migration along the Indian west coast with a mean speed of ∼200 km/day and its final dissipation after reaching the end of the peninsula by April 28, 2006 as revealed by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) against the pre-monsoon conditions of April 2006 are examined in this study. The maximum aerosol concentration in the cluster was found getting confined to lower and lower altitudes during its southward movement. The NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis wind field indicates that the atmospheric circulation, especially the horizontal wind convergence is the major factor that guides the formation and the dynamics of the cluster. Fine mode fraction from MODIS suggests that the cluster mainly consists of coarse dust particles. The regional climate model, RegCM3 with an efficient dust generation module simulates the formation and movement of the cluster appreciably well. The simulations which also exhibit the altitudinally descending nature of the cluster during its southward movement confirm the mechanism which governs the cluster dynamics suggested based on MODIS and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data.

  18. Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINU P; SHAJU S S; MUHAMED ASHRAF P; MEENAKUMARI B

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing applications are important in the fisheries sector and efforts were on to improve the predic-tions of potential fishing zones using ocean color. The present study was aimed to investigate the phyto-plankton dynamics and their absorption properties in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea in different seasons during the year 2010 to 2011. The region exhibited 73 genera of phytoplankton from 19 orders and 41 families. The numerical abundance of phytoplankton varied from 14.235×103 to 55.075×106 cells/L. Centric diatoms dominated in the region and the largest family identified was Thalassiosiraceae with main genera asSkeletonemaspp.,Planktionellaspp.andThalassiosiraspp. Annual variations in abun-dance of phytoplankton showed a typical one-peak cycle, with the highest recorded during premonsoon season and the lowest during monsoon season. The species diversity index of phytoplankton exhibited low diversity during monsoon season. Phytoplankton with pigments Chlorophylla, Chlorophyllb, Chlorophyll c, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin,β-carotene and phycoerythrobilin dominated in these waters. The knowledge on phytoplankton dynamics in coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea forms a key parameter in bio-optical models of pigments and productivity and for the interpretation of remotely sensed ocean color data.

  19. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  20. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further. PMID:25862282

  1. The influence of the Gulf Stream on wintertime European blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Wintertime blocking is responsible for extended periods of anomalously cold and dry weather over Europe. In this study, the influence of the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature (SST) front on wintertime European blocking is investigated using a reanalysis dataset and a pair of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. The AGCM is forced with realistic and smoothed Gulf Stream SST, and blocking frequency over Europe is found to depend crucially on the Gulf Stream SST front. In the absence of the sharp SST gradient European blocking is significantly reduced and occurs further downstream. The Gulf Stream is found to significantly influence the surface temperature anomalies during blocking periods and the occurrence of associated cold spells. In particular the cold spell peak, located in central Europe, disappears in the absence of the Gulf Stream SST front. The nature of the Gulf Stream influence on European blocking development is then investigated using composite analysis. The presence of the Gulf Stream SST front is important in capturing the observed quasi-stationary development of European blocking. The development is characterised by increased lower-tropospheric meridional eddy heat transport in the Gulf Stream region and increased eddy kinetic energy at upper-levels, which acts to reinforce the quasi-stationary jet. When the Gulf Stream SST is smoothed the storm track activity is weaker, the development is less consistent and European blocking occurs less frequently.

  2. Seismotectonics and Neotectonics of the Gulfs of Gökova-Kuşadasi-Siǧacik and Surrounding Regions (SW Turkey): Earthquake Mechanisms, Source Rupture Modeling, Tsunami Hazard and Geodynamic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Cevikbilen, Seda; Karaoglu, Özgür; Taymaz, Tuncay; Helvaci, Cahit

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of the continental lithosphere for the Aegean region is one of the foremost interesting geological disputes in earth sciences. The Aegean region provides complex tectonic events which produced a strong heterogeneity in the crust (i.e. large thrusts and exhumation shear zones or extensional detachments) as such in among most continental regions. In order to investigate mechanical reasons of the ongoing lithospheric-scale extension within the region, we must tackle all of the existing kinematic and dynamic agents: (1) roll back of the subduction slab and back arc extension; (2) westward extrusion of the Anatolian micro-plate; (3) block rotations of the Aegean region and western Anatolia; and (4) transtensional transform faults. Furthermore, seismological studies, particularly earthquake source mechanisms and rupture modeling, play important roles on deciphering the ongoing deformation and seismotectonic characteristics of the region. Recently, many moderate earthquakes occurred in the Gulfs of Gökova, Kuşadası, Sıǧacık and surroundings. In the present study, we examined source mechanisms and rupture histories of those earthquakes with Mw > 5.0 in order to retrieve the geometry of active faulting, source characteristics, kinematic and dynamic source parameters and current deformations of the region by using teleseismic body-waveform inversion of long-period P- and SH-waves, and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by GDSN and FDSN stations. We also checked first motion polarities of P- waveforms recorded at regional and teleseismic stations and applied several uncertainty tests to find the error limits of minimum misfit solutions. Inversion results revealed E-W directed normal faulting mechanisms with small amount of left lateral strike slip components in the Gulf of Gökova and NE-SW oriented right lateral strike slip faulting mechanisms in the Gulf of Sıǧacık. Earthquakes mostly have N-S and NW-SE directed T- axes directions which are

  3. Demography and population dynamics of massive coral communities in adjacent high latitude regions (United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi A Foster

    Full Text Available Individual massive coral colonies, primarily faviids and poritids, from three distinct assemblages within the southeastern Arabian Gulf and northwestern Gulf of Oman (United Arab Emirates were studied from 2006-2009. Annual photographic censuses of approximately 2000 colonies were used to describe the demographics (size class frequencies, abundance, area cover and population dynamics under "normal" environmental conditions. Size class transitions included growth, which occurred in 10-20% of the colonies, followed in decending order by partial mortality (3-16%, colony fission (<5% and ramet fusion (<3%. Recruitment and whole colony mortality rates were low (<0.7 colonies/m(2 with minimal interannual variation. Transition matrices indicated that the Arabian Gulf assemblages have declining growth rates (λ<1 whereas the massive coral population is stable (λ = 1 in the Gulf of Oman. Projection models indicated that (i the Arabian Gulf population and area cover declines would be exacerbated under 10-year and 16-year disturbance scenarios as the vital rates do not allow for recovery to pre-disturbance levels during these timeframes, and (ii the Gulf of Oman assemblage could return to its pre-disturbance area cover but its overall population size would not fully recover under the same scenarios.

  4. Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by phytoplankton is an important aspect of the nitrogen cycle of oceans. Here, we present nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ uptake rates in the northeastern Arabian Sea using 15N tracer technique. In this relatively underexplored region, productivity is high during winter due to supply of nutrients by convective mixing caused by the cooling of the surface by the northeast monsoon winds. Studies done during different months (January and late February-early March of the northeast monsoon 2003 revealed a fivefold increase in the average euphotic zone integrated NO3- uptake from January (2.3 mmolN m−2d−1 to late February-early March (12.7 mmolN m−2d−1. The f-ratio during January appeared to be affected by the winter cooling effect and increased by more than 50% from the southernmost station to the northern open ocean stations, indicating hydrographic and meteorological control. Estimates of NO3- residence time suggested that NO3- entrained in the water column during January contributed to the development of blooms during late February-early March.

  5. Revision of Afro-Malagasy Otomops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) with the description of a new Afro-Arabian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Taryn M C; Richards, Leigh R; Taylor, Peter J; Napier, Melanie C; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    The paucity of data for the molossid bat Otomops throughout its range has hindered our ability to resolve the number of Otomops species present within the Afro-Malagasy region (including the Arabian Peninsula). This paper employed an integrative approach by combining morphometric (cranial morphology) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop sequences, nuclear intron sequences and microsatellites) data to identify the number of Otomops taxa occurring in the Afro-Malagasy region. Three taxa were identified, two of which could be assigned to existing species, i.e. O. martiensseni and O. madagascariensis. The third taxon, previously recognised as O. martiensseni (Matschie 1897), is described herein as a new species, Otomops harrisoni sp. nov., and can be differentiated from O. martiensseni s.s. based on both molecular and morphometric data. Locality data of specimens belonging to O. harrisoni suggest that its distribution range extends from the Arabian Peninsula through to Eritrea and south to Ethiopia and Kenya. PMID:26701463

  6. Coral spawning in the Gulf of Oman and relationship to latitudinal variation in spawning season in the northwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, E J; Abrego, D; Vaughan, G O; Burt, J A

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals, there are regional gaps in reproductive records. In the Gulf of the Oman in the Arabian Sea, reproductive timing was assessed in four common species of broadcast spawning corals using field surveys of gamete maturity and aquarium observations of spawning activity. The appearance of mature gametes within the same month for Acropora downingi, A. hemprichii, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea (≥ 75% of colonies, n = 848) indicated a synchronous and multi-specific spawning season. Based on gamete disappearance and direct observations, spawning predominantly occurred during April in 2013 (75-100% of colonies) and May in 2014 (77-94% of colonies). The difference in spawning months between survey years was most likely explained by sea temperature and the timing of lunar cycles during late-stage gametogenesis. These reproductive records are consistent with a latitudinal gradient in peak broadcast spawning activity at reefs in the northwestern Indian Ocean which occurs early in the year at low latitudes (January to March) and progressively later in the year at mid (March to May) and high (June to September) latitudes.

  7. Influence of a tropical cyclone on chlorophyll-a concentration in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B; Rao, K.H.; Rao, N.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    in the eastern Arabian Sea during 21– 28 May (Figure 1). As the weather system intensified, it moved in a northwesterly direction from 14C176N, 71.8C176Eon22 May to 17C176N, 68C176E on 26 May. After 26 May, the cyclone weakened gradually and moved towards north...Eto71C176E and centered at 15C176N, 71.5C176E withrelativelyhigherchlorophyll-ainthecycloneinfluenced region.Thebloomslooklikeround-shapedcycloniceddiesof 250–300kmdiameter(Figure3b).Thesebloomspersistwith graduallyreducedchlorophyllconcentrationstill3...

  8. Spatial zonation of zooplankton in the northwestern Arabian Sea: A multivariate approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    of the world's oceans. High zooplankton production was reported by Panikkar and Rao (1973) and Smith (1982) in Somali upwelling regions, mostly during the period of the southwest monsoon. Several reports are available on the zooplankton of the eastern Arabian..., West Coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 25(3): 26S- 273. Panikkar, N.K. and Rao, T.S.S. 1973. Zooplankton investigations in Indian waters and the role of the Indian Ocean Biological Centre. Handbook to the International zooplankton...

  9. Distribution and ecology of the Trichodesmium spp. in the Arabian Sea: Ship and satellite studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.G.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Raman, M.; Dwivedi, R.M.

    . During our special cruises to the Arabian Sea we collected data to understand the seasonality of Trichodesmium spp. Trichodesmium starts appearing just after the SW monsoon in the offshore waters of the Arabian Sea. Massive blooms of Trichodesmium...

  10. Geographical extent of denitrification in the Arabian Sea in relation to some physical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    in the Arabian Sea. Nitrite distribution shows little correspondence with primary productivity, and the three major sites of seasonal upwelling appear to be located outside the zone of intense denitrification. This distinguishes the Arabian Sea from the other two...

  11. Gulf States and the Conflict between India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Shahab Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cultural and economic ties between the Indian subcontinent and the Gulf region have existed for several centuries now. Strengthened further, both India and Pakistan continue to have important economic and strategic ties with the countries of the Gulf. While the Gulf region offers substantial economic advantages to both, they also have the potential to make positive interventions in the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan. The following chapter analyses the role and position of the Gulf Arab States - in particular the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, and their potential in acting as a buffer for the Indo-Pak conflict. It will evaluate the official positions of the Gulf region towards various aspects of the Indo-Pak conflict. The Gulfcountries have often voiced their positions at regional and internationalforums. An additional aspect of this relationship is that the Gulf States are also members of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC, a pan- Islamic body which has often addressed issues of contention between India and Pakistan, particularly with respect to Kashmir. Through an academic understanding of the issues and incorporating viewpoints of experts in the area, the chapter seeks to provide fresh insights into an aspect which has the possibility of becoming a crucial incentive for peace between India and Pakistan.

  12. 2009 Survey of Gulf of Mexico Dockside Seafood Processors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey gathered and analyze economic data from seafood processors throughout the states in the Gulf region. The survey sought to collect financial variables...

  13. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  14. Upwelling in the Minicoy region of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Jayaraman, R.

    of the thin autoradio- graphic emulsion with improved resolution and the application of autoradiography to electron microscopy were considered by Dr. P. N. Shri- vastava (University of Rajasthan). Mr. S. D. Paiekar from the same University discussed...

  15. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Armond, Tina; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located around the known LkHalpha 185-189 group of stars, which includes the recently erupting FUor HBC 722.

  16. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  17. Origin and fate of the secondary nitrite maximum in the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Sea harbours one of the three major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs in the world's oceans, and it alone is estimated to account for ~10–20% of global oceanic nitrogen (N loss. While actual rate measurements have been few, the consistently high accumulation of nitrite (NO2 coinciding with suboxic conditions in the central-northeastern part of the Arabian Sea has led to the general belief that this is the region where active N-loss takes place. Most subsequent field studies on N-loss have thus been drawn almost exclusively to the central-NE. However, a recent study measured only low to undetectable N-loss activities in this region, compared to orders of magnitude higher rates measured towards the Omani shelf where little NO2 accumulated (Jensen et al., 2011. In this paper, we further explore this discrepancy by comparing the NO2 producing and consuming processes, and examining the relationship between the overall NO2 balance and active N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Based on a combination of 15N-incubation experiments, functional gene expression analyses, nutrient profiling and flux modeling, our results showed that NO2 accumulated in the Central-NE Arabian Sea due to a net production via primarily active nitrate (NO3 reduction and to a certain extent ammonia oxidation. Meanwhile, NO2 consumption via anammox, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (NH4+ were hardly detectable in this region, though some loss to NO2 oxidation was predicted from modeled NO3 changes. No significant correlation was found between NO2 and N-loss rates (p>0.05. This discrepancy between NO2 accumulation and lack of active N

  18. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  19. Seasonal surface connectivity in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, S. G.

    2012-03-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to study seasonal connectivity in the Gulf of California. From the Eulerian velocity fields of the model, particle trajectories were calculated for the 12 months of the year using an advection/diffusion scheme. Connectivity was quantified for twelve Gulf provinces with different dynamic/circulation characteristics being defined by the Eulerian velocity field: strong or weak coastal currents, eddies, and areas of mixing and exchange. Retention occurred for 9-12 months of the year in the Upper Gulf, Eddy and Sonora regions of the northern Gulf because of the Gulf-wide eddy circulation, which implies high potential for the auto-recruitment of larvae in this province. High retention was also found on the peninsula side of the southern Gulf in association with weaker residual currents, again implying potential for self-recruitment. In contrast, low retention was observed on the mainland side of the central and southern Gulf, from which particles are exported to many areas by the faster residual currents enhancing the potential for recruitment of distant coastal species. Empirical Orthogonal Function analyses revealed a strong annual and semiannual evolution in accordance with the strong seasonality of the Gulf dynamics.

  20. Late Holocene vegetation and ocean variability in the Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charlotte S.; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Collins, Philip E. F.; Lahijani, Hamid A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Fossil pollen and dinocyst records in marine sequences are frequently combined to reveal the response of vegetation and ocean conditions to changes in both regional and global climate. In this study we analysed pollen and dinocysts within a clearly-laminated sediment core off the Iranian coast in the Gulf of Oman, an extremely data-poor area, to reconstruct climatic change during the Late Holocene (last 1900 years). The vegetation record from southern Iran indicates a replacement of savannah by desert formations at c. 910 CE, shortly after the Islamic invasion and the subsequent collapse of the Sassanid Empire. From c. 910 to 1145 CE, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the vegetation was heavily dominated by desert formations, such as Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, Centaurea and Calligonum. In parallel, in the Gulf of Oman, the presence of Impagidinium paradoxum indicates a lack of freshwater discharge into the ocean around this time. The desert taxa of the MCA were subsequently replaced by savannah formations at c. 1145 CE, comprised mainly of Poaceae and Cyperaceae, corresponding to the Little Ice Age (LIA), indicating generally wetter climatic conditions. A sudden increase in Spiniferites ramosus (1-63%), at c. 1440 CE suggests an increase in the strength of the SW summer monsoon, with increased freshwater discharge into the ocean at this time. Our data indicate that over the past two millennia the NW Arabian Sea region has alternated between contrasting climatic conditions, with firstly a humid phase equivalent to the cultural period of the Sassanid Empire, a significantly drier climate during the MCA and a relatively wetter climate during the LIA. The mechanisms resulting in dry conditions during the MCA in the Middle East associated with the northward shift of the ITCZ and the intensification of the Indian summer monsoon may be similar to those causing the dry conditions which dominated the Early Holocene in the Near East. Our

  1. Assessment of contaminants in Dubai coastal region, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, H. A.; Abd El-Gawad, E. A.; Mohammed, F. H.; Lotfy, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal uses and other human activities have inevitably impinged on the Gulf environment; therefore, these regions require continuous monitoring. The investigated area covered the maximum fragments of Dubai coastal region in the Arabian Gulf. The determination of major oxides and trace metal concentrations in Dubai sediments revealed three heavily and moderately contaminated regions. One is in the far northeastern part at Al-Hamriya Sts 1 3 and contaminated by Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn; the second is in the mid-northeastern part at Dry Docks and contaminated by Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn; and finally, the third is in the near southwestern part at Dubal and contaminated by Fe, Mg, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Al-Hamriya St 3 represented the highest values of Cu, Pb, and Zn, whereas Dubal exhibited the maximum values of Fe, Mg, Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V. The anthropogenic discharge and natural deposits are the main sources of contamination. In general, all trace and major elements showed the minimal levels at Jebel Ali Sanctuary (Sts 11, 12, 13) except for Sr and Ca, which showed their maximum values. The highest concentrations of Ca and Sr are mainly attributed to carbonate gravel sands and sands, which cover most stations. Each of V and Ni showed negative correlation with TPH, which may be indicated that the source of oil contamination in the region is not related to crude oil but mostly attributable to anthropogenic sources. The significant positive correlation, which was found between trace metals and TOC indicates that organic matter plays an important role in the accumulation of trace metals in case of Cu, Zn, and Pb.

  2. Abundance of Thraustochytrid fungi in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Rajendran, A.

    1989 and in revised form 10 April 1990 Keywords: thraustochytrid fungi; abundance; Arabian Sea Numbers of tbraustochytrid marine fungi were estimated in the waters of the Arabian Sea during four cruises in 1987-88 and at the mouth of the Zuari... estuary in Goa during two series of samplings in 1987. Thraustochytrids varied from < 6 to > 1100 1-l of seawater. Highest average numbers of 207 and 331 l- ’ of water were found at 0 and 30 m in the nearshore stations during the monsoon cruise SK 33...

  3. The Origins of Islam in the Arabian context

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shutao

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the origins of Islam, and their relations with the Arabian context, with the help of two types of materials - the Qur'an and Muslim tradition, and the archeological finds. First, I analyze the external and internal situations of pre-Islamic Arabia. Then, I discuss the conditions of Mecca and pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism, and their roles in the emergence of Islam. After that, I examine various monotheistic elements in Arabia that may form the origins of Islam, as wel...

  4. Carbon and nitrogen budgets of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somasundar, K.; Rajendran, A.; DileepKumar, M.; SenGupta, R.

    and nitrogen budgets have been estimated for the Arabian Sea (0- 25 °N, 50-80°E), taking into consideration the possible sources of fluxes. By our model calculations the annual fluxes into and out of the Arabian Sea were estimated to be 446 and 530 trillion...) were obtained from Brewer and Dyrssen (1985 ) and Papaud and Poisson (1986), respectively. The details of the data and their sources are given in Table 1. The methods of calculating the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen are discussed below. RESULTS...

  5. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patgaonkar, R.S.; Vethamony, P.; Lokesh, K.S.; Babu, M.T.

    , W., 2003. Analytical modelling of pollution flushing in well-mixed embayments. Advances in Coastal modeling. doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr .2011.03.031, 467 - 489. Blaise, S., Benjamin De Brye, Sebastien Blaise, Eric Deleersnijder, Eric J. M. Delhez..., Richard Comblen, 2010. Capturing the residence time boundary layer - application to the Scheldt estuary. Ocean Dynamics. 60, 535-554. Brauwere, A. D., Benjamin De Brye, Sebastien Blaise, Eric Deleersnijder, 2011. Residence time, exposure time...

  6. Growth Characterization and Optimization of Cyanobacterial Isolates from the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Siller Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2013-12-01

    Photoautotrophic organisms have been highlighted as carbon capture and conversion platforms for sustainable production of agricultural and chemicals in KSA. Previously two cyanobacterial strains, Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802, were isolated from an industrial brine outfall site in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Initial characterization of their growth characteristics showed growth at high temperature (38 ºC) and high salinity ( > 60 PSU), making them potentially good candidates for industrial applications. In this study, quantitative growth assays were performed using standardized methods developed for the analysis of Red Sea photosynthetic microorganisms supported by microscopic observations, optimal growth media preference assays, CO2 concentration effect, photoperiod effect, mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth tests. Data was recorded for absorbance (600 and 750 nm wave lenght), dry cell weight (DCW), colorimetric observations, and chlorophyll a content. Both CT7801 and CT7802 exhibited a clear preference for Walne\\'s Red Sea medium. An analysis on media composition highlights B and Fe as growth enhancers, as well as a base requirement of seawater. Tests on the effect of supplied concentration of CO2 showed that air enhanced with 1 % v/v CO2 allows approximately 2-fold increase in DCW for Geitlerinema spp. CT7802. Photoperiod tests showed that continuous light is disadvantageous for phototrophic growth of Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802. Results for mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth of Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802 revealed their ability to metabolize glycerol. Analysis on the complete genome of CT7802 identified three key enzymes, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase, which may catalyze the glycerol metabolic pathway in the strain. Utilization of glycerol, a residue of the biodiesel industry, might provide a sustainable alternative for growth of Geitlerinema sp. CT7802.

  7. Assessment on Biocides Bioaccumulation in Mullet Liza klunzingeri in Kuwaiti Waters, off the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. BU-Olayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocides, such as formaldehyde (HCHO, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2 that are commonly used in thermal, desalination and power plants and industries were tested on the commercially important mullet fish, Liza klunzingeri to determine the environmental contamination in the stressed ecosystem of Kuwait Bay sites. Multi-factor Probit analysis toxicity tests (96 h on L. klunzingeri showed the lowest observed effective concentration (LOEC and median lethal concentration (LC50 with NaOCl (0.019 and 0.027 µg Lˉ1 followed by HCHO (0.058 and 0.157 µg Lˉ1 and C5H8O2 (0.056 and 0.072 µg Lˉ1. Site-wise analysis in the absence of feed showed high biocides toxicity in L. klunzingeri reared in seawater from Site I when compared to Sites II-III. Experiments were conducted (2-9 months by rearing fish separately in seawater collected from three Kuwait Bay sites to test the bio-accumulated toxicity levels at LOEC of biocides fed fish using Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR calculation. The lowest FCR was observed in fish fed with biocides in the sequence of NaOCl (0.40-1.1 followed by C5H8O2 (0.91-1.2 and HCHO (0.92-1.3 as well as with fish reared in seawater from Site I followed by Site II and Site III. High FCR was recorded in control (1.2-1.6 without the addition of biocides. These results exemplify the use of L. klunzingeri as an indicator species and may characterize a better quantification of biocides bioaccumulation using FCR calculation in mullet fish.

  8. Preliminary Study on Coral Reef and Its Associated Biota in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansi, Mohsin A. [محسن عبد الله العنسي; AL-KHAYAT, Jassim A.

    1999-01-01

    Coral reef grounds and their associated biota m Qatari waters were investigated by Scuba diving. Four selected reef-sites were studied. Coral was presented by 17 species. Descriptive notes of each site and an initial list of associated fauna and flora were presented. The associated biota composed mainly of Algae 23 sp, Porifera 5 sp, Bryozoa 4 sp, Polychaeta 17 sp, Echinodermata 21 sp, Mollusca 102 sp, Chordata 4 sp, and Crustacea 15 sp. Mollusca was the predominant group in all visited sites...

  9. Environmental assessment of Mangrove communities in Tarut Bay, Eastern Arabian Peninsula, based on multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, A. M.; Del Campo, A. G.; Rocha, C.

    2015-04-01

    Tarut Bay contains some of the most important mangrove forests in the Arabian Gulf countries, which are facing significant anthropogenic pressures. A multidisciplinary approach based on remote sensing, fieldwork, and chemical analysis was adopted in order to identify the pressures facing the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay and subsequently evaluate its current environmental condition. The analysis focused on the 2011 to 2014 timeframe in particular. The results indicate that the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay cover currently around 11.32 square km. Two major mangrove cover changes were identified in the area during the studied period, with a net loss of around 0.675 square km happening in the interim. The analysis adopted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to evaluate the temporal change in vegetation concentration. Moreover, the study evaluated the overall pollution condition of 19 mangrove communities in Tarut Bay to be medium based on the Pollution Load Index (PLI). Nevertheless, some of the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay are very healthy while others are very polluted and require immediate action to improve their pollution status. The findings of this work led to recommending mangrove improvement measures to address further deterioration and disappearance of mangrove communities, including the re-opening of natural inlets and avoiding residential developments on the mangrove coast.

  10. Supersequence and composite sequence carbonate platform growth: Permian and Triassic outcrop data of the Arabian platform and Neo-Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, O.; Bernecker, M.

    2003-05-01

    Permian and Triassic carbonate platforms of the Arabian Peninsula (Gondwana) and seamounts of the Neo-Tethys (Hawasina and Batain basins) are characterized by distinctive supersequences (second order, duration 5-20 million years, my) and composite sequences (third order, duration 0.5-5 my). The presented sequence stratigraphic framework will be compared with existing sea level curves to discuss the validity of different regional oscillations during the dispersal of Pangea. The carbonate succession of the Haushi and Akhdar Groups of the Arabian platform is composed of four Permian (P1-P4) and four Triassic supersequences (Tr1-Tr4). Isolated platforms of the Hawasina and Batain basins comprise two Permian supersequences and one Triassic supersequence. In contrast to the continuous development of the Arabian shield, carbonate platform growth of the seamounts was restricted to the Guadalupian-Lopingian and to the Middle-Upper Triassic, and ceased after drowning events. Composite sequences exhibit a well-developed stacking pattern during the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Saiq Formation). Lowstand systems tracts (LSTs) occur during the Cisuralian (Gharif Formation, Haushi Group) and Triassic (Mahil Formation, Akhdar Group). Open-marine depositional environments prevail during transgressive systems tracts (TSTs) with diverse biota including rugose and scleractinian corals, chaetetids, bryozoans, and crinoids. Highstand system tracts (HSTs) exhibit a twofold pattern: During the transgressive phase of supersequences, composite sequence highstands are dominated by reef or level-bottom communities with corals. Cyclic platform deposits or monotonous mud- and wackestone accumulated during the turnaround or late second-order highstand of a supersequence. Correlation of maximum flooding surfaces with published data suggests that supersequences P1, P2, and Tr4 can be traced across the Arabian platform into the Neo-Tethys basins, while supersequences P3, P4, and Tr1-Tr3 resulted from

  11. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies; Les Etats-Unis et les monarchie arabes du Golfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kechichian, J.A

    1999-07-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  12. Sea level differences across the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The sea level differences between the Sargasso Sea and the slope waters across the Gulf Stream region, averaged between 73 and 61 deg W, and the comparable areas across the Kuroshio extension region, averaged between 143 and 156 deg E, were estimated using the Geosat altimeter data obtained between November 1986 and December 1988. The sea-level differences between the two regions showed a strong correlation between the northwest Atlantic and Pacific, dominated by annual cycles that peak in late-September to mid-October, with about 9 cm (the Gulf Stream region) and about 6.9 cm (Kuroshio region) amplitudes.

  13. A comparison between shell-based δ13C values from an extratropical setting (Gulf of Maine, USA) and atmospheric δ13C values for intervals of the last millennium: insights on regional hydrography and carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanamaker, A. D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Introne, D.; Beirne, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    To explore past changes in carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Maine, and to further evaluate the utility of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) derived from the aragonitic shells of the marine bivalve Arctica islandica in global change studies, we compared annual shell δ13C values (N = 4; total of 333 years) with published atmospheric δ13C data (derived from ice cores [AD 1006 to AD 1978; N = 58 measurements] and instrumental series (AD 1981 to AD 2008; total of 28 years]) for intervals of the last millennium. Both datasets were modeled using an exponential function to highlight the low frequency trends in the data and to facilitate a relevant comparison. From AD 1000 to AD 1800, the modeled atmospheric δ13C series increased by 0.20 ‰ (change = 0.00025 ‰ per year), while modeled shell δ13C series decreased by 0.24 ‰ (change = -0.00030 ‰ per year). From AD 1800 to present, both modeled δ13C datasets decreased substantially due to the admixture of isotopically negative carbon derived from increased fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the change during this interval in the atmospheric pool was 2.0 ‰ (rate = - 0.0095 ‰ per year), whereas the change in the shell-based values was 1.1 ‰ (rate = - 0.0052 ‰ per year), approximately half of the change noted in the atmosphere. Remarkably, the rate of change in shell δ13C values during the last 200 years was 17 times faster than the previous 800 years. Although the long-term offset (range 8.9 - 8.5 ‰) between atmospheric and shell δ13C data was not constant from AD 1000 to AD 1800, the converging nature of the modeled data suggest that regional hydrographic conditions within the Gulf of Maine during the last millennium have also influenced the δ13C signature in the shells. We will explore some possible hydrographic mechanisms that might explain the divergence between atmospheric and shell-based δ13C values. Despite the noted difference in the atmospheric and shell-based δ13C records, it appears

  14. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  15. Evolution and timing of salt diapirism in the Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Cesare; Chiariotti, Luca; Bresciani, Ilenia; Cattaneo, Luciano; Toscani, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf is affected by more than 30 large diapiric structures triggered by the mobilization of the Infracambrian Hormuz Complex, an evaporite-rich unit that overlies Precambrian basement at the base of the sedimentary succession. Nineteen non-piercing diapirs, without any appreciable salt intrusion into the upper succession, were studied in detail and retro-deformed by the decompaction and unfolding of 13 seismic horizons that were identified by the interpretation of a dense grid of 2D seismic lines and calibrated by well data. Salt uplift had begun by the Early Palaeozoic and persists to the present day, with major pulses of intensity during the Middle Triassic, Cenomanian, Late Oligocene, and post-Middle Miocene. The structural reconstructions and the analysis of the progressive deformation of the study diapirs do not show any link between diapiric uplift and local tectonic structures, and no clear correlation with the regional geodynamic events acting at the boundary of the Arabian plate. On the contrary, the salt uplift seems strongly influenced by the differential rate of sedimentation that affected the whole study basin (more than 40,000 km2), with a coefficient of correlation between the salt uplift rate and the differential rate of sedimentation (expressed by the standard deviation of the sedimentation rate calculated over the entire basin) of 0.95. This downbuilding mechanism of diapiric growth is apparently induced by differential sedimentation over long distances (several tens of kilometers), showing that the flow of salt affected the whole basin and not just the areas around the single diapiric structures.

  16. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  17. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  18. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  19. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  20. The genus Nervilia (Orchidaceae) in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson, Börge

    1991-01-01

    The orchidaceous genus Nervilia Comm. ex Gaud, is revised for Africa, including Madagascar and other islands, and the Arabian peninsula. Sixteen species are recognized, two of which are each subdivided into two varieties. Keys are presented for all taxa. Lectotypes or neotypes are given for all rele

  1. Coccolithophores from the central Arabian Sea: Sediment trap results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lina P Mergulhao; Rahul Mohan; V S N Murty; M V S Guptha; D K Sinha

    2006-08-01

    Sediment trap samples collected from a depth of 1018 m in the Central Arabian Sea Trap (CAST) at 14° 28.2′N, 64° 35.8′E were analyzed for temporal variation of coccolithophore fluxes from October 1993 to August 1994.Out of the twenty species of coccolithophores encountered, \\tetit {Gephyrocapsa oceanica,Emiliania huxleyi,Umbilicosphaera sibogae} and Umbellosphaera irregularis were the most abundant.The total coccolithophore fluxes ranged from 28.5 × 106 m−2 d−1 to 50.3 × 106 m−2 d−1 showing seasonality with higher fluxes during the northeast (NE) monsoon and lower fluxes during the spring intermonsoon. The higher fluxes were attributed to the enhancement of primary production in the central Arabian Sea due to southward extent of nutrients from the northeast Arabian Sea by the prevailing surface currents. Similarly, the occurrences of relatively lower coc-colithophore fluxes during the spring intermonsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon were attributed to the low nutrients in the warm, shallow surface mixed layer and downwelling to the south of Findlater Jet respectively in the central Arabian Sea.Some of the coccolithophore species such as E.huxleyi, G.oceanica, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Umbellosphaera tenuis showed signs of dissolution.

  2. Biogeochemical ocean-atmosphere transfers in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Bange, H.W.; Gibb, S.W.; Goyet, C.; Hatton, A.D.; Upstill-Goddard, R.C.

    fluxes is through the production of N sub (2) and N sub (2) O facilitated by an acute, mid-water deficiency of dissolved oxygen (O sub (2) );emissions of these gases to the atmosphere from the Arabian Sea are globally significant. For the other...

  3. Acoustic tomography experiment in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; Fernando, V.; Murty, C.S.

    An acoustic transmission experiment was conducted in the eastern Arabian Sea along 12.5 degrees N latitude for a duration of ten days (2-12 May, 1993), with two transceiver systems deployed on deep sea moorings, separated by a range of 270.92 km...

  4. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Sediments of late Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from a 12 m long core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea, have been studied in order to understand the depositional environment. Sub-samples selected at 5 cm and occasionally at 10...

  5. The Arabian Sea: Physical environment, zooplankton and myctophid abundance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Madhupratap, M.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Gauns, M.

    that there are considerable spatial and temporal variations in the area in primary productivity. Nonetheless, contrary to earlier thinking, it would seem that the mesozooplankton abundance in the Arabian Sea is fairly high in the mixed layer all through the year. This paradox...

  6. Spreading history of the Arabian Sea: Some new constraints

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Murty, G.P.S.; Desa, M.

    Based on a new identification of magnetic anomalies, additional constraints are provided on the two episodes of spreading history of the Arabian Sea. Commencing at A27, the older phase ended at A21 and sprading of the younger phase started shortly...

  7. The intraplate Euphrates fault system-Palmyrides mountain belt junction and relationship to Arabian plate boundary tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sawaf

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We interpret seismic data and well logs to indicate that the Euphrates graben, intersecting orthogonally with the Palmyride mountains, is an intraplate transtensional feature that probably developed in response to plate boundary stress created by a latest Cretaceous convergence event along the present-day northern boundary of the Arabian plate. The principal stress direction is proposed to lie generally parallel to the graben; hence, it may have formed as a tear in the Arabian crust while, as previously documented, the Palmyride region under- went shortening and uplift. Arabian plate boundary tectonism as well as shorteningin the Palmyrides were pe- riodically active during the entire Cenozoic, especially in Neogene and Quaternary time. However, the normal fault motions that formed the Euphrates graben were not active within the study area after the end of the Cre- taceous, and were most active during the Campanian-Maastl.ichtian. A broad, Cenozoic depression overlying the Euphrates graben and most of Eastern Syria is possibly related to the Mesopotamian foredeep that devel- oped in response to the nearby Zagros continental collision zone during Neogene and Quaternary time. Cenozoic strike-slip faults lie between the Euphrates graben and the Palmyrides belt and may kinematically separate the Palmyrides from the Euphrates system.

  8. Rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first gulf acute heart failure registry (gulf care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim J Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of data on heart failure (HF in the Gulf Middle East. The present paper describes the rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE. Materials and Methods: Gulf CARE is a prospective, multicenter, multinational registry of patients >18 year of age admitted with diagnosis of acute HF (AHF. The data collected included demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, precipitating factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with AHF. In addition, data about hospital readmission rates, procedures and mortality at 3 months and 1-year follow-up were recorded. Hospital characteristics and care provider details were collected. Data were entered in a dedicated website using an electronic case record form. Results: A total of 5005 consecutive patients were enrolled from February 14, 2012 to November 13, 2012. Forty-seven hospitals in 7 Gulf States (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, United Gulf Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain participated in the project. The majority of hospitals were community hospitals (46%; 22/47 followed by non-University teaching (32%; 15/47 and University hospitals (17%. Most of the hospitals had intensive or coronary care unit facilities (93%; 44/47 with 59% (28/47 having catheterization laboratory facilities. However, only 29% (14/47 had a dedicated HF clinic facility. Most patients (71% were cared for by a cardiologist. Conclusions: Gulf CARE is the first prospective registry of AHF in the Middle East, intending to provide a unique insight into the demographics, etiology, management and outcomes of AHF in the Middle East. HF management in the Middle East is predominantly provided by cardiologists. The data obtained from this registry will help the local clinicians to identify the deficiencies in HF management as well as provide a platform to implement evidence based preventive and treatment strategies to reduce the burden

  9. Timing, cause and consequences of mid-Holocene climate transition in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Rajeev; Naik, Dinesh Kumar; Nigam, Rajiv; Gaur, Anuruddh Singh

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct centennial scale quantitative changes in surface seawater temperature (SST), evaporation-precipitation (from Mg/Ca and δ18O of surface dwelling planktic foraminifera), productivity (from relative abundance of Globigerina bulloides), carbon burial (from %CaCO3 and organic carbon [%Corg]) and dissolved oxygen at sediment-water interface, covering the entire Holocene, from a core collected from the eastern Arabian Sea. From the multi-proxy record, we define the timing, consequences and possible causes of the mid-Holocene climate transition (MHCT). A distinct shift in evaporation-precipitation (E-P) is observed at 6.4 ka, accompanied by a net cooling of SST. The shift in SST and E-P is synchronous with a change in surface productivity. A concurrent decrease is also noted in both the planktic foraminiferal abundance and coarse sediment fraction. A shift in carbon burial, as inferred from both the %CaCO3 and %Corg, coincides with a change in surface productivity. A simultaneous decrease in dissolved oxygen at the sediment-water interface, suggests that changes affected both the surface and subsurface water. A similar concomitant change is also observed in other cores from the Arabian Sea as well as terrestrial records, suggesting a widespread regional MHCT. The MHCT coincides with decreasing low-latitude summer insolation, perturbations in total solar intensity and an increase in atmospheric CO2.

  10. Differential response of winter cooling on biological production in the northeastern Arabian Sea and northwestern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Madhu, N.V.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Gerson, V.J.; Haridas, P.; Venugopal, P.; Revichandran, C.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.

    . Mohammed Ashraf, Vijay John Gerson, P. C. Haridas, P. Venugopal, C. Revichandran, K. K. C. Nair and T. C. Gopalakris h nan National Ins titute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, PB No. 1913, Kochi 682 018, I n dia The northern parts... basins, the Arabian Sea (AS) and the Bay of Bengal (BOB), is land - locked in the north by the Asian continent which separates the northern IO from the deep - reachin g vertical convection areas of the Arctic Seas and the cold climatic regions...

  11. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  12. The Potential Role of Social Media Platforms in Community Awareness of Antibiotic Use in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Luxury or Necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zowawi, Hosam Mamoon; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Mar, Florie A; Almalki, Turki; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Harbarth, Stephan; Balkhy, Hanan H; Paterson, David L; Hasanain, Rihab Abdalazez

    2015-01-01

    The increasing emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health issue. Increasing the awareness of the general public about appropriate antibiotic use is a key factor for combating this issue. Several public media campaigns worldwide have been launched; however, such campaigns can be costly and the outcomes are variable and difficult to assess. Social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, are now frequently utilized to address health-related issues. In many geographical locations, such as the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain), these platforms are becoming increasingly popular. The socioeconomic status of the GCC states and their reliable communication and networking infrastructure has allowed the penetration and scalability of these platforms in the region. This might explain why the Saudi Ministry of Health is using social media platforms alongside various other media platforms in a large-scale public awareness campaign to educate at-risk communities about the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper discusses the potential for using social media tools as cost-efficient and mass education platforms to raise awareness of appropriate antibiotic use in the general public and in the medical communities of the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:26471079

  13. Rift offsets, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Structure and stratigraphic mapping in the northern half of the Gulf of Suex (GOS) documents two en echelon, rift-parallel (Clysmic trend) rift segments. The segments are right stepping and share a zone of overlap, which extends southward from the southern border of the Wadi Araba structure on the western shore of the gulf to the north end of the Abu Durba block on the east side of the gulf. The spatial relationship of the two segments defines the central GOS rift offset, and the structural depression linking the segments in the area of overlap forms a rift-offset zone. Another potential rift offset, though less well constrained, also with a north-south trend may be present south of Gebel Zeit. This rift and the central GOS rift offset provide a model for the opening of the GOS in which north-south rift-offset zones link Clysmic-trending rift segments, imparting a regional zig-zag pattern to the initial rift configuration. Recognition of offset zones and their associated fault fabrics is essential for effective exploration of rift basins. For example, the alignment of producing fields and elongation directions of individual fields in the central GOS offset are anomalous relative to those of other producing trends in the Gulf.

  14. Rift offsets, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1988-02-01

    Structure and stratigraphic mapping in the northern half of the Gulf of Suez (GOS) documents two en echelon, rift-parallel (Clysmic trend) rift segments. The segments are right stepping and share a zone of overlap, which extends southward from the southern border of the Wadi Araba structure on the western shore of the gulf to the north end of the Abu Durba block on the east side of the gulf. The spatial relationship of the two segments defines the central GOS rift offset, and the structural depression linking the segments in the area of overlap forms a rift-offset zone. Another potential rift offset, though less well constrained, also with a north-south trend may be present south of Gebel Zeit. This rift and the central GOS rift offset provide a model for the opening of the GOS in which north-south rift-offset zones link Clysmic-trending rift segments, imparting a regional zig-zag pattern to the initial rift configuration. Recognition of offset zones and their associated fault fabrics is essential for effective exploration of rift basins. For example, the alignment of producing fields and elongation directions of individual fields in the central GOS offset are anomalous relative to those of other producing trends in the Gulf.

  15. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed from the de-seasonalized daily SLP for spring months between 1960 and 2013. The analysis covered a window for the region (15-70°E and 2.5-50°N). This window coupled different oceanic-land influences (e.g. the Indian, Mediterranean and the Sahara configurations) that may impart an effect on rainfall variations in the study domain. A set of eight significant circulation spatial patterns were retained, which explained 84.8% of the total explained variance. The derived patterns explained a wide variety of flows over the peninsula, with a clear distinction between zonal and meridional advections. The extreme wet events (R95 and R99) were defined from a relatively dense network of 209 observatories covering the peninsula, using the 95th and 99th percentile of rainfall distribution respectively. The links between the dominant SLP patterns and significant wet events were established and the physical interpretations of these associations were examined. The results, as revealed by the location and intensity of high pressure centers, highlight the strength of eastern and southeastern advections corresponding to these extreme events. Other patterns have a local character, suggesting an orographic origin of some wet events in the region. The relationships described in this research can advance the understanding of the large-scale processes that contribute to the wet weather events in the Arabian Peninsula. These findings can therefore contribute to better management of water resources and agricultural practices in the region.

  16. A reappraisal of postglacial decay times from Richmond Gulf and James Bay, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    J.X. Mitrovica; Forte, A. M.; M. Simons

    2000-01-01

    Decay times inferred from relative sea-level (RSL) histories of previously glaciated regions provide a potentially important constraint on mantle rheology. We present a new compilation of RSL data from Richmond Gulf and James Bay, Canada. This recompilation reveals errors in previous compilations that led to inaccurate estimates for the Richmond Gulf decay time in a series of recently published articles. We derive updated estimates for the decay time at Richmond Gulf and James Bay using a met...

  17. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2015-03-19

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast. © 2015 Yao, Hoteit.

  18. DNA polymorphism of Arabian, thoroughbred and Anglo-Arabian Horses in Morocco: Application to identification of individual horses and parentage verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New techniques of molecular biology used in analyzing DNA polymorphism give access to the whole genetic variability of a given individual while the traditional blood typing (red cell typing and biochemical polymorphisms) gives access only to the transcribed fraction which is then translated to protein. In addition, this fraction represents only a very small part (5-10%) of the genome's incoding fraction. One of the newer testing methods in identifying horses is a DNA-based test using microsatellite marker analysis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology in the identification and parentage verification of Arabian, Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arabian horses in Morocco. Anglo-Arabian horse is a crossbreed between Arabian and Thoroughbred. Three samples from the three breeds were analyzed for 12 microsatellites (HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, AHT4, AHT5, VHL20, HTG10 and ASB2). A total of 1541 horses were used: 804 Arabians, 559 Thoroughbreds and 178 Anglo-Arabians. Allelic frequencies of the 12 studied systems were calculated in the three groups. The results allowed the determination of intra-population genetic parameters: heterozygosity ratio (H), probability of identification (PI) and probability of exclusion (PE). Based on average heterozygosity ratio, variability was relatively lower in Thoroughbred horse (.7036), while it was almost the same in Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses (respectively .7217 and .7232). Probabilities of exclusion obtained with the 12 systems were higher than 99.9% for the three studied populations and probabilities of identification of individual horses were 15 x 10-12, 4 x 10-12 and 20 x 10-12 in Thoroughbred, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses respectively. These results indicate that the test using microsatellite marker analysis constitute a highly efficient and reliable alternative for the identification of individual horses and parentage verification and is a useful tool for horse

  19. Response of benthic foraminifera to phytodetritus in the eastern Arabian Sea under low oxygen conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enge, Annekatrin; Wukovits, Julia; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Witte, Ursula; Hunter, William; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    At water depths between 100 and 1500 m a permanent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) impinges on the sea floor in the eastern Arabian Sea, exposing benthic organisms to anoxic to suboxic conditions. The flux of organic matter to the sea floor is relatively high at these depths but displays seasonal variation. Deposition of relatively fresh phytodetrital material (phytoplankton remains) can occur within a short period of time after monsoon periods. Several organism groups including foraminifera are involved to different extent in the processing of phytodetritus in the OMZs of the northern Arabian Sea. A series of in situ feeding experiments were performed to study the short-term processing (nutritional demands of foraminifera at different oxygen concentrations on the continental margin in the eastern Arabian Sea. For the experiments, a single pulse of isotopically labeled phytodetritus was added to the sediment along a depth transect (540-1100 m) on the Indian Margin, covering the OMZ core and the lower OMZ boundary region. Uptake of phytodetritus within 4 days shows the relevance of phytodetritus as food source for foraminifera. Lower content of phytodetrital carbon recorded in foraminifera from more oxygenated depths shows greater food uptake by foraminifera in the OMZ core than in the OMZ boundary region. The foraminiferal assemblage living under almost anoxic conditions in the OMZ core is dominated by species typically found in eutroph environments (such as Uvigerinids) that are adapted to high flux of organic matter. The elevated carbon uptake can also result from missing food competition by macrofauna or from greater energy demand in foraminifera to sustain metabolic processes under hypoxic stress. Variable levels and ratios of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen indicate specific nutritional demands and storage of food-derived nitrogen in some foraminifera species under near anoxia where the mean phytodetrital nitrogen content in foraminifera was elevated. In summary

  20. Remotely Searching for Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing monsoonal winds in the Arabian Sea result in two seasons with elevated biological activity, namely the annual summer Southwest Monsoon (SWM; June to September) and winter Northeast Monsoon (NEM; November to March) [Wiggert et al., 2005]. Generally speaking, the SWM and NEM create two geographically distinct blooms [Banse and English, 2000; Levy et al., 2007]. In the summer, winds from the southwest drive offshore Ekman transport and coastal upwelling along the northwestern coast of Africa, which brings nutrient-rich water to the surface from below the permanent thermocline [Bauer et al., 1991]. In the winter, cooling of the northern Arabian Sea causes surface waters to sink, which generates convective mixing that injects nutrients throughout the upper mixed layer [Madhupratap et al., 1996]. This fertilization of otherwise nutrient-deplete surface waters produces one of the most substantial seasonal extremes of phytoplankton biomass and carbon flux anywhere in the world [Smith, 2005].

  1. Nitrogen cycling in the suboxic waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devol, A.H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    in the oceans. Isotope measurements have been made for three of the major nitrogen species involved in nitrogen cycling in the Arabian Sea ODZ [8,72,73,98]. At a station in the heart of the ODZ with a well developed SNM, the isotopic composition of NO3... the S'~N of N03- increases dramatically to NITROGEN CYCLING IN THE SUBOXIC WATERS OF THE ARABIAN SEA 299 6 l5 N2 6 l5NO, - 0.2 0.4 0.6 6 10 14 I;iR~lre 8. Composite profiles of 6ISN2 and 6'%Oi^ froin profiles taken in the heart of the ODZ (Data...

  2. Climatical Characterization of Northern Arabian Sea for OFDM Based Underwater Acoustic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climatic changes on the Underwater Acoustic (UWA communication are addressed here with the aim to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme in the whole year specifically for the north Arabian Sea. Oceanic channel is a most challenging medium for the design of underwater wireless communication as it offers various unwanted degradations in terms of frequency-dependent attenuation, multipath spread, long path delays, etc. Multipath spread having extended delay spread further deteriorates the communication packet (s and in result, mutilation of entire signal, i.e., Inter-Symbolic Interference (ISI is occurred. Detailed analysis for the interaction of sound wave with the water mass is essential for the design of Underwater Acoustic (UWA communication. In particular, at varying temperature and warm surface site like Ormara, Pakistan (north-western region of Arabian Sea, where a very strong seasonal dependency may be observed due to climatic changes. OFDM, being the most feasible communication scheme and well suited for underwater environment is utilized in this study for the effect’s monitoring. In this study, we are presenting the effects of climate on the selected region of North-west Arabian Sea and validating our work on Zero Padded (ZP OFDM scheme for UWA communication. Relevant meteorological and oceanic data are obtained from open source buoy ARGOS ID 2901374 and Global ARGOS marine atlas (Worldwide tracking and environmental monitoring by satellite. For each of March, June, September and December we find a temperature and salinity with respect to the depth and subsequently calculate the sound speed in the specific channel. Bellhop ray tracing program is used to obtain the receiving path's amplitudes and delays for respective channel modeling and ZP OFDM based communication system. Simulation results explain the effects of climate in the transmission and endorse that ZP-OFDM is a viable choice for high-rate communications in

  3. Evaluation of foaling heat in Arabian mares in Ninevah province

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Rahawy

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the relationship between breeding season of Arabian mares at first estrous afterfoaling and pregnancy rate. Thirty six mares were divided in to two groups according to foaling heat in breeding season,transitional periods. Animals included in this study were maintained with the same management and conditions in the specialbreeding stables. This study was performed in a farm located in Nineveh province during the period from June 2008 to June2010. The ma...

  4. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian monsoon revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, X; B. Hünicke; N. Tim; E. Zorita

    2015-01-01

    Studies based on upwelling indices (sediment records, sea-surface temperature and wind) suggest that upwelling along the western coast of Arabian Sea is strongly affected by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). In order to examine this relationship directly, we employ the vertical water mass transport produced by the eddy-resolving global ocean simulation STORM driven by meteorological reanalysis over the last 61 years. With its very high spatial resolution (10 ...

  5. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  6. Hereditary Oil Monarchies: Why Arab Spring Fails in GCC Arabian States?

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Aydın

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to reveal the reasons of why Arab Spring could not change the hereditary oil monarchies regimes in Persian Gulf, when compare with other countries in region. The strong cooperation between Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Oman, hereditary monarchies for long years, high oil and natural gas income and sharing with lower social class that did not cause to improve strong demand among public to change regime of countries, also the external powers su...

  7. Aerosol characteristics at a remote island: Minicoy in southern Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Vinoj; S K Satheesh; K Krishna Moorthy

    2008-07-01

    Extensive measurements of aerosol optical and microphysical properties made at a remote island, Minicoy in southern Arabian Sea for the period (February 2006–March 2007) are used to characterize their temporal variability and Black Carbon (BC) mass mixing ratio. Large decrease in aerosol BC (from ∼800 ng m−3 to ∼100 ng m−3) was observed associated with change in airmass characteristics and monsoon rains. The total aerosol mass varied between ∼80 and 20 g m−3. Though the total mass fell drastically, a slight increase in super micron mass was observed during the June–August period associated with high winds. The mass fraction of Black Carbon aerosols during the prevalence of continental airmass is found to be ∼1.2% of the composite aerosols, which is much lower than the values reported earlier for this region.

  8. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna. PMID:26608504

  9. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, May B.

    2015-11-20

    Coral reef communities between 26.8°N and 18.6°N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  10. Gulf operators resuming production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said

  11. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-03-23

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  12. Coverage of Competencies in the Curriculum of Information Studies: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Sajjad; Al-Ansari, Husain; Yousef, Nibal

    2002-01-01

    Presents the collective judgments of a group of academics from North America, Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf region, as well as leading practitioners from the Arabian Gulf region, about the content of graduate degrees in information studies. The participants generally agreed about the content of the curriculum of information studies. The most…

  13. Reconstruction of upwelling intensity and paleo-nutrient gradients in the northwest Arabian Sea derived from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of planktic foraminifera.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Moos

    2000-01-01

    The Asian Monsoon system dominates the climate over large areas of the Asian and Indian continents and the rainfall prevailing during SW-monsoon is decisive for the agriculture of the entire region. The atmospheric monsoon system dominates the oceanographic surface circulation of the northern Indian Ocean and causes strong upwelling off Somalia and Arabia during SW-monsoon and makes the northwestern Arabian Sea to one of the most productive areas in the world oceans. Thus, productivity and nu...

  14. Isolation and Bioactivities of the Flavonoids Morin and Morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis—A Wild Arabian Medicinal Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Javid Hussain; Liaqat Ali; Abdul Latif Khan; Najeeb Ur Rehman; Farah Jabeen; Jong-Sang Kim; Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2014-01-01

    Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic...

  15. Rock magnetic and geochemical record in a sediment core from the eastern Arabian Sea: Diagenetic and environmental implications during the late quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Patil, S.K.; Ahmad, S.M.

    ; Rey et al., 2005). These sediment features will ultimately determine whether or not sub-oxic/anoxic conditions become established in the sediment. Therefore, understanding the impact of early diagenesis on magnetic minerals has been important...: Clift, P.D., et al. (Ed.), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region. Special Publication, Geological Society of London, vol. 195, pp. 407–419. Rey, D., Mohamed, K.J., Bernabeu, A., Rubio, B., Vilas, F., 2005. Early diagenesis...

  16. Large scale patterns of antimicrofouling defenses in the hard coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Martin; Al-Sofyani, Abdelmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the pattern...

  17. Large Scale Patterns of Antimicrofouling Defenses in the Hard Coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an Environmental Gradient along the Saudi Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Martin; Al Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the pattern...

  18. Is delta sup(15)N of sedimentary organic matter a good proxy for paleodenitrification in coastal waters of the eastern Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Agnihotri, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kurian, S.; Altabet, M.A.; Bratton, J.F.

    in Coastal Waters of the Eastern Arabian Sea? Rajesh Agnihotri, S. Wajih A. Naqvi, and Siby Kurian National Institute of Oceanography, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dona Paula, India Mark A. Altabet School for Marine Sciences and Technology... OMZ in the world. With its upper boundary occurring at 100–150 m, the OMZ lies mostly beyond the continental shelves [Naqvi, 1991]. However, because of the semi-enclosed nature of the northern Indian Ocean, this region still accounts for two...

  19. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  20. Comparative Profiling of coral symbiont communities from the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Chatchanit

    2014-12-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are in rapid decline due to global and local anthropogenic factors. Being among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, a loss will decrease species diversity, and remove food source for people along the coast. The coral together with its symbionts (i.e. Symbiodinium, bacteria, and other microorganisms) is called the ‘coral holobiont’. The coral host offers its associated symbionts suitable habitats and nutrients, while Symbiodinium and coral-associated bacteria provide the host with photosynthates and vital nutrients. Association of corals with certain types of Symbiodinium and bacteria confer coral stress tolerance, and lack or loss of these symbionts coincides with diseased or bleached corals. However, a detailed understanding of the coral holobiont diversity and structure in regard to diseases and health states or across global scales is missing. This dissertation addressed coral-associated symbiont diversity, specifically of Symbiodinium and bacteria, in various coral species from different geographic locations and different health states. The main aims were (1) to expand the scope of existing technologies, (2) to establish a standardized framework to facilitate comparison of symbiont assemblages over coral species and sites, (3) to assess Symbiodinium diversity in the Arabian Seas, and (4) to elucidate whether coral health states have conserved bacterial footprints. In summary, a next generation sequencing pipeline for Symbiodinium diversity typing of the ITS2 marker is developed and applied to describe Symbiodinium diversity in corals around the Arabian Peninsula. The data show that corals in the Arabian Seas are dominated by a single Symbiodinium type, but harbor a rich variety of types in low abundant. Further, association with different Symbiodinium types is structured according to geographic locations. In addition, the application of 16S rRNA gene microarrays to investigate how differences in microbiome structure relate to

  1. The effect of Arabian Sea optical properties on SST biases and the South Asian summer monsoon in a coupled GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A.G.; Joshi, M.; Robertson, E.S.; Woolnough, S.J. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    This study examines the effect of seasonally varying chlorophyll on the climate of the Arabian Sea and South Asian monsoon. The effect of such seasonality on the radiative properties of the upper ocean is often a missing process in coupled general circulation models and its large amplitude in the region makes it a pertinent choice for study to determine any impact on systematic biases in the mean and seasonality of the Arabian Sea. In this study we examine the effects of incorporating a seasonal cycle in chlorophyll due to phytoplankton blooms in the UK Met Office coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM HadCM3. This is achieved by performing experiments in which the optical properties of water in the Arabian Sea - a key signal of the semi-annual cycle of phytoplankton blooms in the region - are calculated from a chlorophyll climatology derived from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) data. The SeaWiFS chlorophyll is prescribed in annual mean and seasonally-varying experiments. In response to the chlorophyll bloom in late spring, biases in mixed layer depth are reduced by up to 50% and the surface is warmed, leading to increases in monsoon rainfall during the onset period. However when the monsoons are fully established in boreal winter and summer and there are strong surface winds and a deep mixed layer, biases in the mixed layer depth are reduced but the surface undergoes cooling. The seasonality of the response of SST to chlorophyll is found to depend on the relative depth of the mixed layer to that of the anomalous penetration depth of solar fluxes. Thus the inclusion of the effects of chlorophyll on radiative properties of the upper ocean acts to reduce biases in mixed layer depth and increase seasonality in SST. (orig.)

  2. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    , whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard to...... migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...

  3. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Kurian, Siby; Gauns, Mangesh; Chndrasekhararao, A. V.; Mulla, Amara; Naik, Bhagyashri; Naik, Hema; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-05-01

    The Arabian Sea experiences moderate to weak upwelling along the south-west coast of India, which subsequently propagates towards the north. This causes variation in plankton community composition, which is addressed in the present study. Here we report the spatial variations in distribution of phytoplankton groups along the north-south transect in the eastern Arabian Sea based on marker pigments supported with flow-cytometric and microscopic analyses. 15 phytoplankton pigments were identified using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the chemotaxonomic software (CHEMTAX) analysis associated these to seven major group of phytoplankton. The phytoplankton biomass, chlorophyll a (Chl a) was higher in southern stations with dominance of fucoxanthin whereas, divinyl chlorophyll a (divinyl Chl a), marker pigment of Prochlorococcus was present only in the northern region. Microscopic observation revealed the dominance of larger forms; diatoms (Chaetoceros coarctatum and Nitzschia sp.) and dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella sp., Oxytoxum nanum and Oxytoxum sp.) in the southern region. Furthermore, a study of plankton size distribution showed dominance of picoplankton (fpico) followed by nanoplankton (fnano) along the northern stations with comparatively higher microplankton (fmicro) in the south. This study clearly showed the influence of different environmental conditions on the phytoplankton community as reflected in dominance of diatoms in the southern (south of 12 °N) and that of picoplankton in the northern (north of 12 °N) region.

  4. 'Shamal' swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.

    on the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the Arabian Sea, and this has not been studied so far. Rapid changes in wind patterns during these shamal events can alter the wave characteristics of the Arabian Sea. This has motivated us to take up the present...

  5. Hydrography and water masses in the southeastern Arabian Sea during March-June 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Kurian, J.; Varma, K.K.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Almeida, A.M.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Fernandes, W.A.; Barreto, N; Gnanaseelan, C.; Mathew, R.; Praju, K.V.; Mahale, V.

    that the intermittency of the RSW in the eastern Arabian Sea may be due to the occurrence of the RSW even in the northwestern Arabian Sea in the form of patches or lenses (Shapiro et al 1994; Beal et al 2000), which are advected to the northern end of the Indian west...

  6. Why is Bay of Bengal warmer than Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    The near-surface Bay of Bengal remains significantly warmer than the Arabian Sea during summer monsoon (June-September). Analysis of the heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal shows significant differences between them during...

  7. Formation and spreading of Arabian Sea high-salinity water mass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    The formation and seasonal spreading of the Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW) mass were studied based on the monthly mean climatology of temperature and salinity in the Arabian Sea, north of the equator and west of 80 degrees E, on a 2 degrees...

  8. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the peninsula (i.e., cyclonic, anticyclonic and directional). These large-scale patterns were first defined for the observed climate (1960-2013), allowing for an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the peninsula using rainfall data from 209 weather observatories. The same methodology was then applied to assess how the defined weather types will be presented in future climate simulations (under RCP45 and RCP85 emission scenarios) and to explore their probable dependency with rainfall characteristics. In this regard, daily simulated SLP derived from an ensemble of 12 climate models within the CMIP5 project were used for two future time-slices (2035-2060 and 2075-2100). Our findings indicate that the cyclonic (C) type represented the most frequent classification with 69.2% of days, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also found that the main circulation features influencing winter (spring) rainfall across the peninsula are the strong influence of the anticyclonic (easterly and southeasterly) air masses. Generally, the role of airflows originating from the Indian Ocean is larger than those of the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. The trend results of defined weather types show that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions tend to decrease (increase). This picture is likely to continue during the 21st century. The only exception corresponds to the summer season. Here, understanding the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula can be important for the understanding of climatic variability and thus developing circulation-based downscaling methods in this region.

  9. Seasonal controls on surface pCO2 in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V S S Sarma; M Dileep Kumar; M Gauns; M Madhupratap

    2000-12-01

    The variability in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and its control by biological and physical processes in the mixed layer (ML) of the central and eastern Arabian Sea during inter-monsoon, northeast monsoon, and southwest monsoon seasons were studied. The ML varied from 80-120 m during NE monsoon, 60-80 m and 20-30 m during SW- and inter-monsoon seasons, respectively, and the variability resulted from different physical processes. Significant seasonal variability was found in pCO2 levels. During SW monsoon, coastal waters contain two contrasting regimes; (a) pCO2 levels of 520-685 atm were observed in the SW coast of India, the highest found so far from this region, driven by intense upwelling and (b) low levels of pCO2 (266 atm) were found associated with monsoonal fresh water influx. It varied in ranges of 416-527 atm and 375-446 atm during inter- and NE monsoon, respectively, in coastal waters with higher values occurring in the north. The central Arabian Sea pCO2 levels were 351-433, 379-475 and 385-432 atm during NE- inter and SW monsoon seasons, respectively. The mixed layer pCO2 relations with temperature, oxygen, chlorophyll and primary production revealed that the former is largely regulated by physical processes during SW- and NE monsoon whereas both physical and biological processes are important in inter-monsoon. Application of Louanchi et al (1996) model revealed that the mixing effect is the dominant during monsoons, however, the biological effect is equally significant during SW monsoon whereas thermodynamics and fluxes influence during inter-monsoons.

  10. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Billett, D. S. M.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope from 100 to 1000 m water depth. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). These two margins are contrasting both in terms of the abundance of sedimentary organic matter and the intensity of the OMZ. Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC mg TOC-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values, particularly at the Oman margin, may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have provided an organic-rich food source for foraminifera at these sites. Our data suggest that foraminifera in OMZ settings can utilise a variety of food sources and metabolic pathways to meet their energetic demands.

  11. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographic features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographic range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both Isolation by Distance (IBD) and Isolation by Environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with an historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of inter-specific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  12. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Dibattista, Joseph D; Piatek, Marek J; Gaither, Michelle R; Harrison, Hugo B; Nanninga, Gerrit B; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographical features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographical range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with a historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of interspecific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  13. Seismic Activity in the Gulf of Mexico: a Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, S. I.; Canet, C.; Iglesias, A.; Valdes-Gonzales, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    The southwestern corner of Gulf of Mexico (around the northern Isthmus of Tehuantepec) is exposed to an intense deep (> 100 km) seismic activity caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate. Aside from this, the gulf has been considered as a zone of low or no-seismicity. However, a sparse shallow seismic activity is observed across the Gulf of Mexico; some of these earthquakes have been strongly felt (e.g. 23/05/2007 and 10/09/2006), and the Jaltipan, 1959 earthquake caused fatalities and severe destruction in central and southern Veracruz. In this work we analyze 5 relevant earthquakes that occurred since 2001. At the central Gulf of Mexico focal mechanisms show inverse faults oriented approximately NW-SE with dip near 45 degrees, suggesting a link to sediment loading and/or to salt tectonics. On the other hand, in the southwestern corner of the gulf we analyzed some clear examples of strike-slip faults and activity probably related to the Veracruz Fault. One anomalous earthquake, recorded in 2007 in the western margin of the gulf, shows a strike-slip mechanism indicating a transform regime probably related with the East Mexican Fault. The recent improvement of the Mexican Seismological broadband network have allowed to record small earthquakes distributed in and around the Gulf of Mexico. Although the intermediate and large earthquakes in the region are infrequent, the historic evidence indicates that the magnitudes could reach Mw~6.4. This fact could be taken in consideration to reassess the seismic hazard for oil and industrial infrastructure in the region.

  14. Atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be, 210Pb and chemical species to the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol samples collected close to the air-sea interface, between February 1997 to February 1999, over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analyzed to determine the atmospheric dry-deposition of Fe (dust inputs), anthropogenic constituents (NO3-, SO42-) and environmental nuclides (7Be, 210Pb). In general, aerosol 210Pb concentrations showed a good correlation with 7Be, suggesting the long-range transport of 210Pb from the continents (via upper troposphere) and similarities in the processes governing their deposition through the marine boundary layer (MBL). The relatively low 7Be/210Pb ratios observed over the Bay of Bengal, during February 1999, are dominated by aerosol transport from the continental surface sources. The dry deposition fluxes of 210Pb and 7Be, to these two oceanic regions, average around 245 and 1860 Bq m-2 y-l, respectively. The non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- (range: 1.7 to 9.4 μg m-3) and NO3- (range: 0.6 to 4.1 μg m-3) are uncorrelated in the MBL, presumably because continental pollution sources for SO42- overwhelm the transport of NO3- from crustal dust and biomass burning. The oceanic biogenic emission (DMS) constitutes a very minor source for nss-SO42-. The enhanced concentrations of aerosol NO3- and Fe observed over the Arabian Sea are attributed to dust storm activities from the adjacent desert areas (Saudi Arabia and Thar). Significant scatter in the linear regression analyses indicate that the aerosol composition along the coastal tracks is different from those transported to the open ocean. On average, dry deposition fluxes of N-NO3 and non-marine SO42- are 150 and 1225 mg m-2 y-1, respectively. In contrast, dry deposition of Fe over the Arabian Sea (255 mg m-2 y-1) far exceeds that over the Bay of Bengal (93 mg m-2 y-1). Thus, dust from desert regions appears to be a potential source of micronutrients (Fe) to the surface Arabian Sea. (author)

  15. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Saudi Arabian Dermatology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwar E.; Al-Dahmash, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Boqami, Qamra T.; Al-Tebainawi, Yazeed F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients and to assess associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 consecutive dermatology patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in August 2015. The Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to screen for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: A total of 254 dermatology patients participated in the study (response rate: 84.7%). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 12.6%, 22.1% and 7.5%, respectively. The presence of at least one of these negative emotional states was noted among 24.4% of the cohort (95% confidence interval: 19.3–30.2%). Depression was significantly higher among subjects who lacked family support (26.5% versus 10.7%; P = 0.006) while anxiety was less common among patients who engaged in physical exercise (14.5% versus 29.4%; P = 0.005). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor QOL and a lack of family support were significant predictors of a negative emotional state. Conclusion: Almost a quarter of the studied Saudi Arabian dermatology patients were found to suffer from at least one negative emotional state. A lack of family support and poor QOL were the primary factors associated with a negative emotional state. Interventional studies are needed to examine the effects of social and family support on psychological conditions among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients. PMID:27226914

  16. Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.

  17. Oscillating environmental responses of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gerson, V.J.; Madhu, N.V.; Jyothibabu, R.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Revichandran, C.

    Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 43(1), January 2014, pp. 67-75 Oscillating environmental responses of the eastern Arabian Sea Vijay John Gerson1*, Madhu N V2, Jyothibabu R2, Balachandran K K2, Maheswari Nair2 & Revichandran C2 1St.Albert’s College.... Present study attempts to investigate the seasonal patterns and stratification of nutrients to evaluate its distribution and related biological responses along the west coast of India. Materials and Methods The study is based on the oceanographic data...

  18. Remote forcing annihilates barrier layer in southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    -1 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Remote forcing annihilates barrier layer in southeastern Arabian Sea S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, and S. R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. Time-series measurements... thick barrier layer (BL) exists during March{April ow- ing to a surface layer of low-salinity waters advected earlier during December{January from the Bay of Bengal. The BL is almost annihilated by 7 April owing to upwelling. The relic BL that survives...

  19. On the distribution of pelagic cephalopods in the Arabian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Piatkowski, Uwe; Welsch, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    From April to June of 1987 R/V Meteor collected zooplankton and micronekton samples in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. One hundred and fifty-seven cephalopod specimens were captured by oblique IKMT hauls through water depths from 1,000 to 0 m and identified to the lowest possible taxon. Thirteen species of nine families were recorded. The majority of the specimens were early life stages of pelagic oceanic species. The cranchiid squid Liocranchia reinhardti was the dominant form (108...

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from the Arabian Sea: A synthesis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bange, H.W.; Andreae, M.O.; Lal, S.; Law, C.S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Patra, P.K.; Rixen, P.K.; Upstill-Goddard, R.C.

    and Sarmiento, 2000). Here we present a comprehensive compilation of N2O measurements from the Arabian Sea surface layer from 1977 to 1997. These data were used to calculate mean seasonal and annual climatological N2O fields with a 1◦ latitude × 1◦ longitude... recalculated the Weiss et al. (1992) N2O concentrations with the reported water temperature, a mean seasonal salinity of 35.75, as calculated from climatologi- cal salinity data (see below), and an atmospheric pressure of 1 atm (Weiss and Price, 1980). We...

  1. A lead isotope study of mineralization in the Saudi Arabian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J.S.; Doe, B.R.; Roberts, R.J.; Delevaux, M.H.; Gramlich, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    New lead isotope data are presented for some late Precambrian and early Paleozoic vein and massive sulfide deposits in the Arabian Shield. Using the Stacey Kramers (1975) model for lead isotope evolution, isochron model ages range between 720 m.y. and 420 m.y. Most of the massive sulfide deposits in the region formed before 680 m.y. ago, during evolution of the shield. Vein type mineralization of higher lead content occurred during the Pan African event about 550 m.y. ago and continued through the Najd period of extensive faulting in the shield that ended about 530 m.y. ago. Late post-tectonic metamorphism may have been responsible for vein deposits that have model ages less than 500 m.y. Alternatively some of these younger model ages may be too low due to the mineralizing fluids acquiring radiogenic lead from appreciably older local crustal rocks at the time of ore formation. The low207Pb/204Pb ratios found for the deposits in the main part of the shield and for those in north-eastern Egypt, indicate that the Arabian craton was formed in an oceanic crustal environment during the late Precambrian. Involvement of older, upper-crustal material in the formation of the ore deposits in this part of the shield is precluded by their low207Pb/204Pb and208Pb/204Pb characteristics. In the eastern part of the shield, east of longitude 44??20???E towards the Al Amar-Idsas fault region, lead data are quite different. They exhibit a linear207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb relationship together with distinctly higher208Pb/204Pb characteristics. These data imply the existence of lower crustal rocks of early Proterozoic age that apparently have underthrust the shield rocks from the east. If most of the samples we have analyzed from this easterly region were mineralized 530 m.y. ago, then the age of the older continental rocks is 2,100??300 m.y. (2??). The presence of upper crustal rocks, possibly also of early Proterozoic age, is indicated by galena data from Hailan in South Yemen and also

  2. Sediment transport and depth variation study of the Gulf of Kutch using remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) data gathered onboard Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS P4), in eight VNIR bonds covering Gulf of Kutch and adjoining regions were digitally processed using an image processing system. False colour composite images...

  3. Geothermal resources: Frio Formation, Middle Texas Gulf Coast. Geological circular 75-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.; Agagu, O.K.; Dorfman, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    Regional sand distribution of the Frio Formation is determined; depositional environments are identified; and the geopressured zone and its relationship to sand/shale distribution, growth faults, and fluid temperatures in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast are delineated. (MHR)

  4. Projection of temperature and heat waves for Africa with an ensemble of CORDEX Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosio, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    The most severe effects of global warning will be related to the frequency and severity of extreme events. We provide an analysis of projections of temperature and related extreme events for Africa based on a large ensemble of Regional Climate Models from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX). Results are presented not only by means of widely used indices but also with a recently developed Heat Wave Magnitude Index-daily (HWMId), which takes into account both heat wave duration and intensity. Results show that under RCP8.5, warming of more than 3.5 °C is projected in JFM over most of the continent, whereas in JAS temperatures over large part of Northern Africa, the Sahara and the Arabian peninsula are projected to increase up to 6 °C. Large increase in in the number of warm days (Tx90p) is found over sub equatorial Africa, with values up to more than 90 % in JAS, and more than 80 % in JFM over e.g., the gulf of Guinea, Central African Republic, South Sudan and Ethiopia. Changes in Tn90p (warm nights) are usually larger, with some models projecting Tn90p reaching 95 % starting from around 2060 even under RCP4.5 over the Gulf of Guinea and the Sahel. Results also show that the total length of heat spells projected to occur normally (i.e. once every 2 years) under RCP8.5 may be longer than those occurring once every 30 years under the lower emission scenario. By employing the recently developed HWMId index, it is possible to investigate the relationship between heat wave length ad intensity; in particular it is shown that very intense heat waves such as that occurring over the Horn of Africa may have values of HWMId larger than that of longer, but relatively weak, heat waves over West Africa.

  5. Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the northern Arabian Shield: evidence from southwest Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, K. M.; McCourt, W. J.

    1995-02-01

    The crystalline basement outcrop exposed in southwest Jordan, is subdivided into two broad lithostratigraphic divisions, the older Aqaba complex and the Araba complex separated by a regional unconformity. The Aqaba complex principally comprises calc-alkaline plutonic rods of probable age range 630-580 Ma cut by extensive regional dyke swarms while the Araba complex is characterized by alkaline rhyolitic volcanics and minor coeval granites with an approximate age of 550-540 Ma. The plutonic rocks of the Aqaba complex are interpreted to be the products of subduction at, or dose to, a continental margin, while the Araba complex rods were most probably formed in an extensional setting. The Aqaba complex granitoids are isotopically primitive and were derived from a depleted source region like the mantle. The Arabian Shield of southwest Jordan provides an example of rapid crustal growth during the Neoproterozoic and the new data gives no support to models invoking the presence or involvement of significantly older basement in its development.

  6. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane J; Mirabal, Sheyla; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Modern day Iran is strategically located in the tri-continental corridor uniting Africa, Europe and Asia. Several ethnic groups belonging to distinct religions, speaking different languages and claiming divergent ancestries inhabit the region, generating a potentially diverse genetic reservoir. In addition, past pre-historical and historical events such as the out-of-Africa migrations, the Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Aryan treks from the Central Asian steppes, the westward Mongol expansions and the Muslim invasions may have chiseled their genetic fingerprints within the genealogical substrata of the Persians. On the other hand, the Iranian perimeter is bounded by the Zagros and Albrez mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts, which may have restricted gene flow from neighboring regions. By utilizing high-resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and reanalyzing our previously published Y-chromosomal data, we have found a previously unexplored, genetic connection between Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Furthermore, the regional distribution of mtDNA haplogroups J, I, U2 and U7 also provides evidence of barriers to gene flow posed by the two major Iranian deserts and the Zagros mountain range. PMID:21326310

  8. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  9. Education in the Gulf Monarchies: Retrospect and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    1999-03-01

    For the last several decades there has been tremendous expansion in the educational facilities in all the six Gulf monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The quality of education, however, does not correspond to the needs of Gulf societies. This study examines three of the apparent deficiencies in the educational system in the region: the mismatch between traditional and modern learning, the imbalance between indigenous and expatriate labor forces, and the gap between men and women. The paper concludes that a fundamental change in the quality of education needs to be made in order to overcome these imbalances.

  10. Security models and their applicability to the Gulf: The potential of European lessons applied

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The paper, written for a joint project of the Gulf Research Center in Dubai and the Bertelsmann Foundation, explores whether the lessons from the transformation of Europe from a conflict formation into a security community could be transferred to the Persian Gulf region. It records and analyses the European experience with “security models” actually applied such as balance-ofpower, nuclear deterrence, arms control and confidence-building, democratic peace, regional integration etc. as well as...

  11. Downward flux of particulate fatty acids in the Central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reemtsma, T.; Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.; Brockmann, U.H.

    ) 183-202 183 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in The Netherlands Downward Flux of Particulate Fatty Acids in the Central Arabian Sea THORSTEN REEMTSMA 1 , BIRGIT HAAKE 1 , VENUGOPALAN ITTEKKOT 1, RAVINDRANATH R. NAIR 2 and UWE... fatty acids in the Central Arabian Sea. Mar. Chem., 29: 183-202. Particulate matter collected at 732 and 2914 m during a time-series sediment trap experiment (sampling interval 13 days ) in the Central Arabian Sea (14 ° 29'N, 64 ° 46'E; water depth...

  12. Qualitative Hoof Characteristics in Anglo-Arabian Horses and Monterufoli Ponies Reared in the Same Farm

    OpenAIRE

    R. TOCCI; C. Sargentini; Martini, A.; A. Giorgetti

    2015-01-01

    This work aims the hof morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics in Anglo Arabian horses, and Monterufoli ponies reared in Tuscany. 28 nail samples from wal and sole of hof were analysed. Al fet were healthy and wel conformed. The hof of Monterufoli Pony was more cylindrical, and the Anglo Arabian hof was harder (H 12.8±4.9, and H 19.4±2.7 in sole and in wal respectively). The percentage of dry mater (83.03±0.67) was greater in Anglo-Arabian hof, w...

  13. 78 FR 78776 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... measures for the ELB program for the Gulf shrimp fishery and requested public comment (78 FR 62579). The... recommend these innovations to the Council and NMFS for future implementation. Classification The Regional... collected by ELB units will be automatically transmitted to NMFS servers via a cellular phone...

  14. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  15. Gulf Coast Geology (GCG) Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A large percentage of the present and future energy resources of the United States reside in the Gulf of Mexico Basin, one of the major hydrocarbon producing areas...

  16. Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gulf of Mexico cruise, nearshore and CTD data collected by the USEPA during 2002 - 2008 This dataset is associated with the following publications: Pauer , J., T....

  17. Foundation-Level Gulf Arab Student Response to Self-Access Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Malcolm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of the self-access centre at Arabian Gulf University (AGU in helping low proficiency students in our foundation year achieve the skills in English they will need to succeed in our medical college. Students’ previous training and expectations are described as well as some of the practices developed at AGU to monitor and encourage student participation in the centre. While students have generally responded well to their self-access work in our facility and endorse its role in developing their skills, they have also highlighted some areas for improvement. Although our centre is small and serves a specialized group of learners, some of the issues we face may be similar to those experienced by others in different settings and some of the solutions we have tried to find may be of interest.

  18. Chlorophyll modulation of mixed layer thermodynamics in a mixed-layer isopycnal General Circulation Model - An example from Arabian Sea and equatorial Pacific

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Nakamoto; S Prasanna Kumar; J M Oberhuber; H Saito; K Muneyama; R Frouin

    2002-09-01

    Western tropical Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and the equatorial Pacific are known as regions of intense bio-chemical-physical interactions: the Arabian Sea has the largest phytoplankton bloom with seasonal signal, while the equatorial Pacific bloom is perennial with quasi-permanent upwelling. Here, we studied three dimensional ocean thermodynamics comparing recent ocean observation with ocean general circulation model (OPYC) experiment combined with remotely sensed chlorophyll pigment concentrations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Using solar radiation parameterization representing observations that a higher abundance of chlorophyll increases absorption of solar irradiance and heating rate in the upper ocean, we showed that the mixed layer thickness decreases more than they would be under clear water conditions. These changes in the model mixed layer were consistent with Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) observations during the 1994-1995 Arabian Sea experiment and epi-fluorescence microscopy (EFM) on samples collected during Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Study (EPOCS) in November, 1988. In the Arabian Sea, as the chlorophyll concentrations peak in October (3mg/m3) after the summer plankton bloom induced by coastal upwelling, the chlorophyll induced biological heating enhanced the sea surface temperature (SST) by as much as 0.6°C and sub-layer temperature decreases and sub-layer thickness increases. In the equatorial Pacific, modest concentrations of chlorophyll less than 0.3mg/m3 is enough to introduce a meridional differential heating, which results in reducing the equatorial mixed layer thickness to more than 20 m. The anomalous meridional tilting of the mixed layer bottom enhances off equatorial westward geostrophic currents. Consequently, the equatorial undercurrent transports more water from west to east. We proposed that these numerical model experiments with use of satellite and in situ ocean observations are consistent under three

  19. Secondary implementation of interactive engagement teaching techniques: Choices and challenges in a Gulf Arab context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, G. W.; Isakovic, A. F.; Fawwaz, O.; Bawa'aneh, M. S.; El-Kork, N.; Makkiyil, S.; Qattan, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    -based innovations can be implemented across great changes in cultural context, provided that the method is thoughtfully adapted in anticipation of context and culture-specific student expectations. This case study should be valuable for future reforms at KU, the broader Gulf region, and other institutions facing similar challenges involving SI of PER-based instruction outside the U.S.

  20. Evaluation of model simulated and MODIS-Aqua retrieved sea surface chlorophyll in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kunal; Gupta, Anubhav; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Tilstone, Gavin

    2016-11-01

    In this study we assess the accuracy of sea surface Chlorophyll-a (Chla) retrieved from satellite (MODIS-Aqua), using standard OC3M algorithm, and from a Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) biophysical model against in situ data, measured in surface waters of the eastern Arabian Sea, from April 2009 to December 2012. MODIS-Aqua OC3M Chla concentrations showed a high correlation with the in situ data with slope close to unity and low root mean square error. In comparison, the ROMS model underestimated Chla, though the correlation was significant indicating that the model is capable of reproducing the trend in in situ Chla. Time Series trends in Chla were examined against wind driven Upwelling Indices (UIW) from April 2009 to December 2012 in north-eastern (Gujarat) and south-eastern (Kochi) coastal waters of the Arabian Sea. The annual peak in Chla along the Kochi coast during the summer monsoon was adequately captured by the model. It is well known that the peak in surface Chla along the Kochi and Gujarat coasts during the summer monsoon is the result of coastal upwelling, which the ROMS model was able to reproduce accurately. The maximum surface Chla along the Gujarat coast during the winter monsoon is due to convective mixing, which was also significantly captured by ROMS biophysical model. There was a lag of approximately one week between the maximum surface Chla and the peak in the Upwelling Index.

  1. Abundance and relationship of bacteria with transparent exopolymer particles during the 1996 summer monsoon in the Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Ramaiah; V V S S Sarma; M Gauns; M Dileep Kumar; M Madhupratap

    2000-12-01

    Bacterial abundance and production, numbers, sizes and concentrations of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured during the 1996 summer monsoon to understand the relationship between TEP, the most labile particulate organic carbon, and bacteria. While high regional variability in the vertical distribution of TOC was discernible, TEP concentrations were high in surface waters at 18-20°N along 64°E with concentrations well over 25 mg alginic acid equivalents 1-1 due to upwelling induced productivity. Their concentrations decreased with depth and were lower between 200 and 500 m. Bacterial concentrations were up to 1.99 × 108 1-1 in the surface waters and decreased by an order of magnitude or more at depths below 500 m. A better relationship has been found between bacterial abundance and concentrations of TEP than between bacteria and TOC, indicating that bacterial metabolism is fueled by availability of TEP in the Arabian Sea. Assuming a carbon assimilation of 33%, bacterial carbon demand (BCD) is estimated to be 1.017 to 4.035 g C m-2 d-1 in the surface waters. The observed TEP concentrations appear to be sufficient in meeting the surface and subsurface BCD in the northern Arabian Sea.

  2. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilskaln, C. H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B. A.; Anderson, D. M.; McGillicuddy, D. J.

    2014-05-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50-60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m-3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016. Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region.

  3. Global climate change impacts on coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico: considerations for integrated coastal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W.; Yáñez-Arancibia, Alejandro; Cowan, James H.; Day, Richard H.; Twilley, Robert R.; Rybczyk, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is important in considerations of integrated coastal management in the Gulf of Mexico. This is true for a number of reasons. Climate in the Gulf spans the range from tropical to the lower part of the temperate zone. Thus, as climate warms, the tropical temperate interface, which is currently mostly offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, will increasingly move over the coastal zone of the northern and eastern parts of the Gulf. Currently, this interface is located in South Florida and around the US-Mexico border in the Texas-Tamaulipas region. Maintaining healthy coastal ecosystems is important because they will be more resistant to climate change.

  4. Pre-monsoon living planktonic foraminifera from the Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Naidu, P.D.; Muralinath, A.S.

    of June (SW monsoon period), highest ever reported. This may be due to the fact that Rao et af. (1988) have counted only the foraminifera less than )50 microns in size. For the convenience of interpretation, the present area has been divided into two..., where the sea surface 6$'· 658 M.V.S. GOPTHA AND OTHERS temperatures are between 10° and 18°C and salinities less than 35.5%. One of the three morphotypes of G. bulloides has been reported in upwelling regions off Somalia, off Gulf of Aden and southern...

  5. Biogeographic Patterns of Reef Fish Communities in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, May B.

    2014-12-01

    As a region renowned for high biodiversity, endemism and extreme temperature and salinity levels, the Red Sea is of high ecological interest. Despite this, there is relatively little literature on basic broad scale characteristics of the biodiversity or overall reef fish communities and how they change across latitude. We conducted visual transects recording the abundance of over 200 species of fish from 45 reefs spanning over 1000 km of Saudi Arabian coastline and used hierarchical cluster analysis to find that for combined depths from 0m-10m across this geographical range, the reef fish communities are relatively similar. However we find some interesting patterns both at the community level across depth and latitude as well as in endemic community distributions. We find that the communities, much like the environmental factors, shift gradually along latitude but do not show distinct clusters within the range we surveyed (from Al-Wajh in the north to the Farasan Banks in the south). Numbers of endemic species tend to be higher in the Thuwal region and further south. This type of baseline data on reef fish distribution and possible factors that may influence their ranges in the Red Sea are critical for future scientific studies as well as effective monitoring and in the face of the persistent anthropogenic influences such as coastal development, overfishing and climate change.

  6. A four-dimensional validation of a coupled physical-biological model of the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Kohler, Kevin E.; McCreary, Julian P.; Smith, Sharon L.

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we use a coupled biological/physical model to synthesize and understand observations taken during the US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study (ASPS). Its physical component is a variable-density, 4 1/2-layer model; its biological component consists of a set of advective-diffusive equations in each layer that determine nitrogen concentrations in four compartments, namely, nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus. Solutions are compared to time series and cruise sections from the ASPS data set, including observations of mixed-layer thickness, chlorophyll concentrations, inorganic nitrogen concentrations, particulate nitrogen export flux, zooplankton biomass, and primary production. Through these comparisons, we adjust model parameters to obtain a "best-fit" main-run solution, identify key biological and physical processes, and assess model strengths and weaknesses. Substantial improvements in the model/data comparison are obtained by: (1) adjusting the turbulence-production coefficients in the mixed-layer model to thin the mixed layer; (2) increasing the detrital sinking and remineralization rates to improve the timing and amplitude of the model's export flux; and (3) introducing a parameterization of particle aggregation to lower phytoplankton concentrations in coastal upwelling regions. With these adjustments, the model captures many key aspects of the observed physical and biogeochemical variability in offshore waters, including the near-surface DIN and phytoplankton P concentrations, mesozooplankton biomass, and primary production. Nevertheless, there are still significant model/data discrepancies of P for most of the cruises. Most of them can be attributed to forcing or process errors in the physical model: inaccurate mixed-layer thicknesses, lack of mesoscale eddies and filaments, and differences in the timing and spatial extent of coastal upwelling. Relatively few are clearly related to the simplicity of the biological model, the model

  7. Ecology and distribution of recent planktonic foraminifera in eastern part of Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Kutty, M.K.

    Thirty species of living planktonic foraminifera have been studied from 97 plankton tows collected from the eastern Arabian Sea with an accent on their ecological and distributional aspects. Species density is higher with less dominance in the deep...

  8. Directionality and spread of shallow water waves along the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.

    The directional characteristics of shallow water waves are described based on measured data during 2011 at two locations spaced at 350 km along the eastern Arabian Sea. Study shows that, for high swells (significant wave height > 1 m) approaching...

  9. On the spectra and coherence of some surface meteorological parameters in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Spectra and cross-spectra of monthly time series of the surface meteorological parameters, sea surface temperature, air temperature, cloudiness, wind speed and sea level pressure were computed for the period 1948-1972 over the Arabian Sea...

  10. Monsoon induced cobalt enrichment in Porites (coral) from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.A; Nath, B.N.

    Cobalt concentrations in growth bands of a reef building coral (Porites sp.) collected from Kalpeni Atoll of the Lakshadweep group of islands (Arabian Sea), rvealed that cobalt concentrations and Co/Ca ratios exhibit similar trend. Study indicates...

  11. Numerical experimentation of a diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.

    Climatic circulation in the upper levels of the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean are computed using a 3-dimensional, 33 level diagnostic circulation model. A steady state solution is obtained within 30 days of model integration. Model...

  12. A note on the Pavonina flabelliformis D'Orbigny (benthic foraminifera) from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.

    The detailed study of the inner shelf surface sediments off Karwar (India) revealed the occurrence of a benthic foraminiferal species Pavonina flabelliformis. This is the first report of this species in the Arabian Sea. The ecological set up of P...

  13. Dust-induced episodic phytoplankton blooms in the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, P.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Phytoplankton blooms mediated by the oceanic supply of nutrients is a well-understood phenomenon in the Arabian Sea (AS), while the role of dust deposition in enhancing phytoplankton is less explored. In this paper, we show that during winter...

  14. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of the Arabian Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Arabian...

  15. Bedrock geology of the Arabian Peninsula and selected adjacent areas (geo2bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set for this coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Arabian...

  16. Bacterial abundance and production in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Raghukumar, S.; Gauns, M.

    Seasonal and spatial variations in bacterial and picoplankton abundances and bacterial production (thymidine incorporation rates) were determined in the water column up to 150 m in several stations in the central and eastern Arabian Sea. Higher...

  17. Spatial distribution and general population characteristics of Pseudanchialina pusilla (Crustacea: Mysida) in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.

    The distribution and general population characteristics of Pseudanchialina pusilla (Sars, 1883) were evaluated based on zooplankton collections obtained from different seasonal surveys conducted in 2004-2006 in the eastern Arabian Sea as part of a...

  18. Seafloor characterisation using echo peak amplitudes of multibeam hydrosweep system - A preliminary study at Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Sudhakar, T.

    In this paper an interface to acquire 59-beams echo peak amplitudes of the Hydrosweep Multibeam system is established. The echo peak amplitude values collected at varying seabed provinces of Arabian sea are presented. The study reveals...

  19. Seasonal and spatial variability in N sub(2)O distribution in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patra, P.K.; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.; DeSousa, S.N; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Sardessai, S.

    Extensive measurements of nitrous oxide (N sub(2)O) were made in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon (February-March), intermonsoon (April-May) and southwest monsoon (July-August) seasons. The latitudinal...

  20. Microdistribution of zooplankton in the neustonic realm of the eastern Arabian Sea during southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Nair, V.R.; Padmavati, G.; Madhupratap, M.

    During the southwest monsoon season of 1987, the zooplankton distributions in the neustonic realm (upper 50 cm) of the eastern Arabian Sea were studied and compared with those in the water column. The upper microlayer (upper 15 cm) had generally...

  1. Phytoplankton production and chlorophyll distribution in the eastarn and central Arabian Sea in 1994-1995

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Pant, A.; Sawant, S.S.; Gauns, M.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahanraju, R.

    Measurements of primary production, chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) were carried out during the inter-monsoon winter monsoon and summer monsoon seasons of 1994-95 in the central and eastern Arabian Sea...

  2. Arabian Sea Biogeochemistry from 27 August 1994 to 19 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Arabesque was a multidisciplinary oceanographic research project focused on the Arabian Sea and Northwest Indian Ocean during the monsoon and intermonsoon season in...

  3. Secchi depth analysis using bio-optical parameters measured in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Naik, P.; Bandishte, M.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Secchi depth provides the oceanographer with the first hand information about transparency and penetration of light in the water. Results of the Secchi depth and the optical properties measured in the Arabian Sea is presented. Our analyses show...

  4. Impact of tropical cyclone on biogeochemistry of the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Suresh, T.; Narvekar, P.V.

    Remotely sensed data are combined with shipboard measurements to investigate biogeochemical changes caused by a moderate tropical cyclone in the central Arabian Sea in December 1998. The sea surface temperature decreased by approx. 4 degrees C...

  5. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VimalKumar, K.G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Smitha, B.R.; Rahman, H.H.; Jacob, J.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    . Achuthankutty Received: 30 September 2006 /Accepted: 3 July 2007 /Published online: 2 August 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Seasonal variation of the hydrography along the southeast Arabian Sea is described using data collected...

  6. Productivity fluctuations in the southeastern Arabian Sea during the last 140 ka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Toshiyuki Masuzawab; Naidu, P.D.; Parthiban, G.; Mineko Yamamoto

    Detailed analyses of multiple geochemical productivity proxies such as calcium carbonate, biogenic opal, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and total nitrogen have been carried out on a sediment core from the southeastern Arabian Sea to trace...

  7. Seasonal variability in distribution and fluxes of methane in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patra, P.K.; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    Methane, a biogeochemically important gas in Earth's atmosphere was measured in the water column and air in the Arabian Sea in different seasons, viz., northeast monsoon, intermonsoon, and southwest monsoon, as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux...

  8. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Menon, N.G.

    Results of a preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of seventeen species of Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) of the Indian EEZ of Arabian Sea are presented here based on the IKMT samples collected...

  9. Studies on the microzooplankton from the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.; Mohanraju, R.; Madhupratap, M.

    Numerical abundance and composition of microzooplankton in the upper 200 m were studied from the central and eastern Arabian Sea during three seasons. Protozoans, comprising of ciliates (loricates and aloricates), flagellates and sarcodines were...

  10. Biogeochemistry of lead in the eastern Arabian Sea and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Bahulayan, N.

    Biogeochemical cycling of lead (Pb) within the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal was examined in terms of the dissolved and particulate Pb concentration profiles. The relative distribution of Pb between...

  11. Influence of northeasterly trade winds on intensity of winter bloom in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Parab, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Nayak, S.

    Chlorophyll and wind pattern retrieved from remote sensing data have been used to study biological activity in the oceanic waters of Northern Arabian Sea (NAS) during February–March 2002–05. Occurrence of algal bloom in these waters during...

  12. Elemental (C, H, N) composition of zooplankton from north Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, K.L.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Zooplankton samples collected from north Arabian Sea during March 1992 were analysed for elemental (C,H,N) composition. Estimated carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen concentrations displayed variations among different groups but their ratios were nearly...

  13. 76 FR 16632 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Louisiana shoreline. Exxon Mobil Corporation, Structure Removal, High Island, Block 193, Lease OCS-G 03237... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY...), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf...

  14. Cruise report: regional assessment of ecosystem condition and stressor impacts along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico Shelf. NOAA Ship 'Nancy Foster' NF-11-07-RACOW (August 8-16, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeff; Fulton, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This cruise report is a summary of a field survey conducted along a portion of the U.S. continental shelf in northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), at navigable depths along the coastline seaward to the shelf break (~100m) from about 89°30' W to 95°28' W longitude, August 8 – 16, 2011 on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Cruise NF-11-07-RACOW. Synoptic sampling of multiple ecological indicators was conducted at each of 34 stations throughout these waters using a random probabilistic sampling design. The ori...

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of the S-velocity structure for the crust and the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Sea from Rayleigh wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchete, V.

    2016-07-01

    A 3D imaging of S-velocity for the Arabian Sea crust and upper mantle structure is presented in this paper, determined by means of Rayleigh wave analysis, for depths ranging from zero to 300 km. The crust and upper mantle structure of this region of the earth never has been the subject of a surface wave tomography survey. The Moho map performed in the present study is a new result, in which a crustal thickening beneath the Arabian Fan sediments can be observed. This crustal thickening can be interpreted as a quasi-continental oceanic transitional structure. A crustal thickness of up to 20 km also can be observed for the Murray Ridge system in this Moho map. This crustal thickening can be due to that the Murray Ridge System consists of Indian continental crust. This continental crust is extremely thinned to the southwest of this region, as shown in this Moho map. This area can be interpreted as oceanic in origin. In the depth range from 30 to 60 km, the S-velocity presents its lower values at the Carlsberg Ridge region, because it is the younger region of the study area. In the depth range from 60 to 105 km of depth, the S-velocity pattern is very similar to that shown for the previous depth range, except for the regions in which the asthenosphere is reached, for these regions appear a low S-velocity pattern. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), or equivalently the lithosphere thickness, determined in the present study is also a new result, in which the lithosphere thickness for the Arabian Fan can be estimated in 60-70 km. The lower lithospheric thickness observed in the LAB map, for the Arabian Fan, shows that this region may be in the transition zone between continental and oceanic structure. Finally, a low-velocity zone (LVZ) has been determined, for the whole study area, located between the LAB and the boundary of the asthenosphere base (or equivalently the lithosphere-asthenosphere system thickness). The asthenosphere-base map calculated in the

  16. Surface buoyancy flux in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anitha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of thermal, haline, net surface buoyancy flux, the Monin-Obukhov length (M-O length, L and stability parameter, i.e. the ratio of M-O length to mixed layer depth (h were studied in the Bay of Bengal (BoB and the Arabian Sea (AS for the years 2003 and 2004 using Argo temperature and salinity profiles. The relative quantitative influence of winds to surface buoyancy and the applicability of scaling mixed layer using M-O length in BoB and AS was brought out. Rotation and light penetration modify the mixed layer depth from M-O length during shoaling in spring giving L/h<1.

  17. The Gulf of Maine Environmental Information Exchange: participation, observation, conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Paul C.; Paul R Boudreau; Chris E W Brehme; Andrew M Boyce; Alison J Evans; Aviva Rahmani

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe an attempt to create an inclusive and participatory information sharing network across a large geographic region, the Gulf of Maine. This network aims to contribute to the health of the region's human and natural environments through facilitating partnerships among individuals and organizations that are already working toward this goal. Initiated at a time when cooperation, public learning, and information sharing increasingly depend on digital information technologi...

  18. Variability in biological responses influenced by upwelling events in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Habeebrehman, H.; Prabhakaran, M.P.; Jacob, J.; Sabu, P.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Revichandran, C.

    in the P. Sabu, K.J. Jayalakshmi, Systems er.com/locate/jmarsys compared to the surrounding area (Mantora et al.,1993). As a consequence of this enrichment, a high productivity occurs in the Arabian Sea during the season. The upwelling phenomenon... (LSM) summer monsoon. , Table 2 Phytoplankton species identified during the different phases of summer monsoon in the southeastern Arabian Sea Class: Bacillariophyceae Order: Dinophysales Family: RhizosoleniaceaeOrder: Biddulphiales Family...

  19. Paleogene plate tectonic evolution of the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royer, J.-Y.; Chaubey, A.K.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Srinivas, K.; Yatheesh, V.; Ramprasad, T.

    Universitaire Europeen de la Mer (IUEM), Place Copernic, 29280 Plouzane, France (e-mail: jyroyer@univ-brest.fr) 2 Geological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract: We review previous models... and Arabian basins, plate motions of the Indian plate relative to the Madagascar. African and Arabian plates have mainly been determined through a plate circuit passing by Antarctica (e.g. Norton & Sclater 1979, Patriat & Segoufin 1988). The few attempts...

  20. Climate oscillations reflected in the Arabian Sea subseafloor microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, William; Coolen, Marco; He, Lijun; Wuchter, Cornelia; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem; Johnson, Carl; Hemingway, Jordon; Lee, Mitchell; Galy, Valier; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediment contains a vast microbial biosphere that influences global biogeochemical cycles over geological timescales. However, the environmental factors controlling the stratigraphy of subseafloor microbial communities are poorly understood. We studied a sediment core directly underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which exhibits organic carbon rich sapropelic laminae deposited under low oxygen conditions. Consistent with several other cores from the same location, age dating revealed the sapropelic layers coincide with warm North Atlantic millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger events, indicating a direct link between the strength of the OMZ and paleoclimate. A total of 214 samples spanning 13 m and 52 Kyr of deposition were selected for geochemical analyses and paleoclimate proxy measurements, as well as high-throughput metagenomic DNA sequencing of bacteria and archaea. A novel DNA extraction protocol was developed that allowed for direct (unamplified) metagenomic sequencing of DNA from each sample. This dataset represents the highest resolved sedimentary metagenomic sampling profile to date. Analysis of these data together with multiple paleoceanographic proxies show that millennial-scale paleoenvironmental conditions correlate with the metabolism and diversity of bacteria and archaea over the last glacial-interglacial cycle in the Arabian Sea. The metabolic potential for bacterial denitrification correlates with climate-driven OMZ strength and concomitant nitrogen stable isotope fractionation, whereas catabolic potential reflects changing marine organic matter sources across the Last Glacial Maximum. These results indicate that the subsisting microbial communities had been stratified to a large extent by paleoceanographic conditions at the time of deposition. Paleoenvironmental conditions should thus be considered as a mechanism that can help explain microbiome stratigraphy in marine sediment.