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Sample records for arabian gulf higher

  1. American Higher Education in the Arabian Gulf-A Force for Liberalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The question this paper addresses is Why have American foreign branch campuses proliferated so rapidly in the Arabian Gulf, and what role...development of the nonreligious sciences, inspired by the ancient Greeks. The history of Arab higher education starts with the Islamic renaissance in the...Euclids’s mathematics, Ptolemy’s astronomy , Archimedes’s mechanics and Hippocrate’s medical sciences.16 During the eighth and through the twelfth

  2. Influence of Subtropical Jetstream on Arabian Gulf Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S.; Pauluis, O.; Ravindran, A. M.; TP, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Gulf and surrounding regions are predominantly arid. However, this region hosts a large population due to the intense economic activity that is centered on the exploration of natural resources in and around the Arabian Gulf. Thus, few precipitation events that occur during boreal winter are important for society and ecology of this region. The mechanisms of winter precipitation over the Gulf are not well understood, partly due to a lack of long term meteorological observation. Here we explore the dynamics of Arabian Gulf winter precipitation events using available observations and a high resolution atmospheric model simulation. Our analyses show that the northern Gulf receives about six times more precipitation than the southern Gulf. Often, the southern Gulf precipitation forms as a result of downstream development of northern Gulf disturbance. The southward movement of northern Gulf disturbances is influenced by the location of subtropical jet. The probability of a northern Gulf precipitating weather system to move south is higher when the subtropical jet is located equatorward of 30°N. The equatorward position of jet favors the penetration of mid-latitude weather systems over the Arabian Peninsula, which in turn pushes the Arabian anticyclone eastward and triggers moisture transport from the Arabian Sea that is essential for southern Gulf precipitation events.

  3. Breastfeeding patterns in the Arabian Gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O

    1995-01-01

    The rapid economic change experienced in the Arab Gulf countries in the past two decades has resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of infants breast fed and the duration of breast feeding. This survey describes the current status of breast feeding in the Arabian Gulf countries in terms of the duration of exclusive breast feeding; initiation, frequency, and duration of breast feeding; bottle feeding practices; breast feeding and fertility; reasons for cessation of breast feeding; and the relationship between breast feeding and gastroenteritis. After a brief discussion of weaning practices, the paper considers factors influencing the decision to breast feed, including mothers age, education, urban-rural residence, and employment status; the influence of house maids and health workers; and the sex of the child. The marketing of baby foods in the area is described, as are various programs to support breast feeding, such as maternity protection, educational activities, marketing activities, support of appropriate weaning practices, workshops and seminars, and research activities. It is concluded that these programs have had very little effect on the promotion of breast feeding in the region for the following reasons: 1) lack of coordination; 2) lack of health regulations covering formulas and baby foods; 3) the encouragement of bottle feeding in private hospitals; 4) insufficient knowledge of managing breast feeding among health personnel; 5) a shortage of studies relating to breast feeding; and 6) insufficient training of health personnel. The institution of a global promotional policy is recommended. Such a policy would include the development of strict regulations covering marketing of substitutes, training of health workers, mass media campaigns, school and university curricula changes, and convincing policy-makers that breast feeding is beneficial.

  4. "Going Mobile" in Business Communication at an Arabian Gulf University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Nickerson, Catherine; Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a project in which undergraduate business seniors at a university in the Arabian Gulf created or evaluated the chapters of an iBook as part of their final course in business communication. Students were surveyed throughout the project, and they also participated in a focus group discussion at the end. The aim was to…

  5. Learner Involvement at Arabian Gulf University Self-Access Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Malcolm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabian Gulf University (AGU College of Medicine and Medical Sciences was established around 25 years ago to train students in the Arab Gulf states, including Bahrain, where it is located, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to become doctors of medicine (MDs using the problem-based learning approach (PBL. As is the case in most regional higher education institutions, entering students are expected to be proficient in English, the language through which course content is delivered. In reality, many students do not achieve the desired standard in English, thus must take one or more semesters of English language training before beginning their academic studies. IAGU has an annual intake of around 150 students of widely varying English proficiency levels, but has only recently begun to accept some students to a foundation English programme. Before that, our small English unit had to find ways of helping the least proficient improve their English skills, while providing a basis in English for medical purposes for all students, within the same course framework. Our self-access centre (SAC, though small and definitely not state of the art, has had an important role to play in accommodating the different students’ needs and interests, supplementing their course material and providing opportunities for increased language exposure.

  6. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coas...

  7. The problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf is the delimitation of the maritime borders between the different bordering states and the exploitation rights of the offshore fields. Despite some bilateral agreements, the non-ratification by two bordering states of the United Nations convention on sea rights, deprives some negotiations of any legal framework. The Hormuz strait, the only opening of the gulf towards the Indian ocean, is tightly controlled by maritime powers which will never accept any interference with the maritime circulation in this pathway of considerable importance for petroleum transportation and for the world economy. (J.S.)

  8. A Call for More Research from the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMarri, Fatemah; Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana; Vaz, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in the Arabian Gulf, with the prevalence of obesity according to the latest report from the World Health Organization (WHO) showing the gulf region to be countries with the highest incidence of obesity in the 30% plus group. This study aims to examine publications on bariatric surgery and compare them with the other countries with a high incidence of obesity in the world. A literature review on bariatric surgery published from the earliest detected year of publication up until March 2016 using SCOPUS, PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar was conducted. Individual papers were assessed for types of surgery, preoperative measures, names of journals, authors, and outcomes. The data was analyzed using Endnote library and SPSS. Key words used in the search included "Bariatric Surgery," "Arabian Gulf," "Kuwait," "Qatar," "Saudi Arabia," "United Arab Emirates," "Oman," "USA," "Australia," "weight loss surgery," "sleeve gastrectomy," "gastric bypass," "gastric band," "mini-gastric bypass," "biliropancreatic diversion," "duodenal switch," and "intragastric balloon." Original papers, systematic reviews and case reports were included. From our review, the gastric sleeve proved to be the most popular published on procedure in the Arabian Gulf, whereas the USA had the highest percentage of gastric bypass surgeries and Australia had equivalent numbers when it came to gastric bypass and band. The numbers of studies from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman were 70, 44, 20, 7, 6, and 0, respectively. The mean impact factor of the published articles was 2.53 +/- 1.76 SD. Most of the publications were published in Obesity Surgery (29%), Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (5%), and Surgical Endoscopy (5%). The Arabian Gulf has both the highest percentage of bariatric procedures performed as well as the highest prevalence of obesity. However, they have the lowest number of publications and research when compared to their western

  9. Oil-consuming microbial consortia floating in the Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, S.S.; Al-Hasan, R.H.; Ali, N.; Salamah, S.; Khanafer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Picocyanobacteria floating on the surface of the water body in the Arabian Gulf were found associated with heterotrophic bacteria. Haemocytometer counting of fresh 1 -cm surface water revealed 10 7 - 10 8 bacterial cells ml -1 , but only 10 2 - 10 3 cells ml -1 in 10-cm deep water samples. The heterotrophic bacteria comprised hydrocarbon utilizers that could grow on a mineral medium containing crude oil as sole carbon and energy source. Three-week liquid cultures of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus, Synechocystis, Pleurocapsa and Dermocarpella were found by dilution plating to contain 10 6 - 10 13 oil-utilizing bacteria ml -1 . These were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Acinetobacter and nocardioforms. Growth and hydrocarbon consumption potential of individual types of oil-utilizing bacteria in culture were higher in the presence of the picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Evidence was presented that picocyanobacterial cells may accumulate hydrocarbons from the medium, and subsequently make those compounds available to the associated hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria. It was concluded that this microbial consortium, which is apparently of cosmopolitan occurrence, could be active in controlling marine oil-pollution. (author)

  10. Seasonal spreading of the Persian Gulf water mass in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prasad, T.G.; Ikeda, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The characteristics of the subsurface salinity maximum associated with the Persian Gulf Water mass (PGW) are used to quantify the spreading and mixing of PGW in the thermocline of the Arabian Sea based on a bimonthly climatology of temperature...

  11. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf after the Gulf War oil spill 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, S.M.; Ahmed, M.H.; El-Raey, M.; Frihy, O.E.; Abdel Motti, A.

    1999-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to carry out a sequential geochemical extraction scheme for the partitioning of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Pb in the bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf to detect any potential pollution impact on the gulf sediments following the 1991 gulf war oil spill, and to differentiate between anthropogenic inputs and natural background of heavy metals

  13. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P 9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean.

  14. Metal pollution in Al-Khobar seawater, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Talal; Alfaifi, Hussain; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2017-06-15

    In order to assess heavy metals pollution along the Al-Khobar coastline, 30 seawater samples and 15 sediment ones were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The analysis indicated a southward decreasing pattern in most heavy metal concentrations and the average values of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, As and Cr were higher than the ones reported from some worldwide seas and gulfs. Most of the highest levels were recorded within the bays and were related with in situ under sediments especially that composed of clays and very fine sands, and in localities characterized with anthropogenic activities like landfilling, desalination plants, fishing boats, oil spills and solid rubbish. The results of the present study provide useful background for further marine investigation and management in the Arabian Gulf region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bio-accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina along Arabian Gulf, Saudi Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orif Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf is considered as one of the most important sources for the crude oil all over the world. Due to the vast oil exploration and exploitation, huge amounts of organic pollutants infiltrate to the gulf. An important class of organic pollutants is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. One of the marine habitats in Arabian Gulf area is the mangrove stands, that are undoubtedly impacted by all anthropogenic factors like oil industries and sewage discharge. In the monitoring framework for mangrove ecosystem along Saudi coasts, nine mangrove stands were examined for the accumulation of PAHs in the Arabian Gulf coast. PAHs were measured using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The mean values detected for total PAHs in mangrove sediments, roots and leaf were 105.39, 680.0 and 282.4 ng/g, respectively. The trend of total PAHs concentrations in all sites showed the descending order: roots > leaf > sediments. Despite the sandy nature and low organic carbon contents of the mangrove sediments, moderate values of PAHs were detected in the major sites. PAH bio-accumulation factors for roots are higher than that in leaf. The diagnostic ratios revealed that the sources of PAHs are mainly pyrogenic, except for Damam and Damam Port that were found to be petrogenic.

  16. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  17. Free-Living Marine Interstitial Hypotrichid Ciliates from Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.S. AL-Rasheid

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples were collected at low tide from various localities of the Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary in the Arabian Gulf on several occasions during l996-l997 for the study of the marine interstitial ciliate fauna of the Sanctuary. Twenty three species belonging to the order Hypotrichida were identified after protargol impregnation, 20 of which represent new records of the fauna of Saudi Arabia, and of the Arabian Gulf at large. The distribution of each species is compared to those in similar habitats worldwide. The present study increases the total known number of hypotrichid ciliates species in Saudi Arabia to 40 species.

  18. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal V.

    2017-08-03

    The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature), and human (i.e., from oil-related activities) sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world\\'s largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill). However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE) species richness (S) of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′) of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI\\'s Marine Biotic Index, AMBI) conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI) ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE) values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2) show relatively higher S, H\\' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2). In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  19. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal V.; Qurban, Mohammad A.; Borja, Angel; Krishnakumar, Periyadan K.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.

    2017-01-01

    The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature), and human (i.e., from oil-related activities) sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world's largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill). However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE) species richness (S) of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′) of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI's Marine Biotic Index, AMBI) conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI) ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE) values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2) show relatively higher S, H' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2). In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  20. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadickal V. Joydas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature, and human (i.e., from oil-related activities sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world's largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill. However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE species richness (S of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′ of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI's Marine Biotic Index, AMBI conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2 show relatively higher S, H' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2. In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  1. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  2. Dust storms over the Arabian Gulf: a possible indicator of climate changes consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, W.; Enan, M.R.; Al-Hassini, H.; Stuut, J.B.; de-Beer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Dust storm frequencies and strengths were monitored during 2009 at various locations along the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), as representative sites of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. The results have been compared with a pre-2009 five-year data set. Mineralogical components of dust

  3. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  4. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Burt, John A.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum

  5. Phage and Nucleocytoplasmic Large Viral Sequences Dominate Coral Viromes from the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda; Jose, Liny

    2017-01-01

    Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive ( Porites harrisoni ) and branching ( Acropora downingi ) corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated. Samples were collected from five reef systems during summer, autumn and winter of 2011/2012. The two coral viromes contain 12 viral families, including 10 dsDNA viral families [Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Myoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Baculoviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Mimiviridae and one unclassified family], one-ssDNA viral family (Microviridae) and one RNA viral family (Retroviridae). Overall, sequences significantly similar to Podoviridae were the most abundant in the P. harrisoni and A. downingi viromes. Various morphological types of virus-like particles (VLPs) were confirmed in the healthy coral tissue by transmission electron microscopy, including large tailless VLPs and electron-dense core VLPs. Tailed bacteriophages were isolated from coral tissue using a plaque assay. Higher functional gene diversity was recorded in A. downingi than in P. harrisoni , and comparative metagenomics revealed that the Gulf viral assemblages are functionally distinct from Pacific Ocean coral viral communities.

  6. Phage and Nucleocytoplasmic Large Viral Sequences Dominate Coral Viromes from the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mahmoud

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive (Porites harrisoni and branching (Acropora downingi corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated. Samples were collected from five reef systems during summer, autumn and winter of 2011/2012. The two coral viromes contain 12 viral families, including 10 dsDNA viral families [Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Myoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Baculoviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Mimiviridae and one unclassified family], one-ssDNA viral family (Microviridae and one RNA viral family (Retroviridae. Overall, sequences significantly similar to Podoviridae were the most abundant in the P. harrisoni and A. downingi viromes. Various morphological types of virus-like particles (VLPs were confirmed in the healthy coral tissue by transmission electron microscopy, including large tailless VLPs and electron-dense core VLPs. Tailed bacteriophages were isolated from coral tissue using a plaque assay. Higher functional gene diversity was recorded in A. downingi than in P. harrisoni, and comparative metagenomics revealed that the Gulf viral assemblages are functionally distinct from Pacific Ocean coral viral communities.

  7. Developing Field Test Procedures for Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Farhat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production and petrochemical plants in the Arabian Gulf are exposed to severe environmental conditions of high temperature and humidity. This makes these plants susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CSCC. The laboratory testing fails to provide the exact field environmental conditions. A cost efficient field test setup for CSCC was designed and developed for the Arabian Gulf. The setup included designing self-sustained loading devices, samples, and sample racks. The samples were exposed to a stress equivalent to 80% and 100% of their yield strength. This paper describes the developed test procedures to establish testing with high level of accuracy and repeatability. It also discusses the design aspects and the challenges that were met.

  8. Astronaut observations of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf during STS-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, Steven G.; Pitts, David E.; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the 1991 Persian Gulf war, between mid-January and June 1991, the Persian Gulf was contaminated with an estimated 4 to 6 million barrels of crude oil, released directly into the Gulf from refinement facilities, transhipment terminals, and moored tankers along the coast of Kuwait, and precipitated from oil fire smoke plumes. To assess the environmental impact of the oil, an international team of marine scientists representing 14 nations was assembled under the auspices of the United Nations International Oceanic Commission and the Regional Organization for Protection of the Marine Environment to conduct detailed surveys of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman, including hydrographic, chemical, and biological measurements. To supplement the field surveys and to serve as an aid in data interpretation, astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis photographed water features and coastal habitats in the Persian Gulf during mission STS-45 (24 March to 02 April 1992). The astronauts collected 111 hand-held, color photographs of the Gulf (72 70-mm photographs and 39 5-inch photographs) from an altitude of 296 km (160 n.mi.). The photographs reveal distributions in water turbidity associated with outflow from the Shatt-al-Arab and water circulation along the entire coast of Iran and the Strait of Hormuz, coastal wetlands and shallow-water habitats, and sticks appearing in the sunglint pattern, which appear to be oil.

  9. The Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences: a successful model of a multinational medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually

  10. Neotectonic Activity from the Upper Reaches of the Arabian Gulf and Possibilities of New Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissakian, V. K.; Abdul Ahad, A. D.; Al-Ansari, N.; Knutsson, S.

    2018-03-01

    Upper reaches of the Arabian Gulf consist of different types of fine sediments including the vast Mesopotamia Plain sediments, tidal flat sediments and estuarine sabkha sediments. The height of the plain starts from zero meter and increases northwards to three meters with extremely gentle gradient. The vast plain to the north of the Arabian Gulf is drained by Shat Al-Arab (Shat means river in Iraqi slang language) and Khor Al-Zubair (Khor means estuary). The former drains the extreme eastern part of the plain; whereas, the latter drains the western part. Shat Al-Arab is the resultant of confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers near Al-Qurna town; about 160 km north of the Arabian Gulf mouth at Al-Fao town; whereas, the length of Khor Al-Zubair is about 50 km; as measured from Um Qasir Harbor. The drainage system around Khor Al-Zubair is extremely fine dendritic; whereas around Shat Al-Arab is almost parallel running from both sides of the river towards the river; almost perpendicularly. The fine dendritic drainage around Khor Al-Zubair shows clear recent erosional activity, beside water divides, abandoned irrigation channels and dislocated irrigational channels and estuarine distributaries; all are good indication for a Neotectonic activity in the region. These may indicate the presence of subsurface anticlines, which may represent oil fields; since tens of subsurface anticlines occur in near surroundings, which are oil fields.

  11. Distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of Dammam Al-Jubail area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Fahd; Al-Malky, Mazen

    2018-03-01

    Present work aims to document the distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of the Dammam Al-Jubail area, Saudi Arabian Gulf. Twenty-six samples were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Sr, As, Fe, Co and Ni analysis. Results of enrichment factor indicated that Sr, Cd, Cu, Hg, V, As, Ni, Cr and Zn gave enrichment factors higher than 2 (98.87, 40.28, 33.20, 27.87, 26.11, 14.10, 6.15, 3.72 and 2.62 respectively) implying anthropogenic sources, while Pb, Mn and Al have very low background level (1.37, 0.71, 0.124 respectively), probably originated from natural sources. Average concentrations of Sr, V, Hg, Cd and As were mostly higher than those from the background shale and the earth crust, the Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the sediment quality guidelines, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Oman. The higher levels of the studied metals are mostly related samples with high Al and TOM content, as well as the visible anthropogenic pollutants along the studied coastline. The most recorded anthropogenic pollutants were sewage effluent, landfilling due to coastal infrastructure development, oil spills, petrochemical industries and desalination plants in Al-Jubail industrial city. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrocarbon distributions in sediments of the open area of the Arabian Gulf following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Ghazi, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the open area of the Arabian Gulf were analysed for total petroleum hydrocarbons and specific aliphatic hydrocarbon components in order to provide information on the extent of oil contamination and the degree of weathering of the spilled oil following the Gulf War. The surface distribution of the petroleum hydrocarbons showed an increasing trend towards the north-east, and among the individual transects there was a pronounced increasing trend towards the north-west direction. Despite off-shore oil-related activities as well as a potential impact from the 1991 oil spill, the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the study area were relatively low. This finding may be attributed to the effectiveness of weathering processes. (author)

  13. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  14. Cascading of high salinity bottom waters from the Arabian/Persian Gulf to the northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Solovyev, Vladimir; Francis, Xavier; Hyder, Patrick; Chen, Feng; Asif, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Cascading (aka shelf convection) is a specific type of buoyancy driven current in which dense water is formed over the continental shelf and then descends down the slope to a greater depth. The cascades of dense water down continental slopes provide a mechanism for shelf-ocean exchange in many parts of the world's oceans (Shapiro et al, 2003). Dense water is formed on the shelf by a number of processes, with high evaporation, limited river discharge and low precipitation being the major processes in warm climates (Ivanov et al, 2004). The formation and outflow of high salinity waters in the near-bottom layer of the Arabian/Persian Gulf is an example of dense water cascading (Bower et al 2000). Despite of its importance for the self-cleaning and the state of the marine ecosystem in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the properties of the outflow have so far mainly been analysed using climatologically averaged data or observations of a limited set of parameters (mainly temperature), see (Bower et al 2000). In this paper we study the dynamics of the flow using a comprehensive set of observational data (temperature, salinity velocity and turbidity profiles) obtained during the GRASP (Gulf Reconnaissance And Selective Profiling) observational campaign in the Gulf of Oman, which are complemented by the results of numerical modelling of the area using a number of 3D ocean models, and some ARGO T/S profiles. The GRASP measurements were carried out using an Aqualog climbing moored profiler, which was equipped with a Seabird CTD sensor, a Nortek Aquadopp current meter and a Seapoint turbidity meter. The Ocean circulation models used in the study include PGM4 and IND12 (UK Met Office); and AS20 and AG60 (University of Plymouth). All models are based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) codebase with a resolution from 9 km down to 1.8 km. The models were calibrated and validated against ARGO float profiles in the area. The study revealed the mesoscale and sub

  15. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette C C Wabnitz

    Full Text Available Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE. While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  16. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L. Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W. L.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change–reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions–is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a ‘business-as-usual’ climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region’s diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region. PMID:29718919

  17. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, Colette C C; Lam, Vicky W Y; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C L; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W L

    2018-01-01

    Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  18. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    stream_size 30182 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Marine Pollution... Bulletin, Volume 27, pp. 85-91, 1993. 0025-326X/93 $6.00+0.00 Printed in Great Britain. O 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd State of Oil Pollution in the Northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf Oil Spill R. SEN GUPTA, S. P. FONDEKAR and R. ALAGARSAMY National...

  19. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  20. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  3. Composition of Atmospheric Dust from Qatar in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Ansari, I. S.; Abdel-Moati, M.; Al-Ansi, M.; Paul, B.; Nelson, A.; Turner, J.; Murray, J. W.; Alfoldy, B. Z.; Mahfouz, M. M. K.; Giamberini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Samples of atmospheric dust from Qatar have been collected and analyzed for major and trace elemental composition. Twenty-one samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 from Doha, Al Khor, Katara, Sealine, and Al Waab by a variety of techniques. Some samples were collected during the megastorms that occurred in April 2015. Back trajectories were determined for each sample using the NOAA HYSPLIT model over a 50 hour time interval. Our samples were about equally divided between northerly (n=12; northern Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or Iraq) and southerly (n=8; SE Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Oman) sources. One sample originated directly westward, in Saudi Arabia. Samples were microwave-assisted total acid digested (HF+HCl+HNO3) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). There are only 12 out of 23 elements for which the Qatari dust was enriched relative to upper continental crust (UCC). Calcium was especially enriched at 400% relative to UCC. About 33% of the total sample mass was CaCO3, reflecting the composition of surface rocks in the source areas. Of the elements typically associated with anthropogenic activity, Ag, Ni and Zn were the most enriched relative to UCC, with enrichment factors of 182%, 233% and 209%, respectively. Others like Pb and V were not significantly enriched, with enrichment factors of 25% and 3%, respectively. The major elements Al, Mn and Fe were depleted relative to UCC because of the strong enrichment in CaCO3, with enrichment factors of -58%, -35% and -45% respectively. We separately averaged the samples with northern and southern origins to see if composition could be used to identify source. Only three elements had a statistical difference. Pb and Na were higher in the samples from the Se while Cr was higher in those from the north.

  4. Hydrographic Data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office: Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea, and Arabian Sea 1923-1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alessi, Carrol

    1999-01-01

    Temperature-salinity-depth profile data were obtained for the Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea and parts of the Arabian Sea from the Master Oceanographic Observations Data Set (MOODS), located at the U.S...

  5. Regional consensus opinion for the management of Beta thalassemia major in the Arabian Gulf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia syndrome has diverse clinical presentations and a global spread that has far exceeded the classical Mediterranean basin where the mutations arose. The mutations that give rise to either alpha or beta thalassemia are numerous, resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from carrier state to life-threatening, inherited hemolytic anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. Beta thalassemia major constitutes a remarkable challenge to health care providers. The complications arising due to the anemia, transfusional iron overload, as well as other therapy-related complications add to the complexity of this condition. To produce this consensus opinion manuscript, a PubMed search was performed to gather evidence-based original articles, review articles, as well as published work reflecting the experience of physicians and scientists in the Arabian Gulf region in an effort to standardize the management protocol. PMID:24044606

  6. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  7. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  8. Phytoplankton abundance in relation to the quality of the coastal water – Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abdel Mohsen El Gammal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton abundance in relation to some physicochemical characters of the costal water of Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia was studied for one year. The sampling program included 15 locations in Dammam, Saihat, Al-Qatif, Al-Awamia and Safwa. Water samples were analyzed monthly for these parameters; temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, carbon dioxide, total chloride, reactive orthophosphate and total phosphorus and alkalinity, also phytoplankton communities were identified and Chlorophyll a was estimated. The results showed that, the high phytoplankton density attaining the maximum (190.3 × 104/m3 during May and June, and the minimum (10.4 × 104/m3 during November and December. Forty Five species belonging to 5 phytoplankton groups were recorded. Bacillariophyceae was the first dominant group forming 48% of the total phytoplankton communities (23 species. The dominant species of Bacillariophyceae were Pleurosigma strigosum, Pleurosigma elongatum, Lyrella clavata, Rhizosolenia shrubsolei, Cylindrotheca closterium, Nitzschia panduriform, Nitzschia longissimia, Amphora sp and Stephanopyxis. Dinophyceae was the second dominant group and formed 31% of the total phytoplankton communities (10 species; the dominant species were Ceratium fusus, Heterosigma sp, Ceratium furca, Prorocentrum triestium, Protoperidinium sp, Gyrodinium spirale, Noctiluca scintillans and Scrippsiella trochoidea. Cyanophyceae formed 13% (5 species where Nostoc sp, Oscillatoria and Merismopedia sp were the dominant species. Chlorophyceae had 8% (6 species; Scendesmus sp., Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis sp were the dominant species. The Euglinophyceae was rare only one species (Euglina sp. The relationship was positive between the phytoplankton, chlorophyll a and carbon dioxide while negative amongst dissolved oxygen and total nitrogen. This research indicated that the relation between water quality

  9. Living Behaviors and Molecular Characterization of Benthic Foraminifera in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Khalil, Amjad; Holzmann, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The benthic foraminifera are among the major carbonate producers in modern Arabian Gulf waters and are found living in all marine habitats. They have been recognized as proxies to assess paleoenvironmental changes, however, their biological behaviors in modern environments needs to be further studied. The current study attempts to explain the biology of benthic foraminifera in terms of their living behaviors and molecular characterization, from different regions of the western side of the Arabian Gulf. Accordingly, two major groups of benthic foraminifera, namely rotaliids and miliolids, are examined under laboratory conditions. Results illustrate that the rotaliids are more resistant to environmental changes than miliolids, as their granular reticulopodial network is stronger than among the miliolids, with high cytoplasmic streaming. The pseudopodia extend out from both primary and secondary apertures, and aid the organism in locomotion by attaching to the wall of hard substrate. As a result they drag their whole bodies toward the direction of motion. In rotaliids, the movement rate is high and is attributed to the extension of pseudopodia through all apertures, compared with miliolids in which pseudopodia extend out from the primary aperture only. The innate behavior of both groups was observed as a function of external stimulus, i.e., light, nutrients, and availability of substrate. The observation on average life span reflected that the rotaliids was able to survive longer than miliolids. Molecular analysis reveals the presence of four groups, i.e., Ammonia, Murrayinella, Glabratellina, and Elphidium which support the morphological taxonomy at the genus level. However, BLAST analysis contradicts the species level taxonomy, which challenges the classification based upon hard-shell morphology. Nevertheless, monophyletic clustering is observed among all major groups. The study concludes that the morphological taxonomy needs to be augmented by molecular analysis

  10. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work deal with the environmental assessment of Tarut Island Coastal area. • Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been chemically analyzed. • Thirteen major and trace metals have been recorded. • The area of study is highly polluted with Arsenic and Mercury. - Abstract: Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area

  11. Activity concentration of some anthropogenic radionuclides in the surface marine sediments near the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A.S.; Shabana, E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of some anthropogenic radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am) have been measured in the surface of marine sediments along the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf. The samples were collected at different locations and water depths. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of the measured radionuclides showed a heterogeneous pattern and is independent of location or water depth. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  12. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy metal contamination in sand and sediments near to disposal site of reject brine from desalination plant, Arabian Gulf: Assessment of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahri, Fatimh

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environment may cause series potential risk in the living system. This study was carried out to investigate heavy metal contamination in sand samples and sediments along the beach near to disposal site of reject brine from Alkhobar desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in eastern Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Fourteen heavy metals (U, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Sr, Rb, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, and Zr) were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). The obtained data revealed that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values in sediment and soil for other studies in Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, the mean values of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, As, Sr, and Zr concentrations in sand and sediments were higher than the geochemical background values in shale. The contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mC d ) and pollution load index (PLI) were assessed. According to contamination factors (CF > 1), the results showed elevated levels of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zr, and As in all samples. The highest value of contamination factor was found for As. Based on PLI (PLI > 1), the values of all sampling sites indicate a localized pollution in the study area. Current study could be useful as baseline data for heavy metals in sand and sediments nearby a desalination plant.

  14. Using GNSS for Assessment Recent Sea Level Rise in the Northwestern Part of the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, A. O.; Bos, M. S.; Fernandes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the global warming acting recently (in the 21st century) on the planet Earth, an associated sea level rise is predicted to reach up to 30 cm to 60 cm in some regions. Sea level monitoring is important for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, since it is surrounded by very long cost of about 3400 km in length and hundreds of isolated islands. The eastern coast line of KSA, in the Arabian Gulf, needs some monitoring in the long term, due to low land nature of the region. Also, the ongoing oil withdrawal activities in the area, may affect the regional sea level rise. In addition to these two facts, the tectonic structure of the Arabian Peninsula is one factor. The Regional Relative sea level in the eastern cost of Saudi Arabia has been estimated in the past using tide gauge data of more than 28 years using the vertical displacement of permanent Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS stations having time span of only about 3 years. In this paper, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. Longer time span of GNSS observations were included and 500 synthetic time series were estimated and seasonal signals were analysed. it is concluded that the varying seasonal signal present in the GNSS time series causes an underestimation of 0.1 mm/yr for short time series of 3 years. In addition to the implications of using short time series to estimate the vertical land motion, we found that if the varying seasonal signals are present in the data, the problem is aggravated. This finding can be useful for other studies analyzing short GNSS time series.

  15. Vaccinations against respiratory infections in Arabian Gulf countries: Barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Bondagji, Daniah M; Alshehari, Abdullah A; Basyouni, Mada H; Alhawassi, Tariq M; BinDhim, Nasser F; Rashid, Harunor

    2017-06-16

    To study the uptake, barriers and motivators of influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis vaccines among members of public in Arabian Gulf countries. A cross-sectional survey among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries' residents. Data collected electronically through a smartphone app. The survey variables aimed to investigate the respondents' awareness about vaccines against influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis infections. Collected data concerning the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, their perception toward vaccine uptake and the factors that motivate or demotivate them from taking influenza vaccine. The data were analysed statistically using the SPSS v.23.0. Differences in the characteristics of users from different countries were quantified through bivariate analysis. Other important variables and controlling factors were studied using logistic regression. A total of 1812 respondents participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years, 82% were male and 24% had ≥ 1 chronic diseases. The overall uptake of influenza vaccine was 17% (21% among "at risk" people) and ranged from 15% in Saudi Arabia to 24% in Qatar. Doctor's advice (23%) and a perception of having low body immunity (21%) were the main cited reasons for being vaccinated, whereas unawareness about the vaccine (43%) was the main barrier. The overall uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in the preceding three years was 22% (25% among "at risk" individuals) and ranged from 0% in Bahrain to 79% in Kuwait. The overall uptake of pertussis vaccine was 16% (31% among "vulnerable" people), and ranged from 7% in Saudi Arabia to 75% in Oman. The overall uptake of meningococcal vaccine was 20% (29% among the "at risk" people) and ranged from 3% in Oman to 50% in Bahrain. The vaccination uptake across GCC countries is suboptimal and varies widely across the countries. Further research is needed to unearth the reasons and formulate action plan.

  16. Review on the national and regional response to oil spill in the Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhro, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decades, the oil industry has grown enormously, resulting in a considerable number of island's oil and gas fields being fully developed. Over 30% of all oil carried by ships is produced in this region. It is exported through a narrow bottle-neck passage, Straight of Hormuz creating a continuous heavy traffic that increases the daily risk potential for ships collision, grounding or explosion that threaten the marine environment and the economy of the coastal states, should a major oil spill occur anytime. The paper reviews some major spills in the area and the action taken by the responsible authorities. The high risk potential of pollution by oil or any other harmful substances in the Arabian Gulf always exists and the need for a competent national and regional bodies was felt necessary to co-ordinate efforts in combating or mitigating marine oil pollution. The paper reviews and discusses the status of such bodies and concludes with an emphasis on strengthening them

  17. An Update of Sea Level Rise in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Bos, Machiel; Fernandes, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Relative sea level variations in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf have been estimated in the past using no more than 10 to 15 years of observations. In Alothman et al. (2014), we have almost doubled the period to 28.7 years by examining all available tide gauge data in the area and constructing a mean gauge time-series from seven coastal tide gauges. We found for the period 1979-2007 a relative sea level rise of about 2mm/yr, which correspond to an absolute sea level rise of about 1.5mm/yr based on the vertical displacement of GNSS stations in the region. By taking into account the temporal correlations we concluded that previous published results underestimate the true sea level rate error in this area by a factor of 5-10. In this work, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. In addition, we compare our results with GRACE derived ocean bottom pressure time series which are a good proxy of the changes in water mass in this area over time.

  18. Sediment characteristics, brine chemistry and evolution of murayr sabkha, Arabian (persian) gulf, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basyoni, Mohammed H; Mousa Basim A

    2009-01-01

    Murayr Sabkha, on the western coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, Saudi Arabia, is a siliciclastic dominated sabkha, with minor bioclasts and shells derived from the shore area and the surrounding tertiary carbonates. The sabkha is subdivided into three areas: the vegetated sabkha, the bare sabkha and artificial saline pan. The vegetated sabkha area surrounds the bare sabkha surface, composed of wind blown sand and reworked gypsum crystals. This area is far from the present day water table, and is covered with halophytes that increase in density towards the bare sabkha area. The bare sabkha area is located about one meter below the surface of the vegetated sabkha area. It is wet most of the time, as the water table is shallow (< 120 cm in depth). The surface of this area is composed of thin buckling crusts, polygonal tepee ridges, and efflorescent gypsum and/or halite patches. The saline pan is an artificial excavation near the eastern part of the sabkha and is filled with seepage groundwater. It is floored with a crust of grass-like gypsum crystals. Petrographic, mineralogic (by XRD), and field examinations of sediment samples collected from 32 trenches in the sabkha revealed that gypsum is the dominant sulfate mineral recorded in the sabkha. The gypsum is formed of random lenticular mud-sized and sand-sized crystals at the top 70 cm, and aggregates of lenticular and rosette gravelsized crystals near the water table. Halite is recorded at/near the sediment surface as efflorescent crust and cement, respectively. Anhydrite is recorded near the water table, whereas celestite is recorded near the gulf side. Based on a study of 32 brine samples in Murayr Sabkha, it was found that the groundwater in the sabkha is of chloride type (MgCl2 and CaCl2) of marine origin. It is recharged mainly from seepage of recent marine water from the gulf side and from marine and meteoric waters reacted with the surrounding carbonates. It seems that the capillary rise of these waters

  19. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The greater Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems of the Arabian Peninsula form two of the most prolific petroleum-producing systems in the world. Source rocks of these systems extend throughout the eastern Arabian Peninsula and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Primary elements of these Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems - source, reservoir, and seal rocks - are of great areal extent and exceptional quality. The combination of these regionally extensive, exceptional petroleum-system elements, and the formation of large subtle structural closures prior to, or coincident with, peak oil generation and migration, have produced oil and gas fields with reserve volumes second to none.

  20. Spatial distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of Al-Khafji area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Talal; Alfaifi, Hussain; Almadani, Sattam A; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2017-11-13

    To document the spatial distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of the Al-Khafji area in the northern part of the Saudi Arabian Gulf, 27 samples were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Sr, As, Fe, Co, and Ni analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results revealed the following descending order of the metal concentrations: Sr > Fe > Al > As > Mn > Ni > V > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Co > Hg > Cd. Average levels of enrichment factor of Sr, As, Hg, Cd, Ni, V, Cu, Co, and Pb were higher than 2 (218.10, 128.50, 80.94, 41.50, 12.31, 5.66, 2.95, 2.90, and 2.85, respectively) and that means the anthropogenic sources of these metals, while Al, Zn, Cr and Mn have enrichment factor less than 2, which implies natural sources. Average values of Sr, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, and As in the coastal sediments of Al-Khafji area were mostly higher than the values recorded from the background shale and earth crust and from those results along coasts of the Caspian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The highest levels of Cu in the northern part of the studied coastline might be due to Al-Khafji desalination plant, while levels of Al, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the central part may be a result of landfilling and industrial sewage. The highest levels of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, and V in the southern part seem to be due to oil pollutants from Khafji Joint Operations (KJO). The higher values of Sr in the studied sediments in general and particularly in locality 7 could relate to the hypersalinity and aragonitic composition of the scleractinian corals abundant in that area.

  1. Prevalence, management, and outcomes of familial hypercholesterolemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Almahmeed, Wael; Rashed, Wafa; Ridha, Mustafa; Santos, Raul D; Zubaid, Mohammad

    2018-02-14

    Information on the epidemiology of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the Arabian Gulf region, which has an elevated rate of consanguinity and type II diabetes, is scarce. To assess the prevalence of FH, its management, and impact on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes in a multicenter cohort of Arabian Gulf patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients (N = 3224) hospitalized with ACS were studied. FH was diagnosed using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. A composite endpoint of nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and mortality between the "probable/definite" and the "unlikely" FH patients was assessed after 1 year. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. At admission, the proportion of "probable/definite", "possible", and "unlikely" FH in ACS patients was 3.7% (n = 119), 28% (n = 911), and 68% (n = 2194), respectively. Overall, 54% (n = 1730) of patients had diabetes, whereas 24% (n = 783) were current smokers. The "probable/definite" FH group was younger (50 vs 63 years; P definite" FH cohort had worse lipid control (13% vs 23%; P < .001) and presented with a greater association with the composite ASCVD endpoint when compared with the "unlikely" FH group (odds ratio: 1.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.38; P = .047) after multivariable adjustment. In Arabian Gulf citizens, FH was common in ACS patients, was undertreated, and was associated with a worse 1-year prognosis. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  3. In situ spectral response of the Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman coastal waters to bio-optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-10-01

    Mapping of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) over the coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the satellite-based observations, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), has shown inferior performance (Chl-a overestimation) than that of deep waters. Studies in the region have shown that this poor performance is due to three reasons: (i) water turbidity (sediments re-suspension), and the presence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), (ii) bottom reflectance and (iii) incapability of the existing atmospheric correction models to reduce the effect of the aerosols from the water leaving radiance. Therefore, this work focuses on investigating the sensitivity of the in situ spectral signatures of these coastal waters to the algal (chlorophyll: Chl-a), non-algal (sediments and CDOM) and the bottom reflectance properties, in absence of contributions from the atmosphere. Consequently, the collected in situ spectral signatures will improve our understanding of Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman water properties. For this purpose, comprehensive field measurements were carried out between 2013 and 2016, over Abu-Dhabi (Arabian Gulf) and Fujairah (Sea of Oman) where unique water quality data were collected. Based on the in situ water spectral analysis, the bottom reflectance (water depth<20m) are found to degrade the performance of the conventional ocean color algorithms more than the sediment-laden waters where these waters increase the R rs at the blue and red ranges. The increasing presence of CDOM markedly decreases the R rs in the blue range, which is conflicting with the effect of Chl-a. Given the inadequate performance of the widely used ocean-color algorithms (OC3: ocean color 3, OC2: ocean color 2) in retrieving Chl-a in these very shallow coastal waters, therefore, a new algorithm is proposed here based on a 3-bands ratio approach using [R rs (656) -1 -R rs (506) -1 ]×R rs (661). The selected optimum bands (656nm, 506nm, and 661nm) from

  4. Item Analysis of Multiple Choice Questions at the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Kheyami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study aimed to carry out a post-validation item analysis of multiple choice questions (MCQs in medical examinations in order to evaluate correlations between item difficulty, item discrimination and distraction effectiveness so as to determine whether questions should be included, modified or discarded. In addition, the optimal number of options per MCQ was analysed. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. A total of 800 MCQs and 4,000 distractors were analysed between November 2013 and June 2016. Results: The mean difficulty index ranged from 36.70–73.14%. The mean discrimination index ranged from 0.20–0.34. The mean distractor efficiency ranged from 66.50–90.00%. Of the items, 48.4%, 35.3%, 11.4%, 3.9% and 1.1% had zero, one, two, three and four nonfunctional distractors (NFDs, respectively. Using three or four rather than five options in each MCQ resulted in 95% or 83.6% of items having zero NFDs, respectively. The distractor efficiency was 91.87%, 85.83% and 64.13% for difficult, acceptable and easy items, respectively (P <0.005. Distractor efficiency was 83.33%, 83.24% and 77.56% for items with excellent, acceptable and poor discrimination, respectively (P <0.005. The average Kuder-Richardson formula 20 reliability coefficient was 0.76. Conclusion: A considerable number of the MCQ items were within acceptable ranges. However, some items needed to be discarded or revised. Using three or four rather than five options in MCQs is recommended to reduce the number of NFDs and improve the overall quality of the examination.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of column-integrated aerosol optical properties in the southern Arabian Gulf and United Arab Emirates in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Giles, D.; O'Neill, N. T.; Tsay, S.-C.; Ji, Q.; Al Mandoos, A.; Ramzan Khan, M.; Reid, E. A.; Schafer, J. S.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W.; Slutsker, I.

    2008-01-01

    A mesoscale network of 14 AERONET Sun photometers was established in the UAE and adjacent Arabian Gulf from August through September 2004 as a component of the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2). These measurements allowed for spatial, temporal and spectral characterization of the complex aerosol mixtures present in this environment where coarse mode desert dust aerosols often mix with fine mode pollution aerosols largely produced by the petroleum industry. Aerosol loading was relatively high with 2-month averages of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm (τa500) ranging from 0.40 to 0.53. A higher fine mode fraction of AOD was observed over Arabian Gulf island sites with Angstrom exponent at 440-870 nm (α440-870) of 0.77 as compared to an average of 0.64 over coastal sites and 0.50-0.57 at inland desert sites. During pollution events with α440-870 > 1 the retrieved fine mode radius was larger over an island site than a desert site probably because of hygroscopic growth over the humid marine environment. For these same pollution cases, single scattering albedo (ωo) at all wavelengths was ˜0.03 higher (less absorption) over the marine environment than over the desert, also consistent with aerosol humidification growth. At an inland desert location, the ωo at 440 nm remained relatively constant as Angstrom exponent varied since the fine mode pollution and coarse mode dust were both strong absorbers at short wavelengths. However, at longer wavelengths (675-1020 nm) the dust was much less absorbing than the pollution resulting in dynamic ωo as a function of α440-870.

  6. Air-sea exchange of CO2 in the Gulf of Kutch, northern Arabian Sea based on bomb-carbon in corals and tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Ramesh, R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1994-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses were carried out in the annual bands of a 40 year old coral collected from the Gulf of Kutch (22.6degN, 70degE) in the northern Arabian Sea and in the annual rings of a teak tree from Thane (19deg14'N, 73deg24'E) near Bombay. These measurements were made in order to obtain the rates of air-sea exchange of CO 2 and the advective mixing of water in the Gulf of Kutch. The Δ 14 C peak in the Thane tree occurs in the year 1964, with a value of ∼630 part per thousand, significantly lower than that of the mean atmospheric Δ 14 C of the northern hemisphere (∼1000 part per thousand). The radiocarbon time series of the coral was modelled considering the supply of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf through air-sea exchange and advective water transport from the open Arabian Sea. A reasonable fit for the coral data was obtained with an air-sea CO 2 exchange rate of 11-12 mol m -2 yr -1 , and an advective velocity of 28 m yr -1 between the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Kutch; this was based on a model generated time series for radiocarbon in the Arabian Sea. The deduced velocity (∼ 28 m yr -1 ) of the advective transport of water between the Gulf and the Arabian Sea is much lower than the surface tidal current velocity in this region, but can be understood in terms of net fluxes of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf to match the observed coral Δ 14 C time series. (author). 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  8. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  9. Salinity-driven decadal changes in phytoplankton community in the NW Arabian Gulf of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Turki; Al-Ghunaim, Aws; Subba Rao, D V; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Al-Rifaie, Kholood; Al-Baz, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of hydrological data obtained between 2000 and 2013 from a time series station in Kuwait Bay (station K6) and an offshore southern location (station 18) off Kuwait showed drastic increase in salinity by 6 units. We tested the hypothesis that increased salinity impacted phytoplankton community characteristics in these semiarid waters. The Arabian Gulf receives seasonal freshwater discharge in the north via Shatt Al-Arab estuary with a peak during March-July. A north to south gradient in the proportion of the freshwater exists between station A in the vicinity of Shatt Al-Arab estuary and station 18 in the southern offshore area. At station A, the proportion of freshwater was the highest (25.6-42.5%) in 1997 but decreased to 0.8-4.6% by 2012-2013. The prevailing hyperhaline conditions off Kuwait are attributed to decrease in the river flow. Phytoplankton data showed a decrease in the number of constituent taxa in the last one decade from 353 to 159 in the Kuwait Bay and from 164 to 156 in the offshore area. A shift in their biomass was caused by a decrease in diatom species from 243 to 92 in the coastal waters and from 108 to 83 in the offshore areas with a concomitant increase of smaller algae. Mutivariate agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling, and one-way analysis of similarity analyses on phytoplankton data at different taxonomic levels confirmed significant changes in their community organization on a decadal scale. These evidences support our hypothesis that the salinity-related environmental changes have resulted in a coincidental decrease in species diversity and significant changes in phytoplankton community between the years 2000-2002 and 2012-2013, off Kuwait. This in turn would affect the pelagic trophodynamics as evident from a drastic decrease in the catch landings of Tenulosa ilisha (Suboor), Carangoides sp. (Hamam), Otolithes ruber (Nowaiby), Parastromateus niger (Halwaya), and Epinephelus

  10. An overview of UAE2 flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Walker, Annette L.; Burger, Roelof P.; Ross, Kristy E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Bruintjes, Roelof T.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsu, Christina; Jensen, Tara L.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Al Mandoos, Abdulla; Al Mangoosh, Abdulla; Miller, Steven D.; Porter, John N.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-07-01

    In August through September 2004 the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) was conducted in the southern Arabian Gulf region. We present atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol data collected on 18 flights by the South African Aerocommander aircraft. In the first few kilometers, we observed high concentrations of both regional dust (from 100 to 300 μg m-3 in background, to over 1.5 mg m-3 in events) and ubiquitous sulfate based pollution from the Gulf's prevalent petroleum industry (10-100 μg m-3). Smoke and pollution from Europe and possibly Africa were found at levels between 1.5 and 5 km. Inland, classic deep over desert boundary layer characteristics were found. Over the Arabian Gulf, dust and pollution were most often either trapped below or sequestered above a strong stable boundary. However, there were cases where a well-distributed aerosol layer crossed the inversion uniformly. Data suggest that the observed vertical profiles can be explained by the rapid formation of stable marine boundary layers as air moves offshore. This can decouple aerosol layers from within the boundary layer to those aloft in regions of vertical wind shear. In the case of pollution, the ability of flaring plumes to penetrate the inversion may also in part determine layering. In coastal regions without vertical wind shear, uniform concentrations with height across the inversion are a result of internal boundary layer development. We conclude that the bulk of the observed variability in particle vertical distribution appear to be controlled by mesoscale and microscale processes, such as the sea/land breeze.

  11. The Arabian Gulf and Security Policy: The Past as Present, the Present as Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    permeates the Green Zone. Recent cooperation between the Maliki government and Sunni groups represents the tactical “divide-and-conquer” approach to... Kegan Paul, 2005), 76-77. 42. Zahlan, Modern Gulf States, 65. 43. Peck, Gulf Arab States, 38. 44. Zahlan, Modern Gulf States, 67. 70 JSOU Report

  12. Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian Plate: Implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrajehi, Abdullah; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Daoud, Mohamed; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Ergintav, Semih; Gomez, Francisco; Sholan, Jamal; Bou-Rabee, Firyal; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Haileab, Biniam; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Mahmoud, Salah; Rayan, Ali; Bendik, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Five years of continuously recording GPS observations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia together with new continuous and survey-mode GPS observations broadly distributed across the Arabian Peninsula provide the basis for substantially improved estimates of present-day motion and internal deformation of the Arabian plate. We derive the following relative, geodetic Euler vectors (latitude (°N), longitude (°E), rate (°/Myr, counterclockwise)) for Arabia-Nubia (31.7 ± 0.2, 24.6 ± 0.3, 0.37 ± 0.01), Arabia-Somalia (22.0 ± 0.5, 26.2 ± 0.5, 0.40 ± 0.01), Arabia-India (18.0 ± 3.8, 87.6 ± 3.3, 0.07 ± 0.01), Arabia-Sinai (35.7 ± 0.8, 17.1 ± 5.0, 0.15 ± 0.04), and Arabia-Eurasia (27.5 ± 0.1, 17.6 ± 0.3, 0.404 ± 0.004). We use these Euler vectors to estimate present-day stability of the Arabian plate, the rate and direction of extension across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and slip rates along the southern Dead Sea fault south of the Lebanon restraining bend (4.5-4.7 ± 0.2 mm/yr, left lateral; 0.8-1.1 ± 0.3 mm/yr extension) and the Owens fracture zone (3.2-2.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr, right lateral, increasing from north to south; 1-2 mm/yr extension). On a broad scale, the Arabian plate has no resolvable internal deformation (weighted root mean square of residual motions for Arabia equals 0.6 mm/yr), although there is marginally significant evidence for N-S shortening in the Palmyride Mountains, Syria at ≤ 1.5 mm/yr. We show that present-day Arabia plate motion with respect to Eurasia is consistent within uncertainties (i.e., ±10%) with plate tectonic estimates since the early Miocene when Arabia separated from Nubia. We estimate the time of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting from present-day Arabia motion, plate tectonic evidence for a 70% increase in Arabia-Nubia relative motion at 13 Ma, and the width of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and find that rifting initiated roughly simultaneously (±2.2 Myr) along the strike of the Red Sea from the Gulf of Suez to the Afar

  13. Why is mean sea level along the Indian coast higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Levelling observations conducted during the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India (1858-1909) and subsequent observations showed that mean sea level along the coast of India is higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea, the difference...

  14. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Robinson

    Full Text Available Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2 were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m. Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs.

  15. Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, Aggregate around Offshore Platforms in Qatari Waters of the Arabian Gulf to Feed on Fish Spawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Jabado, Rima W.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M.; Malki, Ameena A. Al.; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A.; Henderson, Aaron C.; Pierce, Simon J.; Ormond, Rupert F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km2 were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres’ estimated total length (mean 6.92±1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs. PMID:23516456

  16. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2018-04-24

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world\\'s hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum group. Previous studies have shown that considerable genetic diversity exists within the group and that group members found within the PAG are significantly differentiated from those found externally, in the Gulf of Oman and wider waters. However, little is known about this genetic diversity. As an initial step towards understanding whether this diversity could represent niche adapted, selectable populations within the S. thermophilum group that may act as natural sources of stress tolerant associations to Indo-Pacific reefs, we investigate whether the diversity is structured between populations and where the location of the internal-external genetic partition lies. We use regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and chloroplastic psbA gene (non-coding region) from >100 S. thermophilum group-harbouring Porites spp. (P. lobata, P. lutea, and P. harrisoni) sampled across steep temperature and salinity gradients to conduct analyses of variance and create maximum parsimony networks to assess genetic structure and (dis)similarity within and between populations of S. thermophilum found within the PAG and externally in the Gulf of Oman. Our analyses resolve a sharp genetic boundary between Symbiodinium populations in the western Strait of Hormuz and identify significant genetic structure between populations with as little as 20 km between them demonstrating that differentiation between populations is likely due to factors other than limited connectivity. Further, we hypothesize that genotypes identified outside of the PAG in the Gulf of Oman existing in near-oceanic salinities, yet thermally challenging waters, putatively represent candidates for stress-tolerant symbionts that could act as natural seed populations of

  17. Lifestyle and depressive risk factors associated with problematic internet use in adolescents in an Arabian Gulf culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The use of the Internet has increased around the world but more so in the Middle Eastern countries, particularly in the Arabian Gulf region. This has also produced problematic Internet use (PIU) with potential detrimental effects on physical, mental, and psychosocial health. To determine the prevalence of PIU and its association with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), comorbid, and lifestyle factors among adolescent and young adult (12- to 25-year-old) Qatari population. A cross-sectional survey. All public and private schools and university under the Supreme Council of Education and Higher Education in Doha, Qatar. A total of 3000 students (12-25 years of age) were selected through multistage stratified random sampling from public and private schools and university under the overall administration of Qatar Supreme Council of Education. Among them, 2298 students (76.6%) consented to participate in the study during September 2009 to October 2010. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic details, lifestyle, and dietary habits. Problematic Internet use and depressive tendencies were measured through validated Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and BDI. Of 2298, 71.6% were males and 28.4% were females. The overall prevalence of PIU was 17.6%. This study revealed that a significantly larger proportion of males (64.4%; P = 0.001) and Qatari students (62.9%; P nationality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; P < 0.001), male sex (OR = 1.40; P < 0.001), having nonworking mother (housewife) (OR = 1.34; P = 0.009), eating fast foods (OR = 1.57; P < 0.001), and BDI score (OR = 1.14; P = 0.003) were positively associated with PIU, whereas moderate and mild physical activity were negatively associated with PIU (OR = 0.73, P = 0.002; OR, 0.77, P = 0.003, respectively). This study adds to the growing body of evidence linking PIU with negative lifestyle and depressive risk factors, among vulnerable adolescent and young adult. Problematic Internet use is

  18. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patgaonkar, R.S.; Vethamony, P.; Lokesh, K.S.; Babu, M.T.

    A 2D Hydrodynamic-Particle Analysis model was applied to the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) to estimate the residence time of pollutants. The tidal currents in the Gulf have a strong E-W component, which prevents the material in the north being transported...

  19. Arsenic and arsenic species in shellfish and finfish from the western Arabian Gulf and consumer health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Periyadan K., E-mail: kkumarpk@kfupm.edu.sa [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Qurban, Mohammad A. [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Stiboller, Michael [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Nachman, Keeve E. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Joydas, Thadickal V.; Manikandan, Karuppasamy P.; Mushir, Shemsi Ahsan [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the levels of total arsenic and arsenic species in marine biota such as clams (Meretrix meretrix; N = 21) and pearl oyster (Pinctada radiata; N = 5) collected from nine costal sites in Jan 2014, and cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis; N = 8), shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus; N = 1), and seven commercially important finfish species (N = 23) collected during Apr–May 2013 from seven offshore sites in the western Arabian Gulf. Total As and As species such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra), arsenosugar-glycerol (As-Gly) and inorganic As (iAs) were determined by using ICPMS and HPLC/ICPMS. In bivalves, the total As concentrations ranged from 16 to 118 mg/kg dry mass; the toxic iAs fraction contributed on average less than 0.8% of the total As, while the nontoxic AB fraction formed around 58%. Total As concentrations for the remaining seafood (cuttlefish, shrimp and finfish) ranged from 11 to 134 mg/kg dry mass and the iAs and AB fractions contributed on average 0.03% and 81% respectively of the total As. There was no significant relationship between the tissue concentrations of total As and iAs in the samples. There was also no significant relationship between As levels in seafood and geographical location or salinity of the waters from which samples were collected. Based on our results, we recommend introducing a maximum permissible level of arsenic in seafood from the Gulf based on iAs content rather than based on total As. Our analyses of cancer risks and non-cancer hazards identified non-negligible risks and the potential for hazards; the greatest risks were identified for expatriate consumers of bivalves and high-end consumers of seafood. Despite this, many uncertainties remain that would be best addressed by further analyses. - Highlights: • Arabian Gulf seafood contains relatively high concentrations of total arsenic. • Non-toxic arsenobetaine forms

  20. Arsenic and arsenic species in shellfish and finfish from the western Arabian Gulf and consumer health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, Periyadan K.; Qurban, Mohammad A.; Stiboller, Michael; Nachman, Keeve E.; Joydas, Thadickal V.; Manikandan, Karuppasamy P.; Mushir, Shemsi Ahsan; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the levels of total arsenic and arsenic species in marine biota such as clams (Meretrix meretrix; N = 21) and pearl oyster (Pinctada radiata; N = 5) collected from nine costal sites in Jan 2014, and cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis; N = 8), shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus; N = 1), and seven commercially important finfish species (N = 23) collected during Apr–May 2013 from seven offshore sites in the western Arabian Gulf. Total As and As species such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra), arsenosugar-glycerol (As-Gly) and inorganic As (iAs) were determined by using ICPMS and HPLC/ICPMS. In bivalves, the total As concentrations ranged from 16 to 118 mg/kg dry mass; the toxic iAs fraction contributed on average less than 0.8% of the total As, while the nontoxic AB fraction formed around 58%. Total As concentrations for the remaining seafood (cuttlefish, shrimp and finfish) ranged from 11 to 134 mg/kg dry mass and the iAs and AB fractions contributed on average 0.03% and 81% respectively of the total As. There was no significant relationship between the tissue concentrations of total As and iAs in the samples. There was also no significant relationship between As levels in seafood and geographical location or salinity of the waters from which samples were collected. Based on our results, we recommend introducing a maximum permissible level of arsenic in seafood from the Gulf based on iAs content rather than based on total As. Our analyses of cancer risks and non-cancer hazards identified non-negligible risks and the potential for hazards; the greatest risks were identified for expatriate consumers of bivalves and high-end consumers of seafood. Despite this, many uncertainties remain that would be best addressed by further analyses. - Highlights: • Arabian Gulf seafood contains relatively high concentrations of total arsenic. • Non-toxic arsenobetaine forms

  1. Policing Iranian Sanctions: Trade, Identity, and Smuggling Networks in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Kegan Paul International, 1994), 9–10. 22 A.W. Stiffe, “Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf: VII Bahrain,” The Geographical Journal 18, no... Kegan Paul International, 1994. Al Naboodah, H.M. “The Commercial Activity of Bahrain and Oman in the Early Middle Ages.” Proceedings of the...Byman, Daniel and Jerrold Green . Political Violence and Stability in the States of the Northern Persian Gulf. California: RAND, 1999. Castles

  2. Foreign higher education institutes in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2011-01-01

    Gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries are witnessing an exponential growth in new foreign higher education institutions on account of government policies which promote setting up of local campuses of renowned foreign universities. But the GCC countries have not been able to adequately address key quality related issues in higher education domain resulting into poor participation of local workforce in the private sector. This paper presents key issues in private higher education in the GCC ...

  3. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Scomberomorus commerson using sequence analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mansourkiaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson, is an epipelagic and migratory species of family Scombridae which have a significant role in terms of ecology and fishery. 100 samples were collected from the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea. Part of their dorsal fins was snipped and transferred to micro-tubes containing ethanol; then, DNAs were extracted and HRM-Real Time PCR was performed to designate representative specimens for sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of S. commerson from Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. None clustered Neighbor Joining tree indicated the proximity amid S. commerson in four sites. As numbers demonstrated in sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region a sublimely high degree of genetic similarity among S. commerson from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were perceived, thereafter, having one stock structure of S. commerson in four regions were proved, and this approximation can be merely justified by their migration process along the coasts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. Therefore, the assessment of distribution patterns of 20 haplotypes in the constructed phylogenetic tree using mtDNA D-Loop sequences ascertained that no significant clustering according to the sampling sites was concluded.

  5. Systematic thematic review of e-health research in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Arabian Gulf): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alan S; Turjoman, Rebal; Shaheen, Yanal; Al Sayyed, Farah; Hwang, Mu Ji; Malick, Faryal

    2017-05-01

    Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC or 'Arabian Gulf'), comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, is a political organization sharing a common history and culture. All GCC nations have made substantial investments in telecommunications and electronic health infrastructure since 2000. Methods We conducted a literature search in English and Arabic on peer-reviewed e-health research up to December 2014 originating in the GCC. The objective was to retrieve all research on e-health in the GCC and to categorize and analyse it qualitatively to reveal the current state of e-health research and development in the region. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, conference papers and graduate theses written on e-health in the GCC. Blogs, health websites and non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded. Results Three hundred and six articles were retrieved, categorized and analysed qualitatively to reveal the state of e-health research in the GCC. Both country-specific and GCC-wide major themes were identified using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software and summarized. The most common type of study was an overview (35.0%), with common study designs of case studies (26.8%) and descriptive articles (46.4%). Significant themes were: prospective national benefits from e-health, implementation and satisfaction with electronic health records, online technologies in medical education, innovative systems (case studies), and information security and personal health information. Discussion This is the first comprehensive analytical literature review of e-health in the GCC. Important research gaps were identified: few cost-benefit analyses, controlled interventional studies, or research targeting gender and religious issues were retrieved.

  6. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  7. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A research proposal for investigating the effect of foreign direct investments on technology transfer in the Arabian Gulf (GCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Kaher; Whelan, Susan

    2015-02-01

    In terms of hosting countries perspectives, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) could have a positive effect on its developing economy, by transferring, both: resources of finance in addition to the international technology (ITT) (Choi, 1997). Multinational companies (MNC) are engaging in the transferring of the new technology, internally as well as licensing older one; they create "Spillover" (Knowledge) for facilitating the transfer of ITT in line with geographical location, period of investment, and the type of industry. Furthermore, the effect of these spillovers depends on the level of transferring this knowledge based on FDI attraction policies of the host country (Huang, 2009). Considering the Arabian Gulf council countries (GCC) as "FDI- rich hosting countries", who are not seeking for financial resources, i.e., they already have a huge financial capacity for funding their different projects, even though FDI has been powerfully presented in GCC . They saw noticeable increases in FDI inflows beginning in 2002, (www.unctad.org.fdistatistics). Therefore by assumption, FDI inflows to GCC could positively affect their economic growth through transferring the advanced technology, in order to build up their level of technology (productivity growth) as well as their economic diversification strategy. If so how this Knowledge could be diffused and measured in order to maximize its benefit and enhancing the productivity growth, and what is the current status of (GCC).

  9. Factors affecting employment in the Arabian Gulf region, 1975-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, R E

    1991-01-01

    "This paper attempts to shed light on factors contributing to the identification of the main employment patterns in the countries of the Arab Gulf region. It also seeks to answer the question of how determinants of employment vary between national and foreign workforces and whether these determinants have changed over time." The countries concerned are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. excerpt

  10. Tracer signals of the intermediate layer of the Arabian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Plähn, Olaf

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs, components F11, F12) measurements were carried out in the Gulf of Aden, in the Gulf of Oman, and in the Arabian Sea. In the Gulf of Oman, the F12 concentrations in the Persian Gulf outflow (PGW) at about 300m depth were significantly higher than in ambient surface water with saturations reaching 270%. These high values could not be caused by air-sea gas exchange. The outflow was probably contaminated with oil, and the lipophilic character of...

  11. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  12. Tracer signals of the intermediate layer of the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Plähn, Olaf

    In 1995, hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs, components F11, F12) measurements were carried out in the Gulf of Aden, in the Gulf of Oman, and in the Arabian Sea. In the Gulf of Oman, the F12 concentrations in the Persian Gulf outflow (PGW) at about 300m depth were significantly higher than in ambient surface water with saturations reaching 270%. These high values could not be caused by air-sea gas exchange. The outflow was probably contaminated with oil, and the lipophilic character of the CFCs could then lead to the observed supersaturations. The intermediate F12 maximum decreased rapidly further east and south. At the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea outflow (RSW) was saturated with F12 to about 65% at 400m depth, and decreased to 50% while descending to 800m depth. The low saturation is not surprising, because the outflow contains deep and intermediate water masses from the Red Sea which were isolated from the surface for some time. The tracer contributions to the Arabian Sea for Indian Central Water (ICW) and PGW are about equal, while below 500m depth the RSW contribution greatly exceeds ICW. Modeling the CFC budget of the Arabian Sea, the inflow of ICW north of 12°N is estimated to be 1-6 Sv, depending mainly on the strength of the flow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea.

  13. Cavisoma magnum (Cavisomidae), a unique Pacific acanthocephalan redescribed from an unusual host, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), in the Arabian Gulf, with notes on histopathology and metal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Bannai, Majid A

    2018-01-01

    Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) Van Cleave, 1931 was originally described from a sea bass, Serranus sp. and spotted surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Perciformes) off Sri Lanka before its more recent redescription from milkfish in the Philippines in 1995. These reports were based on only light infections of their host fishes. Of the few flathead grey mullets, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), that we examined in the Arabian Gulf, one fish was infected with 1,450 worms. One milkfish, Chanos chanos (Chanidae), from the same location in the Arabian Gulf, was also heavily infected with specimens of C. magnum. The descriptions of this unique large worm are revised and for the first time, we provide SEM images, new systematic observations, metal analysis of hooks showing extremely high levels of sulfur, and histopathology in the mullet intestinal tissue. Adjustments and corrections of previous descriptive accounts are made. The histopathology studies show extensive damage to the host intestinal tissue including epithelial necrosis, hemorrhaging and worm encapsulation. There is an extensive amount of host connective tissue surrounding the worm. Results of x-ray analysis displayed high levels of sulfur in proboscis hooks, especially at the tips and edges of these attachment structures. © O.M. Amin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  14. Cavisoma magnum (Cavisomidae, a unique Pacific acanthocephalan redescribed from an unusual host, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae, in the Arabian Gulf, with notes on histopathology and metal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Omar M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927 Van Cleave, 1931 was originally described from a sea bass, Serranus sp. and spotted surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Perciformes off Sri Lanka before its more recent redescription from milkfish in the Philippines in 1995. These reports were based on only light infections of their host fishes. Of the few flathead grey mullets, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae, that we examined in the Arabian Gulf, one fish was infected with 1,450 worms. One milkfish, Chanos chanos (Chanidae, from the same location in the Arabian Gulf, was also heavily infected with specimens of C. magnum. The descriptions of this unique large worm are revised and for the first time, we provide SEM images, new systematic observations, metal analysis of hooks showing extremely high levels of sulfur, and histopathology in the mullet intestinal tissue. Adjustments and corrections of previous descriptive accounts are made. The histopathology studies show extensive damage to the host intestinal tissue including epithelial necrosis, hemorrhaging and worm encapsulation. There is an extensive amount of host connective tissue surrounding the worm. Results of x-ray analysis displayed high levels of sulfur in proboscis hooks, especially at the tips and edges of these attachment structures.

  15. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  16. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and others from 1999-10-18 to 1999-11-01 (NCEI Accession 0157283)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157283 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from METEOR in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean from 1995-07-14 to 1995-08-14 (NCEI Accession 0157410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157410 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from METEOR in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean...

  19. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L.; Terraneo, Tullia Isotta; Caragnano, Annalisa; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters

  20. Helminths Parasite Larvae collected from Arabian Gulf Fish. 4. Description of four Larvae including two Metacercarae, one Didymozoid and one Acanthocephalan from Emirati Coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Four helminth larvae from different fish hosts caught from Emirate coasts are described. Two are metacercariae related to genus Southampton's, type (I) and (II). Type (I) was found encysted in body cavities of the Indian halibut Psettodes erumei and the areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatusu and type (II) in the golden stripped goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus. The third larva is related to Acanthocephala and identified as Serrasentis sagittifer. It was collected from the body cavity of the spotted lizard fish Saurida undosquamius. The fourth larva belongs to the didymozoid trematodes, and was found infecting the kidneys of different hosts, such as Saurida undosquamis, the Jack pomfret Parastromateus niger and mackerel tuna Euthynnus affins. The larva related to Stephanostomum type (I) and type (II) and the dydimozoid type are described for the first time in the Arabian Gulf. (author)

  1. First record of Microsporeans and Myxosporeans (Protozoa) infecting some Arabian Gulf fishes off the coasts of the Emirates and Qatar with a description of Myxobolus Arabicus n. sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.; El-Tantawy, S.

    2002-01-01

    During a comprehensive survey carried out on helminth parasites of Arabian Gulf fishes mainly from the coasts of Emirates and Qatar, two microsporeans and three myxosporeans Protozoa were reported and described for the first time. The microsporeans included Nosema sauridae and Glugea stephani. Nosema sauridae was very common among lizard fish Saurida undosquamis which were caught from the Emirati coasts (56%) and also Qatari coasts (28%). Glugea stephani infected Psettodes erumei at the Emirati coasts with a prevalence of 10%. The myxosporideans comprised Myxobolus arabicus n. sp. from the body cavity of Plectorhynchus schotaf (Emirati coasts, 11%), Kudoa sp. from the musculature of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Emirati coasts, 8%) and also the heart wall of Caranx malabricus (Qatari coasts, 11%) and Henneguya sp. from the gills and mouth skin of Epinephelus tauvina (Emirati coasts, 7%). Fresh cysts and spores were described and photographed in situ. (author)

  2. Technical feasibility of a seabed gallery seawater intake at Ras Abu Ali Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2014-07-23

    Open-ocean intake systems require extensive and advanced pretreatment unit operation to produce feed water with low membrane fouling potential in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) facilities. Alternatively, subsurface intake systems tend to produce high quality raw seawater even before pretreatment. Subsurface intakes extract seawater indirectly through the geological structure of shoreline or nearshore sediments. Water percolation through geological units provides physical and biological treatment, so that the raw seawater is microbiologically stable with relatively low particulate and organics content. Overall, utilization of subsurface intakes will reduce the intensity of pretreatment, which reduces operating cost, lowers chemical and energy consumption, and reduces environmental impacts. An important aspect in the feasibility of a subsurface intake is the compatibility of the local geological environment. In this study, a field investigation was conducted at Ras Abu Ali Island in the Arabian Gulf. This location currently contains an of existing oil company facilities and a proposed governmental marine fish hatchery facility. Recreational, commercial, and domestic potable water uses require the need to use the SWRO process to meet demands. Characterization of the shoreline and marine offshore bottom were performed as well as observation of tidal fluctuations and wave heights. A specific grid area was chosen where 35 sediment samples were collected from the seabed floor for laboratory analysis of grain size distribution, sediment porosity, and hydraulic conductivity. Onsite observation showed that the marine bottom has a low slope creating a wide intertidal area. The lowest tidal zone is more than 150 m from the shoreline defining a far seaward boundary for the intake construction point. A relatively thin layer of mixed-type sediment (carbonate and siliciclastic) covers the marine hardground bottom. The unlithified bottom sediment contains a low mud percentage

  3. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  4. Subsurface associations of Acaryochloris-related picocyanobacteria with oil-utilizing bacteria in the Arabian Gulf water body: promising consortia in oil sediment bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Dhia; Eliyas, Mohamed; Rayan, Rihab; Radwan, Samir

    2013-04-01

    Two picocyanobacterial strains related to Acaryochloris were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, 3 m below the water surface, one from the north shore and the other from the south shore of Kuwait. Both strains were morphologically, ultrastructurally, and albeit to a less extend, phylogenetically similar to Acaryochloris. However, both isolates lacked chlorophyll d and produced instead chlorophyll a, as the major photosynthetic pigment. Both picocyanobacterial isolates were associated with oil-utilizing bacteria in the magnitude of 10(5) cells g(-1). According to their 16S rRNA gene sequences, bacteria associated with the isolate from the north were affiliated to Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus, and Marinobacter aquaeolei, but those associated with the isolate from the south were affiliated to Bacillus asahii and Alcanivorax jadensis. These bacterial differences were probably due to environmental variations. In batch cultures, the bacterial consortia in the nonaxenic biomass as well as the pure bacterial isolates effectively consumed crude oil and pure aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, including very high-molecular-weight compounds. Water and diethylether extracts from the phototrophic biomass enhanced growth of individual bacterial isolates and their hydrocarbon-consumption potential in batch cultures. It was concluded that these consortia could be promising in bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants, especially heavy sediments in the marine ecosystem.

  5. GC and GC-MS characterization of crude oil transformation in sediments and microbial mat samples after the 1991 oil spill in the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Oteyza, T.; Grimalt, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    The massive oil discharge in the Saudi Arabian coast at the end of the 1991 Gulf War is used here as a natural experiment to study the ability of microbial mats to transform oil residues after major spills. The degree of oil transformation has been evaluated from the analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil-polluted microbial mat samples from coastal environments exhibited an intermediate degree of transformation between that observed in superficial and deep sediments. Evaporation, photo-oxidation and water-washing seemed to lead to more effective and rapid elimination of hydrocarbons than cyanobacteria and its associated microorganisms. Furthermore, comparison of some compounds (e.g. regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons or alkylnaphthalenes) in the oil collected in the area after the spill or in the mixtures retained by cyanobacterial growth gave rise to an apparent effect of hydrocarbon preservation in the microbial mat ecosystems. - Cyanobacterial mats inhibit degradation of oil by reducing exposure to the atmosphere and seawater

  6. Dynamics of microbial communities in an integrated ultrafiltration–reverse osmosis desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-08-27

    This study demonstrated the use of high-throughput sequencing to assess the efficacy of an integrated ultrafiltration (UF)–reverse osmosis (RO) desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf, and to identify potential microbial-associated problems that may arise in this plant. When integrated into the desalination treatment system, the UF membranes were able to serve as a good pretreatment strategy to delay RO fouling by achieving up to 1.96-log removal of cells from the seawater. Consequently, the differential pressure of the RO membrane remained around 1 bar for the entire six-month study, suggesting no significant biofouling performance issue identified for this RO system. Examples of microbial populations effectively removed by the UF membranes from the feed waters included Nitrosoarchaeum limnia and phototrophic eukaryotes. Microbial-associated problems observed in this pilot plant included the presence of Pseudomonas spp. in coexistence with Desulfovibrio spp. These two bacterial populations can reduce sulfate and produce hydrogen sulfide, which would in turn cause corrosion problems or compromise membrane integrities. Chemical-enhanced backwashing (CEB) can be used as an effective strategy to minimize the associated microbial problems by removing bacterial populations including sulfate reducers from the UF membranes.

  7. The Finding of Pacific Transvenid Acanthocephalan in the Arabian Gulf, with the Description of Paratrajectura longcementglandatus N. Gen., N. Sp. from Perciform Fishes and Emendation of Transvenidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Ali, Atheer H

    2018-02-01

    The acanthocephalan Paratrajectura longcementglandatus n. gen., n. sp. (Transvenidae) is described from specimens of 2 perciform fish species, Nemipterus japonicus Bloch (Nemipteridae) and Otolithes ruber Bloch and Schneider, collected in the marine territorial waters of Iraq and Iran in the Arabian Gulf. Metal analysis of hook tip, middle, and base is also described using energy disruptive analysis for X-ray. The new genus is distinguished from the closely related genus Trajectura Pichelin and Cribb, 2001 described from wrasses (Labridae) (Perciformes) in the Pacific off Australia and Japan by having a proboscis with apical epidermal cone, long rhadinorhynchid-like tubular cement glands, relatively short and lobulated lemnisci, all proboscis hooks with prominent roots, females with subterminal gonopore and a rounded projection on the antero-dorsal end of the trunk, and males with elongate pre-equatorial testes reaching proboscis receptacle. In Trajectura, the proboscis lacks apical epidermal cone, the cement glands are pyriform or ovoid, the lemnisci are digitiform and considerably longer than the receptacle, the posterior proboscis hooks are rootless, the females have prominent finger-like trunk projection and terminal gonopore, and males with equatorial testes that may not be elongate and may be distant from the receptacle. The importance of cement glands in the diagnosis of genera and families in acanthocephalan taxonomy is stressed. Other features especially the type and arrangement of hooks on the proboscis, but not hook roots, are comparable in the 2 genera. Diagnosis of the family Transvenidae is emended.

  8. Identities of epilithic hydrocarbon-utilizing diazotrophic bacteria from the Arabian Gulf Coasts, and their potential for oil bioremediation without nitrogen supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Samir; Mahmoud, Huda; Khanafer, Majida; Al-Habib, Aamar; Al-Hasan, Redha

    2010-08-01

    Gravel particles from four sites along the Arabian Gulf coast in autumn, winter, and spring were naturally colonized with microbial consortia containing between 7 and 400 × 10(2) cm(-2) of cultivable oil-utilizing bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 70 representatives of oil-utilizing bacteria revealed that they were predominantly affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria and the Actinobacteria. The Gammaproteobacteria comprised among others, the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Marinobacter, Psychrobacter, Idiomarina, Alcanivorax, Cobetia, and others. Actinobacteria comprised the genera Dietzia, Kocuria, Isoptericola, Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, and others. In autumn, Firmicutes members were isolated from bay and nonbay stations while Alphaproteobacteria were detected only during winter from Anjefa bay station. Fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes of whole microbial consortia confirmed the culture-based bacterial diversities in the various epilithons in various sites and seasons. Most of the representative oil-utilizing bacteria isolated from the epilithons were diazotrophic and could attenuate oil also in nitrogen-rich (7.9-62%) and nitrogen-free (4-54%) cultures, which, makes the microbial consortia suitable for oil bioremediation in situ, without need for nitrogen supplementation. This was confirmed in bench-scale experiments in which unfertilized oily seawater was bioremediated by epilithon-coated gravel particles.

  9. Dynamics of microbial communities in an integrated ultrafiltration–reverse osmosis desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Moosa, Nasir; Mink, Justine

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated the use of high-throughput sequencing to assess the efficacy of an integrated ultrafiltration (UF)–reverse osmosis (RO) desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf, and to identify potential microbial-associated problems that may arise in this plant. When integrated into the desalination treatment system, the UF membranes were able to serve as a good pretreatment strategy to delay RO fouling by achieving up to 1.96-log removal of cells from the seawater. Consequently, the differential pressure of the RO membrane remained around 1 bar for the entire six-month study, suggesting no significant biofouling performance issue identified for this RO system. Examples of microbial populations effectively removed by the UF membranes from the feed waters included Nitrosoarchaeum limnia and phototrophic eukaryotes. Microbial-associated problems observed in this pilot plant included the presence of Pseudomonas spp. in coexistence with Desulfovibrio spp. These two bacterial populations can reduce sulfate and produce hydrogen sulfide, which would in turn cause corrosion problems or compromise membrane integrities. Chemical-enhanced backwashing (CEB) can be used as an effective strategy to minimize the associated microbial problems by removing bacterial populations including sulfate reducers from the UF membranes.

  10. The impact of the gulf war on the Arabian environment—I. Particulate pollution and reduction of solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

    This paper investigates some of the air pollution problems which have been created as a result of the Gulf war in early 1991. Temporary periods of increased dust storm activity have been observed in Saudi Arabia. This is presumably due to disturbance of the desert surface by the extremely large number of tanks and other war machines before and during the war. The concentrations of inhalable dust particles (oil fields in Kuwait. The direct normal solar insolation were also measured at the photovoltaic solar power plant in Riyadh during these days and significant reductions were observed due to the effective absorption of solar radiation by soot particles. The generated power from the plant has been reduced during days with a polluted atmosphere by about 50-80% of the expected value for such days, if the atmosphere were dry and clear.

  11. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    are described. Two of the maxima arise from the influence of Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Water. The third, which lies at the bottom of the Equatorial Surface Water, forms due to freshening at the surface of high salinity Arabian Sea near-surface waters...

  12. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  13. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  14. Russia In The Foreign Policy Priorities Of The Council Of Cooperation Of The Arabian Gulf States After Events Of The «Arab Spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Melkumyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article focuses on the change in the approach of the regional organization of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC to Russia’s role in the Middle East region and the efforts of its members to establish fruitful cooperation with it. A new approach followed the events of the “Arab Spring”, among which the outcome was a complication of the regional situation and the emergence of a series of crises that forced the members of the GCC to expand the number of allies among the world’s leading powers. Russia’s active participation in resolving crisis situations in the Middle East, primarily in Syria, influenced the change in the GCC policy towards Russia, which realized its increased interest in establishing strong ties with the countries of this region. The article compares the relations that existed between Russia and the GCC states in the Soviet period and the initial period of the Russian Federation’s existence, and those relations that began to develop after 2011 amid growing instability in the Middle East region. A new stage in bilateral relations was caused by the coincidence of their interests in the fight against the increased terrorist threat. The parties were also interested in conducting political consultations to resolve regional crisis situations. The coincidence of points of view between Russia and the GCC on the Middle East settlement has always been a reliable basis for building mutual understanding between the parties. At the same time, the contradictions that arose between them on the issue of ways out of the Syrian crisis led to a cooling in their relations. The authors conclude that the place of Russia in the foreign policy priorities of the GCC is going to grow. The mutual interest of the parties in political interaction is reinforced by the need to coordinate policy in the energy market, the largest suppliers of which are both Russia and the GCC states. In addition, both sides are striving to expand economic

  15. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew

    2015-11-20

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year) and erosion (1.57 kg m year) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year) and erosion (0.43 kg m year) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  16. Local bleaching thresholds established by remote sensing techniques vary among reefs with deviating bleaching patterns during the 2012 event in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuail, Dawood; Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S; Riegl, Bernhard; Burt, John A; Petrov, Peter; Amos, Carl

    2016-04-30

    A severe bleaching event affected coral communities off the coast of Abu Dhabi, UAE in August/September, 2012. In Saadiyat and Ras Ghanada reefs ~40% of the corals showed signs of bleaching. In contrast, only 15% of the corals were affected on Delma reef. Bleaching threshold temperatures for these sites were established using remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) data recorded by MODIS-Aqua. The calculated threshold temperatures varied between locations (34.48 °C, 34.55 °C, 35.05 °C), resulting in site-specific deviations in the numbers of days during which these thresholds were exceeded. Hence, the less severe bleaching of Delma reef might be explained by the lower relative heat stress experienced by this coral community. However, the dominance of Porites spp. that is associated with the long-term exposure of Delma reef to elevated temperatures, as well as the more pristine setting may have additionally contributed to the higher coral bleaching threshold for this site. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of salinity changes on the bacterial diversity, photosynthesis and oxygen consumption of cyanobacterial mats from an intertidal flat of the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Raeid M M; Kohls, Katharina; de Beer, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    The effects of salinity fluctuation on bacterial diversity, rates of gross photosynthesis (GP) and oxygen consumption in the light (OCL) and in the dark (OCD) were investigated in three submerged cyanobacterial mats from a transect on an intertidal flat. The transect ran 1 km inland from the low water mark along an increasingly extreme habitat with respect to salinity. The response of GP, OCL and OCD in each sample to various salinities (65 per thousand, 100 per thousand, 150 per thousand and 200 per thousand) were compared. The obtained sequences and the number of unique operational taxonomic units showed clear differences in the mats' bacterial composition. While cyanobacteria decreased from the lower to the upper tidal mat, other bacterial groups such as Chloroflexus and Cytophaga/Flavobacteria/Bacteriodetes showed an opposite pattern with the highest dominance in the middle and upper tidal mats respectively. Gross photosynthesis and OCL at the ambient salinities of the mats decreased from the lower to the upper tidal zone. All mats, regardless of their tidal location, exhibited a decrease in areal GP, OCL and OCD rates at salinities > 100 per thousand. The extent of inhibition of these processes at higher salinities suggests an increase in salt adaptation of the mats microorganisms with distance from the low water line. We conclude that the resilience of microbial mats towards different salinity regimes on intertidal flats is accompanied by adjustment of the diversity and function of their microbial communities.

  18. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  19. Solar pond design for Arabian Gulf conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Jassim, I.A.; Al-Juburi, F.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Collection and storage of solar energy in salt gradient solar ponds under conditions of high ambient and ground temperatures and all year-round sunny weather are investigated theoretically. A transient model based on measured local environmental conditions is developed to predict solar transmission, temperature distribution and salt distribution inside the pond for any day of the year. In the model the effects of heat dissipation into the ground, bottom reflection, pond dimensions, load extraction and variation of the pond's physical properties with temperature and concentration are investigated. The generated non-linear coupled system of heat and salt concentration equations for the composite media, considered to have isothermal boundary conditions, is solved numerically using the implicit finite-difference scheme.

  20. Strategic Landpower and the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    1st Armored Division, based in Fort Bliss , Texas, has been aligned with US Central Command and has played an important role in the Eager Lion...Trainers,” Washington Post, June 27, 2013. 46 Tim Ripley, Middle East Airpower in the 21st Century (South Yorkshire, UK: Pen and Sword, 2010), 173, 188

  1. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent; Cusack, Michael; Almahasheer, Hanan; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Krishnakumar, Periyadan Kadinjappalli; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  2. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  3. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark; DiBattista, Joseph; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Brett M.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark

    2015-12-12

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Environmental studies of the Arabian Sea using remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saxena, A.

    Fig 4. Principle of Radar altimetry 17 Fig 5. Block diagram of ArcGIS platform 20 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER II TOOL FOR STUDY Fig 6. Seasonal Variation of Sea Surface Temperature 24 Fig 7. Seasonal... from any major rivers, the excessive evaporation over precipitation (E-P) as well as proximity to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf makes the surface salinity of Arabian Sea high, in excess of 36psu (practical salinity unit). Motivation Arabian Sea...

  6. Diploma of Higher Studies in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents four courses for the diploma of higher studies in oceanography conducted by the Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Egypt. These courses are organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). Each course is designed to be taught in one academic year…

  7. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  8. Bacterioplankton activity in the surface waters of the Arabian Sea during and after the 1994 SW monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomroy, Alan; Joint, Ian

    1999-03-01

    Bacterial biomass and production were measured on two cruises to the northwestern Arabian Sea in 1994; the first cruise took place towards the end of the SW monsoon in September, and the second cruise during the inter-monsoon period in November and December. Although phytoplankton production was significantly higher during the monsoon, bacterial numbers showed little difference. Bacteria were most abundant in the euphotic zone and highest bacterial numbers were measured during the monsoon period in the Gulf of Oman and the shelf waters off southern Oman; in these regions, numbers ranged from 0.9 to 1.6×10 9 bacteria l -1. On both cruises, bacteria were less abundant in the euphotic zone of the central Arabian Sea and typically ca 0.8×10 9 cells l -1 were present. The majority of bacteria (80-95%) were small cocci that were larger (median diameter 0.40 μm) during the monsoon period than the inter-monsoon, when the cells had a diameter of 0.36 μm; there was no comparable change in cell dimensions of bacteria present as rods. Bacterial production was measured by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-leucine. On both cruises, uptake rates were highest on the Omani shelf and decreased offshore. In the central Arabian Sea, thymidine incorporation rates were similar in the monsoon and inter-monsoon periods, but higher rates of leucine incorporation were measured during the monsoon period. Bacterial production was a relatively small proportion of phytoplankton production in both periods sampled; bacterial production was equivalent to between 10 and 30% of the daily primary production in the Arabian Sea.

  9. Physical Controls on Oxygen Distribution and Denitrification Potential in the North West Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queste, Bastien Y.; Vic, Clément; Heywood, Karen J.; Piontkovski, Sergey A.

    2018-05-01

    At suboxic oxygen concentrations, key biogeochemical cycles change and denitrification becomes the dominant remineralization pathway. Earth system models predict oxygen loss across most ocean basins in the next century; oxygen minimum zones near suboxia may become suboxic and therefore denitrifying. Using an ocean glider survey and historical data, we show oxygen loss in the Gulf of Oman (from 6-12 to water across the Gulf of Oman and waters exported to the wider Arabian Sea.

  10. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VimalKumar, K.G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Smitha, B.R.; Rahman, H.H.; Jacob, J.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    the south, while during September by the high saline water from the north. The presence of various water masses (Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), Red Sea Water (RSW)] and their seasonal variations in the region is discussed...

  11. Zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Srivastava, Y.

    The effects of large scale oil spill, which occurred during the Gulf War in 1991 on zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea were studied. Surface (1-0 m) and vertical zooplankton hauls (200-0 m, 250...

  12. Small scale features of sound velocity structure in the northern Arabian sea during February - May 1974

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, Y.K.; Rao, L.V.G.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    at intermediate depths (200-400 m), influence the sound velocity structure and cause formation of an upper sound channel in the northern Arabian Sea. The Persian Gulf waters spread as tongues at 1 or 2 more levels (up to a limited extent), besides the prominent...

  13. Watermass structure in the western Indian Ocean - Part 2. The spreading and transformation of the Persian Gulf water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Premchand, K.; Sastry, J.S.; Murty, C.S.

    The spreading and the transformation of the Persian Gulf Watermass (PGW) in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean have been presented. The core layer of this watermass is found in the depth range of 250-300 m over most of the Arabian Sea with a...

  14. The Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, P.V.

    high chI are also encountered offshore, presumably associated with the mesoscale features such as filaments and eddies. In conformity with the satellite data, elevated chI levels persist~lOOOkmfrom the Omani coast. During the Sl, chI levels are quite... is consumed rapidly for the degradation of copious amounts of organic matter produced within the Arabian Sea itself. Consequently, 02 levels fall very close to zero while nutrients accumulate in high concentrations within a zone that extends from the base...

  15. Influence of a big oil spill during the Gulf War on intertidal invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Ryusuke; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroo; Hanawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yukiwo

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that a massive oil spill washed ashore from Al Khafji to the west side of the Abu Ali Peninsula in the western Arabian Gulf during the Gulf War. In these areas enormous amounts of oil are still left along most beaches at the high tide level. Surveys were carried out to clarify the effects of the massive oil spill

  16. 'Shamal' swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.

    on the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the Arabian Sea, and this has not been studied so far. Rapid changes in wind patterns during these shamal events can alter the wave characteristics of the Arabian Sea. This has motivated us to take up the present... generated in the Gulf of Oman and the east coast of Oman propagate in the NW direction. Another swell system formed off Salalah coast (Figure 4a) propagates in the NNW direction. Since the present study aims at understanding the influence of shamal swells...

  17. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  18. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.; Haridas, P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The physical and chemical forcing which drive the Arabian production is now fairly well understood. The main attributes, which contribute to the productivity are (1) the boundary processes which manifest as upwelling during summer monsoon and (2...

  19. The influence of Brachyura on oil polluted subtropical intertidal shores - an example from the Arabian Gulf; Die Bedeutung von Krabben (Brachyura) bei der Regeneration von kohlenwasserstoffkontaminierten subtropischen Flachkuesten am Beispiel des Arabisch Persischen Golfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, H.J. [Geographisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Objectives. The second Gulf War (1991) led to the largest oil spill in human history. Over 770 km of coastline from southern Kuwait to Abu Ali Island (Saudi Arabia) were smothered with oil and tar, erasing most of the local plant and animal communities. This long term study was designed to reveal the processes of natural regeneration within the salt marsh ecosystems as well as the processes counter productive to regeneration. Methods. Field data were collected along permanent transect lines during annual visits from 1994 to 2004. Soil analysis included grain size, carbonate, pH and total hydrocarbon (Soxhlet extraction). Heavy metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Hydrocarbons were analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results. The dominant processes of regeneration are characterized by four types of indicators. These are (1) the composition of hydrocarbon compounds remaining in the soil, (2) the hardness of the soil surface, (3) the abundance of laminated cyanobacterial mats, and (4) the abundance and diversity of macrofauna. Cyanobacteria turned out to conserve the oil within the soil where they built laminated mats sealing the surface and thus, preventing oxygen from penetrating the substrate. On the other hand, crustaceans were the first macrofauna returning to contaminated soils. Following bioturbation by the crustaceans significantly accelerates the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. Since the occurrence of the crabs (mainly Cleistotoma dotilliforme) is primarily restricted to tidal channels the density of the channel network between the affected salt marshes determines the time which is needed for regeneration. (orig.)

  20. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms in the Gulf of Aden revealed by remote sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Gittings, John

    2016-11-25

    The Gulf of Aden, situated in the northwest Arabian Sea and linked to the Red Sea, is a relatively unexplored ecosystem. Understanding of large-scale biological dynamics is limited by the lack of adequate datasets. In this study, we analyse 15 years of remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a data (Chl-a, an index of phytoplankton biomass) acquired from the Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The improved spatial coverage of OC-CCI data in the Gulf of Aden allows, for the first time, an investigation into the full seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass. Analysis of indices of phytoplankton phenology (bloom timing) reveals distinct phytoplankton growth periods in different parts of the gulf: a large peak during August (mid-summer) in the western part of the gulf, and a smaller peak during November (mid-autumn) in the lower central gulf and along the southern coastline. The summer bloom develops rapidly at the beginning of July, and its peak is approximately three times higher than that of the autumnal bloom. Remotely-sensed sea-surface temperature (SST), wind-stress curl, vertical nutrient profiles and geostrophic currents inferred from the sea-level anomaly, were analysed to examine the underlying physical mechanisms that control phytoplankton growth. During summer, the prevailing southwesterlies cause upwelling along the northern coastline of the gulf (Yemen), leading to an increase in nutrient availability and enhancing phytoplankton growth along the coastline and in the western part of the gulf. In contrast, in the central region of the gulf, lowest concentrations of Chl-a are observed during summer, due to strong downwelling caused by a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy. During autumn, the prevailing northeasterlies enable upwelling along the southern coastline (Somalia) causing local nutrient enrichment in the euphotic zone, leading to higher levels of phytoplankton biomass along the coastline and in the lower central gulf

  1. Redescription of Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin et Zhang, 1983 (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from the Arabian carpetshark Chiloscyllium arabicum (Chondrichthyes: Hemiscylliidae) off Iraq

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Solís, David; Ali, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 759-766 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Arabian Gulf * elasmobranchs * nematode Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2015

  2. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.

    and limited hydrographic observations. Wooster et al. [1967] stated that the winter pattern starts in October with a weak westward flow into the gulf. It developed fully in November and persisted till April . During summer, the direction of the surface current... current in the northwestern Arabian Sea, the Somali Current, flows poleward (equator ward) along the coast of Somalia during the summer (winter) monsoon (see the reviews by Schott [1983]; Shetye and Gouveia [1998]; Schott and McCreary [2001]). Owing...

  3. Clinical Evaluation of a Proposed New Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levine, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Thus far, studies on Gulf War veterans have not defined any syndrome specific to deployed Gulf War veterans, but have only suggested that Persian Gulf War veterans have a higher frequency of a number...

  4. Geological evolution of the Afro-Arabian dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, D. C.

    1986-12-01

    The Afro-Arabian dome includes the elevated continental regions enclosing the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Ethiopian rift system, and extends northwards as far as Jordan. It is more than an order of magnitude larger than other African uplifts. Both the structures and the igneous rocks of the dome appear to be products of the superimposition of two, perhaps three, semi-independent generating systems, initiated at different times but all still active. A strain pattern dominated by NW-trending basins and rifts first became established early in the Cretaceous. By the end of the Oligocene, much of the extensional strain had been taken up along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden axes, which subsequently developed into an ocean. Palaeogene "trap" volcanism of mildly alkaline to transitional character was related to this horizontal extension rather than to doming. Further west, the East Sahara swell has a history of intermittent alkaline volcanicity which began in the Mesozoic and was independent of magmatism in the Afro-Arabian dome. Volcanicity specifically related to doming began in the Miocene along a N-S zone of uplift extending from Ethiopia to Syria. This elongated swell forms the northern termination of the East African system of domes and rifts, characterized by episodic vertical uplift but very little extension. Superimposition of epeirogenic uplift upon structures formed by horizontal extension took place in the Neogene. Volcanicity related to vertical tectonics is mildly alkaline in character, whereas transitional and tholeiitic magmas are found along the spreading axes.

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea and others from 1991-01-05 to 1993-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0157100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157100 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea, Gulf of...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 1972-07-18 to 1978-04-28 (NODC Accession 0117677)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117677 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Bering Sea, Gulf of...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 1977-12-04 to 1978-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0163183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163183 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Aden, Indian...

  8. Seasonal variation of hydrographic and nutrient fields during the US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J. M.; Codispoti, L. A.; Gaurin, S.; Jones, B.; Manghnani, V.; Zheng, Z.

    nutrient concentrations. This PGW salinity maximum is associated with the suboxic portions of the Arabian Sea's oxygen minimum zone. The salinity maximum associated with Red Sea Water (RSW, core σθ=27.2) in the JGOFS study region is clearly evident at the southermost sampling site at 10'N (S-15). Elsewhere, this signal is weak or absent and salinity on the 27.2 σθ surface tends to increase towards the Persian Gulf, suggesting that the disappearance of this salinity maximum is due, at least in part, to the influence of the Persian Gulf outflow. Inorganic nitrogen-to-phosphate ratios were lower (frequently much lower) than the standard Redfield ratio of 15/1-16/1 (by atoms) at all times and all depths suggesting that inorganic nitrogen was more important than phosphate as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, and that the effects of denitrification dominated the effects of nitrogen fixation. The water upwelling off the Omani coast during the SW Monsoon has inorganic nitrogen to silicate ratios that were higher (˜2/1) than the ˜1/1 ratio often assumed as the ratio of uptake during diatom growth. The temporal evolution of inorganic nitrogen-to-silicate ratios suggests major alteration by diatom uptake only during the late SW Monsoon cruise (TN050) in August-September 1995. Widespread moderate surface layer nutrient concentrations occurred during the late NE Monsoon. A zone of high offshore nutrient concentrations was encountered during the SW Monsoon, but instead of being associated with offshore upwelling it may represent offshore advection from the coastal upwelling zone, the influence of an eddy, or both. Although our data do not contradict previous suggestions that the volume of subtoxic water may be reduced the SW Monsoon, they suggest a weaker re-oxygenation than indicated by some previous work. Similarly, they do not confirm results suggesting that secondary nitrite maxima may be common in waters with oxygen concentrations >5 μM.

  9. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relative...

  10. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    X. Carton; P. L'Hegaret

    2011-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this ...

  11. Evaporation over the Arabian Sea during two contrasting monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.

    monsoon rainfall. It is noticed that in general, the sea surface temperatures are higher in 1983 throughout the monsoon season than in 1979 in the Arabian Sea excepting western region. The mean rates of evaporation on a seasonal scale are found to be equal...

  12. Applying Total Quality Management Tools Using QFD at Higher Education Institutions in Gulf Area (Case Study: ALHOSN University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Al-Bashir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human power’s quality plays the key role in the growth and development of societies where the quality of human powers can be enriched with the high quality education provided by the higher education institutions. The higher education institutions are hereby an important sector of any society since it defines the overall quality of human lives. This research will investigate the application of Total Quality Management (TQM tools at the higher education institutions; specifically at ALHOSN University. In this study five tools were implemented at ALHOSN University’s engineering college including: Quality Function Deployment, Affinity Diagrams, Tree Diagrams, Pareto Charts, and Fishbone Diagrams. The research will reveal that the implementation of TQM tools has a great benefit for higher education institutions where they have uncovered many area of potential improvement as well as the main causes of some of the problems the Faculty of Engineering is facing. Also, it will show that the implementation of TQM tools on higher education institution systems will enhance the performance of such institutions.

  13. DNA barcoding and morphological studies confirm the occurrence of three Atarbolana (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) species along the coastal zone of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Raupach, Michael J

    2016-11-27

    Two species of Atarbolana (Cirolanidae: Isopoda) from the intertidal zone of the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf were studied and redescribed. The known distribution of this small genus is limited to the northern areas of the Indian Ocean, from the Pakistan coasts to the Persian Gulf. The analyses of DNA barcodes as well as detailed morphological studies clearly support the existence of three distinct Atarbolana species along the coastal zone of the Persian Gulf and northern Arabian Sea. Furthermore, A. dasycolus Yasmeen, 2004 is synonymized with A. setosa Javed and Yasmeen, 1989.

  14. Ecology and distribution of recent planktonic foraminifera in eastern part of Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Kutty, M.K.

    Thirty species of living planktonic foraminifera have been studied from 97 plankton tows collected from the eastern Arabian Sea with an accent on their ecological and distributional aspects. Species density is higher with less dominance in the deep...

  15. Dissolved aluminium in the surface microlayer of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Measurements of dissolved aluminium (Al) in surface microlayer (SML) samples from the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest (summer) and northwast (winter) monsoon periods have revealed much higher concentrations (23-657 nmol kg sup(-1)) than...

  16. Reproductive Performance of Arabian and Thoroughbred Mares under Subtropical Conditions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriach, H M; Memon, M A; Ahmad, N; Norman, S T; Ghafar, A; Arif, M

    2014-07-01

    Breeding records of 57 Arabian and 66 Thoroughbred mares were analysed to assess their reproductive performance under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan. The Arabian mares showed significantly higher conception rates (p500±32 days) was significantly (psummer (June to August) months. Age of mares affected the conception rates, as mares at ages 3 to 7 and 8 to 12 years of ages had significantly higher conception rates (psummer months.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  18. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants (GSH, vitamins C and E) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in mice administered. Arabian coffee ... cancer [9,10]. In addition ... HFD alone. IV. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom. V. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom + cloves.

  19. Long-range transport of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian region – A case study using satellite data and ground-based measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badarinath, K.V.S.; Kharol, S.K.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Sharma, A; Ramaswamy, V.; Kambezidis, H.D.

    The present study addresses an intense dust storm event over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea (AS) region and its transport over the Indian subcontinent using multi-satellite observations and ground-based measurements. A time series of Indian...

  20. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season. Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea), in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  1. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Carton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter.

    The Persian Gulf Water (PGW is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N, again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18–19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season.

    Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea, in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  2. Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.

  3. Precipitation Dynamics and Feedback mechanisms of the Arabian Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Roelof; Kucera, Paul; Piketh, Stuart; Axisa, Duncan; Chapman, Michael; Krauss, Terry; Ghulam, Ayman

    2010-05-01

    The subtropical Arabian desert extends across the entire Peninsula. The Arabian desert finds itself in the downward branch of the Hadley cell with persistent subsidence. This stabilizes the atmosphere and lowers the relative humidity. The result is a strongly capped convective boundary layer and an extremely dry mid troposphere. Most of the area experience very little rainfall, generally below 100 mm per year, resulting in the largest uninterrupted sand desert in the world. However, local factors such as an unbroken 1000 km escarpment along the Red Sea, rocky mountains between 2000 and 3000 m, and gravel plains cut by wadis, causes micro climates with significant altered precipitation characteristics. Altitude oases with annual rainfall between 200 mm and 500 mm are found on the Asir mountains in the south west and over the Jebel Akdhar mountains on the Gulf coast of Oman. This region receives most of its rainfall in the Northern Hemisphere summer driven by a monsoon trough and the ITCZ. During summer, moist surface winds from the Red Sea converges with dry easterlies triggering convection along the Asir escarpment on a daily basis. Clear mornings grow into a layer of Altocumulus stratiformis cumulogenites by noon, which usually last until sunset. This cloud deck interacts with large severe convective cells which grow to the top of the troposphere by mid afternoon. The north experience a mediterranean climate with eastward propagating midlatitude cyclones causing wintertime rainfall. Characteristic cloud bands form over the northern interior. Vertically layered embedded convective cells that are not coupled with the surface propagate on north easterly tracks. This result in another oasis with annual rainfall exceeding 200 mm. Surface based convection causes isolated thunderstorms during spring and early summer, but cloud bases increase as the season progress until the evaporating downdraft causes dust storms. In-situ measurements, WRF model runs, radiosonde ascends

  4. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Noronha, R.J.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    deficits because the approach requires denitrification to be restricted to Persian Gulf water. A method involving oxidative ratios has been modified and used to calculate nitrate deficits. The deficits so calculated lie between the values reported earlier...

  5. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  6. It Is Time to MOOC and SPOC in the Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutawa, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we will explain massive open online courses (MOOCs)-how they started, their targeted audience, and what services they provide- and demonstrate selected MOOC service providers that best suit the Arabian Gulf region. The record annual growth for MOOCs has made many respected institutions reconsider their educational strategies. Many…

  7. American Policy in the Persian Gulf Region: Peace, Security, and the Spread of Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Darin J

    2008-01-01

    To achieve lasting security in the Arabian Gulf region, U.S. policy, though currently focused on Iraq, must engage Saudi Arabia and Iran with all of its instruments of national power to encourage the spread of democracy within the region...

  8. English as a Medium of Instruction in the Gulf: When Students and Teachers Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhiah, Hassan; Elhami, Maha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, with special focus on the situation in the United Arab Emirates. The study, undertaken at six universities located in major cities of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras Al Khaimah, examines students' and teachers'…

  9. Indian Monsoon and denitrification change in the Laxmi Basin (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. E.; Khim, B. K.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a famous site for the basin-wide denitrification in the globe. The Western Arabian Sea has been acknowledged by its upwelling-induced denitrification related to the Indian Monsoon system (Altabet et al., 1999). It was recently reported that the denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) has been persistent and consistent during the mid-Pleistocene as reflected in the bulk sediment δ15N values (Tripathi et al., 2017). Based on the age model reconstructed by δ18O stratigraphy of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data at Site U1456 drilled in the Laxmi Basin of the Eastern Arabian Sea, the glacial-interglacial fluctuations of denitrification in association with the development of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) were resolved in the context of Indian Monsoon activity. One of striking features in the Eastern Arabian Sea is that the δ15N values of bulk sediment show clear and consistent denitrification with minimum δ15N values exceeding 6‰ even during glacial periods, when its western counterpart experienced a temporal collapse of OMZ and denitrification. The Eastern Arabian Sea is fed not only by the upwelling-induced productivity in the western margin during the summer monsoon but also by the high productivity during the winter monsoon, both of which maintain the increased productivity affecting the OMZ through the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the degradation of sinking organic particles. The Eastern Arabian Sea is further influenced by the clockwise surface currents, intermediate water ventilation change by the blockage of Antarctic Intermediate Water, limited inflow from the Red Sea/Persian Gulf, and the freshwater salinity stratification due to nearby riverine discharges, all of which make the denitrification process more complicated than the Western Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, the glacial-interglacial denitrification change in the Eastern

  10. Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Muneyama, K.; Frouin, R.

    , embedded in the ocean isopycnal general circulation model (OPYC). A higher abundance of chlorophyll in October than in April in the Arabian Sea increases absorption of solar irradiance and heating rate in the upper ocean, resulting in decreasing the mixed...

  11. Investigation of XBT and XCTD biases in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal with implications for climate studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Boyer, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Reseghetti, F.; Naik, A.; Suneel, V.; Ravichandran, M.; Ali, N.P.M.; Rafeeq, M.M.M.; Chico, R.A.

    XCTD, basin-specific FREs are possible for the Bay of Bengal, but not for the Arabian Sea. The XCTD FRE velocity coefficients are significantly higher than the XCTD manufacturers’ FRE coefficient or those from previous tests, possibly resulting from...

  12. Futuristic isotope hydrology in the Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, U.; Hadi, Khaled

    2018-03-01

    The Gulf region is one of the most water-stressed parts in the world. Water in the region is very scarce, shortage of supply and lacking of renewable water resources, while the demand for water is growing day by day. It is thus essential to implement modern approaches and technologies in addressing water-related issues. In this context, isotope hydrology will provide invaluable aid. Some of the most important areas of futuristic applications of isotope hydrology include evaluation of aquifer recharge, storage and their recovery system, understanding of dynamic changes due to long-term exploitation of the groundwater, development and management of shared groundwater aquifers, fresh groundwater discharge along the Arabian Gulf, identification and quantification of hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater; soil moisture and solute movement in unsaturated zone, paleoclimate reconstruction, etc. Literature survey suggests, in general, not many isotope studies on the above have been reported.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  14. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  15. Denitrification processes in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    rate in the vicinity of 30 Tg Ny@u-1@@, but the extent of benthic contribution remains unknown. A decoupling of denitrification from primary production, unique to the Arabian Sea, is revealed by nitrite, Electron Transport System (ETS) activity...

  16. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  17. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabins, F.F. (Remote Sensing Engerprises, Inc., Fullerton, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2[degrees]. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46[degrees] API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  18. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabins, F.F. [Remote Sensing Engerprises, Inc., Fullerton, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2{degrees}. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46{degrees} API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  19. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...

  20. 2015 Gulf Guardian Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  1. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Ecology and biology of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Extensive studies on occurrence, distribution and species composition of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea were carried out from various habitats. Luminous bacterial population was by far the highest in the environs of the Arabian Sea...

  3. Factors controlling vertical fluxes of prrticles in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.; Shankar, R.

    )) in the western Arabian Sea. Carbonate contributed mainly by foraminifers and coccolithophorids, are the dominant component in all the traps. Opal fluxes were maximum in the western Arabian Sea. At all the locations, lithogenic percentages increased with depth...

  4. Distribution of organic carbon in sediments from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; PrakashBabu, C.

    Many earlier studies on the distribution of organic carbon in the Arabian Sea, sediments have projected contradictory opinions on the factors favouring accumulation and preservation of organic carbon in the Arabian Sea. An attempt is made...

  5. Lithospheric structure of the Arabian Shield and Platform from complete regional waveform modelling and surface wave group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Walter, William R.; Mellors, Robert J.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M. S.; Zhang, Yu-Shen

    1999-09-01

    Regional seismic waveforms reveal significant differences in the structure of the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform. We estimate lithospheric velocity structure by modelling regional waveforms recorded by the 1995-1997 Saudi Arabian Temporary Broadband Deployment using a grid search scheme. We employ a new method whereby we narrow the waveform modelling grid search by first fitting the fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The group velocities constrain the average crustal thickness and velocities as well as the crustal velocity gradients. Because the group velocity fitting is computationally much faster than the synthetic seismogram calculation this method allows us to determine good average starting models quickly. Waveform fits of the Pn and Sn body wave arrivals constrain the mantle velocities. The resulting lithospheric structures indicate that the Arabian Platform has an average crustal thickness of 40 km, with relatively low crustal velocities (average crustal P- and S-wave velocities of 6.07 and 3.50 km s^-1 , respectively) without a strong velocity gradient. The Moho is shallower (36 km) and crustal velocities are 6 per cent higher (with a velocity increase with depth) for the Arabian Shield. Fast crustal velocities of the Arabian Shield result from a predominantly mafic composition in the lower crust. Lower velocities in the Arabian Platform crust indicate a bulk felsic composition, consistent with orogenesis of this former active margin. P- and S-wave velocities immediately below the Moho are slower in the Arabian Shield than in the Arabian Platform (7.9 and 4.30 km s^-1 , and 8.10 and 4.55 km s^-1 , respectively). This indicates that the Poisson's ratios for the uppermost mantle of the Arabian Shield and Platform are 0.29 and 0.27, respectively. The lower mantle velocities and higher Poisson's ratio beneath the Arabian Shield probably arise from a partially molten mantle associated with Red Sea spreading and continental

  6. Particulate organic carbon and particulate humic material in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.

    in the southeastern side of the Arabian Sea close to the coast caused by higher biological production as a consequence of winter overturning. The PHM showed significant aggregation between 100 and 200 m during winter and was negligibly low towards north and relatively...

  7. Saudi Arabian International Graduate Students' Lived Experiences at a U.S. University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Barbara N.; Snead, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Enrollment of Saudi Arabian International students' in United States institutions of higher learning has increased substantially over the years since King Abdullah initially launched the Saudi scholarship program in 2005 that was renewed in 2010 and funded an outward flow of Saudi student, including females, to universities worldwide. A commitment…

  8. A critical evaluation of depositional parameters controlling the variability of organic carbon in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; PrakashBabu, C.; Mascarenhas, A.

    source of organic matter. However, a critical examination reveals that the organic enrichment on the slope of the Indian margin is two to four fold higher (max. 16.71%) than on the slope of the Arabian Peninsula (max. 7.54%) while the productivity...

  9. The central and eastern Arabian Sea as a perennial source of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.

    circulation and biological production. In all seasons, the pCO sub(2) is higher in surface waters of the Arabian Sea, except along the Indian coast in the southwest monsoon, than that in atmosphere, and thus this region appears to be a perennial source...

  10. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  11. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Vicente M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546 and complete mtDNA (7 sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%, detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62% of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the

  12. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  13. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  14. Baseline concentration of {sup 210}Po in Sargassum from the Northern Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, S.; Bebhehani, M.; Talebi, L. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of the {sup 210}Po is of enormous interest because of its large contribution to the natural radiation dose received by marine organisms and human populations consuming seafood. In fact natural {sup 210}Po is responsible for higher radiation doses to humans consuming marine products than is plutonium and other man-made radionuclides. Many marine organisms are capable of concentrating {sup 210}Po in their tissues. {sup 210}Po is an alpha emitter in the {sup 238}U series, with 138-d half-life, that is supplied to seawater from atmospheric inputs and river runoff, however, the main source of {sup 210}Po in the environment is {sup 222}Rn exhalation from the ground. Assessing the impact of radionuclides in the environment requires the establishment of baseline levels in the environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to establish baseline levels in Sargassum. Two most common species of Sargassum found in the northern Gulf were analysed for {sup 210}Po. These macro-algae were collected from three different locations during January 2013. This study sets the baseline for {sup 210}Po concentration in northern Gulf, {sup 210}Po is absorbed from water and concentrated by Phytoplankton and macro-algae. This concentrated {sup 210}Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The {sup 210}Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (4.405 - 4.952 BqKg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (p>0.084) than Sargassum oligocystum (3.838 - 4.358 BqKg{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentration in these seaweeds from the Arabian/Persian Gulf were substantially lower than those found in various Phytoplankton and macro-algae species from other regions; this may be due to the lower background {sup 210}Po concentration in the Kuwait marine waters (0.282 - 0.382 mBq l{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentrations in seawater measured at the 3 stations during January 2013 were less than those reported previously from the same region

  15. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Eddy Field and Surface Circulation in the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saafani, M. A.; Shenoi, S. S. C.

    2006-07-01

    The circulation in the Gulf of Aden is inferred from three different data sets: h istorical sh ip drifts , hydrography , and satellite altimeter derived sea level (Topex/Poseidon, Jason and ERS) . The circulation in th is semi-enclosed basin is marked with strong seasonality with reversals in the direction of flows twice a year follow ing the reversal in mon soonal winds. During the win ter mon soon (November - February) there is an inflow from Arabian Sea; an extension of Arabian Coastal Current (ACC) . During sou thwest mon soon (June - August) the flow is generally towards east especially along the northern coast of Gulf of Aden. The geostrophic currents also show that the circulation in the gulf is embedded with mesoscale eddies. These westward propagating eddies appear to enter the Gulf of Aden from the western Arabian Sea in win ter. The relative contribu tion of mesoscale eddies to the circulation in the gulf were estimated using altimeter derived Sea level anomaly (SLA) for the years 1993 to 2003 . The effect of these mesoscale eddies extend over the entire water colu mn . The propagation speeds, of these eddies, estimated using weekly spaced altimeter derived SLA (2002 - 2003) is ~ 4 .0 - 5 .3 cm s . The sum of the speeds of second mode Ro ssby wave and the mean current (4.8 cm s ) matches with the propagation speeds of eddies estimated using SLA . Hence, second mode baroclin ic Rossby waves appear to be responsib le for the westward propagation of eddies in the Gulf of Aden. The presence of these eddies in the temperaturesalin ity climato logy confirms that they are no t transient features.

  16. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  17. Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Moffett, J.W.; Vedamati, J.; Goepfert, T.J.; Pratihary, A.K.; Gauns, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian Sea James W. Moffett,*1 Jagruti Vedamati,†1 Tyler J. Goepfert,1 Anil Pratihary,2 Mangesh Gauns,2 S. W. A. Naqvi2 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 2National...

  18. Pyritized ooids from the Arabian Sea basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    Pyritized ooids in association with turbidites were observed in a box core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea Basin. Ooids having a shallow water origin were transported to the present depth by turbidity currents or slumping...

  19. The nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bange, H.W.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    to enhanced rates of denitrification that occur in suboxic portions of the water column in the Arabian Sea. Sedimentary denitrification is small compared to water column denitrification, and additions of fixed-N via N sub(2) fixation also are small compared...

  20. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  1. First dinosaur tracks from the Arabian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar

  2. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  3. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.

    2013-07-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A R; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl L.; Baker, Andrew C.; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geó rgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David Glen; Grandcourt, Edwin Mark; Hill, Ross; John, David Michael; Jones, David Alan; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda M A; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood A.; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam J.; Riegl, Bernhard M.; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles R C; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2013-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Iranian century: the tension between Iran and the Gulf States

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the region...

  6. Offshore oil spill recovery operations in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.D.; Gangsaas, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    On or about January 25, 1991, Iraqi forces in Kuwait discharged more than 4 million barrels of Kuwait crude oil into the Persian Gulf. The counterclockwise current carried the resulting slick southeastward along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian oil company, Aramco, chartered the multiclassed tanker and response vessel Al Waasit, based in Dubai, to assist in the offshore recovery operation. The Al Waasit's response resulted in the offshore recovery of about 100,000 barrels of oil during a 42-day period, without a recovery system failure. The authors both served on board Al Waasit as operations managers during this response operation

  7. Persistence of Gulf War oil versus intertidal morphology and sediments - one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montello, T.M.; Hayes, M.O.; Michel, J.; Al-Momen, A.H.; Al-Mansi, A.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the persistence of oil in the intertidal habitats of the Saudi Arabian coast was carried out one year after the Gulf war spill in conjunction with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ship Mt. Mitchell's ROPME Sea Cruise. A total of 10 kilometers of transects were surveyed at 20 stations, representing heavily oiled sheltered beaches, tidal flats, algal mats, halophyte saltmarshes, and mangroves at the heads of bays

  8. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  9. Some characteristics of uranium distribution in granular phosphorites of Arabian-African phosphorite-bearing Province and the Middle Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokryshkin, V I; Bol' shov, V A; Kharitonova, R Sh; Bojko, V S; Berman, I B

    1982-01-01

    The comprative characteristic of uranium distribution regula-Arities in phosphorites of Arabian-African province and the Middle Asia is given. The data on radioactivity of phosphorites of Arabian-African province are borrowed for the published papers, the laboratory U and Th determinations are partially performed. Radioactivity of the Middle Asia phosphorites is studied by field radiometric and gamma spectrometric methods. Spatial uranium distribution in granular phosphorites has been determined by the f-radiography method. At the presence of general for granular phosphorites of both regions of increased radioactivity, uranium confinement to phosphate matter and identicity of uranium distribution in them, higher uranium content of Arabian-African province is pointed out. By K and Th quatities being due to a radioactivity unit, Arabian-African phosphorites are similar to authigenous phosphorites of the Middle Asia, by uranium content Arabian phosphorites are richer than the Asian ones. Allothigenous phosphorites differ from authigenous and African ones, relative (per radioactivity unit) uranium contents in them are 2.2-1.3 times less, while thorium and potassium 5.2-6.8 times higher. This fact reflects their poverty in phosphate matter and enrichment by terrigenous sandy-argillaceous material.

  10. Crustal structure of the Arabian plate: new constraints of receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Pei, S.

    2013-12-01

    We perform P-wave receiver function analysis across Saudi Arabia to constrain crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio to investigate the role of Afar super plume, on-going sea-floor spreading and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We include analysis of data from 132 stations, many of them new stations to improve upon previous analysis from a sparse array (30 stations). We first select 201 earthquakes with high signal-to-noise seismogram, using IRIS-station RAYN as reference to pick the events, recorded on 101 stations operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) during 2007-2011. SGS continually deploys stations every year and we added a second data set of 96 earthquakes on 30 newly deployed stations in 2012, again station RAYN is used as reference for picking high quality recordings. Two way, 4th order band-pass Butterworth filter with pass band of 0.01 - 3 Hz is applied to eliminate low-frequency noise, then deconvolution is performed in time-domain. We deploy the slant stack method to determine both the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio at each station; this method combines the later multiples (PpPs and PpSs+PsPs) with the Moho Ps converted phase to mitigate the trade-off between the Moho depth and crustal Poisson's ratio. Average crustal P wave velocities of 6.5km/s for Arabian Shield and 6.1 km/s for Arabian Platform are assigned, respectively. In addition, we add the semblance parameter through semblance analysis into the objective function of the slant stack method to suppress the incoherent noise. Our results show that Moho depth is 38-42 km at the central boundary between the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform, where the crust is not extended and there is little sediment deposited. To the east beneath the Arabian Platform the crust thickens to 43-46 km, then decreases to 37-41km against the Persian Gulf. To the west the crust gradually thins to 33-35 km over a distance of approximately 400-500 km. Farther east, toward the Red Sea

  11. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  12. Biogeography and molecular diversity of coral symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium around the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Burt, John A.; Dobretsov, Sergey; Roder, Cornelia; Lajeunesse, Todd C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. Location: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG). Methods: Next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 marker gene was used to assess Symbiodinium community composition and diversity comprising 892 samples from 46 hard and soft coral genera. Results: Corals were associated with a large diversity of Symbiodinium, which usually consisted of one or two prevalent symbiont types and many types at low abundance. Symbiodinium communities were strongly structured according to geographical region and to a lesser extent by coral host identity. Overall symbiont communities were composed primarily of species from clade A and C in the RS, clade A, C, and D in the SO, and clade C and D in the PAG, representing a gradual shift from C- to D-dominated coral hosts. The analysis of symbiont diversity in an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based framework allowed the identification of differences in symbiont taxon richness over geographical regions and host genera. Main conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive overview over biogeography and molecular diversity of Symbiodinium in the Arabian Seas, where coral reefs thrive in one of the most extreme environmental settings on the planet. As such our data will serve as a baseline for further exploration into the effects of environmental change on host-symbiont pairings and the identification and ecological significance of Symbiodinium types from regions already experiencing 'Future Ocean' conditions.

  13. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.

    2015-01-12

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  14. Biogeography and molecular diversity of coral symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium around the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2017-01-02

    Aim: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. Location: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG). Methods: Next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 marker gene was used to assess Symbiodinium community composition and diversity comprising 892 samples from 46 hard and soft coral genera. Results: Corals were associated with a large diversity of Symbiodinium, which usually consisted of one or two prevalent symbiont types and many types at low abundance. Symbiodinium communities were strongly structured according to geographical region and to a lesser extent by coral host identity. Overall symbiont communities were composed primarily of species from clade A and C in the RS, clade A, C, and D in the SO, and clade C and D in the PAG, representing a gradual shift from C- to D-dominated coral hosts. The analysis of symbiont diversity in an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based framework allowed the identification of differences in symbiont taxon richness over geographical regions and host genera. Main conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive overview over biogeography and molecular diversity of Symbiodinium in the Arabian Seas, where coral reefs thrive in one of the most extreme environmental settings on the planet. As such our data will serve as a baseline for further exploration into the effects of environmental change on host-symbiont pairings and the identification and ecological significance of Symbiodinium types from regions already experiencing \\'Future Ocean\\' conditions.

  15. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Osipov, Sergey; Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  16. Winter monsoon circulation of the northern Arabian Sea and Somali Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2000-03-01

    The winter monsoon circulation in the northern inflow region of the Somali Current is discussed on the basis of an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profiler and current meter stations deployed during 1995-1996 and a ship survey carried out in January 1998. It is found that the westward inflow into the Somali Current regime occurs essentially south of 11°N and that this inflow bifurcates at the Somali coast, with the southward branch supplying the equatorward Somali Current and the northward one returning into the northwestern Arabian Sea. This northward branch partially supplies a shallow outflow through the Socotra Passage between the African continent and the banks of Socotra and partially feeds into eastward recirculation directly along the southern slopes of Socotra. Underneath this shallow surface flow, southwestward undercurrent flows are observed. Undercurrent inflow from the Gulf of Aden through the Socotra Passage occurs between 100 and 1000 m, with its current core at 700-800 m, and is clearly marked by the Red Sea Water (RSW) salinity maximum. The observations suggest that the maximum RSW inflow out of the Gulf of Aden occurs during the winter monsoon season and uses the Socotra Passage as its main route into the Indian Ocean. Westward undercurrent inflow into the Somali Current regime is also observed south of Socotra, but this flow lacks the RSW salinity maximum. Off the Arabian peninsula, eastward boundary flow is observed in the upper 800 m with a compensating westward flow to the south. The observed circulation pattern is qualitatively compared with recent high-resolution numerical model studies and is found to be in basic agreement.

  17. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  18. Who Benefits from Foreign Universities in the Arab Gulf States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The Arab Gulf States are the largest hosts of international branch campuses globally. By increasing higher education capacity in the Arab Gulf States by over 30,000 places, foreign institutions have, through various forms of transnational provision, increased significantly the accessibility of higher education to young people living in these…

  19. Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma Aquifer (Arabian peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Heiko; Al Ajmi, Hussain; Kienast, Peter; Rausch, Randolf

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this article is to enhance the understanding of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer's genesis, and its hydraulic and hydrochemical development over time. This is a prerequisite for wise use of the fossil groundwater resources contained within. The Umm Er Radhuma is a karstified limestone aquifer, extending over 1.6 Mio. km2 in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Both epigene and hypogene karstification contributed to the genesis of what is today the most prolific aquifer in the region. Besides man-made abstractions, even the natural outflows are higher than the small recharge (natural storage depletion). The Umm Er Radhuma shows that large aquifers in arid regions are never in "steady state" (where inflows equal outflows), considering Quaternary climate history. The aquifer's adaption to climate changes (precipitation, sea level) can be traced even after thousands of years, and is slower than the climate changes themselves.

  20. Estimates of upwelling rates in the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean based on bomb radiocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R; Dutta, K; Somayajulu, B L K

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon measurements were made in the water column of the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean during 1994, 1995 and 1997 to assess the temporal variations in bomb 14C distribution and its inventory in the region with respect to GEOSECS measurements made during 1977-1978. Four GEOSECS stations were reoccupied (three in the Arabian Sea and one in the equatorial Indian Ocean) during this study, with all of them showing increased penetration of bomb 14C along with decrease in its surface water activity. The upwelling rates derived by model simulation of bomb 14C depth profile using the calculated exchange rates ranged from 3 to 9 m a(-1). The western region of the Arabian Sea experiencing high wind-induced upwelling has higher estimated upwelling rates. However, lower upwelling rates obtained for the stations occupied during this study could be due to reduced 14C gradient compared to that during GEOSECS.

  1. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a key to Saudi Arabian species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... of the related species from Arabian region. A key to Saudi Arabian ... only two of these subgenera viz., Bracotritoma Csiki and. Phanerotoma s.str. .... species is also closely related to P. (B.) ebneri Fahringer from Sudan but ...

  2. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Sengupta, R.; DileepKumar, M.

    This review concentrates on some aspects of biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the Arabian Sea with emphasis on the atmospheric fluxes of CO sub(2) and N sub(2)O. The Arabian Sea appears to serve as a net sink for combined nitrogen...

  3. Processes controlling carbon components in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Rajendran, R.; Somasundar, K.; Ittekkot, V.; Desai, B.N.

    production in the western Arabian Sea, relatively low CaCO sub(3) dissolution (approximately 100 mol dm/3 near and below 3000m) is attributed to skeletal material incorporation into faecal material and the subsequent faster deposition rates. Arabian Sea water...

  4. Neoproterozoic tectonics of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasband, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic tectonic development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) can be divided in three parts: 1) the oceanic stage; 2) the arc-accretion stage; 3) the extensional stage. Three key-areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, namely the Bi'r Umq Complex, The Tabalah and Tarj Complex and the Wadi

  5. Differential response of winter cooling on biological production in the northeastern Arabian Sea and northwestern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Maheswaran, P.A; Madhu, N.V.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Gerson, V.J.; Haridas, P.; Venugopal, P.; Revichandran, C.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.

    The northern parts of the twin seas bordering the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB), were studied during the winter monsoon. Higher biological production was observed in the AS (chlorophyll a 47.5 mg m sup(-2...

  6. 2015 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  7. 2017 Gulf Guardian Award Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  8. Thermohaline circulation in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, N. A.

    1988-05-01

    The Gulf of California, a narrow, semienclosed sea, is the only evaporative basin of the Pacific Ocean. As a result of evaporative forcing, salinities in the gulf are 1 to 2 ‰ higher than in the adjacent Pacific at the same latitude. This paper examines the thermohaline structure of the gulf and the means by which thermohaline exchange between the Pacific and the gulf occurs, over time scales of months to years. In addition to evaporative forcing, air-sea heat fluxes and momentum fluxes are important to thermohaline circulation in the gulf. From observations presented here, it appears that the gulf gains heat from the atmosphere on an annual average, unlike the Mediterranean and Red seas, which have comparable evaporative forcing. As a result, outflow from the gulf tends to be less dense than inflow from the Pacific. Winds over the gulf change direction with season, blowing northward in summer and southward in winter. This same seasonal pattern appears in near-surface transports averaged across the gulf. The thermohaline circulation, then, consists of outflow mostly between about 50 m and 250 m, inflow mostly between 250 m and 500 m, and a surface layer in which the direction of transport changes with seasonal changes in the large-scale winds. Using hydrographic observations from a section across the central gulf, total transport in or out of the northern gulf is estimated to be 0.9 Sv, heat gain from the atmosphere is estimated to be 20 to 50 W m-2, and evaporation is estimated to be 0.95 m yr-1. These estimates are annual averages, based on cruises from several years. Seasonal variations in thermohaline structure in the gulf are also examined and found to dominate the variance in temperature and density in the top 500 m of the water column. Salinity has little seasonal variability but does exhibit more horizontal variablility than temperature or density. Major year-to-year variations in thermohaline structure may be attributable to El Niño-Southern Oscillation

  9. Processes controlling trace element geochemistry of Arabian Sea sediments during the last 25,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocko, Frank; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Devey, Colin

    2000-11-01

    Thirty seven deep-sea sediment cores from the Arabian Sea were studied geochemically (49 major and trace elements) for four time slices during the Holocene and the last glacial, and in one high sedimentation rate core (century scale resolution) to detect tracers of past variations in the intensity of the atmospheric monsoon circulation and its hydrographic expression in the ocean surface. This geochemical multi-tracer approach, coupled with additional information on the grain size composition of the clastic fraction, the bulk carbonate and biogenic opal contents makes it possible to characterize the sedimentological regime in detail. Sediments characterized by a specific elemental composition (enrichment) originated from the following sources: river suspensions from the Tapti and Narbada, draining the Indian Deccan traps (Ti, Sr); Indus sediments and dust from Rajasthan and Pakistan (Rb, Cs); dust from Iran and the Persian Gulf (Al, Cr); dust from central Arabia (Mg); dust from East Africa and the Red Sea (Zr/Hf, Ti/Al). C org, Cd, Zn, Ba, Pb, U, and the HREE are associated with the intensity of upwelling in the western Arabian Sea, but only those patterns that are consistently reproduced by all of these elements can be directly linked with the intensity of the southwest monsoon. Relying on information from a single element can be misleading, as each element is affected by various other processes than upwelling intensity and nutrient content of surface water alone. The application of the geochemical multi-tracer approach indicates that the intensity of the southwest monsoon was low during the LGM, declined to a minimum from 15,000-13,000 14C year BP, intensified slightly at the end of this interval, was almost stable during the Bölling, Alleröd and the Younger Dryas, but then intensified in two abrupt successions at the end of the Younger Dryas (9900 14C year BP) and especially in a second event during the early Holocene (8800 14C year BP). Dust discharge by

  10. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2014-11-21

    The monospecific scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia Klunzinger, 1879 was originally described from Al-Qusayr (Egypt) in the Red Sea based on a series of solitary specimens. Thenceforth, it has been considered a junior synonym of Symphyllia and Cynarina based on corallum macromorphology. In this study, several specimens of Sclerophyllia margariticola were collected on the coasts of Saudi Arabia in the northern and central Red Sea. Four molecular markers were sequenced, COI and the intergenic spacer between COI and l-rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and Histone H3 and ribosomal ITS2 from nuclear DNA. Phylogenetic trees and haplotype network analyses show that S. margariticola belongs to the family Lobophylliidae and that it is closely related to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters, such as the presence of free septa, high elliptical septal teeth perpendicular to the septal margin, irregular lobate tips, very wide tooth spacing, a very strong granulation with granules scattered all along the septal sides, and a palisade interarea structure, and their micromorphology differs substantially from that of Acanthastrea echinata, the type species of Acanthastrea. Therefore, we formally resurrect Sclerophyllia, provide a revised diagnosis for the genus, and move A. maxima into Sclerophyllia.

  11. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, I. P.

    1995-11-01

    As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6-8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of three sets of video recordings taken between 1992 and 1994 indicated a significant increase in live coral cover. Therefore, it has been concluded that corals in Saudi Arabia survived the largest oil spill on record remarkably unscathed, with no visible signs of immediate or late effects up to 3.5 years after the Gulf War.

  12. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_dromedarius_L.png Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png Camelus_dromedarius_S.png Camelus_dromedarius_...NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camel...us+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  14. Picophytoplankton variability: Influence of winter convective mixing and advection in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemal, Suchandan; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Roy, Rajdeep

    2018-04-01

    The deepening of mixed layer and ensuing changes in optical and physicochemical properties of euphotic zone can influence phytoplankton community dynamics in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon. The response of picophytoplankton community to such changes during winter convective mixing is not well understood. Herein, we have compared variations in the picophytoplankton community structure during early (November-December 2012), peak (end-January 2014) and late (mid-February 2015) winter monsoon from three separate cruises in the southern northeastern Arabian Sea. The higher Synechococcus abundance owing to entrainment of nutrients in mixed layer was observed during peak winter monsoon, while the concomitant changes in nitrate concentration, light and oxygen environment restricted Prochlorococcus growth resulting in lower abundance during the same period. This highlights the diverse responses of picophytoplankton groups to physicochemical changes of water column during winter convective mixing. The divinyl chlorophyll b/a ratio (marker for Prochlorococcus ecotypes) indicated prevalence of one low-light adapted ecotype (sensitive to light shock) in sub-surface water, one high-light adapted ecotype in surface water during early winter monsoon and both disappeared during intense mixing period in peak winter monsoon. Subsequently, a distinct low-light adapted ecotype, capable to tolerate light shock, was noticed during late winter monsoon and we argue that this ecotype is introduced to southern northeastern Arabian Sea through advection from north by sub-surface circulation. The total picophytoplankton biomass available to microbial loop is restored during late winter monsoon, when stratification begins, with a higher abundance of Synechococcus and the re-occurrence of Prochlorococcus population in the region. These inferences indicate that variability in picophytoplankton community structure and their contribution to the microbial loop are driven by

  15. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  16. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  17. Fracture patterns of the drainage basin of Wadi Dahab in relation to tectonic-landscape evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea transform fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Crustal rifting of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and formation of the Afro-Arabian rifts since the Miocene resulted in uplifting and subsequent terrain evolution of Sinai landscapes; including drainage systems and fault scarps. Geomorphic evolution of these landscapes in relation to tectonic evolution of the Afro-Arabian rifts is the prime target of this study. The fracture patterns and landscape evolution of the Wadi Dahab drainage basin (WDDB), in which its landscape is modeled by the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault, are investigated as a case study of landscape modifications of tectonically-controlled drainage systems. The early developed drainage system of the WDDB was achieved when the Sinai terrain subaerially emerged in post Eocene and initiation of the Afro-Arabian rifts in the Oligo-Miocene. Conjugate shear fractures, parallel to trends of the Afro-Arabian rifts, are synthesized with tensional fracture arrays to adapt some of inland basins, which represent the early destination of the Sinai drainage systems as paleolakes trapping alluvial sediments. Once the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin attains its deeps through sinistral movements on the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault in the Pleistocene and the consequent rise of the Southern Sinai mountainous peaks, relief potential energy is significantly maintained through time so that it forced the Pleistocene runoffs to flow via drainage systems externally into the Gulf of Aqaba. Hence the older alluvial sediments are (1) carved within the paleolakes by a new generation of drainage systems; followed up through an erosional surface by sandy- to silty-based younger alluvium; and (2) brought on footslopes of fault scarps reviving the early developed scarps and inselbergs. These features argue for crustal uplifting of Sinai landscapes syn-rifting of the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin. Oblique orientation of the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift relative to the WNW-trending Precambrian Najd faults; and

  18. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also s...

  19. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  20. Quantitative observations on tropical cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Gienko, Gennady

    2018-03-01

    The Arabian Sea basin represents a minor component of global total cyclones annually and has not featured so prominently in cyclone research compared with other basins where greater numbers of cyclones are registered each year. This paper presents the results of exploratory analysis of various features of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea, with a particular focus on examining their temporal and spatial patterns. Track morphometry also reveals further information on track shape. The study indicates how cyclones spawned during May in the early pre-monsoon period (often strong events) have a tendency to follow more sinuous tracks, whereas cyclones occurring in October in the post-monsoon period tend to follow straighter tracks. Track sinuosity is significantly related to other attributes, including cyclone longevity and intensity. Comparisons are also drawn between the general characteristics of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea and other ocean basins, suggesting how the size and geography of the Arabian Sea basin exert influences on these characteristics.

  1. The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Morrison, J.M.; Codispoti, L.A; Smith, S.L.; Wishner, K.; Flagg, C.; Gardner, W.D.; Gaurin, S.; Naqvi, S.W.A; Manghnani, V.; Prosperie, L.; Gundersen, J.S.

    as identify regions where denitrification is observed. The suboxic conditions within the northern Arabian Sea are documented, as well as biological adn chemical consequences of this phenomenon. Overall, the conditions found in the suboxic portion of the water...

  2. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  3. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  4. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  5. Nitrogen fixation rates in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Gauns, M.; Kurian, S.; Bardhan, P.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D.M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences bloom of the diazotroph Trichodesmium during certain times of the year when optimal sea surface temperature and oligotrophic condition favour their growth. We measured nitrogen fixation rates in the euphotic zone during...

  6. Coccolithophores from the central Arabian Sea: Sediment trap results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35.8 E were analyzed for temporal variation of coccolithophore fluxes from Octo- ber 1993 to ... production in the central Arabian Sea due to southward extent of nutrients from the northeast ... increases its residence period in the water column.

  7. Characteristics of humic and fulvic acids in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from some of the shelf, slope and offshore sediments of the Arabian Sea were studied. The molecular weight, functional groups, elemental composition and infrared spectra were examined. Humic substances, dominated...

  8. Preliminary notes on the decapod larvae of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, M.K.; Menon, P.G.; Paulinose, V.T.

    The note presents some general facts regarding the distribution of some of the larger groups of decapod larvae in the Arabian Sea Their relative numbers and the families and subfamilies, so far as can be recognized, represented within each group...

  9. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  10. Ocean biogeochemistry and atmospheric composition: Significance of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.

    -deficiency at mid-depths in this region modulates oceanic combined nitrogen inventory and consequently biological productivity. Due to a delicate biogeochemical balance the Arabian Sea is expected to be among the first to react to potential anthropogenic...

  11. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea Part iv Laccadive sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Moraes, C.; Kureishy, T.W.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jana, T.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Rajagopal, M.D

    Patterns of distribution of nutrients and nutrients-oxygen relationships are similar to those observed in other parts of the Arabian Sea High magnesium and low fluoride concentrations in the water indicate probable loss of the latter as insoluble ion...

  12. The establishment of a marine wildlife sanctuary following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, F.; Khushaim, O.

    1993-01-01

    During the Gulf War about one million metric tons of oil was released into the Arabian Gulf, most of which was deposited along the Saudi Arabian coast. Since October 1991 an international, interdisciplinary team of scientists has been studying approximately 200 km of coastline north of Jubail, under the patronage of the Commission of the European Communities and the National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development of Saudi Arabia. The two embayment systems of Dawhat ad-Dafi and Dawhat al-Musallamiya, and five offshore islands are characterized by extensive salt marshes, mangroves, seagrass, and macroalgal beds, as well as the most diverse coral reefs and the most important breeding sites for sea birds and turtles in the Gulf. Objectives of the study include: Assessment of the effects of the oil spill on plant and animal life in the area; Development of remediation methods which are compatible with the ecological requirements of a protected area, and; Establishment of a marine habitat and wildlife sanctuary. The upper intertidal zone is most severely affected by the oil spill and has lost most of its typical plant and animal communities. The lower intertidal zone is only locally affected and the subtidal largely escaped oil contamination

  13. Metabolic alterations during training of Purebred Arabian Breed equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Andrey Galindo Orozco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to 12 purebred Arabian breed equines, two adult males and ten adult females, ranging from four to eleven years old. The animals were divided in two groups, with six equines each, thus making the GI and GII groups alike. They performed 3 weekly sessions of 45 minutes. On the first 45 days, the average speed was 13.9km/h and on the following 45 days, 15.7km/h. Each two weeks, an additional session was conducted, being this one in the GI with the same speed and duration as the others; in the GII, it was with a 4-hour duration, prevailing the walk gait. The animals performed three tests on a treadmill: before (non-trained and after 45 days (1st phase and 90 days (2nd phase of training. The glucose values increased during the Test and later returned to the basal values six hours after the end of the exercise for both groups, presenting statistical difference between these, reaching higher values in the T maximum peak (T3 and at the end of the warm down (T4. Concerning to the plasmatic insulin values, these diminished drastically in the T3 of the ET in the G1 and G2 during the progressive advance of the physical effort test for both training groups, presenting statistical difference for each group and between groups. Finally, the cortisol levels were higher in the T3 of Test.

  14. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal Kumar, K G; Dinesh Kumar, P K; Smitha, B R; Habeeb Rahman, H; Josia, Jacob; Muraleedharan, K R; Sanjeevan, V N; Achuthankutty, C T

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal variation of the hydrography along the southeast Arabian Sea is described using data collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada in September--October 2003 (later phase of Southwest monsoon, SWM) and March--April 2004 (Spring inter monsoon, SIM). During the later phase of the SWM, upwelling was in the withdrawal phase and the frontal structure was clearer in the northern sections (13 and 15 degrees N lat) indicating strong upwelling in the area. The driving force of upwelling is identified as the combination of alongshore wind stress and remote forcing with a latitudinal variability. Although a more prominent upwelling was found in the north, a maximum surface Chlorophyll-a was found in the south (10 degrees N). During the SIM, the area was characterized by oligotrophic water with relatively high Sea Surface Temperature (>29 degrees C) and low salinity (33.8 to 35.4). During March, the surface hydrography was found to be controlled mainly by the intrusion of low-saline waters from the south, while during September by the high saline water from the north. The presence of various water masses [Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), Red Sea Water (RSW)] and their seasonal variations in the region is discussed and their decreasing influence towards the south is noted during both periods of observation. During the SWM, the dynamic topography showed the equator-ward flow of the West India Coastal Current (WICC) at the surface and a pole-ward coastal under current at sub-thermocline depth. During the SIM, surface circulation revealed the WICC flowing pole-ward north of 13 degrees N, but equator-ward flow in the south, with a clockwise circulation around the Lakshadweep High.

  15. An 11-year analysis of satellite retrievals of dust aerosol over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jamie; Brindley, Helen; Schepanski, Kerstin; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    As enclosed seas bordering two large desert regions, the Saharan and Arabian deserts, the maritime environments of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf are heavily influenced by the presence of desert dust aerosol. The inter-annual variability of dust presence over the Red Sea is analysed and presented, with respect to the summer-time latitudinal gradient in dust loading, which is at a maximum in the far south of the Red Sea and at a minimum in the far north. Two satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify this loading over the region. Over an eleven-year period from 2005-2015 the July mean SEVIRI AODs at 630 nm vary between 0.48 and 1.45 in the southern half of the Sea, while in the north this varies between 0.22 and 0.66. Inter-retrieval offsets are observed to occur at higher dust loadings, with pronounced positive MODIS-SEVIRI AOD offsets at AODs greater than 1, indicating substantial and systematic differences between the retrievals over the Red Sea at high dust loadings. These differences appear to be influenced in part by the differences in scattering angle range of the satellite measurements, implying that assumptions of particle shape introduce more substantial biases at the highest dust loadings.

  16. Gulf operations still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil

  17. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  18. Arab Women in the Gulf and the Narrative of Change: the Case of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golkowska Krystyna Urbisz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic transformation of the Arabian Gulf since the discovery of petroleum resources has called for a new perspective on the situation of women in the region. Qatar is an example of fast-paced industrialization, modernization and profound socio-cultural changes. As the environment transforms literally from day to day, new identities are being forged and social roles renegotiated. The leadership’s vision for the country speaks of gender equality and opportunity for all. This article asks how young Qatari women’s personal stories fit into the national narrative of change and what they see as the best path to agency and empowerment.

  19. Climate oscillations reflected within the microbiome of Arabian Sea sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Orsi, William D.

    2017-07-14

    Selection of microorganisms in marine sediment is shaped by energy-yielding electron acceptors for respiration that are depleted in vertical succession. However, some taxa have been reported to reflect past depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced weak selection after burial. In sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we performed the first metagenomic profiling of sedimentary DNA at centennial-scale resolution in the context of a multi-proxy paleoclimate reconstruction. While vertical distributions of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens indicate energy-based selection typical of anoxic marine sediments, 5–15% of taxa per sample exhibit depth-independent stratigraphies indicative of paleoenvironmental selection over relatively short geological timescales. Despite being vertically separated, indicator taxa deposited under OMZ conditions were more similar to one another than those deposited in bioturbated intervals under intervening higher oxygen. The genomic potential for denitrification also correlated with palaeo-OMZ proxies, independent of sediment depth and available nitrate and nitrite. However, metagenomes revealed mixed acid and Entner-Dourdoroff fermentation pathways encoded by many of the same denitrifier groups. Fermentation thus may explain the subsistence of these facultatively anaerobic microbes whose stratigraphy follows changing paleoceanographic conditions. At least for certain taxa, our analysis provides evidence of their paleoenvironmental selection over the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

  20. Climate oscillations reflected within the microbiome of Arabian Sea sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Orsi, William D.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Wuchter, Cornelia; He, Lijun; More, Kuldeep D.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem; Johnson, Carl; Hemingway, Jordon D.; Lee, Mitchell; Galy, Valier; Giosan, Liviu

    2017-01-01

    Selection of microorganisms in marine sediment is shaped by energy-yielding electron acceptors for respiration that are depleted in vertical succession. However, some taxa have been reported to reflect past depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced weak selection after burial. In sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we performed the first metagenomic profiling of sedimentary DNA at centennial-scale resolution in the context of a multi-proxy paleoclimate reconstruction. While vertical distributions of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens indicate energy-based selection typical of anoxic marine sediments, 5–15% of taxa per sample exhibit depth-independent stratigraphies indicative of paleoenvironmental selection over relatively short geological timescales. Despite being vertically separated, indicator taxa deposited under OMZ conditions were more similar to one another than those deposited in bioturbated intervals under intervening higher oxygen. The genomic potential for denitrification also correlated with palaeo-OMZ proxies, independent of sediment depth and available nitrate and nitrite. However, metagenomes revealed mixed acid and Entner-Dourdoroff fermentation pathways encoded by many of the same denitrifier groups. Fermentation thus may explain the subsistence of these facultatively anaerobic microbes whose stratigraphy follows changing paleoceanographic conditions. At least for certain taxa, our analysis provides evidence of their paleoenvironmental selection over the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

  1. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  2. Influence of orographically enhanced SW monsoon flux on coastal processes along the SE Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Raghavan, B.R.; Singh, K.; Rajawat, A; Ajai; Kader, U.S.A; Nayak, S.

    The Arabian Sea has an excess evaporation over precipitation regime. The southeast Arabian Sea is, however, anomalous because it has ~2800–4800 mm rainfall during the southwest monsoon (SWM). Despite a high rainfall, the fluvial influence on supply...

  3. Mechanism of the biological response to winter cooling in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; DileepKumar, M.; Raghukumar, S.; Nair, K.K.C.; Ramaiah, N.

    The Arabian Sea is one of the most biologically productive ocean regions, mainly due to the upwelling of nutrients during the summer (southwest) monsoon. But the northern Arabian Sea continues to sustain fairly high biological production after...

  4. Periodontal diseases and caries experience of diabetic patients in an Arabian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlKhateeb, T. L; AlAmoudi, N. H; Fatani, H. H; Mira, S. A; Ardawi, M. S

    1991-01-01

    A group of diabetic patients living in an Arabian community were matched by sex and age with a non-diabetic control group. Examination for periodontal status and dental caries was carried out on the matched pairs. Diabetics exhibited more gingival inflammation and increased probing depths when com pared with age-/sex-matched controls. The caries experience of diabetic patients was higher than that of normal groups. The findings of this study highlight the urgent need to develop a preventive dental program for diabetic patients so as to minimize their experience of dental disease. (author)

  5. Pedo-Chemical Studies on Saline Playas in the Arabian Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. AI-Sewailem

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to study the pedo-chemical characteristics of selected playas (sabkhahs in the Arabian Shelf. Results indicated that most of the sabkhahs are flat to almost flat having salt crusts with variable thickness. Profiles representing the sabkhah surface are extremely saline compared with that of the surrounding landscapes. The dominant soluble salts are Cl- and SO4(2- of Na+ followed by Ca2 + or Mg2+. The compositions of the coastal sabkhahs profile layers are closely related to the Gulf water composition while the inland playas are more associated with local conditions. This was continued from the similarity in salt levels, ion molar ratios and relatively high correlation coefficients between the electrical conductivity of soluble salts (EC and either soluble B3+ (r2 =0.80 or soluble Mg2 (r2=0.60 in coastal compared with that of the inland sabkhahs (r2=0.17 and (r2 =O.37, respectively. The main pedological process affecting the formation of coastal sabkhahs is the upward movement of the water table which is rich in sales originating from the Gulf waters either directly or through wind action. Leaching, accumulation of sediments and evaporative concentrations of the solutes are the processes prevailing in the inland sabkhahs. Salt crusts are dominated by Cl-and SO4(2- of Na+ , Mg2+ and Ca2+ salts while K+ salts are relatively low. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the presence of halite, gypsum and carbonate minerals. Epsomite and bloedtte minerals were identified in both coastal and inland sabkhahs. Specific minerals and relative abundance was quite variable between the salt cmsts due to the characteristic conditions of each sabkhah. The major differences between the inland and coastal sablthahs are related to the source, composition and depth of the water table and consequently the composition and mineralogy of the surface salt crusts.

  6. Hydrochemistry of the Bay of Bengal: Possible reasons for a different water-column cycling of carbon and nitrogen from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, C.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; DileepKumar, M.; Varaprasad, S.J.D.; Jayakumar, D.A.; George, M.D.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    of the Arabian Sea, firmly indicating that the Bay of Bengal is not an active denitrification site. The absence of denitrification in the Bay appears to be incompatible with a slower renewal of intermediate waters and a higher sinking flux of particulate organic...

  7. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2017-04-01

    tectonic structures: (1) stable zones of continental and oceanic crust, and (2) mobile geotectonic belts. First type is characterized by homogeneous character of gravity field pattern (for instance, East Arabian Craton), whereas second type is characterized by mosaic and variable behavior of gravity field (especially, active rift zones). It should be noted that 'youngest' mobile structure (Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and active rift systems of the Red Sea - East Africa) significantly differs in the gravity field pattern from the Mesozoic terrane belt and Neoproterozoic belt. In this investigation six satellite gravity transforms (SGT) are described: multidimensional statistical analysis (MSA) by the use of sliding window, low-pass filtering, informational approach, gradient operator, entropy processing by sliding window of adaptive form, and 3D inverse methods. Application of the MSA enabled not only to delineate geodynamical parameters of the studied region (collision zone at the boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates, and active rift zones between the Arabian, Nubian and Somalian Plates, etc.), but also to estimate generalized properties of the Earth's crust. Results of MSA employment clearly show zone of development of the oceanic crust of the Easternmost Mediterranean and zone of oceanic crust of the Gulf of Aden and eastern (oceanic) part of the Somalian Plate. Besides this, in this map the Arabian and East African active rift zones and collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates are visibly traced. Applied low-pass gravity field filtering enabled to recognize the most contrast crust-mantle structures. For example, the Afar triangle zone is clearly detected. Zones of the Neotethys closing Eastern Mediterranean, Persian Gulf, Zagros Fault Zone and South Caspian Basin can be easily identified. Subduction zones associated with the plate boundaries are reflected by elongated gradient pattern. These nonstable zones are conjugated with large mobile

  8. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Arabian Gulf Maritime Interception Operations: Balancing the Ends, Ways, Means and Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    .... Security Council Resolutions. Through the application of joint doctrine and operational art, USCINCCENT has determined that the military condition that will produce this strategic goal is an effective maritime interception...

  10. Growth Characterization and Optimization of Cyanobacterial Isolates from the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Siller Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2013-12-01

    Photoautotrophic organisms have been highlighted as carbon capture and conversion platforms for sustainable production of agricultural and chemicals in KSA. Previously two cyanobacterial strains, Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802, were isolated from an industrial brine outfall site in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Initial characterization of their growth characteristics showed growth at high temperature (38 ºC) and high salinity ( > 60 PSU), making them potentially good candidates for industrial applications. In this study, quantitative growth assays were performed using standardized methods developed for the analysis of Red Sea photosynthetic microorganisms supported by microscopic observations, optimal growth media preference assays, CO2 concentration effect, photoperiod effect, mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth tests. Data was recorded for absorbance (600 and 750 nm wave lenght), dry cell weight (DCW), colorimetric observations, and chlorophyll a content. Both CT7801 and CT7802 exhibited a clear preference for Walne\\'s Red Sea medium. An analysis on media composition highlights B and Fe as growth enhancers, as well as a base requirement of seawater. Tests on the effect of supplied concentration of CO2 showed that air enhanced with 1 % v/v CO2 allows approximately 2-fold increase in DCW for Geitlerinema spp. CT7802. Photoperiod tests showed that continuous light is disadvantageous for phototrophic growth of Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802. Results for mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth of Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802 revealed their ability to metabolize glycerol. Analysis on the complete genome of CT7802 identified three key enzymes, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase, which may catalyze the glycerol metabolic pathway in the strain. Utilization of glycerol, a residue of the biodiesel industry, might provide a sustainable alternative for growth of Geitlerinema sp. CT7802.

  11. Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Territorial Sea Water of the Kingdom of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juma, H.A.; Al-Madany, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first investigation for the analysis of heavy metal covering the territorial water of Kingdom of Bahrain. For the purpose of establishing baseline, as well as the assessment of marine contamination due to heavy metals, sea water were collected from 23 different sites known as fishing areas of the territorial water of the Kingdom of Bahrain in the year 2007. The heavy metals analyzed were Arsenic, Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Vanadium (V), Zinc (Zn) and Mercury (Hg), using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Hg were in the range of 0.85-2.75, 0.06-5.20, 4.53-119.00, 1.03-28.62, 0.06-1.24, 0.71-20.1, 1.13-2.01, 1.13-9.93, 4.06-118.0 and 0.13-0.38 ug/1, respectively representing the baseline trace metal concentrations of sea water in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The results suggest that the Kingdom of Bahrain's marine waters seem to be of good quality as the concentrations of the metals reported the studied areas are far below the United Kingdom Water quality standards and United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended water quality criteria, with the exception of copper in all sites, and Mercury (Hg) in Msoor site. In general concentrations of the trace elements in sea water were similar to those of other areas worldwide, and were deemed not to be of any toxicological significance. (author)

  12. Growth Characterization and Optimization of Cyanobacterial Isolates from the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Siller Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2013-01-01

    Photoperiod tests showed that continuous light is disadvantageous for phototrophic growth of Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802. Results for mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth of Geitlerinema spp. CT7801 and CT7802 revealed their ability to metabolize glycerol. Analysis on the complete genome of CT7802 identified three key enzymes, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase, which may catalyze the glycerol metabolic pathway in the strain. Utilization of glycerol, a residue of the biodiesel industry, might provide a sustainable alternative for growth of Geitlerinema sp. CT7802.

  13. Westward movement of eddies into the Gulf of Aden from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, M.; Kurian, J.; Durand, F.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    forced SLA response and the Rossby waves from the east, constructive/destructive interference will create a discontinuity [Wang et al., 2001] similar to that noted in Figures 5a and 5b. Wang et al. [2001] noticed a similar discontinuity in the annual... Rossby waves in the interior of the southern Indian Ocean; that discontinuity was caused by constructive/destructive interference between the locally forced response and the Rossby waves propagating from the east. [26] The high-frequency wavelets of Ekman...

  14. Ghogha: An Indo-Arabian Trading Post in the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    and hence rest anchors were only photographed. Many stone anchors are fragmented in nature (Figure 8). Majority of the anchors are parted with lower 2 holes and sometimes holes also broken which might have been broken during manufacturing stage. The raw.... Medium sized liquid container has a high neck in buff ware (Figure 16). This type vessel is also called as Surahi (used for drinking water). Externally, it has been profusely decorated with incised designs. It has a very thin section and light in weight...

  15. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  16. From monsoon to marine productivity in the Arabian Sea: insights from glacial and interglacial climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mézo, Priscilla; Beaufort, Luc; Bopp, Laurent; Braconnot, Pascale; Kageyama, Masa

    2017-07-01

    The current-climate Indian monsoon is known to boost biological productivity in the Arabian Sea. This paradigm has been extensively used to reconstruct past monsoon variability from palaeo-proxies indicative of changes in surface productivity. Here, we test this paradigm by simulating changes in marine primary productivity for eight contrasted climates from the last glacial-interglacial cycle. We show that there is no straightforward correlation between boreal summer productivity of the Arabian Sea and summer monsoon strength across the different simulated climates. Locally, productivity is fuelled by nutrient supply driven by Ekman dynamics. Upward transport of nutrients is modulated by a combination of alongshore wind stress intensity, which drives coastal upwelling, and by a positive wind stress curl to the west of the jet axis resulting in upward Ekman pumping. To the east of the jet axis there is however a strong downward Ekman pumping due to a negative wind stress curl. Consequently, changes in coastal alongshore stress and/or curl depend on both the jet intensity and position. The jet position is constrained by the Indian summer monsoon pattern, which in turn is influenced by the astronomical parameters and the ice sheet cover. The astronomical parameters are indeed shown to impact wind stress intensity in the Arabian Sea through large-scale changes in the meridional gradient of upper-tropospheric temperature. However, both the astronomical parameters and the ice sheets affect the pattern of wind stress curl through the position of the sea level depression barycentre over the monsoon region (20-150° W, 30° S-60° N). The combined changes in monsoon intensity and pattern lead to some higher glacial productivity during the summer season, in agreement with some palaeo-productivity reconstructions.

  17. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  18. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  19. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  20. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2015-03-19

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast. © 2015 Yao, Hoteit.

  1. STS-45 Earth observation of the Persian Gulf and the island of Abu Ali

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of the northern reaches of the Persian Gulf with the sunglint pattern centered on the Saudi Arabian island of Abu Ali. Bright features along the coast are thought to be deposits of oil, released from a terminal offshore of Kuwait during the recent Persian Gulf War. Further up the coast, in Kuwait, the black, oil-soaked desert surrounding the site of the oil well fires is clearly visible. View was taken from an altitude of 160 nautical miles with OV-104 located at 28 degrees north and 52.8 degrees east. During the STS-45 mission, an international survey team focused on oil contamination of the shallow-water habitants in the area north of Abu Ali Island. Crewmembers contacted the NOAA survey vessel, the R/V Mt. Mitchell, several times and photographed water color and sunglint within the study area and throughout the entire Persian Gulf. These photographic data are expected to aid the Persian Gulf researchers in

  2. Summer cooling of the Arabian sea - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; RameshBabu, V.

    in association with the deepening of current shear zone. The surface heat losses during the passage of a cyclone over the east central Arabian Sea account for only 40% of the total heat change in the surface layer while the rest is lost into the interior. Also...

  3. Late Quaternary faunal change in coastal Arabian sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.; Rao, K.K; Krishnamurthy, R.V.; Somayajulu, B.L.K

    Carbonate content and faunal composition of two gravity cores from the coastal Arabian Sea provide evidence of a major environmental change in surface ocean waters about 13,000 yr B.P. Radiocarbon dating indicates that deposition rates ranged from 1...

  4. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Sediments of late Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from a 12 m long core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea, have been studied in order to understand the depositional environment. Sub-samples selected at 5 cm and occasionally at 10...

  5. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  6. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  7. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  8. Nitrogen isotopic studies in the suboxic Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Yoshinari, T.; Brandes, J.A; Devol, A; Jayakumar, D.A; Narvekar, P.V.; Altabet, M.A; Codispoti, L.A.

    sub(2) and oxygen (O sub(2)), respectively] have been made in water column at several locations in the Arabian Sea, a region with one of the thickest and most intense O sub(2) minima observed in the open ocean. Microbially-mediated reduction of NO sub...

  9. Modeling of Regional Climate over Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2011-04-09

    Observations, re-analyses, and climate model simulations show strong surface temperature trends in Middle East and Arabian Peninsula in the last 30 years. Trends are especially pronounced in summer exceeding +1K/decade. However, some regions, e.g., the So

  10. Some aspects of the nitrogen cycling in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Noronha, R.J.; Shailaja, M.S.; Somasundar, K.; SenGupta, R.

    in the intensity of the oxygen-deficient conditions is providEd. by data on the nitrogen system as well as the activity of the electron transport system (ETS). The results imply a quick renewal of the oxygen-depleted waters. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea...

  11. Spreading history of the Arabian Sea: Some new constraints

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Murty, G.P.S.; Desa, M.

    Based on a new identification of magnetic anomalies, additional constraints are provided on the two episodes of spreading history of the Arabian Sea. Commencing at A27, the older phase ended at A21 and sprading of the younger phase started shortly...

  12. Aluminium in the northwestern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Upadhyay, S.; SenGupta, R.

    37-52 nM) A pronounced maximum in the surface mixed layer suggests the dissolution of Al from atmospherically derived particles to be the sourec of excess Al in the offshore waters of the Arabian Sea, compared to other oceanic regions...

  13. The Arabian Sea: Physical environment, zooplankton and myctophid abundance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Madhupratap, M.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Gauns, M.

    that there are considerable spatial and temporal variations in the area in primary productivity. Nonetheless, contrary to earlier thinking, it would seem that the mesozooplankton abundance in the Arabian Sea is fairly high in the mixed layer all through the year. This paradox...

  14. Enumeration of thraustochytrids (Heterotrophic microorganisms) from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.

    The number of thraustochytrids in seawater has been estimated in several samples from the Arabian Sea by concentrating the sample on a glass-fibre filter and plating on a nutrient medium. The number ranged from 1 to 69 liter in the oceanic water...

  15. All-Cause Mortality Among US Veterans of the Persian Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han K.; Bullman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided. Methods: Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621   901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746   247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non–Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population. Results: Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non–Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non–Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88). Conclusion: The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non–Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated. PMID:28123229

  16. Five years MIQE guidelines: the case of the Arabian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif M Abdel Nour

    Full Text Available The quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has become a key molecular enabling technology with an immense range of research, clinical, forensic as well as diagnostic applications. Its relatively moderate instrumentation and reagent requirements have led to its adoption by numerous laboratories, including those located in the Arabian world, where qPCR, which targets DNA, and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR, which targets RNA, are widely used for region-specific biotechnology, agricultural and human genetic studies. However, it has become increasingly apparent that there are significant problems with both the quality of qPCR-based data as well as the transparency of reporting. This realisation led to the publication of the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines in 2009 and their more widespread adoption in the last couple of years. An analysis of the performance of biomedical research in the Arabian world between 2001-2005 suggests that the Arabian world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Hence we have analysed specifically the quality of RT-qPCR-based peer-reviewed papers published since 2009 from Arabian researchers using a bespoke iOS/Android app developed by one of the authors. Our results show that compliance with 15 essential MIQE criteria was low (median of 40%, range 0-93% and few details on RNA quality controls (22% compliance, assays design (12%, RT strategies (32%, amplification efficiencies (30% and the normalisation process (3%. These data indicate that one of the reasons for the poor performance of Arabian world biomedical research may be the low standard of any supporting qPCR experiments and identify which aspects of qPCR experiments require significant improvements.

  17. Determination of Essential Elements in Local Foodstuffs of Saudi Arabian Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, M.W.A.; Al-ahmary, Kh.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit samples were collected from their major area of Saudi Arabian Kingdom (KSA), together with locally bred, fish and meat and local manufacture products as cheese and macaroni. These samples were analyzed for Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn using flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the level of Na and K in local foodstuffs not vary greatly from the reported values. But Mg showed much higher concentration than that the reported value. On the contrary the levels of Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn lower than the reported values. The daily intake of essential elements was calculated taking into account the concentration of these elements in the edible part and the daily consumption data which were derived from two sources a- the food balance sheet of Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) given by Food Agriculture Organization FAO and b-daily intake of these essential elements according to FAO are satisfy the daily requirements except Ca and Zn, But according to the questionnaire the daily intake of these elements is less than the requirements daily intake except for Mg

  18. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region.

  19. Tides and seiches in gulfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, S.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper Garrett's theory of tides in gulfs is extended so that its formalism includes the free oscillations (seiches) of the gulf. The elevation of the free surface zeta and the velocity field u are obtained in a rectangular, one-dimensional gulf opening into an infinite ocean. An application of the results to the Adriatic sea can explain qualitatively the long life of the uninodal seiche of that basin. (author)

  20. Gulf operators resuming production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said

  1. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair

  2. First record of Vespertilio murinus from the Arabian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monadjem, Ara; Joubert, Christiaan; Richards, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    A specimen of Vespertilio murinus was captured on 13 May 2014 on the grounds of the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The species was unambiguous-ly identified based on molecular (cytochrome b gene) and morphological characters. This represents...... the first record of V. murinus from the Arabian Peninsula. A revised checklist of the Vespertilionidae is presented for the Arabian Peninsula which includes 27 species belonging to 13 genera. A phylogeny for the Arabian vespertilionid species is also presented showing the paraphyly of Eptesicus...

  3. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2012-02-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Nazeer, Zahid B.; Cali, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Coastal versus open-ocean denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Pratihary, A.K.; DeSouza, W.; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Devol, A.H.; Yoshinari, T.; Saino, T.

    through advection from the south. The waters Published by Copernicus GmbH on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 622 S. W. A. Naqvi et al.: Arabian Sea denitrification 60 E 70 E 10 N 20 N 3204 3939 3201 TN039/18 CATS � � (a) o o o 0 500 1000 1500....: Arabian Sea denitrification 625 150 100 50 Temperature (oC) 100 50 O2 (M) Distance from coast (km) 150 100 50 Salinity G2 CATS G9 �P�P 150 100 50 150 100 50 150 NO2- (M) 150 100 50 NO3-(M) N2O (nM) 150 100 50 NH4+(M) 80 60 40 20 0 Distance from coast (km...

  6. Upwelling in the Minicoy region of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Jayaraman, R.

    in the Minicoy Region of the Arabian Sea CurrentScience sankaran (Atomic Energy Establishment). The principles of the field emission and the field ion microscopes were the subject of symposium talks by Drs. Ramakhshna Rao and Bahadur. Dr (Mrs ) Satyavati M... the methodology and applications of cytochemistry at the ultrastructural level. All the participants, irrespective of their scientific background, had to undergo the practical course in the various techniques of specimen preparation in both physical and bio...

  7. Isotopic evidences of past upwelling intensity in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    and understand the history of upwelling as it is recorded in deep-sea sediments. The southwest (SW) monsoon strongly influences the climatic conditions in South and Southeast Asia and biological productivity in the Arabian Sea. ability at the ODP Site 728... climatic change and ocean history (McCrea, 1950; Epstein et al., 1953; Emiliani, 1955). The isotopic role of planktic forami- nifera expanded, it was recognized that foraminifera did not secret their shells in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water (Be...

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from the Arabian Sea: A synthesis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bange, H.W.; Andreae, M.O.; Lal, S.; Law, C.S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Patra, P.K.; Rixen, P.K.; Upstill-Goddard, R.C.

    ) seasonal and annual nitrous oxide (N2O) con- centration fields for the Arabian Sea surface layer using a database containing more than 2400 values measured be- tween December 1977 and July 1997. N2O concentrations are highest during the southwest (SW... is much more tightly constrained than the previous con- sensus derived using averaged in-situ data from a smaller number of studies. However, the tendency to focus on mea- surements in locally restricted features in combination with insufficient seasonal...

  9. Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) Trachea: a Descriptive and Morphometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhgoul, Mohammad Borhan; Dalab, Abdul Hafeed S; Abdulhakeem, ElJarah; Ismail, Zuhair Bani; Thanain, Al Thanain

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report the distinctive anatomical and histological features of the trachea of the Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx). The number of tracheal rings and tracheal length were measured. The diameter, thickness and cross sectional area of tracheal ring were determined at four tracheal regions (cranial cervical (CCR), middle cervical, thoracic inlets and intra thoracic). Tracheal rings were also collected for histological analysis. The mean length of the trachea was 54....

  10. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee ( Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant activity of Coffea Arabica L in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. Methods: A decoction of Arabian coffee blended with or without cardamom or cloves was orally administered to HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice for a period of 60 days. At the end of the treatment, blood and tissue samples ...

  11. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored

  12. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  13. Inorganic nitrogen and nitrate reduction in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Qasim, S.Z.

    the secondary nitrite maximum seem to be associated with Persian Gulf water. It is suggested that these originate as a result of biological reduction of nitrate (denitrification) due to the prevailing reducing conditions associated with a pronounced depletion...

  14. Benthic nitrogen loss in the Arabian Sea off Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eSokoll

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ of theArabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagicprocesses. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of thebasin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largelyunassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along atransect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering arange of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates weredetermined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showeddeclining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m-2 d-1.While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmolN m-2 d-1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m-2 d-1.Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of nirS, the biomarkerfunctional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductases of microorganisms involved inboth N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportionto total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of nirS revealeddifferent communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deepstations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined forthe first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at thecontinental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths.Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basinsuggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in theArabian Sea.

  15. Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.

  16. Use of three generations of oil spill models during the Gulf War oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerkirge, H.M.; Al-Rabeh, A.H.; Gunay, N.

    1992-01-01

    During the January-May 1991 Gulf War, an estimated 6 million bbl of oil was spilled into the Arabian Gulf, mostly around Mina Al-Ahmadi in southern Kuwait. Three models were used to analyze the fate and transport of the spills originating at Al-Ahmadi. The first generation model, GULFSLIK I, was developed in the late 1970s and predicts the movements of a spill by considering that the center of the slick advects with a velocity equal to 3% of the wind speed. This model is best for the initial forecasting of oil spill movement. The second generation GULFSLIK II Model predicts the trajectory of spills at 24 h intervals, requiring as input the average daily wind velocity. Surface currents are obtained for the model from a reliable 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Gulf coupled with an appropriate interpolation scheme. Comparisons between predicted spill trajectories and actual sightings show GULFSLIK II to be reasonably accurate. The third generation model, called OILPOL, consists of a set of algorithms describing the processes of advection, turbulent diffusion, surface spreading, vertical mechanical dispersion, emulsification, and evaporation. After 80 days, results show under 8% of the initial oil volume remains on the sea surface while 15% is suspended in the water column or sedimented on the sea bed. Comparisons of simulation results and actual sightings show excellent agreement. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. High Cooling Water Temperature Effects on Design and Operational Safety of NPPs in the Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP) are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia), and a much larger one at Barakah (4Χ1,400 MWe PWR from Korea). Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  18. HIGH COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF NPPS IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BYUNG KOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia, and a much larger one at Barakah (4X1,400 MWe PWR from Korea. Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  19. Free and forced Rossby normal modes in a rectangular gulf of arbitrary orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Federico

    2016-09-01

    A free Rossby normal mode in a rectangular gulf of arbitrary orientation is constructed by considering the reflection of a Rossby mode in a channel at the head of the gulf. Therefore, it is the superposition of four Rossby waves in an otherwise unbounded ocean with the same frequency and wavenumbers perpendicular to the gulf axis whose difference is equal to 2mπ/W, where m is a positive integer and W the gulf's width. The lower (or higher) modes with small m (or large m) are oscillatory (evanescent) in the coordinate along the gulf; these are elucidated geometrically. However for oceanographically realistic parameter values, most of the modes are evanescent. When the gulf is forced at the mouth with a single Fourier component, the response is in general an infinite sum of modes that are needed to match the value of the streamfunction at the gulf's entrance. The dominant mode of the response is the resonant one, which corresponds to forcing with a frequency ω and wavenumber normal to the gulf axis η appropriate to a gulf mode: η =- β sin α/(2ω) ± Mπ/W, where α is the angle between the gulf's axis and the eastern direction (+ve clockwise) and M the resonant's mode number. For zonal gulfs ω drops out of the resonance condition. For the special cases η = 0 in which the free surface goes up and down at the mouth with no flow through it, or a flow with a sinusoidal profile, resonant modes can get excited for very specific frequencies (only for non-zonal gulfs in the η = 0 case). The resonant mode is around the annual frequency for a wide range of gulf orientations α ∈ [40°, 130°] or α ∈ [220°, 310°] and gulf widths between 150 and 200 km; these include the Gulf of California and the Adriatic Sea. If η is imaginary, i.e. a flow with an exponential profile, there is no resonance. In general less modes get excited if the gulf is zonally oriented.

  20. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographic features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographic range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both Isolation by Distance (IBD) and Isolation by Environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with an historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of inter-specific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  1. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; DiBattista, Joseph; Piatek, Marek J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographic features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographic range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both Isolation by Distance (IBD) and Isolation by Environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with an historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of inter-specific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  2. Yellow-bellied or white-bellied? Identity of Arabian house bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yellow-bellied Scotophilus dinganii is the only African house bat species reported to occur in the Arabian Peninsula. Formerly, the Arabian house bats were referred to similar-looking white-bellied S. leucogaster, which differs from S. dinganii mainly by the colour of ventral pelage. We reassessed the taxonomic status of ...

  3. Identification of environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Theunissen, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Bijma, P.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands. Data contained 380 records on 88 purebred Arabian racehorses of varying age and sex. Data were collected from March 2005 through June 2006 during 52 races of varying

  4. Circulation and watermass structure in the Central Arabian Sea during December 1982

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    After the cessation of the SW monsoon over Arabian Sea, the North Equatorial Current sets strongly and the low saline waters from the Bay of Bengal and the equatorial Indian Ocean penetrate into the Arabian Sea. This results in strong horizontal...

  5. Formation and spreading of Arabian Sea high-salinity water mass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    The formation and seasonal spreading of the Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW) mass were studied based on the monthly mean climatology of temperature and salinity in the Arabian Sea, north of the equator and west of 80 degrees E, on a 2 degrees...

  6. Sound speed structure in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Sound speed computed from annual mean temperature and salinity data of Levitus reveals that spatial variation in the Arabian Sea is greater than that in the Bay of Bengal. Maximum spatial variation of sound speed in the Arabian Sea noticed between...

  7. A comparative study of vertical stabilities in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.

    Stabilities in the upper 300 m in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are computed and presented seasonwise. The water column in the Bay of Bengal is more strongly stratified than that in the Arabian Sea. These studies suggest that the vertical...

  8. Oceanography of the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.

    . The flow pattern consists of several eddies and meanders. Inorganic phosphorus is high in the surface layer and still higher at greater depths. Nitrate-nitrogen is low at the surface and increases with depth. Ratios between apparent oxygen utilization (AOU...

  9. Exploring the genetic diversity of shallow-water Agariciidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta

    2017-05-19

    Scleractinian corals ascribed to the family Agariciidae represent an important component of Red Sea coral reef fauna, though little genetic data are currently available for this group, and existing information shows polyphyly in the examined mesophotic taxa from the Pacific Ocean. In this work, we provide a first genetic survey of Agariciidae from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on a collection of shallow-water material (<30 m) from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Farasan Islands. Two molecular markers were sequenced to infer morphospecies monophyly and relationships, the intergenic region between COI and 16S rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and the ribosomal ITS1 region from nuclear DNA. A total of 20 morphospecies were identified based on classical macromorphological characters. Six, namely Gardineroseris planulata, Pavona maldivensis, Pavona clavus, Pavona decussata, Leptoseris fragilis, and Leptoseris yabei, were resolved with both DNA loci. The molecular boundaries among the remaining 14 species remain unclear. Our results further confirm that the morphology-based taxonomy of most agariciid species is in disagreement with genetics. In order to disentangle the systematics of these taxa, the inclusion of more sampling locations, additional variable loci, and a micromophological approach are likely needed. Our genetic data represent a first step towards the comparison of biodiversity and connectivity between the Red Sea and the rest of the Indo-Pacific.

  10. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Hadaidi, Ghaida Ali Hassan

    2017-03-31

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata.

  11. Exploring the genetic diversity of shallow-water Agariciidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta; Arrigoni, Roberto; Benzoni, Francesca; Tietbohl, Matthew; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Scleractinian corals ascribed to the family Agariciidae represent an important component of Red Sea coral reef fauna, though little genetic data are currently available for this group, and existing information shows polyphyly in the examined mesophotic taxa from the Pacific Ocean. In this work, we provide a first genetic survey of Agariciidae from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on a collection of shallow-water material (<30 m) from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Farasan Islands. Two molecular markers were sequenced to infer morphospecies monophyly and relationships, the intergenic region between COI and 16S rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and the ribosomal ITS1 region from nuclear DNA. A total of 20 morphospecies were identified based on classical macromorphological characters. Six, namely Gardineroseris planulata, Pavona maldivensis, Pavona clavus, Pavona decussata, Leptoseris fragilis, and Leptoseris yabei, were resolved with both DNA loci. The molecular boundaries among the remaining 14 species remain unclear. Our results further confirm that the morphology-based taxonomy of most agariciid species is in disagreement with genetics. In order to disentangle the systematics of these taxa, the inclusion of more sampling locations, additional variable loci, and a micromophological approach are likely needed. Our genetic data represent a first step towards the comparison of biodiversity and connectivity between the Red Sea and the rest of the Indo-Pacific.

  12. Contributions to the knowledge of the Biology of the Arabian Abalone Haliotis mariae Wood, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stirn

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian abalone occur in the Arabian Sea’s rocky coastal zone in association with conspicuous macrolgal communities in which it represents the dominant herbivorous component. Despite such ecological importance and although the commercial exploitation of abalone presents a considerable contribution to Omani fisheries, almost nothing is known about the biology of this species. This report presents results of research carried out in the field and with laboratory cultures, and draws general conclusions related also to the fisheries management of these possibly overexploited abalone populations, Cobort observations in the field and measured increments of cultured specimens showed a growth rate significantly higher than in other abalone species, i.e. greater than 3 mm shell-increment per month. The very early sexual maturity demonstrated by captivity spawnings of approximately one year old animals is also quite unusual. The ejected eggs formed mucous mono layers attached to the substratum whereas other abalone species produce pelagic eggs. Jvenile coborts in nature and the periodic spawning of cultured animals indicate the major spawning in spring and postmonsoon one in autumn. The models previously applied in fisheries management of abalone in Oman assumed only one spawning per year, the first being at age 2+, and a slower growth-rate. These models should be reconsidered using the new data, which may partially explain why abalone are less overexploited than one would expect looking at heavy harvesting. In view of a projected commercial abalone cultivation our laboratory rearing experiments showed that both natural and/or artificial food may be used, provided this contains-apart from standard ingredients, the seaweed-borne components (probably phycobillins required for a normal parasite , resistant shell formation. With regard to artificial reproduction,  our preliminary trials showed that spawning , fertilization ,and initial larval rearing

  13. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  14. War and Political Participation the Impact of the Vietnam Conflict and Gulf War in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... By exploring the impact of the Vietnam Conflict and the Gulf War on political participation in the United States, this research provides evidence that American citizens participate at higher rates...

  15. Indian Ocean dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Glejin, J.; Amrutha, M.M.

    –378, 2016 www.ocean-sci.net/12/369/2016/ doi:10.5194/os-12-369-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea T. R. Anoop1, V. Sanil Kumar1, P. R. Shanas1,2, J. Glejin1, and M. M. Amrutha1... are available on the website of the Japanese Agency of Marine–Earth Science and Technology (www.jamstec.go.jp). The tropical IO displays strong inter-annual climate vari- ability associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the IOD (Murtugudde et...

  16. New and interesting Orthoptera from the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Massa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on some interesting taxa recently found in the Arabian Peninsula and the island of Socotra. Among them is a new species of brachypterous grasshopper Sphodromerus carapezzanus sp. n. (Acrididae: Calliptaminae, described from an isolated area in Dhofar (Oman. A female Heteracris hemiptera (Uvarov, 1935 (Acrididae: Eyprepocnemidinae is reported, with morphological characters which do not fully comply with those of any known subspecies. Two species, hitherto rarely documented, are also reported, Phaneroptila insularis Uvarov, 1957 (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae from Socotra and Cataloipus thomasi Uvarov, 1933 (Acrididae: Eyprepocnemidinae from Oman. Pycnodictya dentata Krauss, 1902 (Acrididae: Oedipodinae is reported from Saudi Arabia, constituting a new record for the country.

  17. A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Establishment of a nuclear research facility should be the first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors from USA are selected for the present study. The IFDA computer code, based on the fuzzy set theory is applied. Results reveal that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best. 17 refs

  18. Nitrogen cycling in the suboxic waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devol, A.H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    primary production in a section extending about 1000 km off shore from the Arabian coast (1.5 g C m-* d-'; [6]). The Northeast Monsoon (December- February) is characterized by moderate winds From the Himalayas that send cool, dry air over the region... the surface oxygen concentration is high, but by time it reaches the southern border of the ODZ (- 14"N) it loses almost all of its dissolved oxygen (Fig 1; 1771). Thus the combination of high oxygen demand and low oxygen source waters results in the strong...

  19. Contamination of the Gulf marine environment following the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readman, J.W.; Fowler, S.W.; Villeneuve, J.-P.; Cattini, C.; Oregioni, B.; Mee, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Following the Gulf war, controversy and speculation have surrounded the extent to which the massive spillage of petroleum and the burning of oil wells in Kuwait have damaged marine ecosystems in the region. We report here the results of a rapid assessment survey of hydrocarbon contamination undertaken in the coastal marine environment from Kuwait to Oman during mid-1991. Our results show that severe oil pollution was restricted primarily to the Saudi Arabian coastline within ∼ 400km from the spillages, and that during the four months following the conflict and preceding our survey, the spilled oil had extensively degraded. Surprisingly, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and bivalve molluscs from Bahrain in June 1991 were lower than those recorded from our pre-war (1983-86) surveys at the same site, probably as a result of decreased tanker traffic and associated deballasting during and after the conflict. As for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during burning of the oil wells, we found that concentrations in sediments from even the most heavily contaminated sites were relatively low, and comparable to levels reported for the Baltic Sea, coastal locations of the northeastern United States and United Kingdom estuaries. (author)

  20. Foundation-Level Gulf Arab Student Response to Self-Access Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Malcolm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of the self-access centre at Arabian Gulf University (AGU in helping low proficiency students in our foundation year achieve the skills in English they will need to succeed in our medical college. Students’ previous training and expectations are described as well as some of the practices developed at AGU to monitor and encourage student participation in the centre. While students have generally responded well to their self-access work in our facility and endorse its role in developing their skills, they have also highlighted some areas for improvement. Although our centre is small and serves a specialized group of learners, some of the issues we face may be similar to those experienced by others in different settings and some of the solutions we have tried to find may be of interest.

  1. Forecasters Handbook for the Middle East/Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    the Naval Oceano - graphy Command and their organizational predecessors. Two additional data sources were used to obtain reference material for this...effects probably account for the maximum over Cape Guardafui. 6 5-7 40N S൦N > 18N EQ__ _ _ _ _ 30E 401E Sol ! 00 TOE S0! 90! Figure 5-2e. Percent of days...Asheville, 1980: Climatic Study of the Near Coastal Zone; Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Naval Oceano - 4 graphy Command. Naval Weather Service

  2. Increased psychological distress among Danish Gulf War veterans--without evidence for a neurotoxic background. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms, potentially as a result of neurotoxic exposure during deployment. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) GW veterans...... of neuropsychological symptoms, and stratified according to SCL-90-R score, no trends were found suggesting reduced motor function with increasing symptoms. Of nine dimensions constructed on the basis of the SCL-90-R items, six were significantly associated with being a Gulf War veteran. Statistically, the strongest...... would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2...

  3. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-01-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively. - Highlights: • Limited desulfurization in the light distillate fraction of Arabian crude oils using γ-rays was observed. • FTIR analysis confirms limited unchanged in density, viscosity and yields of Arabian crude oils. • In absence of oxidizer, radiation-induced sulfur transfer was observed in gasoline and diesel fractions of Arabian crude oils. • Radiation-induced oxidative desulfuration of the light distillate fractions depends on its characteristics.

  4. Structural evolution of Halaban Area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Yousef; Kassem1, Osama M. K.

    2017-04-01

    Neoproterozoic basement complex comprises a metamorphic/igneous suite (Abt schist and sheared granitoids) with syn-accretionary transpressive structures, unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence. This study aims to attempt to exposed post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures at Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield. The Rf/ϕ and Fry methods are utilized on quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts, as well as on mafic crystals, such as hornblende and biotite, in eighteen samples. The X/Z axial ratios range from 1.12 to 4.99 for Rf/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.00 for Fry method. The direction of finite strain for the long axes displays clustering along the WNW trend (occasionally N) with slight plunging. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It indicates that the contacts between various lithological units in the Halaban area were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation was concurrent with thrusting and shows nearly the same attitudes of tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes. Keywords: Finite strain analysis, volcanosedimentary sequence, Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia.

  5. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach, Alabama. This action is necessary for the... conduct a high speed boat race on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October...

  6. Species Identification, Strain Differentiation, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophyte Species Isolated From Clinically Infected Arabian Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... are more effective against T. mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP technique is a reliable tool for the identification of dermatophyte species from Arabian horses. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing provides a precise and useful technique for the identification and differentiation...

  7. Gulf Petro Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi Boukadi

    2011-02-05

    In this report, technologies for petroleum production and exploration enhancement in deepwater and mature fields are developed through basic and applied research by: (1) Designing new fluids to efficiently drill deepwater wells that can not be cost-effectively drilled with current technologies. The new fluids will be heavy liquid foams that have low-density at shallow dept to avoid formation breakdown and high density at drilling depth to control formation pressure. The goal of this project is to provide industry with formulations of new fluids for reducing casing programs and thus well construction cost in deepwater development. (2) Studying the effects of flue gas/CO{sub 2} huff n puff on incremental oil recovery in Louisiana oilfields bearing light oil. An artificial neural network (ANN) model will be developed and used to map recovery efficiencies for candidate reservoirs in Louisiana. (3) Arriving at a quantitative understanding for the three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) geophysical response of typical Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon reservoirs. We will seek to make available tools for the qualitative, rapid interpretation of marine CSEM signatures, and tools for efficient, three-dimensional subsurface conductivity modeling.

  8. BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

  9. Elemental (C, H, N) composition of zooplankton from north Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, K.L.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    found to be much lower than the values presently used in routine conversion factors. Such factors are now essentially needed for accounting role of zooplankton in sediment trap collections in Arabian Sea region...

  10. Seafloor characterisation using echo peak amplitudes of multibeam hydrosweep system - A preliminary study at Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Sudhakar, T.

    In this paper an interface to acquire 59-beams echo peak amplitudes of the Hydrosweep Multibeam system is established. The echo peak amplitude values collected at varying seabed provinces of Arabian sea are presented. The study reveals...

  11. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  12. Application of Space Technology to Discovery of Ancient Desert Trade Routes in the Southern Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ronald; Crippen, Robert; Hedges, George; Zarins, Juris

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, an unusual combination of historical research, traditional archaeology, and application of space technolgy has demonstrated the existence of trans-desert trade routes in the sourthern Arabian peninsula.

  13. Palynological investigation of the sediment cores from the Arabian Sea 2: Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saxena, R.K.; Chandra, A.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    The present paper incorporates the study of dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs recovered from five sediment cores from the Arabian Sea This assemblage is represented by 15 genera and 22 species Of these, 14 species belonging to 11 genera...

  14. Planktonic foraminifera from a quaternary deep sea core from the southern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Rao, P.S.; Pattan, J.N.

    An investigation on planktonic foraminifera and calcium carbonate content of a box core collected at a depth of 2556 m from the southern part of the Arabian sea indicates faunal changes depicting Quaternary climatic fluctuations. Based on the study...

  15. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Menon, N.G.

    Results of a preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of seventeen species of Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) of the Indian EEZ of Arabian Sea are presented here based on the IKMT samples collected...

  16. Monsoonal reversal of remote sensing biases in latent heat flux over eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Santosh, K.R.

    The Arabian Sea is a unique basin where a number of atmospheric and oceanographic processes occur due to the contrasting climatic conditions, which it experiences. The drastic monsoonal variability occurring in the boundary layer adversely affects...

  17. Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due to spread of hypoxia.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomes, H.R.; Goes, J.I.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Buskey, E.J.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Thoppil, P.G.

    In the last decade, the northern Arabian Sea has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms, which previously comprised mainly of diatoms, the unicellular, siliceous photosynthetic organisms favoured by nutrient...

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  19. Seasonal variability in distribution and fluxes of methane in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patra, P.K.; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    Methane, a biogeochemically important gas in Earth's atmosphere was measured in the water column and air in the Arabian Sea in different seasons, viz., northeast monsoon, intermonsoon, and southwest monsoon, as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux...

  20. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-05-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively.

  1. Macrobenthic community structure response to coastal hypoxia off Southeastern Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Periasamy, R.; De, K.

    occurrence of coastal hypoxia condition (30 to 100 m depth) and normoxic bottom waters over the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS). The macrofaunal communities patterns were analyzed by using various statistical methods (e.g. rank correlation, hierarchical...

  2. Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ward, B.B.; Devol, A.H.; Rich, J.J.; Chang, B.X.; Bulow, S.E.; Naik, H.; Pratihary, A.K.; Jayakumar, A.

    experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N sub(2) production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern...

  3. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed

  4. The lowering of sea surface temperature in the east central Arabian sea associated with a cyclone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    An analysis of thermal Structure in the East Central Arabian Sea associated with a moderate cyclone is presented. The heat storage and the heat budget components have been computed. Under the influence of the cyclone the Sea Surface Temperature (SST...

  5. A first report on a bloom of the marine prymnesiophycean, Phaeocystis globosa from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Sawant, S.S.; Gauns, M.

    A thick bloom of the marine prymnesiophycean, Phaeocystis globosa was observed in the central Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon period (July-August, 1996). The cells were mostly in colonial form, embedded in gelatinous matrics. The cell diameter...

  6. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity

  7. Monsoon induced cobalt enrichment in Porites (coral) from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.A.S.; Nath, B.N.

    Cobalt concentrations in growth bands of a reef building coral (Porites sp.) collected from Kalpeni Atoll of the Lakshadweep group of islands (Arabian Sea), rvealed that cobalt concentrations and Co/Ca ratios exhibit similar trend. Study indicates...

  8. Retrieved bacteria from Noctiluca miliaris (green) bloom of the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Basu, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Furtado, I.

    In recent years, seasonal blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris have appeared in the open-waters of the northern Arabian Sea (NAS). This study provides the first characterization of bacteria from a seasonal bloom of green Noctiluca of NAS...

  9. Foraminiferal production and monsoonal upwelling in the Arabian sea: evidence from sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Curry, W.B.; Ostermann, D.R.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    Planktonic foraminifera collected in sediment traps in the Arabian Sea during 1986 and 1987 responded to the southern Asian monsoon with changes in productivity, relative abundance of species and isotopic shell chemistry. Most species...

  10. Spatial zonation of zooplankton in the northwestern Arabian Sea: A multivariate approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    Latitudinal variation in abundance, diversity, dominance pattern and zonation of the major groups of zooplankton was studied n the coastal waters of northwestern Arabian Sea, between 25°44' N and 10°44' N. Maxwell Boltzmann Statistic...

  11. Studies on the microzooplankton from the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M; Mohanraju, R.; Madhupratap, M

    Numerical abundance and composition of microzooplankton in the upper 200 m were studied from the central and eastern Arabian Sea during three seasons. Protozoans, comprising of ciliates (loricates and aloricates), flagellates and sarcodines were...

  12. Characteristics of long-period swells measured in the near shore regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Amrutha, M.M.; Singh, J.

    Measured wave data covering two years simultaneously at 3 locations along the eastern Arabian Sea reveals the presence of long-period (peak wave period > 18 s) low-amplitude waves (significant wave height < 1 m) and the characteristics...

  13. Estimation of evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea from Satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.V.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.; Sastry, J.S.

    Utilizing both the SAMIR brightness temperatures of Bhaskara 2 and GOSSTCOMP charts of NOAA satellite series, the evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea for June 1982 are estimated through the bulk aerodynamic method. The spatial distribution...

  14. Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon components in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajendran, A

    Extensive observations have been made on the carbon dioxide system in the Arabian Sea during three different seasons as part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Programme. Concentrations of total carbon dioxide and partial pressure...

  15. Fluctuations in productivity and denitrification in the southeastern Arabian Sea during the Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P; Rao, V.P; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Chivas, A.R.; Saino, T.

    Sedimentological and stable isotopic characteristics of sediments have been studied in a core from the southeastern Arabian Sea containing records of the past 70 ka. Palaeoproductivity proxies such as organic carbon (C sub(org)), total nitrogen (TN...

  16. Marine sediments and palaeoclimatic variations since the Late Pleistocene: An overview for the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    A large number of surfacial and sub-surface sediments from the Arabian Sea have been studied to enhance our understanding of palaeoclimatic variations over the Indian region. Bsically the surficial sediments have been studied for their living...

  17. Geographical extent of denitrification in the Arabian Sea in relation to some physical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    . This provides a mechanism for the injection of appreciable quantities of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the oxygen-minimum layer and, in conjunction with the high horizontal diffusivity in the Arabian Sea, could account for the observed lack...

  18. On the renewal of the denitrifying layer in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somasundar, K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A one-dimensional (vertical) advection-diffusion model has been applied to the deep layer characterized by a linear potential temperature(theta)-salinity relationship in the Arabian Sea to estimate the velocity of ascending motion. The results...

  19. Some aspects of the oxygen-deficient conditions and denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Utilizing a fairly large amount of recently collected data, some outstanding questions concerning the Arabian Sea denitrification problem are addressed. The true level of dissolved oxygen, determined colorimetrically, are about an order of magnitude...

  20. Distribution of calanoid copepods in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.

    The distribution of calanoid copepods from the northern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal is discussed in relation to thermocline. The inshore offshore zonation of a neritic, shelf an oceanic communities was traced based on the species composition...

  1. Arabian Sea Biogeochemistry from 27 August 1994 to 19 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Arabesque was a multidisciplinary oceanographic research project focused on the Arabian Sea and Northwest Indian Ocean during the monsoon and intermonsoon season in...

  2. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toksoz, M. N; Van der Hilst, Robert D; Sun, Youshun; Gulen, Levent; Kalafat, Dogan; Kuleli, Huseyin S; Li, Chang; Zhang, Haijiang

    2008-01-01

    ... and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus. The Arabian-Eurasian plate boundary is a complex tectonic zone shaped by continent-continent collision processes...

  3. Seasonal variations in carbon biomass of bacteria, thraustochytrids and microzooplankton in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Raghukumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Madhupratap, M.

    sup(-1) d sup(-1) below 100 m. In the NAS, heterotrophic bacteria appear to playa significant role in sustaining microzooplankton and the so-called 'Arabian Sea mesozooplankton stable-biomass paradox' through microbial loop. Sizable quantities of Hbac...

  4. Baseline concentrations of strontium and 90Sr in seawater from the northern Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Al Ghadban, A.N.; Behbahani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first baseline for strontium and 90 Sr from northern Gulf. • The total strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceans. • The Sr/salinity ratio correlates well with global averages. • High Sr might be due to increased salinity/CaCo 3 dissolution in acidifying Gulf waters. -- Abstract: Baseline concentration of strontium and Sr-90 in Gulf is presented. The strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceanic waters, while the Sr-90 concentration is low at 0.7–1.0 mBq l −1 , that represents the background level following nuclear tests and can be used as an effective tracer in case of any radioactive release in the region. The strontium concentration is primarily related to the increasing salinity off the Gulf coast

  5. Evaluation of wet cupping therapy on the arterial and venous blood parameters in healthy Arabian horses

    OpenAIRE

    Turke Shawaf; Wael El-Deeb; Jamal Hussen; Mahmoud Hendi; Shahab Al-Bulushi

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Recently, the complementary therapies such as cupping and acupuncture are being used in veterinary medicine. This research was carried out to determine the effects of wet cupping therapy (Hijama) on the hematological and the biochemical parameters in the healthy Arabian horses for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this study, seven clinically healthy Arabian horses were randomly selected. Four points on the animal body were selected to perform the cupping therapy. Two points ...

  6. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Ali, M.; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Turki, HaifaA.; Al-Mulhim, Fathma A.; Al-Ali, Amein K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

  7. The Current Issues on Osteoporosis among Male Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Osteoporosis was reported to be common among Saudi Arabian population. In the last decade there have been no reports related to the male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabian citizens. The objective of this study was to find the hospital-based prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabians. Methodology: This is the retrospective study between January 2014 and December 2016 in which all patients who were referred for DEXA (Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry scan to the radiology department of the King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar. Patient’s demographic data was collected from the medical records. Patients who were younger than 50 years and those who had a fragility fracture were excluded from the analysis. From the IPAC the readings of the DEXA were collected. Associated diseases of the patients were also extracted from the QuadruMed Data Base. The data was entered in the database and analyzed using SPSS Inc. version 19 and p value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Four hundred and fifty five patients had a DEXA scan during the study period. Three hundred and seventy one (81.5% were ≥50 years. The average was 65.33±9.85 years (Range 50-97. On the basis of Spinal T score, 222 (59.8% were osteoporotic with the spinal T score of <-3.58±0.88, while with hip T score 120 (32.3% were osteoporotic with T score of <-3.24±0.59. Thirty-six (9.7% had a normal DEXA of spine and 74(19.9% of patients had normal DEXA when Hip was taken into consideration. Patients could be divided into four groups based on their diseases; they were on treatment for Cardiac disease 106 (28.5%, Diabetes mellitus 95 (25.7%, osteoarthritis 141 (38% and Respiratory Disease 29 (7.8%. Based on the Spinal T score osteoporosis was observed in 61/106 (57.5% patients with cardiac disease, 62/95 (65.3% Diabetics, in osteoarthritis 83/141 (58.9% and 16/29 (55.1% in patients with respiratory system diseases. Majority of the patients had

  8. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of four Saudi Arabian cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-06-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 269 dwellings, with one dosimeter per house, distributed in four Saudi Arabian cities was carried out. The objective of this survey was to carry out indoor radon measurements of two cities in the Eastern Province, Khafji and Hafr Al-Batin and to compare this with two cities in the Western Province, Al-Madina and Taif. The survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey in these cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentration were 7,137 and 30 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The lowest average radon concentration (20 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Hafr Al-Batin, while the highest average concentration was found in Khafji (40 Bq m{sup -3})

  9. The prehistory of the Arabian peninsula: deserts, dispersals, and demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    As a geographic connection between Africa and the rest of Eurasia, the Arabian Peninsula occupies a central position in elucidating hominin evolution and dispersals. Arabia has been characterized by extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary, with profound evolutionary and demographic consequences. Despite the importance of the region, Arabia remains understudied. Recent years, however, have seen major developments in environmental studies and archeology, revealing that the region contains important records that should play a significant role in future paleoanthropological narratives.(1-3) The emerging picture of Arabia suggests that numerous dispersals of hominin populations into the region occurred. Populations subsequently followed autochthonous trajectories, creating a distinctive regional archeological record. Debates continue on the respective roles of regional hominin extinctions and population continuity, with the latter suggesting adaptation to arid conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Perception of Nursing Care: View of Saudi Arabian Female Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jette

    2008-01-01

    ‘Values are principles and standards that have meaning and worth to an individual, family, group, or community’ (Purnell & Paulanka 1998: 3). Values are central to the care provided by nurses. The provision of nursing care within the context of value clarification, has been explored from various...... perspectives, however, as values vary within cultures, there is a limited range of studies reflecting on Saudi Arabian nurses’ perspectives of nursing care. Through a Heideggerian phenomenological research design, six nurses were enrolled through purposive sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which...... were audio tape-recorded, were chosen as the methods of data collection. A seven stage framework approach was applied to analyse and organise the research findings in three conceptual themes: values in context of Islam, the nurse-patient relationship, and identity’s influence on being in the world...

  11. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jish Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle size analysis (LPSA. We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models

  12. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  13. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  14. The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, William; Huchon, Philippe; McClay, Ken

    2005-10-01

    normal (N60°E) to highly oblique and parallel to the Aqaba-Levant transform (N15°E). North of Suez in Egypt the rift system became emergent, perhaps due to minor compression of the Sinai sub-plate, and the marine connection to the Mediterranean Sea became restricted but not terminated. Red Sea sedimentation changed from predominantly open marine to evaporitic, although deep water persisted in many regions. A third phase of magmatism commenced, locally in Ethiopia but predominantly in western Saudi Arabia and extending north to Harrat Ash Shama and Jebel Druse in Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. At ˜10 Ma, the Sheba Ridge rapidly propagated west over 400 km from the central Gulf of Aden to the Shukra al Sheik discontinuity. Oceanic spreading followed in the south-central Red Sea at ˜5 Ma. This corresponded in time to an important unconformity throughout the Red Sea basin and along the margins of the Gulf of Aden, coeval with the Messinian unconformity of the Mediterranean basin. A major phase of pull-apart basin development also occurred along the Aqaba-Levant transform. In the early Pliocene the influx of marine waters through Bab al Mandeb increased and Red Sea sedimentation thereafter returned to predominantly open marine conditions. By ˜3-2 Ma, oceanic spreading moved west of the Shukra al Sheik discontinuity, and the entire Gulf of Aden was an oceanic rift. During the last ˜1 My, the southern Red Sea plate boundary linked to the Aden spreading center through the Gulf of Zula, Danakil Depression, and Gulf of Tadjoura. Presently, the Red Sea spreading center appears to be propagating toward the northern Red Sea to link with the Aqaba-Levant transform. Alkali basaltic volcanism continues within the Younger Harrats of western Saudi Arabia and Yemen and offshore southern Red Sea islands. Most of the Arabian plate is now experiencing N-S upper crustal compression, whereas the maximum horizontal stress is oriented E-W in NE Africa. Arabia and Africa, now on separate plates

  15. Integrating geological and geophysical data to improve probabilistic hazard forecasting of Arabian Shield volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2016-02-01

    During probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis of volcanic fields, a greater variety of spatial data on crustal features should help improve forecasts of future vent locations. Without further examination, however, geophysical estimations of crustal or other features may be non-informative. Here, we present a new, robust, non-parametric method to quantitatively determine the existence of any relationship between natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic eruptions) and a variety of geophysical data. This provides a new validation tool for incorporating a range of potentially hazard-diagnostic observable data into recurrence rate estimates and hazard analyses. Through this study it is shown that the location of Cenozoic volcanic fields across the Arabian Shield appear to be related to locations of major and minor faults, at higher elevations, and regions where gravity anomaly values were between - 125 mGal and 0 mGal. These findings support earlier hypotheses that the western shield uplift was related to Cenozoic volcanism. At the harrat (volcanic field)-scale, higher vent density regions are related to both elevation and gravity anomaly values. A by-product of this work is the collection of existing data on the volcanism across Saudi Arabia, with all vent locations provided herein, as well as updated maps for Harrats Kura, Khaybar, Ithnayn, Kishb, and Rahat. This work also highlights the potential dangers of assuming relationships between observed data and the occurrence of a natural phenomenon without quantitative assessment or proper consideration of the effects of data resolution.

  16. Large-scale control of the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion in August

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Hua; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-12-01

    The summer monsoon inversion in the Arabian Sea is characterized by a large amount of low clouds and August as the peak season. Atmospheric stratification associated with the monsoon inversion has been considered a local system influenced by the advancement of the India-Pakistan monsoon. Empirical and numerical evidence from this study suggests that the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion is linked to a broader-scale monsoon evolution across the African Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia-Western North Pacific (WNP), rather than being a mere byproduct of the India-Pakistan monsoon progression. In August, the upper-tropospheric anticyclone in South Asia extends sideways corresponding with the enhanced precipitation in the subtropical WNP, equatorial Indian Ocean, and African Sahel while the middle part of this anticyclone weakens over the Arabian Sea. The increased heating in the adjacent monsoon systems creates a suppression effect on the Arabian Sea, suggesting an apparent competition among the Africa-Asia-WNP monsoon subsystems. The peak Sahel rainfall in August, together with enhanced heating in the equatorial Indian Ocean, produces a critical effect on strengthening the Arabian Sea thermal inversion. By contrast, the WNP monsoon onset which signifies the eastward expansion of the subtropical Asian monsoon heating might play a secondary or opposite role in the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion.

  17. Orbital-scale denitrification changes in the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Khim, Boo-Keun; Ikehara, Minoru; Lee, Jongmin

    2018-05-04

    Denitrification in the Arabian Sea is closely related to the monsoon-induced upwelling and subsequent phytoplankton production in the surface water. The δ 15 N values of bulk sediments collected at Site U1456 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 reveal the orbital-scale denitrification history in response to the Indian Monsoon. Age reconstruction based on the correlation of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) δ 18 O values with the LR04 stack together with the shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data assigns the study interval to be 1.2 Ma. Comparison of δ 15 N values during the last 800 kyrs between Site U1456 (Eastern Arabian Sea) and Site 722B (Western Arabian Sea) showed that δ 15 N values were high during interglacial periods, indicating intensified denitrification, while the opposite was observed during glacial periods. Taking 6‰ as the empirical threshold of denitrification, the Eastern Arabian Sea has experienced a persistent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to maintain strong denitrification whereas the Western Arabian Sea has undergone OMZ breakdown during some glacial periods. The results of this study also suggests that five principal oceanographic conditions were changed in response to the Indian Monsoon following the interglacial and glacial cycles, which controls the degree of denitrification in the Arabian Sea.

  18. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  19. Studies on the maturity and spawning of silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphr.) in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    Maturity and spawning of the Silver Pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphr.) have been studied in an area between the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Cambay. The method of studying were: direct observation on the occurrence of maturity stages, measurements...

  20. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written... of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent Form for Release of Medical Records...

  1. 75 FR 70365 - Agency Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA..., will help VA to assess the health of Gulf War veterans who were exposed to a variety of environmental...

  2. 77 FR 56168 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual Fishing Quota Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    .... 090206140-91081-03] RIN 0648-XC227 Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual... red snapper and grouper/tilefish components of the reef fish fishery in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), the... INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for Reef...

  3. 76 FR 64248 - Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico Commercial Sector for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    .... 040205043-4043-01] RIN 0648-XA766 Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico... the commercial sector for greater amberjack in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico... Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP). The FMP was prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery...

  4. Technical feasibility of a seabed gallery seawater intake at Ras Abu Ali Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    high quality raw seawater even before pretreatment. Subsurface intakes extract seawater indirectly through the geological structure of shoreline or nearshore sediments. Water percolation through geological units provides physical and biological

  5. Concentration, composition and sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Y S; Al Ansari, E M S; Wade, T L

    2014-08-30

    Surface sediments were collected from sixteen locations in order to assess levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Qatar exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Samples were analyzed for 16 parent PAHs, 18 alkyl homologs and for dibenzothiophenes. Total PAHs concentration (∑PAHs) ranged from 2.6 ng g(-1) to 1025 ng g(-1). The highest PAHs concentrations were in sediments in and adjacent to harbors. Alkylated PAHs predominated most of the sampling locations reaching up to 80% in offshore locations. Parent PAHs and parent high molecular weight PAHs dominated location adjacent to industrial activities and urban areas. The origin of PAHs sources to the sediments was elucidated using ternary plot, indices, and molecular ratios of specific compounds such as (Ant/Phe+Ant), (Flt/Flt+Pyr). PAHs inputs to most coastal sites consisted of mixture of petroleum and combustion derived sources. However, inputs to the offshore sediments were mainly of petroleum origin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oil-bioremediation potential of two hydrocarbonoclastic, diazotrophic Marinobacter strains from hypersaline areas along the Arabian Gulf coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, D M; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

    2013-05-01

    Two halophilic, hydrocarbonoclastics bacteria, Marinobacter sedimentarum and M. flavimaris, with diazotrophic potential occured in hypersaline waters and soils in southern and northern coasts of Kuwait. Their numbers were in the magnitude of 10(3) colony forming units g(-1). The ambient salinity in the hypersaline environments was between 3.2 and 3.5 M NaCl. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains showed, respectively, 99 and 100% similarities to the sequences in the GenBank. The two strains failed to grow in the absence of NaCl, exhibited best growth and hydrocarbon biodegradation in the presence of 1 to 1.5 M NaCl, and still grew and maintained their hydrocarbonoclastic activity at salinities up to 5 M NaCl. Both species utilized Tween 80, a wide range of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons (C9-C40) and the aromatics benzene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, anthracene and naphthalene as sole sources of carbon and energy. Experimental evidence was provided for their nitrogen-fixation potential. The two halophilic Marinobacter strains successfully mineralized crude oil in nutrient media as well as in hypersaline soil and water microcosms without the use of any nitrogen fertilizers.

  7. Antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical composition of seaweeds collected from Saudi Arabia (Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine M.S. Moubayed

    2017-01-01

    FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of the possible functional constituents and the major chemical components present in marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.

  8. Role of Respirable Saudi Arabian Sand and Pyridostigmine in the Gulf War syndrome: An Autoimmune Adjuvant Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopori, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    In the Lewis rat, inhalation of silica (SL) in realistic doses for 6 wk exacerbated the Mycobacterium- induced autoimmune adjuvant disease and impaired the humoral as well as cellular immune responses...

  9. Quantifying the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and model resolution on dust emissions in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Mingjie; Yang, Zong-Liang; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Parajuli, Sagar P.; Tao, Weichun; Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatiotemporal variability of dust emission in the Arabian Peninsula and quantifies the emission sensitivity to the land-cover heterogeneity by using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM43) at three different spatial resolutions. The land-cover heterogeneity is represented by the CLM4-default plant function types (PFTs) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover types, respectively, at different grids. We area-average surface vegetation data and use the default nearest neighbor method to interpolate meteorological variables. We find that using MODIS data leads to a slightly higher coverage of vegetated land than the default PFT data; the former also gives more dust emission than the latter at 25- and 50-km grids as the default PFT data have more gridcells favoring less dust emission. The research highlights the importance of using proper data-processing methods or dust emission thresholds to preserve the dust emission accuracy in land models. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. MobiQiyas: A Mobile Learning Standardized Test Preparation for Saudi Arabian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Mohammed Alabbadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A mobile learning system, called MobiQiyas, for preparing Saudi Arabian students for one of the standardized tests, given by the National Center for Assessment in Higher Education (NCAHE, has been developed, using ready-made commercial products and tools. The learning material of MobiQiyas consists of practice questions with their answers, both provided by NCAHE, to be loaded by the students into their own mobile phones; after installation, the students can interact with MobiQiyas any number of times, as desired, without incurring any additional cost, other than the initial airtime cost for downloading. From total number of students taken the test, 20,000 students were randomly selected to use MobiQiyas and information was collected from them to measure their attitudes and participation of MobiQiyas. It was found that 36.1% of students had actually downloaded MobiQiyas successfully. Furthermore, a telephone survey was conducted, after the test period, on a class of 40 students in a secondary school in Riyadh, taking the same test, to measure their acceptance of MobiQiyas, using a 9-item questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale. The responses of the 40 students reflected high acceptance and satisfaction levels of MobiQiyas as an effective test prep tool.

  11. Biogeographic Patterns of Reef Fish Communities in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, May B.

    2014-12-01

    As a region renowned for high biodiversity, endemism and extreme temperature and salinity levels, the Red Sea is of high ecological interest. Despite this, there is relatively little literature on basic broad scale characteristics of the biodiversity or overall reef fish communities and how they change across latitude. We conducted visual transects recording the abundance of over 200 species of fish from 45 reefs spanning over 1000 km of Saudi Arabian coastline and used hierarchical cluster analysis to find that for combined depths from 0m-10m across this geographical range, the reef fish communities are relatively similar. However we find some interesting patterns both at the community level across depth and latitude as well as in endemic community distributions. We find that the communities, much like the environmental factors, shift gradually along latitude but do not show distinct clusters within the range we surveyed (from Al-Wajh in the north to the Farasan Banks in the south). Numbers of endemic species tend to be higher in the Thuwal region and further south. This type of baseline data on reef fish distribution and possible factors that may influence their ranges in the Red Sea are critical for future scientific studies as well as effective monitoring and in the face of the persistent anthropogenic influences such as coastal development, overfishing and climate change.

  12. Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast

    KAUST Repository

    Baalkhuyur, Fadiyah M.

    2018-04-24

    This study assesses the presence of microplastic litter in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of 26 commercial and non-commercial fish species from four difference habitats sampled along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. A total of 178 individual were examined for microplastics. In total, 26 microplastic fragments were found. Of these, 16 being films (61.5%) and 10 being fishing thread (38.5%). FTIR analysis revealed that the most abundant polymers were polypropylene and polyethylene. The grouper (Epinephelus spp.) sampled at Jazan registered the highest number of ingested microplastics. This fish species is benthic and feeds on benthic invertebrates. Although differences in the abundance of microplastic ingestion among species were not statistically significant, a significant change was observed when the level of ingestion of microplastics particles was compared among the habitats. The higher abundance of microplastics particles may be related to the habitats of fish and the presence of microplastics debris near the seabed. The results of this study represent a first evidence that microplastic pollution represents an emerging threat to Red Sea fishes, their food web and human consumers.

  13. Quantifying the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and model resolution on dust emissions in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Mingjie

    2016-01-11

    This study evaluates the spatiotemporal variability of dust emission in the Arabian Peninsula and quantifies the emission sensitivity to the land-cover heterogeneity by using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM43) at three different spatial resolutions. The land-cover heterogeneity is represented by the CLM4-default plant function types (PFTs) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover types, respectively, at different grids. We area-average surface vegetation data and use the default nearest neighbor method to interpolate meteorological variables. We find that using MODIS data leads to a slightly higher coverage of vegetated land than the default PFT data; the former also gives more dust emission than the latter at 25- and 50-km grids as the default PFT data have more gridcells favoring less dust emission. The research highlights the importance of using proper data-processing methods or dust emission thresholds to preserve the dust emission accuracy in land models. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Blood Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammation in Gulf War Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Johnson

    Full Text Available More than twenty years following the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI. The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research.This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI.A surveillance study of 85 Gulf War Veteran volunteers identified from the Department of Veterans Affairs Minnesota Gulf War registry was performed. All subjects were deployed to the Gulf War. Fifty seven subjects had GWI defined by CDC criteria, and 28 did not have symptomatic criteria for a diagnosis of GWI. Statistical analyses were performed on peripheral blood counts and assays of 61 plasma proteins using the Mann-Whitney rank sum test to compare biomarker distributions and stepwise logistic regression to formulate a diagnostic model.Lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts were higher in GWI subjects. Six serum proteins associated with inflammation were significantly different in GWI subjects. A diagnostic model of three biomarkers-lymphocytes, monocytes, and C reactive protein-had a predicted probability of 90% (CI 76-90% for diagnosing GWI when the probability of having GWI was above 70%.The results of the current study indicate that inflammation is a component of the pathobiology of GWI. Analysis of the data resulted in a model utilizing three readily measurable biomarkers that appears to significantly augment the symptom-based case definition of GWI. These new observations are highly relevant to the diagnosis of GWI, and to therapeutic trials.

  15. Designing a Successful Acupuncture Treatment Program for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Acupuncture in the Treatment Of Gulf War Illness W81XWH-09-2-0064) on current symptom levels and use of services to explore the long-term effects of an...of Math and Computer Science, Menoufia University, Shebin EIKom, Egypt g Department of Biostatistics & Bioinfonnatics, Duke University Medical Center...significantly higher levels of au- toantibody reactivity in all proteins examined except S-1 OOB. Fold increase of the cases relative to controls in

  16. India - Gulf Cooperation Council Relations: Raj Version 2.0?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    protectionist relative to the GCC. Customs rates are relatively higher, administrative requirements are extensive, and a culture of "red-tapism" continues to...Bollywood movies and other Indian cultural phenomena that one finds in the Gulf are in large part popular because of the presence of the expatriate...textiles, spices , food products, and even electrical goods, the information technology and other white collar sectors have far more transformational

  17. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    after his return.432 Seventy- five Gulf War personnel were hospitalized for chicken pox during deployment.1431 Only a few cases of viral hepatitis were...and independent of circulating uranium levels. Of particular interest are findings from an ongoing study at the University of New Mexico indicating that...periods, can produce chronic neurological or behavioral effects. The New Mexico study is an important example of a particularly relevant approach

  18. Dubai: A Pioneer Smart City in the Arabian Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtudes, Ana; Abbara, Arwa; Sá, João

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, one of the main issues that the cities are facing is related with how they are dealing with the challenges toward smartness, including infrastructures, economic, social and environmental aspects. In this sense, some of the current challenges on the global scale, trying to find solutions regarding urban societies, are based on the concept of “smart city”. Therefore, is clear that new ideas regarding the cities improvements, which are on the top of global agenda, could be found at the concept of “smart city”. As the literature reveals, this is a topic reason among the researchers, which is in a continuous development, in particular regarding societies, countries or regions where it is emerging, such as in the Arabian territories. Dubai, a city in the United Arab Emirates, is an example where in a short period of time, after the oil discovery in the decade of 1970, one small and badly known urban settlement became a pioneer reference in terms of smart cities requirements. Thus, this article presents background information about smart cities, their assets and key pillars, their smart infrastructures and features in cultural, social and environmental terms. The main goals are based on a theoretical approach, developed in order to get more details about smart cities, regarding the features of the Arabian territories. It argues around the case of Dubai, as a pioneer smart city in the Arab world. Among of the main conclusions, there is the idea that the urban transformation process in contemporary societies to secure the smartness, should apply to the use of ICT / information and communication technologies. This use will increase the efficiency concerns to the natural resources, and provide a high quality of life for citizens. The example of Dubai has shown that the decision-makers have built each sector and part of the city in a solid performance, in order to achieve the smart sustainability concept. This city is nowadays a reference on this matter, not

  19. Assessment of MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll-a algorithms in coastal and shelf waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstone, Gavin H.; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Miller, Peter I.; Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Kumar, T. Srinivasa; Suresh, T.; Ragavan, B. R.; Menon, Harilal B.

    2013-08-01

    The use of ocean colour remote sensing to facilitate the monitoring of phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters is hampered by the high variability in absorption and scattering from substances other than phytoplankton. The eastern Arabian Sea coastal shelf is influenced by river run-off, winter convection and monsoon upwelling. Bio-optical parameters were measured along this coast from March 2009 to June 2011, to characterise the optical water type and validate three Chlorophyll-a (Chla) algorithms applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua (MODIS-Aqua) data against in situ measurements. Ocean Colour 3 band ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM) and Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chla algorithms were evaluated. OC3M performed better than GSM and GIOP in all regions and overall, was within 11% of in situ Chla. GSM was within 24% of in situ Chla and GIOP on average was 55% lower. OC3M was less affected by errors in remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) and by spectral variations in absorption coefficient (aCDOM(λ)) of coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM) and total suspended matter (TSM) compared to the other algorithms. A nine year Chla time series from 2002 to 2011 was generated to assess regional differences between OC3M and GSM. This showed that in the north eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred during the winter monsoon from December to February, where GSM consistently gave higher Chla compared to OC3M. In the south eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred in June to July during the summer monsoon upwelling, and OC3M yielded higher Chla compared to GSM. OC3M currently provides the most accurate Chla estimates for the eastern Arabian Sea coastal waters.

  20. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0480 TITLE: Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D...Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ashok K...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific

  1. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, S J; McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Shivers, J; Barnes, N E; Finno, C J

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (Prhabdomyolysis, ectopic accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins and Z-disc degeneration bear a strong resemblance to a myofibrillar myopathy. While many of these horses were previously diagnosed with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy, pools of glycogen forming within disrupted myofibrils appeared to give the false appearance of a glycogen storage disorder. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  2. EMERGING CITIES ON THE ARABIAN PENINSULA: URBAN SPACE IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Thierstein

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Networks of the growing knowledge economy significantly influence spatial development on different scales. This paper proposes a framework for analyzing the impact of global knowledge economy networks on the rapidly developing urban space of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula, and vice versa. Two aspects of the described research are innovative: First, a global relational geography-perspective builds the basis for approaching the analysis of urban space development in emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Second, the empirical methodology of the research project is a newly defined method triangulation, setting an example for systematic analysis of local urban development in a global context. The method triangulation combines three different research angles: A knowledge economy firm perspective, an on-site observation perspective and a planner perspective. The method triangulation defines the procedure for the research application in selected case study cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Initial results from applying the research methodology in the city of Dubai give a first indication, that emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula play a significant role in the global and regional knowledge economy networks. Locally developed urban spaces reflect and influence the significance of cities in the global knowledge economy context. Especially the global visibility of urban spaces on a city district scale, which specifically address the needs of knowledge economy players, contributes significantly to the attractiveness of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula.

  3. Sedimentary phosphorus and iron cycling in and below the oxygen minimum zone of the northern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kraal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate phosphorus (P and iron (Fe cycling in sediments along a depth transect from within to well below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ in the northern Arabian Sea (Murray Ridge. Pore-water and solid-phase analyses show that authigenic formation of calcium phosphate minerals (Ca-P is largely restricted to where the OMZ intersects the seafloor topography, likely due to higher depositional fluxes of reactive P. Nonetheless, increased ratios of organic carbon to organic P (Corg/Porg and to total reactive P (Corg/Preactive in surface sediments indicate that the overall burial efficiency of P relative to Corg decreases under the low bottom water oxygen concentrations (BWO in the OMZ. The relatively constant Fe/Al ratio in surface sediments along the depth transect suggest that corresponding changes in Fe burial are limited. Sedimentary pyrite contents are low throughout the ~25 cm sediment cores at most stations, as commonly observed in the Arabian Sea OMZ. However, pyrite is an important sink for reactive Fe at one station in the OMZ. A reactive transport model (RTM was applied to quantitatively investigate P and Fe diagenesis at an intermediate station at the lower boundary of the OMZ (bottom water O2: ~14 μmol L−1. The RTM results contrast with earlier findings in showing that Fe redox cycling can control authigenic apatite formation and P burial in Arabian Sea sediment. In addition, results suggest that a large fraction of the sedimentary Ca-P is not authigenic, but is instead deposited from the water column and buried. Dust is likely a major source of this Ca-P. Inclusion of the unreactive Ca-P pool in the Corg/P ratio leads to an overestimation of the burial efficiency of reactive P relative to Corg along the depth transect. Moreover, the unreactive Ca-P accounts for ~85% of total Ca-P burial. In general, our results reveal

  4. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  5. Accumulation of organic carbon in northwestern Arabian sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study accumulation of organic carbon in marine sediments of northwestern Arabian sea has been discussed. This paper presents the geochemical analysis of Organic carbon content and accumulation, delta 13 stable carbon isotope and Ba/Al. The primary objective was to investigate the high resolution information about the variations in paleoproductivity and source of organic matter in sediments below an upwelling area. Undisturbed sediments (Piston core NIOP-486) of late Pleistocene time were collected during Netherlands Indian Ocean Program (NIOP-1992-93). The core NIOP-486 was raised from a depth of 2077 meters near the Owen Ridge. This core records deposition history of last 200,000 years and includes 4 warm and 3 cold periods. The distribution of organic carbon content in studied core shows a pronounced cyclicity during glacial and interglacial stages. Organic carbon accumulation trends show that high sedimentation rates in glacial stages results in rapid burial and hence increase organic carbon accumulation. Paleoproductivity indicator Ba/Al has been used to compare with the organic carbon content and is correlated with the warm and cold periods variations in monsoons upwelling intensity. Generally, low paleoproductivity is found in glacial stages. The organic carbon content and accumulation, in sediments however seems to differ from the paleoproductivity trends shown by Ba/Al in glacial sediments of stage 6. Delta 13 C.org isotope results of the core NIOP-486 confirm that organic matter in sediments is predominantly marine (-20 to -23% ). (author)

  6. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Vijay, J.G.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Ashraf, T.T.M.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    in the Arabian Sea is driven by net heat loss from the ocean, whereas the Bay of Bengal does not contribute to such large heat loss to the atmosphere. It appears that the subduction of high saline Arabian Sea water mass is the mechanism behind the formation of a...

  7. Boron/calcium ratios in Globigerinoides ruber from the Arabian Sea: Implications for controls on boron incorporation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Naidu, P.D.

    of Globigerinoides ruber from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723A (western Arabian Sea) and Core AAS9/21 (eastern Arabian Sea) from the last 22 kyr were analysed for B/Ca, delta18O and Mg/Ca. B/Ca was compared to reconstructed salinity and sea...

  8. Gulf war illness--better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, Matthew; David, Anthony S; Hull, Lisa; Nikalaou, Vasilis; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon

    2003-12-13

    Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Occupational cohort study in the form of a postal survey. Military personnel who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war; personnel who served on peacekeeping duties to Bosnia; military personnel who were deployed elsewhere ("Era" controls). All participants had responded to a previous survey. United Kingdom. Self reported fatigue measured on the Chalder fatigue scale; psychological distress measured on the general health questionnaire, physical functioning and health perception on the SF-36; and a count of physical symptoms. Gulf war veterans experienced a modest reduction in prevalence of fatigue (48.8% at stage 1, 43.4% at stage 2) and psychological distress (40.0% stage 1, 37.1% stage 2) but a slight worsening of physical functioning on the SF-36 (90.3 stage 1, 88.7 stage 2). Compared with the other cohorts Gulf veterans continued to experience poorer health on all outcomes, although physical functioning also declined in Bosnia veterans. Era controls showed both lower incidence of fatigue than Gulf veterans, and both comparison groups showed less persistence of fatigue compared with Gulf veterans. Gulf war veterans remain a group with many symptoms of ill health. The excess of illness at follow up is explained by both higher incidence and greater persistence of symptoms.

  9. Gulf war illness—better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, Matthew; David, Anthony S; Hull, Lisa; Nikalaou, Vasilis; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Objectives Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Design Occupational cohort study in the form of a postal survey. Participants Military personnel who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war; personnel who served on peacekeeping duties to Bosnia; military personnel who were deployed elsewhere (“Era” controls). All participants had responded to a previous survey. Setting United Kingdom. Main outcome measures Self reported fatigue measured on the Chalder fatigue scale; psychological distress measured on the general health questionnaire, physical functioning and health perception on the SF-36; and a count of physical symptoms. Results Gulf war veterans experienced a modest reduction in prevalence of fatigue (48.8% at stage 1, 43.4% at stage 2) and psychological distress (40.0% stage 1, 37.1% stage 2) but a slight worsening of physical functioning on the SF-36 (90.3 stage 1, 88.7 stage 2). Compared with the other cohorts Gulf veterans continued to experience poorer health on all outcomes, although physical functioning also declined in Bosnia veterans. Era controls showed both lower incidence of fatigue than Gulf veterans, and both comparison groups showed less persistence of fatigue compared with Gulf veterans. Conclusions Gulf war veterans remain a group with many symptoms of ill health. The excess of illness at follow up is explained by both higher incidence and greater persistence of symptoms. PMID:14670878

  10. Investigating electronic portfolio in pre-service teacher education in the Gulf Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhammar, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keeping its higher education systems competitive in the 21st century, the technology era, is the vital task of higher education in the Gulf Region as well as throughout the world (Abdullah, 2001; Alaasemi, 2003; Al-Nagim, 2002; Watson, 2001). The use of the Internet and Web-based tools and support

  11. Home exposure to Arabian incense (bakhour and asthma symptoms in children: a community survey in two regions in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Riyami Bazdawi M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incense burning has been reported to adversely affect respiratory health. The aim of this study was to explore whether exposure to bakhour contributes to the prevalence of asthma and/or triggers its symptoms in Omani children by comparing two Omani regions with different prevalence of asthma. Methods A randomly selected sample of 10 years old schoolchildren were surveyed using an Arabic version of ISAAC Phase II questionnaires with the addition of questions concerning the use and effect of Arabian incense on asthma symptoms. Current asthma was defined as positive response to wheeze in the past 12 months or positive response to "ever had asthma" together with a positive response to exercise wheeze or night cough in the past 12 months. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of bakhour exposure and other variables on current asthma diagnosis and parents' response to the question: "Does exposure to bakhour affect your child breathing?" Results Of the 2441 surveyed children, 15.4% had current asthma. Bakhour use more than twice a week was three times more likely to affect child breathing compared to no bakhour use (adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI 2.23–4.08 and this effect was 2.55 times higher in asthmatics (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.97–3.31 compared to non-asthmatics. In addition, bakhour caused worsening of wheeze in 38% of the asthmatics, making it the fourth most common trigger factor after dust (49.2%, weather (47.6% and respiratory tract infections (42.2%. However, there was no significant association between bakhour use and the prevalence of current asthma (adjusted OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.63–1.20. Conclusion Arabian incense burning is a common trigger of wheezing among asthmatic children in Oman. However, it is not associated with the prevalence asthma.

  12. An Anthropometric Study of Cranio-Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion among Saudi Arabian Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed Irfan; Haralur, Satheesh B; Khan, Muhammed Farhan; Al Ahmari, Maram Awdah; Al Shahrani, Nourah Falah; Shaik, Sharaz

    2018-04-15

    Determining and restoring physiological vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is the critical step during complete mouth rehabilitation. The improper VDO compromises the aesthetics, phonetics and functional efficiency of the prosthesis. Various methods are suggested to determine the accurate VDO, including the facial measurements in the clinical situations with no pre-extraction records. The generalisation of correlation between the facial measurements to VDO is criticised due to gender dimorphism and racial differences. Hence, it is prudent to verify the hypothesis of facial proportion and correlation of lower third of the face to remaining craniofacial measurements in different ethnic groups. The objective of the study was to evaluate the correlation of craniofacial measurements and OVD in the Saudi-Arabian ethnic group. Total of 228 participants from Saudi-Arabian Ethnic group were randomly recruited in this cross-sectional study. Fifteen craniofacial measurements were recorded with modified digital Vernier callipers, and OVD was recorded at centric occlusion. The obtained data were analysed by using the Spearman's correlation and linear regression analysis. The Mean OVD in male participants was higher (69.25 ± 5.54) in comparison to female participants (57.41 ± 5.32). The craniofacial measurement of Exocanthion-right labial commissure and the Mesial wall of the right external auditory canal-orbitale lateral had a strong positive correlation with VDO. The strong correlation was recorded with a trichion-upper border of right eyebrow line and trichion-Nasion only in males. Meanwhile, the length of an auricle recorded the positive correlation in female participants. Being simple and non-invasive technique, craniofacial measurements and linear equations could be routinely utilised to determine VDO.

  13. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  14. Sandwaves of the Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gujar, A.R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    In the Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India) the best formed sandwaves are seen in the west close to the Eastern Sand Bank. With increasing clay content and clay cover of the sea bed, the sandwaves become poorly formed. In the southern part of the Gulf...

  15. Water masses in the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Hydrographic data collected from Gulf of Aden since 1920 have been compiled to identify and refine the definitions of water masses in the Gulf of Aden (GA) and to describe their spatio-temporal variability. Four water masses have been identified...

  16. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  17. Keeping Safe Online: Perceptions of Gulf Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Abdulmagni Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing number of young people across the Gulf States now having access to the internet, the online safety of these adolescents is of concern. In a survey of 115 adolescents from the Gulf States, it was found that, although there are many benefits to young people, the risks of online usage are not fully understood by teenagers or their…

  18. Plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was studied. A series of sediment cores was collected in a traverse from the deep Gulf of Mexico to the Mississippi Delta. The cores were sliced into 1 cm intervals and analyzed for plutonium. Explanations for the variations in concentration are presented

  19. Post-tsunami oceanographic conditions in southern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, K.N.; Sudhakar, M.; Pandey, P.C.

    m depth. This high - salinity water mass was earlier ident i fied as Arabian Sea High Salinity Water mass ( ASHSW), which forms in the northern Arabian Sea du r- ing winter 12 . A pool of low - s a linity waters occupies the upper 50 m around... of t he Bay of Bengal du r ing the southwest monsoon season flows southward along the coast by the coastal currents during winter period 9 . The relatively high s a line waters (33.7 psu) are seen north of Nagapattinam, separating two low - salinity...

  20. Nutrient biogeochemistry of the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon retreat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, R; Muraleedharan, K.R; Martin, G.D.; Sabu, P.; Gerson, V.J.; Dineshkumar, P.K.; Nair, S.M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Nair, K.K.C.

    and adjoining southeastern Arabian Sea. Curr Sci 96:364–375 Jyothibabu R, Madhu NV, Jayalakshmi KV, Balachandran KK, Shiyas CA, Martin GD, Nair KKC (2006) Impact of freshwater influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters... ARTICLE Nutrient biogeochemistry of the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon retreat Rejomon George • K. R. Muraleedharan • G. D. Martin • P. Sabu • Vijay John Gerson • P. K. Dineshkumar • S. M. Nair • N. Chandramohanakumar • K. K. C. Nair...

  1. CHEMTAX-derived phytoplankton community structure associated with temperature fronts in the northeastern Arabian Sea..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Roy, R; Chitari, R; Kulkarni, V.; Krishna, M.S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Anil, A.C.

    and northern Arabian Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I 34, 713-723. Barlow, R., Kyewalyanga, M., Sessions, H., Van den Berg, M., Morris, T., 2008. Phytoplankton pigments, functional types, and absorption properties in the Delagoa and Natal Bights of the Agulhas... for Prochlorococcus sp. in low-light suboxic environments in the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. I. 47, 1183-1205. Grasshoff, K., Erhardt, M., Kremiling, K., 1983. Methods of seawater analysis, Verlag Chemie. 419 Haynes, R...

  2. EPR and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Photodegradation Study of Arabian and Colombian Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. B. Guedes

    2006-01-01

    W/m2. The reduction in the linewidth of the free radical of 9.8% in Arabian oil and 18.5% in Colombian oil, as well as the decrease in radical numbers, indicated photochemical degradation, especially in Colombian oil. The linewidth narrowing corresponding to free radicals in the irradiated oils occurred due to the rearrangement among radicals and aromatic carbon consumption. The irradiated oils showed a reduction in the relative intensity of fluorescence of the aromatics with high molecular mass, polar aromatics, and asphaltene. The fluorescent fraction was reduced by 61% in Arabian oil and 72% in Colombian oil, corresponding to photochemical degradation of crude oil aromatic compounds.

  3. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Resplandy, L.; Levy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kumar, M.D.

    , 5095–5109, 2012 www.biogeosciences.net/9/5095/2012/ doi:10.5194/bg-9-5095-2012 © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Biogeosciences Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea’s OMZ L. Resplandy1, M. Le´vy2, L. Bopp1, V. Echevin.... Resplandy et al.: Oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea OMZ OMZs are carefully examined for their possible interactions with the climate system and impacts on ecosystems. They could modulate atmospheric concentrations of major green- house gases such as CO2...

  4. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care.

  5. Upper mantle structure under western Saudi Arabia from Rayleigh wave tomography and the origin of Cenozoic uplift and volcanism on the Arabian Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-11-09

    The shear velocity structure of the shallow upper mantle beneath the Arabian Shield has been modeled by inverting new Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 45 and 140 s together with previously published Rayleigh wave group velocity measurement between 10 and 45 s. For measuring phase velocities, we applied a modified array method that minimizes the distortion of raypaths by lateral heterogeneity. The new shear velocity model shows a broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle across the Shield and a low velocity region at depths {ge} 150 km localized along the Red Sea coast and Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. The velocity reduction in the upper mantle corresponds to a temperature anomaly of {approx}250-330 K. These finding, in particular the region of continuous low velocities along the Red Sea and MMN volcanic line, do not support interpretations for the origin of the Cenozoic plateau uplift and volcanism on the Shield invoking two separate plumes. When combined with images of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the southern part of the Arabian Shield, body wave tomographic models, a S-wave polarization analysis, and SKS splitting results, our new model supports an interpretation invoking a thermal upwelling of warm mantle rock originating in the lower mantle under Africa that crosses through the transition zone beneath Ethiopia and moves to the north and northwest under the eastern margin of the Red Sea and the Arabian Shield. In this interpretation, the difference in mean elevation between the Platform and Shield can be attributed to isostatic uplift caused by heating of the lithospheric mantle under the Shield, with significantly higher region along the Red Sea possibly resulting from a combination of lithosphere thinning and dynamic uplift.

  6. Implications of Water Budget Deficits on Socio-Economic Stability and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.; Scabbia, G.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa is accentuated by forecasted climatic variability, decreasing precipitation volumes and projected population growth, urbanization and economic development, increasing water demand. These factors impose uncertainties on food security and socio-economic stability in the region. We develop a water-budget model combining hydrologic, climatic and economic data to quantify water deficit volumes and groundwater depletion rates for the main aquifer systems in the area, taking into account three different climatic scenarios, and calculated from the precipitation forecast elaborated in the CSIRO, ECHAM4 and HADCM3 global circulation models from 2016 to 2050 over 1-year intervals. Water demand comprises water requirements for each economic sector, derived from data such as population, GDP, cropland cover and electricity production, and is based upon the five different SSPs. Conventional and non-conventional water resource supply data are retrieved from FAO Aquastat and institutional databases. Our results suggest that in the next 35 years, in North Africa, only Egypt and Libya will exhibit severe water deficits with respectively 44% and 89.7% of their current water budgets by 2050 (SSP2-AVG climatic scenario), while all the countries in the Arabian Peninsula will be subjected to water stress; the majority of small-size aquifers in the Arabian Peninsula will reach full depletion by 2050. In North Africa, the fossil aquifers' volume loss will be 1-15% by 2050, and total depletion within 200-300 years. Our study suggests that (1) anthropogenic drivers on water resources are harsher than projected climatic variability; (2) the estimated water deficit will induce substantial rise in domestic food production's costs, causing higher dependency on food imports; and (3) projected water deficits will most strongly impact the nations with the lowest GDPP, namely Egypt, Yemen and Libya.

  7. Prevalence of Gulf war veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome: questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalder, T; Hotopf, M; Unwin, C; Hull, L; Ismail, K; David, A; Wessely, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine how many veterans in a random sample of British veterans who served in the Gulf war believe they have “Gulf war syndrome,” to examine factors associated with the presence of this belief, and to compare the health status of those who believe they have Gulf war syndrome with those who do not. Design Questionnaire study asking British Gulf war veterans whether they believe they have Gulf war syndrome and about symptoms, fatigue, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, physical functioning, and their perception of health. Participants 2961 respondents to questionnaires sent out to a random sample of 4250 Gulf war veterans (69.7%). Main outcome measure The proportion of veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome. Results Overall, 17.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9 to 18.7) of the respondents believed they had Gulf war syndrome. The belief was associated with the veteran having poor health, not serving in the army when responding to the questionnaire, and having received a high number of vaccinations before deployment to the Gulf. The strongest association was knowing another person who also thought they had Gulf war syndrome. Conclusions Substantial numbers of British Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndrome, which is associated with psychological distress, a high number of symptoms, and some reduction in activity levels. A combination of biological, psychological, and sociological factors are associated with the belief, and these factors should be addressed in clinical practice. What is already known on this topicThe term Gulf war syndrome has been used to describe illnesses and symptoms experienced by veterans of the 1991 Gulf warConcerns exist over the validity of Gulf war syndrome as a unique entityWhat this study adds17% of Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndromeHolding the belief is associated with worse health outcomesKnowing someone else who believes they have Gulf war syndrome and receiving

  8. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  9. 76 FR 69136 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) implemented by a temporary rule... overfishing of gag in the Gulf by reducing the commercial quota for gag and, thus, the combined commercial... this rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag resource in the Gulf. [[Page 69137

  10. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans) Activity: Comment Request... needed to assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES... use of other forms of information technology. Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War...

  11. 77 FR 2960 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Exempted... and retention. This study, to be conducted in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) off Louisiana, is intended to better document the age structure and life history of fish...

  12. 77 FR 30507 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Exempted... and retention. This study, to be conducted in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), is intended to better document the age structure and life history of fish associated with...

  13. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council Spanish Mackerel and Cobia Stock Assessment Review Workshop. SUMMARY: Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be...

  14. Characteristics of monsoon inversions over the Arabian Sea observed by satellite sounder and reanalysis data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dwivedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monsoon inversion (MI over the Arabian Sea (AS is one of the important characteristics associated with the monsoon activity over Indian region during summer monsoon season. In the present study, we have used 5 years (2009–2013 of temperature and water vapour measurement data obtained from satellite sounder instrument, an Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI onboard MetOp satellite, in addition to ERA-Interim data, to study their characteristics. The lower atmospheric data over the AS have been examined first to identify the areas where MIs are predominant and occur with higher strength. Based on this information, a detailed study has been made to investigate their characteristics separately in the eastern AS (EAS and western AS (WAS to examine their contrasting features. The initiation and dissipation times of MIs, their percentage occurrence, strength, etc., has been examined using the huge database. The relation with monsoon activity (rainfall over Indian region during normal and poor monsoon years is also studied. WAS ΔT values are  ∼  2 K less than those over the EAS, ΔT being the temperature difference between 950 and 850 hPa. A much larger contrast between the WAS and EAS in ΔT is noticed in ERA-Interim data set vis-à-vis those observed by satellites. The possibility of detecting MI from another parameter, refractivity N, obtained directly from another satellite constellation of GPS Radio Occultation (RO (COSMIC, has also been examined. MI detected from IASI and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS onboard the NOAA satellite have been compared to see how far the two data sets can be combined to study the MI characteristics. We suggest MI could also be included as one of the semipermanent features of southwest monsoon along with the presently accepted six parameters.

  15. Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. Methods: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. Results: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Conclusion: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace.

  16. Effect of parity on bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi Arabian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Habdan, Ibrahim; Al-Mulhim, Abdul-Aziz; El-Hassan, Abdallah Y

    2005-10-01

    Osteoporosis and osteopenia among postmenopausal Saudi Arabian women are common to the extent of over 60%. Pregnancy, multiparity and prolonged lactation are suggested as factors modifying negatively in the development of osteoporosis. Earlier reports from the institution indicated a beneficial role of multiparity in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). We conducted this study to measure the effect of parity on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur. We conducted this prospective study at King Fahd Hospital of the University, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, between January 2002 and June 2003. This study analyzed 256 patients who attended orthopedic clinics. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, number of children borne, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. We excluded women with secondary osteoporosis from the study. We entered the patients orthopedic complaints in the database. We carried out the BMD measurements using Hologic total body DEXA machine. We analyzed the data using SPSS package with significance at p6 children and group B with women of 6 children, 25.4% were osteoporotic in group A and in group B 48%. As per the World Health Organization classification 56% in group A had an increased risk of fracture as compared to 77.5% in group B women. Our results indicate that women who had borne >6 children were less osteoporotic and of low fracture risk as compared to those women who had 6 children was statistically higher than their counterparts, and they sustain this after prolonged lactation. We believe that increased parity protects women from osteoporosis and the severity of the disease, and it is our suggestion that women with osteoporosis should be investigated and treated accordingly.

  17. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  18. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Falah, Anas

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period. A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed. Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2%) and responded to the study. The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%), followed by hypertension (6.6%), asthma (5.6%) and CHD (2.5%), and the majority of subjects (69.5%) had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was aches in the back and neck (49.2%), night sweat (37.2%), low backache (35.7%), feeling nervous (35.4%) followed by aches in the muscles/joints (34.6%), hot flashes (33.3%), decreased social activities (28.3%), decreased leisure activities (47.6%), difficulty sleeping (28.9%), mood swings (25.4%), and decreased concentration (28.3%), sexual activity (24.1%) and total energy level (26.7%). The lowest reported symptoms were facial hair at 16

  19. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean, frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  20. Denitrification exceeds anammox as a nitrogen loss pathway in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bulow, S.E.; Rich, J.J.; Naik, H.; Pratihary, A.K.; Ward, B.B.

    of anammox production (4.23 plus or minus 0.35 nmoll sup(-1) d sup(-1)) occurred near the upper boundary of the OMZ at one station. Overall, denitrification dominated N sub(2) production at this time in the Arabian Sea OMZ...

  1. Aerosol properties over the Arabian Sea during the north east monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Dulac, F; Leon, G.F; Desa, E.

    440, 670, 870, 936, 940 and 1020 mm, in the Arabian Sea between 15.4-17.86 degrees N and 73.28-69.3 degrees E, during the North East monsoon period of 1-10 December, 1998. The aerosol optical properties derived from these data showed variations from...

  2. Monsoon control on trace metal fluxes in the deep Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monsoon control on trace metal fluxes in the deep Arabian Sea ... at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks Volume 115 ... Annual Al fluxes at shallow and deep trap depths were 0.47 and 0.46 gm−2 in the ...

  3. Multidecadal variations in the early Holocene outflow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, S.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Davies, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ~6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations

  4. Evaluation of wet cupping therapy on the arterial and venous blood parameters in healthy Arabian horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turke Shawaf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recently, the complementary therapies such as cupping and acupuncture are being used in veterinary medicine. This research was carried out to determine the effects of wet cupping therapy (Hijama on the hematological and the biochemical parameters in the healthy Arabian horses for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this study, seven clinically healthy Arabian horses were randomly selected. Four points on the animal body were selected to perform the cupping therapy. Two points were selected at the back just behind the scapula on the left and right sides; another two points were located in the rump. Cups with 4 oz (125 ml size with narrow mouths were used. A manual pump (sucking cups was used to create the negative pressure within the cups during cupping. Arterial and venous blood parameters and serum cortisol concentration were measured before cupping and 3 days and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after cupping. Results: No significant differences were estimated in most hematological and biochemical parameters after cupping. A significant decrease in the concentration of serum cortisol was observed in 3 and 14 days after cupping. Conclusion: Cupping induced minor changes on the hematological and biochemical parameters in Arabian horses. This is the first trial on the effects of wet cupping therapy on the different parameters in Arabian horses, which would be useful for further investigations on the role of complementary therapies in horses. Our further studies will include different disease models.

  5. Evaluation of wet cupping therapy on the arterial and venous blood parameters in healthy Arabian horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawaf, Turke; El-Deeb, Wael; Hussen, Jamal; Hendi, Mahmoud; Al-Bulushi, Shahab

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Recently, the complementary therapies such as cupping and acupuncture are being used in veterinary medicine. This research was carried out to determine the effects of wet cupping therapy (Hijama) on the hematological and the biochemical parameters in the healthy Arabian horses for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this study, seven clinically healthy Arabian horses were randomly selected. Four points on the animal body were selected to perform the cupping therapy. Two points were selected at the back just behind the scapula on the left and right sides; another two points were located in the rump. Cups with 4 oz (125 ml) size with narrow mouths were used. A manual pump (sucking cups) was used to create the negative pressure within the cups during cupping. Arterial and venous blood parameters and serum cortisol concentration were measured before cupping and 3 days and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after cupping. Results: No significant differences were estimated in most hematological and biochemical parameters after cupping. A significant decrease in the concentration of serum cortisol was observed in 3 and 14 days after cupping. Conclusions: Cupping induced minor changes on the hematological and biochemical parameters in Arabian horses. This is the first trial on the effects of wet cupping therapy on the different parameters in Arabian horses, which would be useful for further investigations on the role of complementary therapies in horses. Our further studies will include different disease models.

  6. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  7. Pre-monsoon living planktonic foraminifera from the Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Naidu, P.D.; Muralinath, A.S.

    LOGICAL SoCIETY OF INDIA Vol. 36, Dec. 1990, pp. 654 to 660 Pre-Monsoon Living Planktonic Foraminifera from the Southeastern Arabian Sea M. V. S. GUPTHA.. P. DIVAKAR NAlDU AND A. S. MURALINATH Nalional Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004...

  8. Does SW Monsoon Influence Total Suspended Matter Flux into the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    Seasonal enhancement in the flux of total suspended matter (TSM) has been attributed to climatology of the SW monsoon (SWM) in time-series trap experiments conducted in the Arabian Sea. To determine the influence of climate on TSM flux, synoptic...

  9. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  10. Comparative analysis of AC DC Microgrids for the Saudi Arabian distribution system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaseem, A.; Babar, M.; Danish Maqbool, S.; Al-Ammar, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    A Microgrid is a devised grouping of loads, generation sources and energy storage interfaced through fast response power electronics to form a small scale power network. The paper discusses the complexities that could be faced by the existing Saudi Arabian Grid when Distributed Generation Resources

  11. Basin scale distribution of Trichodesmium spp. in the Arabian Sea using Oceansat I/ OCM

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parab, S.G.; Desa, E.; Dwivedi, R.M.

    sites are identified as Trichodesmium bloom sites in the Arabian Sea: 1) Lakshadweep waters 2) Off Goa and 3) Off Gujarat area. Bloom of around 100 km2 area with 4 to 400737 filamentsL-1 concentrations are recorded. Two species of Trichodesmium...

  12. Physical forcing of biological productivity in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Raghukumar, S.; DileepKumar, M.; Madhupratap, M.

    that this interannual variation is of basin-wide spatial scale. After the termination of winter cooling and subsequent warming during the Spring Intermonsoon, the Arabian Sea has low primary production. During the latter period, micro-organisms, i.e. heterotrophic...

  13. Why is Bay of Bengal warmer than Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    the summer monsoon. In the Arabian Sea, the winds associated with the summer monsoon are stronger and favour the transfer of heat to deeper layers owing to overturning and turbulent mixing. In contrast, the weaker winds over the bay force a relatively...

  14. The value of C sub(e) for the Arabian Sea during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, A.S.; Sadhuram, Y.; Krishna, V.V.G.

    We estimate, from the moisture budget the bulk aerodynamic coefficient for latent heat flux (C sub(e)) during the monsoon season over the central Arabian Sea. The average value of C sub(e) under active monsoon conditions was found to be 2.25 x 10...

  15. Swath bathymetric investigation of the seamounts located in the Laxmi Basin, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Murty, G.P.S.; Srinivas, K.; Chaubey, A.K.; Sudhakar, T.; Nair, R.R.

    Multibeam (hydrosweep) swath bathymetric investigations revealed the presence of a NNW trending linear seamount chain along the axial part of the Laxmi Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, between 15~'N, 70~'15'E and 17~'20'N, 69~'E. This chain...

  16. Evaluation of toxic trace metals Cd and Pb in Arabian Sea waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.; SenGupta, R.

    An attempt has been made to present a picture of the distribution of toxic trace elements Cd and Pb in the Northern Arabian Sea by applying an improved analytical technique for the detection of dissolved forms of the metals at nanogram levels...

  17. Trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the eastern Arabian Sea and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Pillai, N.G.K.

    Trace metal contents in zooplankton samples were estimated as a part of the Marine Research-Living Resource program at 24 stations in the Bay of Bengal (November, 2002) and 29 stations in the Arabian Sea (September-October, 2003) during the Cruises...

  18. Heat content variations in the northeastern Arabian sea during a weak spell of 1986 summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.

    Based on time series measurements of temperature and surface meteorological parameters taken at a stationary location (10 degrees N;67 degrees E) in the northeastern Arabian Sea during a weak spell of 1986 monsoon from 29th August to 5th September...

  19. Seasonal wave characteristics of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayarajan, P.K.; Varkey, M.J.; Joseph, M.X.

    of charts. The maxima of the average heights in both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal (3.2 m and 3.1 m) have been observed during the monsoon season even though the number of cyclone and depression days were maximum in May and November, respectively...

  20. Denitrification rates and excess nitrogen gas concentrations in the Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devol, A; Uhlenhopp, A; Naqvi, S.W.A; Brandes, J.A; Jayakumar, D.A; Naik, H.; Gaurin, S.; Codispoti, L.A.; Yoshinari, T.

    Rates of canonical, i.e. heterotrophic, water-column denitrification were measured by sup(15)N incubation techniques at a number of coastal and open ocean stations in the Arabian Sea. Measurements of N2 :Ar gas ratios were also made to obtain...

  1. Blooms of Noctiluca miliaris in the Arabian Sea - An in situ and satellite study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomes, H.R.; Goes, J.I.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parab, S.G.; Al-Azri, A; Thoppil, P.G.

    Phytoplankton cell density, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration and pigment data collected during a series of five cruises in the northern Arabian Sea in the Northeast Monsoon (NEM, Nov-Jan) and the Spring Intermonsoon (SIM, Mar-May) since 2003...

  2. Signatures of global warming and regional climate shift in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Roshin, R.P.; Narvekar, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Vivekanandan, E.

    phytoplankton biomass during fall and winter is attributed to the iron-fertilization driven by enhanced dust-delivery under this regional climate shift. Finally, it is shown that the increased fish (oil-sardine) catch in the eastern and western Arabian Sea after...

  3. Controls on organic carbon distribution in sediments from the eastern Arabian Sea margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.; Raju, S.V.

    Sediment cores from the upper continental slope of the eastern Arabian Sea have high organic carbon (OC), CaCO sub(3), and sand content at the top. The values decrease with increasing depth in the Holocene and Upper Pleistocene. Topographic highs...

  4. Carbon cycling in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon: Significance of salps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Jayakumar, D.A.

    Winter cooling and mixing brings nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) to the surface waters over large parts of the northern Arabian Sea, but the rates of primary production as well as carbon export from the euphotic zone are not especially high during...

  5. On the dynamics of the Lakshadweep high and low in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    chain in the vicinity of where they form, propagate westward, extending across the southern Arabian Sea a few months after genesis. We investigate the dynamics of the high and low with an analytic model and with numerical simulations using a dynamical...

  6. Comparison of measured and satellite-derived spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients for the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.

    The results of study comparing the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients Kd(Lambda) measured in the Arabian Sea with those derived from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) using three algorithms, of which two are empirical...

  7. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    KAUST Repository

    Byron, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25

  8. Zooplankton incidence in abnormally high sea surface temperature in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Zooplankton in an abnormally high sea surface temperature (33.1 to 33.8 degrees C) and alternate bands of slick formation were studied in the Eastern Arabian Sea during 26 and 29 April 1981. The phenomenon which may be due to intense diurnal heating...

  9. Seasonally reversing current bands across 15 degrees N in the Arabian Sea and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Murty, C.S.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sastry, J.S.

    Geostrophic currents computed from hydrographic data collected in different months from a section along 15 degrees N in the Arabian Sea show alternate N-S current bands. Flow directions of these bands are found to reverse with the change in season...

  10. The petrochemical production capacity of the Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Corporation (SABIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development program of the SABIC (Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Co.) which has provided the building of new petrochemical units while retrofitting old units or developing the capacities of some of them. Statistical data on petrochemical production, sales and exports, contracts and joint ventures are also given. 2 tabs

  11. A note on Arabian Sea warm pool and its possible relation with monsoon onset over Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chacko, K.V.; HareeshKumar, P.V.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Mathew, B.; Bannur, V.M.

    The possible relation of the Arabian Sea Warm Pool (ASWP) with monsoon onset over Kerala is studied by utilizing the TRMM Microwave Imager data during the period 2007-2011 (5 years). The ASWP is a part of the Indian Ocean warm pool and forms...

  12. Size analysis of planktic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea: Marine Micropaleontology,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, F.J.C.; Ivanova, E.; Conan, S.M.H.; Brummer, G.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Troelstra, S.R.; van Weering, T.; van Hinte, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Planktic foraminiferal faunas from different environments in the Arabian Sea were size fractionated using 14 sieves with meshes between 100 and 710 μm, to assess the effect of the sieve mesh size cut off level on the faunal composition and to determine the size frequency distribution of individual

  13. Results are coming in from JGOFS-India cruises and collaborative projects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Madhupratap, M.

    are published in special issue of Current science 71 (11) 1996 Dec. 10. Besides, biogeochemical research in the Arabian Sea is also a part of JGOFS (India) programme. Six cruises have been undertaken aboard research vessels Sargar sampada and Sargar Kanya...

  14. Variations in swells along Eastern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Sanjiv, P.C.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.; AshokKumar, K.; Dora, G.U.; Gowthaman, R.

    A study was carried out to find the variation in wave characteristics along the eastern Arabian Sea and the influence of swells in the nearshore waves at 3 locations during summer monsoon in 2010. Percentage of swells in the measured waves was 75...

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of surface waves in shallow waters along the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    We studied the spatial and temporal variation of surface waves along the eastern Arabian Sea during 2011 and 2012. Measured directional wave data at two shallow water locations and re-analysis datasets (ERA-Interim) at 0.751 intervals at four...

  16. Role of iron deficiency in production and remineralization of organic matter in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea contains the only major western-boundary upwelling system in the world's oceans During summer, strong southwesterly winds bring up subsurface waters from depths of up to 200m off Somalia, Yemen and Oman These waters, having high...

  17. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The response of the eastern Arabian Sea to prevailing winds during an upwelling event, in the peak of southwest monsoon, was studied at both coastal and open ocean environment based on the data collected as a part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean...

  18. Distribution and seasonal abundance of carangid larvae in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.; Balachandran, T.

    Carangid larvae were recorded from 8.8% of the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) stations in the Arabian Sea and 13.2% in the Bay of Bengal. Their total contribution was 1.1% of the total larvae collected. The highest number of larvae...

  19. Physical control of primary productivity on a seasonal scale in central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Madhupratap, M.; DileepKumar, M.; Gauns, M.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DeSouza, S.N.

    Using in situ data collected during 1992-1997, under the Indian programme of Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), it is shown that the biological productivity of the Arabian Sea is tightly coupled to the physical forcing mediated through nutrient...

  20. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea: Part 1 - Hydrochemical and hydrographical features of the Northern basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.

    Three water masses in the Arabian Sea have been identified from their physical and chemical characteristics: (i) water mass which originates in the surface layer and has high salinity,low oxygen and high pH ; (ii) water mass below it which has its...