WorldWideScience

Sample records for arabian gulf coasts

  1. Activity concentration of some anthropogenic radionuclides in the surface marine sediments near the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A.S.; Shabana, E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of some anthropogenic radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am) have been measured in the surface of marine sediments along the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf. The samples were collected at different locations and water depths. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of the measured radionuclides showed a heterogeneous pattern and is independent of location or water depth. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  2. Bio-accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina along Arabian Gulf, Saudi Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orif Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf is considered as one of the most important sources for the crude oil all over the world. Due to the vast oil exploration and exploitation, huge amounts of organic pollutants infiltrate to the gulf. An important class of organic pollutants is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. One of the marine habitats in Arabian Gulf area is the mangrove stands, that are undoubtedly impacted by all anthropogenic factors like oil industries and sewage discharge. In the monitoring framework for mangrove ecosystem along Saudi coasts, nine mangrove stands were examined for the accumulation of PAHs in the Arabian Gulf coast. PAHs were measured using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The mean values detected for total PAHs in mangrove sediments, roots and leaf were 105.39, 680.0 and 282.4 ng/g, respectively. The trend of total PAHs concentrations in all sites showed the descending order: roots > leaf > sediments. Despite the sandy nature and low organic carbon contents of the mangrove sediments, moderate values of PAHs were detected in the major sites. PAH bio-accumulation factors for roots are higher than that in leaf. The diagnostic ratios revealed that the sources of PAHs are mainly pyrogenic, except for Damam and Damam Port that were found to be petrogenic.

  3. First record of Microsporeans and Myxosporeans (Protozoa) infecting some Arabian Gulf fishes off the coasts of the Emirates and Qatar with a description of Myxobolus Arabicus n. sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.; El-Tantawy, S.

    2002-01-01

    During a comprehensive survey carried out on helminth parasites of Arabian Gulf fishes mainly from the coasts of Emirates and Qatar, two microsporeans and three myxosporeans Protozoa were reported and described for the first time. The microsporeans included Nosema sauridae and Glugea stephani. Nosema sauridae was very common among lizard fish Saurida undosquamis which were caught from the Emirati coasts (56%) and also Qatari coasts (28%). Glugea stephani infected Psettodes erumei at the Emirati coasts with a prevalence of 10%. The myxosporideans comprised Myxobolus arabicus n. sp. from the body cavity of Plectorhynchus schotaf (Emirati coasts, 11%), Kudoa sp. from the musculature of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Emirati coasts, 8%) and also the heart wall of Caranx malabricus (Qatari coasts, 11%) and Henneguya sp. from the gills and mouth skin of Epinephelus tauvina (Emirati coasts, 7%). Fresh cysts and spores were described and photographed in situ. (author)

  4. Helminths Parasite Larvae collected from Arabian Gulf Fish. 4. Description of four Larvae including two Metacercarae, one Didymozoid and one Acanthocephalan from Emirati Coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Four helminth larvae from different fish hosts caught from Emirate coasts are described. Two are metacercariae related to genus Southampton's, type (I) and (II). Type (I) was found encysted in body cavities of the Indian halibut Psettodes erumei and the areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatusu and type (II) in the golden stripped goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus. The third larva is related to Acanthocephala and identified as Serrasentis sagittifer. It was collected from the body cavity of the spotted lizard fish Saurida undosquamius. The fourth larva belongs to the didymozoid trematodes, and was found infecting the kidneys of different hosts, such as Saurida undosquamis, the Jack pomfret Parastromateus niger and mackerel tuna Euthynnus affins. The larva related to Stephanostomum type (I) and type (II) and the dydimozoid type are described for the first time in the Arabian Gulf. (author)

  5. GC and GC-MS characterization of crude oil transformation in sediments and microbial mat samples after the 1991 oil spill in the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Oteyza, T.; Grimalt, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    The massive oil discharge in the Saudi Arabian coast at the end of the 1991 Gulf War is used here as a natural experiment to study the ability of microbial mats to transform oil residues after major spills. The degree of oil transformation has been evaluated from the analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil-polluted microbial mat samples from coastal environments exhibited an intermediate degree of transformation between that observed in superficial and deep sediments. Evaporation, photo-oxidation and water-washing seemed to lead to more effective and rapid elimination of hydrocarbons than cyanobacteria and its associated microorganisms. Furthermore, comparison of some compounds (e.g. regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons or alkylnaphthalenes) in the oil collected in the area after the spill or in the mixtures retained by cyanobacterial growth gave rise to an apparent effect of hydrocarbon preservation in the microbial mat ecosystems. - Cyanobacterial mats inhibit degradation of oil by reducing exposure to the atmosphere and seawater

  6. Identities of epilithic hydrocarbon-utilizing diazotrophic bacteria from the Arabian Gulf Coasts, and their potential for oil bioremediation without nitrogen supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Samir; Mahmoud, Huda; Khanafer, Majida; Al-Habib, Aamar; Al-Hasan, Redha

    2010-08-01

    Gravel particles from four sites along the Arabian Gulf coast in autumn, winter, and spring were naturally colonized with microbial consortia containing between 7 and 400 × 10(2) cm(-2) of cultivable oil-utilizing bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 70 representatives of oil-utilizing bacteria revealed that they were predominantly affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria and the Actinobacteria. The Gammaproteobacteria comprised among others, the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Marinobacter, Psychrobacter, Idiomarina, Alcanivorax, Cobetia, and others. Actinobacteria comprised the genera Dietzia, Kocuria, Isoptericola, Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, and others. In autumn, Firmicutes members were isolated from bay and nonbay stations while Alphaproteobacteria were detected only during winter from Anjefa bay station. Fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes of whole microbial consortia confirmed the culture-based bacterial diversities in the various epilithons in various sites and seasons. Most of the representative oil-utilizing bacteria isolated from the epilithons were diazotrophic and could attenuate oil also in nitrogen-rich (7.9-62%) and nitrogen-free (4-54%) cultures, which, makes the microbial consortia suitable for oil bioremediation in situ, without need for nitrogen supplementation. This was confirmed in bench-scale experiments in which unfertilized oily seawater was bioremediated by epilithon-coated gravel particles.

  7. Oil-bioremediation potential of two hydrocarbonoclastic, diazotrophic Marinobacter strains from hypersaline areas along the Arabian Gulf coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, D M; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

    2013-05-01

    Two halophilic, hydrocarbonoclastics bacteria, Marinobacter sedimentarum and M. flavimaris, with diazotrophic potential occured in hypersaline waters and soils in southern and northern coasts of Kuwait. Their numbers were in the magnitude of 10(3) colony forming units g(-1). The ambient salinity in the hypersaline environments was between 3.2 and 3.5 M NaCl. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains showed, respectively, 99 and 100% similarities to the sequences in the GenBank. The two strains failed to grow in the absence of NaCl, exhibited best growth and hydrocarbon biodegradation in the presence of 1 to 1.5 M NaCl, and still grew and maintained their hydrocarbonoclastic activity at salinities up to 5 M NaCl. Both species utilized Tween 80, a wide range of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons (C9-C40) and the aromatics benzene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, anthracene and naphthalene as sole sources of carbon and energy. Experimental evidence was provided for their nitrogen-fixation potential. The two halophilic Marinobacter strains successfully mineralized crude oil in nutrient media as well as in hypersaline soil and water microcosms without the use of any nitrogen fertilizers.

  8. Influence of Subtropical Jetstream on Arabian Gulf Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S.; Pauluis, O.; Ravindran, A. M.; TP, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Gulf and surrounding regions are predominantly arid. However, this region hosts a large population due to the intense economic activity that is centered on the exploration of natural resources in and around the Arabian Gulf. Thus, few precipitation events that occur during boreal winter are important for society and ecology of this region. The mechanisms of winter precipitation over the Gulf are not well understood, partly due to a lack of long term meteorological observation. Here we explore the dynamics of Arabian Gulf winter precipitation events using available observations and a high resolution atmospheric model simulation. Our analyses show that the northern Gulf receives about six times more precipitation than the southern Gulf. Often, the southern Gulf precipitation forms as a result of downstream development of northern Gulf disturbance. The southward movement of northern Gulf disturbances is influenced by the location of subtropical jet. The probability of a northern Gulf precipitating weather system to move south is higher when the subtropical jet is located equatorward of 30°N. The equatorward position of jet favors the penetration of mid-latitude weather systems over the Arabian Peninsula, which in turn pushes the Arabian anticyclone eastward and triggers moisture transport from the Arabian Sea that is essential for southern Gulf precipitation events.

  9. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P 9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean.

  10. Dust storms over the Arabian Gulf: a possible indicator of climate changes consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, W.; Enan, M.R.; Al-Hassini, H.; Stuut, J.B.; de-Beer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Dust storm frequencies and strengths were monitored during 2009 at various locations along the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), as representative sites of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. The results have been compared with a pre-2009 five-year data set. Mineralogical components of dust

  11. 'Shamal' swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.

    on the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the Arabian Sea, and this has not been studied so far. Rapid changes in wind patterns during these shamal events can alter the wave characteristics of the Arabian Sea. This has motivated us to take up the present... generated in the Gulf of Oman and the east coast of Oman propagate in the NW direction. Another swell system formed off Salalah coast (Figure 4a) propagates in the NNW direction. Since the present study aims at understanding the influence of shamal swells...

  12. Breastfeeding patterns in the Arabian Gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O

    1995-01-01

    The rapid economic change experienced in the Arab Gulf countries in the past two decades has resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of infants breast fed and the duration of breast feeding. This survey describes the current status of breast feeding in the Arabian Gulf countries in terms of the duration of exclusive breast feeding; initiation, frequency, and duration of breast feeding; bottle feeding practices; breast feeding and fertility; reasons for cessation of breast feeding; and the relationship between breast feeding and gastroenteritis. After a brief discussion of weaning practices, the paper considers factors influencing the decision to breast feed, including mothers age, education, urban-rural residence, and employment status; the influence of house maids and health workers; and the sex of the child. The marketing of baby foods in the area is described, as are various programs to support breast feeding, such as maternity protection, educational activities, marketing activities, support of appropriate weaning practices, workshops and seminars, and research activities. It is concluded that these programs have had very little effect on the promotion of breast feeding in the region for the following reasons: 1) lack of coordination; 2) lack of health regulations covering formulas and baby foods; 3) the encouragement of bottle feeding in private hospitals; 4) insufficient knowledge of managing breast feeding among health personnel; 5) a shortage of studies relating to breast feeding; and 6) insufficient training of health personnel. The institution of a global promotional policy is recommended. Such a policy would include the development of strict regulations covering marketing of substitutes, training of health workers, mass media campaigns, school and university curricula changes, and convincing policy-makers that breast feeding is beneficial.

  13. "Going Mobile" in Business Communication at an Arabian Gulf University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Nickerson, Catherine; Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a project in which undergraduate business seniors at a university in the Arabian Gulf created or evaluated the chapters of an iBook as part of their final course in business communication. Students were surveyed throughout the project, and they also participated in a focus group discussion at the end. The aim was to…

  14. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coas...

  15. The problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf is the delimitation of the maritime borders between the different bordering states and the exploitation rights of the offshore fields. Despite some bilateral agreements, the non-ratification by two bordering states of the United Nations convention on sea rights, deprives some negotiations of any legal framework. The Hormuz strait, the only opening of the gulf towards the Indian ocean, is tightly controlled by maritime powers which will never accept any interference with the maritime circulation in this pathway of considerable importance for petroleum transportation and for the world economy. (J.S.)

  16. A Call for More Research from the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMarri, Fatemah; Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana; Vaz, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in the Arabian Gulf, with the prevalence of obesity according to the latest report from the World Health Organization (WHO) showing the gulf region to be countries with the highest incidence of obesity in the 30% plus group. This study aims to examine publications on bariatric surgery and compare them with the other countries with a high incidence of obesity in the world. A literature review on bariatric surgery published from the earliest detected year of publication up until March 2016 using SCOPUS, PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar was conducted. Individual papers were assessed for types of surgery, preoperative measures, names of journals, authors, and outcomes. The data was analyzed using Endnote library and SPSS. Key words used in the search included "Bariatric Surgery," "Arabian Gulf," "Kuwait," "Qatar," "Saudi Arabia," "United Arab Emirates," "Oman," "USA," "Australia," "weight loss surgery," "sleeve gastrectomy," "gastric bypass," "gastric band," "mini-gastric bypass," "biliropancreatic diversion," "duodenal switch," and "intragastric balloon." Original papers, systematic reviews and case reports were included. From our review, the gastric sleeve proved to be the most popular published on procedure in the Arabian Gulf, whereas the USA had the highest percentage of gastric bypass surgeries and Australia had equivalent numbers when it came to gastric bypass and band. The numbers of studies from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman were 70, 44, 20, 7, 6, and 0, respectively. The mean impact factor of the published articles was 2.53 +/- 1.76 SD. Most of the publications were published in Obesity Surgery (29%), Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (5%), and Surgical Endoscopy (5%). The Arabian Gulf has both the highest percentage of bariatric procedures performed as well as the highest prevalence of obesity. However, they have the lowest number of publications and research when compared to their western

  17. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  18. Astronaut observations of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf during STS-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, Steven G.; Pitts, David E.; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the 1991 Persian Gulf war, between mid-January and June 1991, the Persian Gulf was contaminated with an estimated 4 to 6 million barrels of crude oil, released directly into the Gulf from refinement facilities, transhipment terminals, and moored tankers along the coast of Kuwait, and precipitated from oil fire smoke plumes. To assess the environmental impact of the oil, an international team of marine scientists representing 14 nations was assembled under the auspices of the United Nations International Oceanic Commission and the Regional Organization for Protection of the Marine Environment to conduct detailed surveys of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman, including hydrographic, chemical, and biological measurements. To supplement the field surveys and to serve as an aid in data interpretation, astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis photographed water features and coastal habitats in the Persian Gulf during mission STS-45 (24 March to 02 April 1992). The astronauts collected 111 hand-held, color photographs of the Gulf (72 70-mm photographs and 39 5-inch photographs) from an altitude of 296 km (160 n.mi.). The photographs reveal distributions in water turbidity associated with outflow from the Shatt-al-Arab and water circulation along the entire coast of Iran and the Strait of Hormuz, coastal wetlands and shallow-water habitats, and sticks appearing in the sunglint pattern, which appear to be oil.

  19. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette C C Wabnitz

    Full Text Available Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE. While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  20. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L. Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W. L.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change–reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions–is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a ‘business-as-usual’ climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region’s diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region. PMID:29718919

  1. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, Colette C C; Lam, Vicky W Y; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C L; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W L

    2018-01-01

    Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  2. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  3. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  4. Seasonal spreading of the Persian Gulf water mass in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prasad, T.G.; Ikeda, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The characteristics of the subsurface salinity maximum associated with the Persian Gulf Water mass (PGW) are used to quantify the spreading and mixing of PGW in the thermocline of the Arabian Sea based on a bimonthly climatology of temperature...

  5. Learner Involvement at Arabian Gulf University Self-Access Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Malcolm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabian Gulf University (AGU College of Medicine and Medical Sciences was established around 25 years ago to train students in the Arab Gulf states, including Bahrain, where it is located, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to become doctors of medicine (MDs using the problem-based learning approach (PBL. As is the case in most regional higher education institutions, entering students are expected to be proficient in English, the language through which course content is delivered. In reality, many students do not achieve the desired standard in English, thus must take one or more semesters of English language training before beginning their academic studies. IAGU has an annual intake of around 150 students of widely varying English proficiency levels, but has only recently begun to accept some students to a foundation English programme. Before that, our small English unit had to find ways of helping the least proficient improve their English skills, while providing a basis in English for medical purposes for all students, within the same course framework. Our self-access centre (SAC, though small and definitely not state of the art, has had an important role to play in accommodating the different students’ needs and interests, supplementing their course material and providing opportunities for increased language exposure.

  6. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf after the Gulf War oil spill 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, S.M.; Ahmed, M.H.; El-Raey, M.; Frihy, O.E.; Abdel Motti, A.

    1999-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to carry out a sequential geochemical extraction scheme for the partitioning of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Pb in the bottom sediments of the Arabian Gulf to detect any potential pollution impact on the gulf sediments following the 1991 gulf war oil spill, and to differentiate between anthropogenic inputs and natural background of heavy metals

  7. Wetlands of the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This set of images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The images were acquired on October 15, 2001 (Terra orbit 9718)and represent an area of 345 kilometers x 315 kilometers.The two smaller images on the right are (top) a natural color view comprised of red, green, and blue band data from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera, and (bottom) a false-color view comprised of near-infrared, red, and blue band data from the same camera. The predominantly red color of the false-color image is due to the presence of vegetation, which is bright at near-infrared wavelengths. Cities appear as grey patches, with New Orleans visible at the southern edge of Lake Pontchartrain, along the left-hand side of the images. The Lake Pontchartrain Bridge runs approximately north-south across the middle of the lake. The distinctive shape of the Mississippi River Delta can be seen to the southeast of New Orleans. Other coastal cities are visible east of the Mississippi, including Biloxi, Mobile and Pensacola.The large image is similar to the true-color nadir view, except that red band data from the 60-degree backward-looking camera has been substituted into the red channel; the blue and green data from the nadir camera have been preserved. In this visualization, green hues appear somewhat subdued, and a number of areas with a reddish color are present, particularly near the mouths of the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile-Tensaw, and Escambia Rivers. Here, the red color is highlighting differences in surface texture. This combination of angular and spectral information differentiates areas with aquatic vegetation associated with poorly drained bottom lands, marshes, and/or estuaries from the surrounding surface vegetation. These wetland regions are not as well differentiated in the conventional nadir views.Variations in ocean color are apparent in

  8. Phytoplankton abundance in relation to the quality of the coastal water – Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abdel Mohsen El Gammal

    2017-12-01

    and phytoplankton organisms at the coast of Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia was extremely overlapping and interdependent; any changes in the one component may significantly affect those of the other components.

  9. Oil-consuming microbial consortia floating in the Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, S.S.; Al-Hasan, R.H.; Ali, N.; Salamah, S.; Khanafer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Picocyanobacteria floating on the surface of the water body in the Arabian Gulf were found associated with heterotrophic bacteria. Haemocytometer counting of fresh 1 -cm surface water revealed 10 7 - 10 8 bacterial cells ml -1 , but only 10 2 - 10 3 cells ml -1 in 10-cm deep water samples. The heterotrophic bacteria comprised hydrocarbon utilizers that could grow on a mineral medium containing crude oil as sole carbon and energy source. Three-week liquid cultures of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus, Synechocystis, Pleurocapsa and Dermocarpella were found by dilution plating to contain 10 6 - 10 13 oil-utilizing bacteria ml -1 . These were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Acinetobacter and nocardioforms. Growth and hydrocarbon consumption potential of individual types of oil-utilizing bacteria in culture were higher in the presence of the picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Evidence was presented that picocyanobacterial cells may accumulate hydrocarbons from the medium, and subsequently make those compounds available to the associated hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria. It was concluded that this microbial consortium, which is apparently of cosmopolitan occurrence, could be active in controlling marine oil-pollution. (author)

  10. Free-Living Marine Interstitial Hypotrichid Ciliates from Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.S. AL-Rasheid

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples were collected at low tide from various localities of the Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary in the Arabian Gulf on several occasions during l996-l997 for the study of the marine interstitial ciliate fauna of the Sanctuary. Twenty three species belonging to the order Hypotrichida were identified after protargol impregnation, 20 of which represent new records of the fauna of Saudi Arabia, and of the Arabian Gulf at large. The distribution of each species is compared to those in similar habitats worldwide. The present study increases the total known number of hypotrichid ciliates species in Saudi Arabia to 40 species.

  11. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  12. Using GNSS for Assessment Recent Sea Level Rise in the Northwestern Part of the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, A. O.; Bos, M. S.; Fernandes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the global warming acting recently (in the 21st century) on the planet Earth, an associated sea level rise is predicted to reach up to 30 cm to 60 cm in some regions. Sea level monitoring is important for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, since it is surrounded by very long cost of about 3400 km in length and hundreds of isolated islands. The eastern coast line of KSA, in the Arabian Gulf, needs some monitoring in the long term, due to low land nature of the region. Also, the ongoing oil withdrawal activities in the area, may affect the regional sea level rise. In addition to these two facts, the tectonic structure of the Arabian Peninsula is one factor. The Regional Relative sea level in the eastern cost of Saudi Arabia has been estimated in the past using tide gauge data of more than 28 years using the vertical displacement of permanent Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS stations having time span of only about 3 years. In this paper, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. Longer time span of GNSS observations were included and 500 synthetic time series were estimated and seasonal signals were analysed. it is concluded that the varying seasonal signal present in the GNSS time series causes an underestimation of 0.1 mm/yr for short time series of 3 years. In addition to the implications of using short time series to estimate the vertical land motion, we found that if the varying seasonal signals are present in the data, the problem is aggravated. This finding can be useful for other studies analyzing short GNSS time series.

  13. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  14. Screening specifications for Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.; Laughon, R.B.; McClain, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the salt domes of Mississippi, Louisiana, and east Texas is being planned to identify study areas for potential sites for radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary screening specifications were derived for each of the geological evaluation criteria by application of the significant factors that will have an impact on the reconnaissance survey. The procedure for the derivation of each screening specification is discussed. The screening specifications are the official OWI values to be used for the first-cut acceptance for salt dome study areas along the Gulf Coast. The derivation of the screening specifications is illustrated by (1) a statement of the geological evaluation criterion, (2) a discussion of the pertinent factors affecting the criterion, and (3) the evaluation of the value of the specification

  15. Status of Gulf Coast salt dome characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, O.E.; Gibbons, M.G.; Deyling, M.A.; McPherson, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Screening and characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository have progressed through the area phase in these Gulf Coast Salt Basins. The domes studied during the area phase are described briefly. The area characterization studies are outlined, and the resulting reports are listed. Geologic and environmental studies resulted in elimination of four domes from further consideration. The remaining domes were judged acceptable and were classified as to their favorability to license. Site characterization planning for location phase activities deals primarily with technical, environmental, and socioeconomic issues of concern to the states and/or to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Department of Energy (DOE). These issues are listed and discussed. 16 references, 9 figures

  16. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  17. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Burt, John A.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum

  18. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA Chelsea L. Wright, Robyn M. Nadolny, Ju Jiang, Allen L. Richards, Daniel E...Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in...or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen. Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging

  19. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Robinson

    Full Text Available Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2 were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m. Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs.

  20. Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, Aggregate around Offshore Platforms in Qatari Waters of the Arabian Gulf to Feed on Fish Spawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Jabado, Rima W.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M.; Malki, Ameena A. Al.; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A.; Henderson, Aaron C.; Pierce, Simon J.; Ormond, Rupert F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km2 were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres’ estimated total length (mean 6.92±1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs. PMID:23516456

  1. Sediment characteristics, brine chemistry and evolution of murayr sabkha, Arabian (persian) gulf, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basyoni, Mohammed H; Mousa Basim A

    2009-01-01

    Murayr Sabkha, on the western coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, Saudi Arabia, is a siliciclastic dominated sabkha, with minor bioclasts and shells derived from the shore area and the surrounding tertiary carbonates. The sabkha is subdivided into three areas: the vegetated sabkha, the bare sabkha and artificial saline pan. The vegetated sabkha area surrounds the bare sabkha surface, composed of wind blown sand and reworked gypsum crystals. This area is far from the present day water table, and is covered with halophytes that increase in density towards the bare sabkha area. The bare sabkha area is located about one meter below the surface of the vegetated sabkha area. It is wet most of the time, as the water table is shallow (< 120 cm in depth). The surface of this area is composed of thin buckling crusts, polygonal tepee ridges, and efflorescent gypsum and/or halite patches. The saline pan is an artificial excavation near the eastern part of the sabkha and is filled with seepage groundwater. It is floored with a crust of grass-like gypsum crystals. Petrographic, mineralogic (by XRD), and field examinations of sediment samples collected from 32 trenches in the sabkha revealed that gypsum is the dominant sulfate mineral recorded in the sabkha. The gypsum is formed of random lenticular mud-sized and sand-sized crystals at the top 70 cm, and aggregates of lenticular and rosette gravelsized crystals near the water table. Halite is recorded at/near the sediment surface as efflorescent crust and cement, respectively. Anhydrite is recorded near the water table, whereas celestite is recorded near the gulf side. Based on a study of 32 brine samples in Murayr Sabkha, it was found that the groundwater in the sabkha is of chloride type (MgCl2 and CaCl2) of marine origin. It is recharged mainly from seepage of recent marine water from the gulf side and from marine and meteoric waters reacted with the surrounding carbonates. It seems that the capillary rise of these waters

  2. Influence of eastern Arabian Sea on summer monsoon rainfall over west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Rao, M.S.; Rao, M.V.

    and distant nature. In order to realise the model results and the influence of Arabian sea in the context of long range forecasting of monsoon rainfall, we have examined the correlation between the rainfall over west coast of India and premonsoon thermal...

  3. Developing Field Test Procedures for Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Farhat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production and petrochemical plants in the Arabian Gulf are exposed to severe environmental conditions of high temperature and humidity. This makes these plants susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CSCC. The laboratory testing fails to provide the exact field environmental conditions. A cost efficient field test setup for CSCC was designed and developed for the Arabian Gulf. The setup included designing self-sustained loading devices, samples, and sample racks. The samples were exposed to a stress equivalent to 80% and 100% of their yield strength. This paper describes the developed test procedures to establish testing with high level of accuracy and repeatability. It also discusses the design aspects and the challenges that were met.

  4. American Higher Education in the Arabian Gulf-A Force for Liberalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The question this paper addresses is Why have American foreign branch campuses proliferated so rapidly in the Arabian Gulf, and what role...development of the nonreligious sciences, inspired by the ancient Greeks. The history of Arab higher education starts with the Islamic renaissance in the...Euclids’s mathematics, Ptolemy’s astronomy , Archimedes’s mechanics and Hippocrate’s medical sciences.16 During the eighth and through the twelfth

  5. Neotectonic Activity from the Upper Reaches of the Arabian Gulf and Possibilities of New Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissakian, V. K.; Abdul Ahad, A. D.; Al-Ansari, N.; Knutsson, S.

    2018-03-01

    Upper reaches of the Arabian Gulf consist of different types of fine sediments including the vast Mesopotamia Plain sediments, tidal flat sediments and estuarine sabkha sediments. The height of the plain starts from zero meter and increases northwards to three meters with extremely gentle gradient. The vast plain to the north of the Arabian Gulf is drained by Shat Al-Arab (Shat means river in Iraqi slang language) and Khor Al-Zubair (Khor means estuary). The former drains the extreme eastern part of the plain; whereas, the latter drains the western part. Shat Al-Arab is the resultant of confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers near Al-Qurna town; about 160 km north of the Arabian Gulf mouth at Al-Fao town; whereas, the length of Khor Al-Zubair is about 50 km; as measured from Um Qasir Harbor. The drainage system around Khor Al-Zubair is extremely fine dendritic; whereas around Shat Al-Arab is almost parallel running from both sides of the river towards the river; almost perpendicularly. The fine dendritic drainage around Khor Al-Zubair shows clear recent erosional activity, beside water divides, abandoned irrigation channels and dislocated irrigational channels and estuarine distributaries; all are good indication for a Neotectonic activity in the region. These may indicate the presence of subsurface anticlines, which may represent oil fields; since tens of subsurface anticlines occur in near surroundings, which are oil fields.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Scomberomorus commerson using sequence analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mansourkiaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson, is an epipelagic and migratory species of family Scombridae which have a significant role in terms of ecology and fishery. 100 samples were collected from the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea. Part of their dorsal fins was snipped and transferred to micro-tubes containing ethanol; then, DNAs were extracted and HRM-Real Time PCR was performed to designate representative specimens for sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of S. commerson from Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. None clustered Neighbor Joining tree indicated the proximity amid S. commerson in four sites. As numbers demonstrated in sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region a sublimely high degree of genetic similarity among S. commerson from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were perceived, thereafter, having one stock structure of S. commerson in four regions were proved, and this approximation can be merely justified by their migration process along the coasts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. Therefore, the assessment of distribution patterns of 20 haplotypes in the constructed phylogenetic tree using mtDNA D-Loop sequences ascertained that no significant clustering according to the sampling sites was concluded.

  7. Energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaidi, Adel; AlFaris, Fadi; Montoya, Francisco G.; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Building sector consumes a significant amount of energy worldwide (up to 40% of the total global energy); moreover, by the year 2030 the consumption is expected to increase by 50%. One of the reasons is that the performance of buildings and its components degrade over the years. In recent years, energy benchmarking for government office buildings, large scale public buildings and large commercial buildings is one of the key energy saving projects for promoting the development of building energy efficiency and sustainable energy savings in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO_2 emissions and conventional air pollution. This paper focuses on energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region. In addition, this paper will analyze a sample of shopping centers data in Gulf Coast Region (Dubai, Ajman, Sharjah, Oman and Bahrain). It aims to develop a benchmark for these shopping centers by highlighting the status of energy consumption performance. This research will support the sustainability movement in Gulf area through classifying the shopping centers into: Poor, Usual and Best Practices in terms of energy efficiency. According to the benchmarking analysis in this paper, the shopping centers best energy management practices in the Gulf Coast Region are the buildings that consume less than 810 kW h/m"2/yr, whereas the poor building practices are the centers that consume greater than 1439 kW h/m"2/yr. The conclusions of this work can be used as a reference for shopping centres benchmarking with similar climate. - Highlights: •The energy consumption data of shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region were gathered. •A benchmarking of energy consumption for the public areas for the shopping centers in the Gulf Coast Region was developed. •The shopping centers have the usual practice in the region between 810 kW h/m"2/yr and 1439 kW h/m"2/yr.

  8. Distribution of nutrients in the shelf waters of the Arabian sea along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, C.V.G.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    The paper presents a descriptive account of the distribution of phosphates, silicates and nitrates in the shelf waters of Arabian Sea along the West Coast of India including a brief mention about the hydrographical features and their relationship...

  9. Why is mean sea level along the Indian coast higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Levelling observations conducted during the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India (1858-1909) and subsequent observations showed that mean sea level along the coast of India is higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea, the difference...

  10. Gulf Coast climate change adaptation pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Climate change-related issues place substantial operating and financial burdens on public transit agencies, particularly in coastal settings. Gulf of Mexico coastal transit agencies and their constituents are especially vulnerable to natural hazards ...

  11. Hydrocarbon distributions in sediments of the open area of the Arabian Gulf following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Ghazi, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the open area of the Arabian Gulf were analysed for total petroleum hydrocarbons and specific aliphatic hydrocarbon components in order to provide information on the extent of oil contamination and the degree of weathering of the spilled oil following the Gulf War. The surface distribution of the petroleum hydrocarbons showed an increasing trend towards the north-east, and among the individual transects there was a pronounced increasing trend towards the north-west direction. Despite off-shore oil-related activities as well as a potential impact from the 1991 oil spill, the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the study area were relatively low. This finding may be attributed to the effectiveness of weathering processes. (author)

  12. Cascading of high salinity bottom waters from the Arabian/Persian Gulf to the northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Solovyev, Vladimir; Francis, Xavier; Hyder, Patrick; Chen, Feng; Asif, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Cascading (aka shelf convection) is a specific type of buoyancy driven current in which dense water is formed over the continental shelf and then descends down the slope to a greater depth. The cascades of dense water down continental slopes provide a mechanism for shelf-ocean exchange in many parts of the world's oceans (Shapiro et al, 2003). Dense water is formed on the shelf by a number of processes, with high evaporation, limited river discharge and low precipitation being the major processes in warm climates (Ivanov et al, 2004). The formation and outflow of high salinity waters in the near-bottom layer of the Arabian/Persian Gulf is an example of dense water cascading (Bower et al 2000). Despite of its importance for the self-cleaning and the state of the marine ecosystem in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the properties of the outflow have so far mainly been analysed using climatologically averaged data or observations of a limited set of parameters (mainly temperature), see (Bower et al 2000). In this paper we study the dynamics of the flow using a comprehensive set of observational data (temperature, salinity velocity and turbidity profiles) obtained during the GRASP (Gulf Reconnaissance And Selective Profiling) observational campaign in the Gulf of Oman, which are complemented by the results of numerical modelling of the area using a number of 3D ocean models, and some ARGO T/S profiles. The GRASP measurements were carried out using an Aqualog climbing moored profiler, which was equipped with a Seabird CTD sensor, a Nortek Aquadopp current meter and a Seapoint turbidity meter. The Ocean circulation models used in the study include PGM4 and IND12 (UK Met Office); and AS20 and AG60 (University of Plymouth). All models are based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) codebase with a resolution from 9 km down to 1.8 km. The models were calibrated and validated against ARGO float profiles in the area. The study revealed the mesoscale and sub

  13. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  14. 77 FR 56749 - Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... laws of the United States of America, including section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) (33 U.S.C. 1321), section 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2706), and section 301.... The Task Force's Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Strategy), created with input...

  15. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  16. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    stream_size 30182 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Marine Pollution... Bulletin, Volume 27, pp. 85-91, 1993. 0025-326X/93 $6.00+0.00 Printed in Great Britain. O 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd State of Oil Pollution in the Northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf Oil Spill R. SEN GUPTA, S. P. FONDEKAR and R. ALAGARSAMY National...

  17. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  18. Metal pollution in Al-Khobar seawater, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Talal; Alfaifi, Hussain; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2017-06-15

    In order to assess heavy metals pollution along the Al-Khobar coastline, 30 seawater samples and 15 sediment ones were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The analysis indicated a southward decreasing pattern in most heavy metal concentrations and the average values of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, As and Cr were higher than the ones reported from some worldwide seas and gulfs. Most of the highest levels were recorded within the bays and were related with in situ under sediments especially that composed of clays and very fine sands, and in localities characterized with anthropogenic activities like landfilling, desalination plants, fishing boats, oil spills and solid rubbish. The results of the present study provide useful background for further marine investigation and management in the Arabian Gulf region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella among waterfowl along the Texas Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigar, M K; Cummings, K J; Rankin, S C

    2017-12-01

    Migratory waterfowl may play a role in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic pathogens, given their ability to travel long distances and their use of varied habitats. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among waterfowl along the Texas Gulf coast and to characterize the isolates. Faecal samples were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl at four wildlife management areas from September through November, 2016. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized by serotyping and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. The apparent prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding was 0.5% (2/375). Serotypes identified were Thompson and Braenderup, and both isolates were susceptible to all anti-microbial agents tested. Although faecal contamination of agricultural fields or surface waters could serve as a potential source of zoonotic Salmonella transmission, waterfowl along the Gulf coast during the fall hunting season appear to pose minimal risk. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Geological and hydrological exploration of Gulf Coast Salt Domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The geologic exploration program in the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Region is based on a screening process that includes a series of increasingly detailed studies. The screening procedure takes the following steps: (1) determination of regions for further study (in this case, the salt domes of the interior Gulf Coast); (2) regional surveys and the determination of areas within those regions which are thought to be most suitable and which are recommended for further evaluation (in this case, eight specific salt domes); (3) area characterizations and the determination of locations within the areas which are thought to have a high probability of suitability (in this case, two or three of the eight salt domes); (4) location studies and the determination of a potential repository site, which is thought to be suitable and licensable and which is recommended for completion of site characterization studies

  4. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  5. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal V.

    2017-08-03

    The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature), and human (i.e., from oil-related activities) sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world\\'s largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill). However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE) species richness (S) of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′) of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI\\'s Marine Biotic Index, AMBI) conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI) ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE) values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2) show relatively higher S, H\\' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2). In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  6. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal V.; Qurban, Mohammad A.; Borja, Angel; Krishnakumar, Periyadan K.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.

    2017-01-01

    The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature), and human (i.e., from oil-related activities) sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world's largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill). However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE) species richness (S) of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′) of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI's Marine Biotic Index, AMBI) conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI) ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE) values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2) show relatively higher S, H' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2). In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  7. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadickal V. Joydas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature, and human (i.e., from oil-related activities sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world's largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill. However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE species richness (S of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′ of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI's Marine Biotic Index, AMBI conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2 show relatively higher S, H' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2. In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  8. Hydrographic Data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office: Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea, and Arabian Sea 1923-1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alessi, Carrol

    1999-01-01

    Temperature-salinity-depth profile data were obtained for the Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea and parts of the Arabian Sea from the Master Oceanographic Observations Data Set (MOODS), located at the U.S...

  9. Regional consensus opinion for the management of Beta thalassemia major in the Arabian Gulf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia syndrome has diverse clinical presentations and a global spread that has far exceeded the classical Mediterranean basin where the mutations arose. The mutations that give rise to either alpha or beta thalassemia are numerous, resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from carrier state to life-threatening, inherited hemolytic anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. Beta thalassemia major constitutes a remarkable challenge to health care providers. The complications arising due to the anemia, transfusional iron overload, as well as other therapy-related complications add to the complexity of this condition. To produce this consensus opinion manuscript, a PubMed search was performed to gather evidence-based original articles, review articles, as well as published work reflecting the experience of physicians and scientists in the Arabian Gulf region in an effort to standardize the management protocol. PMID:24044606

  10. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  11. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  12. Living Behaviors and Molecular Characterization of Benthic Foraminifera in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Khalil, Amjad; Holzmann, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The benthic foraminifera are among the major carbonate producers in modern Arabian Gulf waters and are found living in all marine habitats. They have been recognized as proxies to assess paleoenvironmental changes, however, their biological behaviors in modern environments needs to be further studied. The current study attempts to explain the biology of benthic foraminifera in terms of their living behaviors and molecular characterization, from different regions of the western side of the Arabian Gulf. Accordingly, two major groups of benthic foraminifera, namely rotaliids and miliolids, are examined under laboratory conditions. Results illustrate that the rotaliids are more resistant to environmental changes than miliolids, as their granular reticulopodial network is stronger than among the miliolids, with high cytoplasmic streaming. The pseudopodia extend out from both primary and secondary apertures, and aid the organism in locomotion by attaching to the wall of hard substrate. As a result they drag their whole bodies toward the direction of motion. In rotaliids, the movement rate is high and is attributed to the extension of pseudopodia through all apertures, compared with miliolids in which pseudopodia extend out from the primary aperture only. The innate behavior of both groups was observed as a function of external stimulus, i.e., light, nutrients, and availability of substrate. The observation on average life span reflected that the rotaliids was able to survive longer than miliolids. Molecular analysis reveals the presence of four groups, i.e., Ammonia, Murrayinella, Glabratellina, and Elphidium which support the morphological taxonomy at the genus level. However, BLAST analysis contradicts the species level taxonomy, which challenges the classification based upon hard-shell morphology. Nevertheless, monophyletic clustering is observed among all major groups. The study concludes that the morphological taxonomy needs to be augmented by molecular analysis

  13. Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force---Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Science Assessment and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelby; Dausman, Alyssa M.; Lavoie, Dawn L.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force (GCERTF) was established by Executive Order 13554 as a result of recommendations from “America’s Gulf Coast: A Long-term Recovery Plan after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill” by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus (Mabus Report). The GCERTF consists of members from 11 Federal agencies and representatives from each State bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The GCERTF was charged to develop a holistic, long-term, science-based Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy for the Gulf of Mexico. Federal and State agencies staffed the GCERTF with experts in fields such as policy, budgeting, and science to help develop the Strategy. The Strategy was built on existing authorities and resources and represents enhanced collaboration and a recognition of the shared responsibility among Federal and State governments to restore the Gulf Coast ecosystem. In this time of severe fiscal constraints, Task Force member agencies and States are committed to establishing shared priorities and working together to achieve them.As part of this effort, three staffers, one National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) scientist and two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists, created and led a Science Coordination Team (SCT) to guide scientific input into the development of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy. The SCT leads from the GCERTF coordinated more than 70 scientists from the Federal and State Task Force member agencies to participate in development of a restoration-oriented science document focused on the entire Gulf of Mexico, from inland watersheds to the deep blue waters. The SCT leads and scientists were organized into six different working groups based on expanded goals from the Mabus Report: Coastal habitats are healthy and resilient.Living coastal and marine resources are healthy, diverse, and sustainable.Coastal communities are adaptive and resilient.Storm buffers are sustainable.Inland habitats and

  14. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work deal with the environmental assessment of Tarut Island Coastal area. • Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been chemically analyzed. • Thirteen major and trace metals have been recorded. • The area of study is highly polluted with Arsenic and Mercury. - Abstract: Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area

  15. Phage and Nucleocytoplasmic Large Viral Sequences Dominate Coral Viromes from the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda; Jose, Liny

    2017-01-01

    Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive ( Porites harrisoni ) and branching ( Acropora downingi ) corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated. Samples were collected from five reef systems during summer, autumn and winter of 2011/2012. The two coral viromes contain 12 viral families, including 10 dsDNA viral families [Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Myoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Baculoviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Mimiviridae and one unclassified family], one-ssDNA viral family (Microviridae) and one RNA viral family (Retroviridae). Overall, sequences significantly similar to Podoviridae were the most abundant in the P. harrisoni and A. downingi viromes. Various morphological types of virus-like particles (VLPs) were confirmed in the healthy coral tissue by transmission electron microscopy, including large tailless VLPs and electron-dense core VLPs. Tailed bacteriophages were isolated from coral tissue using a plaque assay. Higher functional gene diversity was recorded in A. downingi than in P. harrisoni , and comparative metagenomics revealed that the Gulf viral assemblages are functionally distinct from Pacific Ocean coral viral communities.

  16. Phage and Nucleocytoplasmic Large Viral Sequences Dominate Coral Viromes from the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mahmoud

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive (Porites harrisoni and branching (Acropora downingi corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated. Samples were collected from five reef systems during summer, autumn and winter of 2011/2012. The two coral viromes contain 12 viral families, including 10 dsDNA viral families [Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Myoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Baculoviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Mimiviridae and one unclassified family], one-ssDNA viral family (Microviridae and one RNA viral family (Retroviridae. Overall, sequences significantly similar to Podoviridae were the most abundant in the P. harrisoni and A. downingi viromes. Various morphological types of virus-like particles (VLPs were confirmed in the healthy coral tissue by transmission electron microscopy, including large tailless VLPs and electron-dense core VLPs. Tailed bacteriophages were isolated from coral tissue using a plaque assay. Higher functional gene diversity was recorded in A. downingi than in P. harrisoni, and comparative metagenomics revealed that the Gulf viral assemblages are functionally distinct from Pacific Ocean coral viral communities.

  17. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and abundance of marine debris along the coast of karachi (arabian sea), pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qari, R.; Shaffat, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the first assessment of distribution and abundance of marine debris along the coast of Karachi (Arabian Sea), Pakistan. The quadrate method was used for estimating the debris material. Total 40 quadrates were made for collecting the debris on 4 beaches: Sandspit, Buleji, Paradise Point and Korangi Creek in the year of 2012. Nine different types of debris comprising of plastics, glasses, thermopore, clothing, rubber, paper, pot pieces and cigarette filters were collected. The study revealed that, plastic was found in high quantity at all four beaches of Karachi. Other most common items were as follow: plastic at Paradise Point and Sandspit; pot pieces at Korangi Creek and rubber at Buleji. A total weight of 12277.45 g debris was recorded during the whole study period. It was also noted that Paradise Point is the dirtiest beach (5612.6 g) when compared with other studied beaches. (author)

  19. Spatial distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of Al-Khafji area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Talal; Alfaifi, Hussain; Almadani, Sattam A; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2017-11-13

    To document the spatial distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of the Al-Khafji area in the northern part of the Saudi Arabian Gulf, 27 samples were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Sr, As, Fe, Co, and Ni analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results revealed the following descending order of the metal concentrations: Sr > Fe > Al > As > Mn > Ni > V > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Co > Hg > Cd. Average levels of enrichment factor of Sr, As, Hg, Cd, Ni, V, Cu, Co, and Pb were higher than 2 (218.10, 128.50, 80.94, 41.50, 12.31, 5.66, 2.95, 2.90, and 2.85, respectively) and that means the anthropogenic sources of these metals, while Al, Zn, Cr and Mn have enrichment factor less than 2, which implies natural sources. Average values of Sr, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, and As in the coastal sediments of Al-Khafji area were mostly higher than the values recorded from the background shale and earth crust and from those results along coasts of the Caspian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The highest levels of Cu in the northern part of the studied coastline might be due to Al-Khafji desalination plant, while levels of Al, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the central part may be a result of landfilling and industrial sewage. The highest levels of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, and V in the southern part seem to be due to oil pollutants from Khafji Joint Operations (KJO). The higher values of Sr in the studied sediments in general and particularly in locality 7 could relate to the hypersalinity and aragonitic composition of the scleractinian corals abundant in that area.

  20. Utilization of hydrocarbons by cyanobacteria from microbial mats on oily coasts of the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hasan, R.H.; Sorkhoh, N.A.; Al Bader, D.; Radwan, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Phormidium corium, the predominant cyanobacteria in microbial mats on crude oil polluting the Arabian Gulf coasts, contribute to oil degradation by consuming individual n-alkanes. Both cyanobacteria grew phototrophically better in the presence of crude oil or individual n-alkanes than in their absence, indicating that hydrocarbons may have been utilized. This result was true when growth was measured in terms of dry biomass, as well as in terms of the content of biliprotein, the accessory pigment characteristic of cyanobacteria. The phototrophic biomass production by P. corium was directly proportional to the concentration of n-nonadecane (C 19 ) in the medium. The chlorophyll to carotene ratio of hydrocarbon-grown cyanobacteria did not decrease compared to the ratio in the absence of hydrocarbons, indicating that on hydrocarbons the organisms were not stressed. Comparing the fatty acid patterns of total lipids from hydrocarbon-grown cyanobacteria to those of the same organisms grown without hydrocarbons confirms that n-alkanes were taken up and oxidized to fatty acids by both cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  1. A coastal hazards data base for the US Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.C. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Gornitz, V.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; White, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US Gulf Coast at risk to sea-level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US Gulf Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data base systems. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data on elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. To allow for the identification of coastlines at risk from sea-level rise, 7 of the 22 original data variables in this data base were classified by vulnerability and used to create 7 relative risk variables. These relative risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a coastal vulnerability index for each grid cell and/or line segment. The data for these 29 variables (i.e., the 22 original variables and 7 risk variables) have been placed into the following data formats: (1) Gridded polygon data for the 22 original data variables. Data include elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. (2) Gridded polygon data for the seven classified risk variables. The risk variables are classified versions of: mean coastal elevation, geology, geomorphology, local subsidence trend, mean shoreline displacement, maximum tidal range, and maximum significant wave height. (3) 1:2,000,000 line segment data containing the 29 data variables (the 22 original data variables and the seven classified risk variables). (4) Supplemental point data for the stations used in calculating the sea-level trend and tidal range data sets. (5) Supplemental line segment data containing a 1:2,000,000 digitized coastline of the US Gulf Coast as defined by this document.

  2. Vaccinations against respiratory infections in Arabian Gulf countries: Barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Bondagji, Daniah M; Alshehari, Abdullah A; Basyouni, Mada H; Alhawassi, Tariq M; BinDhim, Nasser F; Rashid, Harunor

    2017-06-16

    To study the uptake, barriers and motivators of influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis vaccines among members of public in Arabian Gulf countries. A cross-sectional survey among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries' residents. Data collected electronically through a smartphone app. The survey variables aimed to investigate the respondents' awareness about vaccines against influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis infections. Collected data concerning the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, their perception toward vaccine uptake and the factors that motivate or demotivate them from taking influenza vaccine. The data were analysed statistically using the SPSS v.23.0. Differences in the characteristics of users from different countries were quantified through bivariate analysis. Other important variables and controlling factors were studied using logistic regression. A total of 1812 respondents participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years, 82% were male and 24% had ≥ 1 chronic diseases. The overall uptake of influenza vaccine was 17% (21% among "at risk" people) and ranged from 15% in Saudi Arabia to 24% in Qatar. Doctor's advice (23%) and a perception of having low body immunity (21%) were the main cited reasons for being vaccinated, whereas unawareness about the vaccine (43%) was the main barrier. The overall uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in the preceding three years was 22% (25% among "at risk" individuals) and ranged from 0% in Bahrain to 79% in Kuwait. The overall uptake of pertussis vaccine was 16% (31% among "vulnerable" people), and ranged from 7% in Saudi Arabia to 75% in Oman. The overall uptake of meningococcal vaccine was 20% (29% among the "at risk" people) and ranged from 3% in Oman to 50% in Bahrain. The vaccination uptake across GCC countries is suboptimal and varies widely across the countries. Further research is needed to unearth the reasons and formulate action plan.

  3. Review on the national and regional response to oil spill in the Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhro, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decades, the oil industry has grown enormously, resulting in a considerable number of island's oil and gas fields being fully developed. Over 30% of all oil carried by ships is produced in this region. It is exported through a narrow bottle-neck passage, Straight of Hormuz creating a continuous heavy traffic that increases the daily risk potential for ships collision, grounding or explosion that threaten the marine environment and the economy of the coastal states, should a major oil spill occur anytime. The paper reviews some major spills in the area and the action taken by the responsible authorities. The high risk potential of pollution by oil or any other harmful substances in the Arabian Gulf always exists and the need for a competent national and regional bodies was felt necessary to co-ordinate efforts in combating or mitigating marine oil pollution. The paper reviews and discusses the status of such bodies and concludes with an emphasis on strengthening them

  4. An Update of Sea Level Rise in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Bos, Machiel; Fernandes, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Relative sea level variations in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf have been estimated in the past using no more than 10 to 15 years of observations. In Alothman et al. (2014), we have almost doubled the period to 28.7 years by examining all available tide gauge data in the area and constructing a mean gauge time-series from seven coastal tide gauges. We found for the period 1979-2007 a relative sea level rise of about 2mm/yr, which correspond to an absolute sea level rise of about 1.5mm/yr based on the vertical displacement of GNSS stations in the region. By taking into account the temporal correlations we concluded that previous published results underestimate the true sea level rate error in this area by a factor of 5-10. In this work, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. In addition, we compare our results with GRACE derived ocean bottom pressure time series which are a good proxy of the changes in water mass in this area over time.

  5. Geohydrolic studies of Gulf Coast interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Gulf Coast salt domes requires that the cavities be free from groundwater dissolution for 250,000 years. Salinity variations of groundwater near selected domes were investigated. Saline groundwater anomalies (saline plumes) in aquifers pierced or uplifted by the dome may be the result of salt solution by groundwater. In the Northeast Texas salt dome basin electric logs of oil and gas wells have been used to estimate groundwater salinities in aquifers near selected domes. Thus far, the analyses have revealed saline groundwater anomalies around 4 of the 9 domes studied. Estimates of the rate of salt dissolution from domes associated with saline groundwater plumes indicate that less than 30 meters of salt will be removed from the upper surfaces of the dome in 250,000 years. Thus, these preliminary studies show that even apparently unstable domes may be sufficiently stable to serve as waste disposal sites. 6 figures

  6. Reservoirs and petroleum systems of the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Janet K.

    2010-01-01

    This GIS product was designed to provide a quick look at the ages and products (oil or gas) of major reservoir intervals with respect to the different petroleum systems that have been identified in the Gulf Coast Region. The three major petroleum source-rock systems are the Tertiary (Paleocene-Eocene) Wilcox Formation, Cretaceous (Turonian) Eagle Ford Formation, and Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation. The ages of the reservoir units extend from Jurassic to Pleistocene. By combining various GIS layers, the user can gain insights into the maximum extent of each petroleum system and the pathways for petroleum migration from the source rocks to traps. Interpretations based on these data should improve development of exploration models for this petroleum-rich province.

  7. Monitoring changing geologic features along the Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Water truth observations, NASA aerial photography from an altitude of 60,000 feet, and ERTS-1 imagery made off the South Texas coast showed a mutually consistent pattern of water turbidity in the Gulf of Mexico. At the time of the measurements, plumes of turbid water were being formed by ebb-tidal discharges from the bays through tidal passes and were being diverted southward by the coastwise drift. The occurrence of the bands of turbid and relatively clear water suggests the existence of large scale helical circulation cells having axes almost parallel to shore with the outer turbid band probably being a zone of surface divergence and bottom water upwelling. The impingement of a turbid water mass onto the shoreline suggests that some, and perhaps most, of the suspended sediment in nearshore waters may not have been stirred up from the nearshore sea floor but may have traveled long distances in the water mass, perhaps even having remained in suspension from the time of its entry into the Gulf tidal inlets such as Aransas Pass.

  8. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  9. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The greater Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems of the Arabian Peninsula form two of the most prolific petroleum-producing systems in the world. Source rocks of these systems extend throughout the eastern Arabian Peninsula and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Primary elements of these Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems - source, reservoir, and seal rocks - are of great areal extent and exceptional quality. The combination of these regionally extensive, exceptional petroleum-system elements, and the formation of large subtle structural closures prior to, or coincident with, peak oil generation and migration, have produced oil and gas fields with reserve volumes second to none.

  10. Prevalence, management, and outcomes of familial hypercholesterolemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Almahmeed, Wael; Rashed, Wafa; Ridha, Mustafa; Santos, Raul D; Zubaid, Mohammad

    2018-02-14

    Information on the epidemiology of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the Arabian Gulf region, which has an elevated rate of consanguinity and type II diabetes, is scarce. To assess the prevalence of FH, its management, and impact on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes in a multicenter cohort of Arabian Gulf patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients (N = 3224) hospitalized with ACS were studied. FH was diagnosed using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. A composite endpoint of nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and mortality between the "probable/definite" and the "unlikely" FH patients was assessed after 1 year. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. At admission, the proportion of "probable/definite", "possible", and "unlikely" FH in ACS patients was 3.7% (n = 119), 28% (n = 911), and 68% (n = 2194), respectively. Overall, 54% (n = 1730) of patients had diabetes, whereas 24% (n = 783) were current smokers. The "probable/definite" FH group was younger (50 vs 63 years; P definite" FH cohort had worse lipid control (13% vs 23%; P < .001) and presented with a greater association with the composite ASCVD endpoint when compared with the "unlikely" FH group (odds ratio: 1.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.38; P = .047) after multivariable adjustment. In Arabian Gulf citizens, FH was common in ACS patients, was undertreated, and was associated with a worse 1-year prognosis. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast

    KAUST Repository

    Baalkhuyur, Fadiyah M.

    2018-04-24

    This study assesses the presence of microplastic litter in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of 26 commercial and non-commercial fish species from four difference habitats sampled along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. A total of 178 individual were examined for microplastics. In total, 26 microplastic fragments were found. Of these, 16 being films (61.5%) and 10 being fishing thread (38.5%). FTIR analysis revealed that the most abundant polymers were polypropylene and polyethylene. The grouper (Epinephelus spp.) sampled at Jazan registered the highest number of ingested microplastics. This fish species is benthic and feeds on benthic invertebrates. Although differences in the abundance of microplastic ingestion among species were not statistically significant, a significant change was observed when the level of ingestion of microplastics particles was compared among the habitats. The higher abundance of microplastics particles may be related to the habitats of fish and the presence of microplastics debris near the seabed. The results of this study represent a first evidence that microplastic pollution represents an emerging threat to Red Sea fishes, their food web and human consumers.

  12. In situ spectral response of the Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman coastal waters to bio-optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-10-01

    Mapping of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) over the coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the satellite-based observations, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), has shown inferior performance (Chl-a overestimation) than that of deep waters. Studies in the region have shown that this poor performance is due to three reasons: (i) water turbidity (sediments re-suspension), and the presence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), (ii) bottom reflectance and (iii) incapability of the existing atmospheric correction models to reduce the effect of the aerosols from the water leaving radiance. Therefore, this work focuses on investigating the sensitivity of the in situ spectral signatures of these coastal waters to the algal (chlorophyll: Chl-a), non-algal (sediments and CDOM) and the bottom reflectance properties, in absence of contributions from the atmosphere. Consequently, the collected in situ spectral signatures will improve our understanding of Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman water properties. For this purpose, comprehensive field measurements were carried out between 2013 and 2016, over Abu-Dhabi (Arabian Gulf) and Fujairah (Sea of Oman) where unique water quality data were collected. Based on the in situ water spectral analysis, the bottom reflectance (water depth<20m) are found to degrade the performance of the conventional ocean color algorithms more than the sediment-laden waters where these waters increase the R rs at the blue and red ranges. The increasing presence of CDOM markedly decreases the R rs in the blue range, which is conflicting with the effect of Chl-a. Given the inadequate performance of the widely used ocean-color algorithms (OC3: ocean color 3, OC2: ocean color 2) in retrieving Chl-a in these very shallow coastal waters, therefore, a new algorithm is proposed here based on a 3-bands ratio approach using [R rs (656) -1 -R rs (506) -1 ]×R rs (661). The selected optimum bands (656nm, 506nm, and 661nm) from

  13. Tidal regime in Gulf of Kutch, west coast of India, by 2D model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Gouveia, A.D.; Vethamony, P.

    of topographically generated eddies. An analysis of momentum balance shows that the dynamics of tidal propagation in the Gulf is characterized by a balance between the pressure gradient and friction near the coast, whereas in the central region, local acceleration...

  14. Geothermal resources: Frio Formation, Middle Texas Gulf Coast. Geological circular 75-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.; Agagu, O.K.; Dorfman, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    Regional sand distribution of the Frio Formation is determined; depositional environments are identified; and the geopressured zone and its relationship to sand/shale distribution, growth faults, and fluid temperatures in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast are delineated. (MHR)

  15. The Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences: a successful model of a multinational medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually

  16. Item Analysis of Multiple Choice Questions at the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Kheyami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study aimed to carry out a post-validation item analysis of multiple choice questions (MCQs in medical examinations in order to evaluate correlations between item difficulty, item discrimination and distraction effectiveness so as to determine whether questions should be included, modified or discarded. In addition, the optimal number of options per MCQ was analysed. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. A total of 800 MCQs and 4,000 distractors were analysed between November 2013 and June 2016. Results: The mean difficulty index ranged from 36.70–73.14%. The mean discrimination index ranged from 0.20–0.34. The mean distractor efficiency ranged from 66.50–90.00%. Of the items, 48.4%, 35.3%, 11.4%, 3.9% and 1.1% had zero, one, two, three and four nonfunctional distractors (NFDs, respectively. Using three or four rather than five options in each MCQ resulted in 95% or 83.6% of items having zero NFDs, respectively. The distractor efficiency was 91.87%, 85.83% and 64.13% for difficult, acceptable and easy items, respectively (P <0.005. Distractor efficiency was 83.33%, 83.24% and 77.56% for items with excellent, acceptable and poor discrimination, respectively (P <0.005. The average Kuder-Richardson formula 20 reliability coefficient was 0.76. Conclusion: A considerable number of the MCQ items were within acceptable ranges. However, some items needed to be discarded or revised. Using three or four rather than five options in MCQs is recommended to reduce the number of NFDs and improve the overall quality of the examination.

  17. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... supply domestic demand for a century, even with significant exports of LNG. Gulf Coast contends that the... is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. Gulf Coast seeks to export this LNG on its own behalf and...-going carrier, and with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the alternative, Gulf...

  18. 78 FR 71037 - New Orleans & Gulf Coast Railway Company, Inc.-Lease Exemption Containing Interchange Commitment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35777] New Orleans & Gulf... Company New Orleans & Gulf Coast Railway Company, Inc. (NOGC), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... to a third-party railroad, BNSF Railway Company and the New Orleans Public Belt are located in very...

  19. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coast Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along t...

  20. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome

  1. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  2. Fog chemistry in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Suresh; Raghunathan, Ravikrishna; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lee, Taehyoung; Chen, Jing; Kommalapati, Raghava R.; Murugesan, Karthik; Shen, Xinhua; Qingzhong, Yuan; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    Fog samples were collected in two population centers of the US Gulf Coast (Houston, Texas and Baton Rouge, Louisiana) using Caltech active strand cloud collectors. A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected in Baton Rouge (November 2004-February 2005) and Houston (February 2006). These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved organic carbon, major inorganic ions, and a variety of organic compounds including organic acids, aromatics, carbonyls, and linear alkanes. Fogs in both environments were of moderate density, with typical fog liquid water contents <100 mg m -3. Fog samples collected in Houston reflect a clear influence of marine and anthropogenic inputs, while Baton Rouge samples also reflect agricultural inputs. The volume-weighted mean fog pH was somewhat more acidic (˜4.3) in Houston than in Baton Rouge (˜5.0). A wide pH range was observed in fog at both locations. Houston fog had higher concentrations of Cl -, NO 3-, Na +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+. Sulfate to nitrate ratios were high in fogs at both locations, typical of many clouds in the eastern US. Total organic carbon concentrations were much higher in Houston fogs than in Baton Rouge fogs. Efforts to speciate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reveal large contributions from organic acids and carbonyls, with smaller contributions from other organic compound families including aromatics, alkanes, amides, and alcohols. Approximately 40% of the fog DOC was unspeciated in samples from both study locations.

  3. Air-sea exchange of CO2 in the Gulf of Kutch, northern Arabian Sea based on bomb-carbon in corals and tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Ramesh, R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1994-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses were carried out in the annual bands of a 40 year old coral collected from the Gulf of Kutch (22.6degN, 70degE) in the northern Arabian Sea and in the annual rings of a teak tree from Thane (19deg14'N, 73deg24'E) near Bombay. These measurements were made in order to obtain the rates of air-sea exchange of CO 2 and the advective mixing of water in the Gulf of Kutch. The Δ 14 C peak in the Thane tree occurs in the year 1964, with a value of ∼630 part per thousand, significantly lower than that of the mean atmospheric Δ 14 C of the northern hemisphere (∼1000 part per thousand). The radiocarbon time series of the coral was modelled considering the supply of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf through air-sea exchange and advective water transport from the open Arabian Sea. A reasonable fit for the coral data was obtained with an air-sea CO 2 exchange rate of 11-12 mol m -2 yr -1 , and an advective velocity of 28 m yr -1 between the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Kutch; this was based on a model generated time series for radiocarbon in the Arabian Sea. The deduced velocity (∼ 28 m yr -1 ) of the advective transport of water between the Gulf and the Arabian Sea is much lower than the surface tidal current velocity in this region, but can be understood in terms of net fluxes of carbon and radiocarbon to the gulf to match the observed coral Δ 14 C time series. (author). 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  5. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  6. Salinity-driven decadal changes in phytoplankton community in the NW Arabian Gulf of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Turki; Al-Ghunaim, Aws; Subba Rao, D V; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Al-Rifaie, Kholood; Al-Baz, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of hydrological data obtained between 2000 and 2013 from a time series station in Kuwait Bay (station K6) and an offshore southern location (station 18) off Kuwait showed drastic increase in salinity by 6 units. We tested the hypothesis that increased salinity impacted phytoplankton community characteristics in these semiarid waters. The Arabian Gulf receives seasonal freshwater discharge in the north via Shatt Al-Arab estuary with a peak during March-July. A north to south gradient in the proportion of the freshwater exists between station A in the vicinity of Shatt Al-Arab estuary and station 18 in the southern offshore area. At station A, the proportion of freshwater was the highest (25.6-42.5%) in 1997 but decreased to 0.8-4.6% by 2012-2013. The prevailing hyperhaline conditions off Kuwait are attributed to decrease in the river flow. Phytoplankton data showed a decrease in the number of constituent taxa in the last one decade from 353 to 159 in the Kuwait Bay and from 164 to 156 in the offshore area. A shift in their biomass was caused by a decrease in diatom species from 243 to 92 in the coastal waters and from 108 to 83 in the offshore areas with a concomitant increase of smaller algae. Mutivariate agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling, and one-way analysis of similarity analyses on phytoplankton data at different taxonomic levels confirmed significant changes in their community organization on a decadal scale. These evidences support our hypothesis that the salinity-related environmental changes have resulted in a coincidental decrease in species diversity and significant changes in phytoplankton community between the years 2000-2002 and 2012-2013, off Kuwait. This in turn would affect the pelagic trophodynamics as evident from a drastic decrease in the catch landings of Tenulosa ilisha (Suboor), Carangoides sp. (Hamam), Otolithes ruber (Nowaiby), Parastromateus niger (Halwaya), and Epinephelus

  7. An overview of UAE2 flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Walker, Annette L.; Burger, Roelof P.; Ross, Kristy E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Bruintjes, Roelof T.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsu, Christina; Jensen, Tara L.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Al Mandoos, Abdulla; Al Mangoosh, Abdulla; Miller, Steven D.; Porter, John N.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-07-01

    In August through September 2004 the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) was conducted in the southern Arabian Gulf region. We present atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol data collected on 18 flights by the South African Aerocommander aircraft. In the first few kilometers, we observed high concentrations of both regional dust (from 100 to 300 μg m-3 in background, to over 1.5 mg m-3 in events) and ubiquitous sulfate based pollution from the Gulf's prevalent petroleum industry (10-100 μg m-3). Smoke and pollution from Europe and possibly Africa were found at levels between 1.5 and 5 km. Inland, classic deep over desert boundary layer characteristics were found. Over the Arabian Gulf, dust and pollution were most often either trapped below or sequestered above a strong stable boundary. However, there were cases where a well-distributed aerosol layer crossed the inversion uniformly. Data suggest that the observed vertical profiles can be explained by the rapid formation of stable marine boundary layers as air moves offshore. This can decouple aerosol layers from within the boundary layer to those aloft in regions of vertical wind shear. In the case of pollution, the ability of flaring plumes to penetrate the inversion may also in part determine layering. In coastal regions without vertical wind shear, uniform concentrations with height across the inversion are a result of internal boundary layer development. We conclude that the bulk of the observed variability in particle vertical distribution appear to be controlled by mesoscale and microscale processes, such as the sea/land breeze.

  8. The Arabian Gulf and Security Policy: The Past as Present, the Present as Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    permeates the Green Zone. Recent cooperation between the Maliki government and Sunni groups represents the tactical “divide-and-conquer” approach to... Kegan Paul, 2005), 76-77. 42. Zahlan, Modern Gulf States, 65. 43. Peck, Gulf Arab States, 38. 44. Zahlan, Modern Gulf States, 67. 70 JSOU Report

  9. Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian Plate: Implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrajehi, Abdullah; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Daoud, Mohamed; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Ergintav, Semih; Gomez, Francisco; Sholan, Jamal; Bou-Rabee, Firyal; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Haileab, Biniam; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Mahmoud, Salah; Rayan, Ali; Bendik, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Five years of continuously recording GPS observations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia together with new continuous and survey-mode GPS observations broadly distributed across the Arabian Peninsula provide the basis for substantially improved estimates of present-day motion and internal deformation of the Arabian plate. We derive the following relative, geodetic Euler vectors (latitude (°N), longitude (°E), rate (°/Myr, counterclockwise)) for Arabia-Nubia (31.7 ± 0.2, 24.6 ± 0.3, 0.37 ± 0.01), Arabia-Somalia (22.0 ± 0.5, 26.2 ± 0.5, 0.40 ± 0.01), Arabia-India (18.0 ± 3.8, 87.6 ± 3.3, 0.07 ± 0.01), Arabia-Sinai (35.7 ± 0.8, 17.1 ± 5.0, 0.15 ± 0.04), and Arabia-Eurasia (27.5 ± 0.1, 17.6 ± 0.3, 0.404 ± 0.004). We use these Euler vectors to estimate present-day stability of the Arabian plate, the rate and direction of extension across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and slip rates along the southern Dead Sea fault south of the Lebanon restraining bend (4.5-4.7 ± 0.2 mm/yr, left lateral; 0.8-1.1 ± 0.3 mm/yr extension) and the Owens fracture zone (3.2-2.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr, right lateral, increasing from north to south; 1-2 mm/yr extension). On a broad scale, the Arabian plate has no resolvable internal deformation (weighted root mean square of residual motions for Arabia equals 0.6 mm/yr), although there is marginally significant evidence for N-S shortening in the Palmyride Mountains, Syria at ≤ 1.5 mm/yr. We show that present-day Arabia plate motion with respect to Eurasia is consistent within uncertainties (i.e., ±10%) with plate tectonic estimates since the early Miocene when Arabia separated from Nubia. We estimate the time of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting from present-day Arabia motion, plate tectonic evidence for a 70% increase in Arabia-Nubia relative motion at 13 Ma, and the width of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and find that rifting initiated roughly simultaneously (±2.2 Myr) along the strike of the Red Sea from the Gulf of Suez to the Afar

  10. Distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of Dammam Al-Jubail area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Fahd; Al-Malky, Mazen

    2018-03-01

    Present work aims to document the distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of the Dammam Al-Jubail area, Saudi Arabian Gulf. Twenty-six samples were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Sr, As, Fe, Co and Ni analysis. Results of enrichment factor indicated that Sr, Cd, Cu, Hg, V, As, Ni, Cr and Zn gave enrichment factors higher than 2 (98.87, 40.28, 33.20, 27.87, 26.11, 14.10, 6.15, 3.72 and 2.62 respectively) implying anthropogenic sources, while Pb, Mn and Al have very low background level (1.37, 0.71, 0.124 respectively), probably originated from natural sources. Average concentrations of Sr, V, Hg, Cd and As were mostly higher than those from the background shale and the earth crust, the Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the sediment quality guidelines, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Oman. The higher levels of the studied metals are mostly related samples with high Al and TOM content, as well as the visible anthropogenic pollutants along the studied coastline. The most recorded anthropogenic pollutants were sewage effluent, landfilling due to coastal infrastructure development, oil spills, petrochemical industries and desalination plants in Al-Jubail industrial city. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  12. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, freons, oxygen, currents (ADCP), underway and other measurements collected in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic as part of the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise (GOMECC) 2007 (NODC Accession 0066603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GOMECC Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise(RB 07-05). North American Carbon Program (NACP) Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC) Cruise on board NOAA...

  13. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2018-04-24

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world\\'s hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum group. Previous studies have shown that considerable genetic diversity exists within the group and that group members found within the PAG are significantly differentiated from those found externally, in the Gulf of Oman and wider waters. However, little is known about this genetic diversity. As an initial step towards understanding whether this diversity could represent niche adapted, selectable populations within the S. thermophilum group that may act as natural sources of stress tolerant associations to Indo-Pacific reefs, we investigate whether the diversity is structured between populations and where the location of the internal-external genetic partition lies. We use regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and chloroplastic psbA gene (non-coding region) from >100 S. thermophilum group-harbouring Porites spp. (P. lobata, P. lutea, and P. harrisoni) sampled across steep temperature and salinity gradients to conduct analyses of variance and create maximum parsimony networks to assess genetic structure and (dis)similarity within and between populations of S. thermophilum found within the PAG and externally in the Gulf of Oman. Our analyses resolve a sharp genetic boundary between Symbiodinium populations in the western Strait of Hormuz and identify significant genetic structure between populations with as little as 20 km between them demonstrating that differentiation between populations is likely due to factors other than limited connectivity. Further, we hypothesize that genotypes identified outside of the PAG in the Gulf of Oman existing in near-oceanic salinities, yet thermally challenging waters, putatively represent candidates for stress-tolerant symbionts that could act as natural seed populations of

  14. Impact of fractionator and pipeline projects on Gulf Coast NGL markets: 1992--1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of major pipeline and fractionation expansion projects on Gulf Coast NGL supply/demand balances over the next five years. Specific projects that are included in this evaluation are summarized below: NGL pipeline expansions -- (1) Seminole pipeline, MAPCO (purity products and raw mix) and (2) Sterling pipeline, Koch (purity products); Mont Belvieu fractionator expansions -- (1) Enterprise Products Company (raw mix), (2) Warren Petroleum Company (raw mix), and (3) Trident, et al. Gulf Coast II Fractionator (raw mix); Westlake Petrochemical Company (E/P splitter). The impact of these projects is evaluated for specific NGL products including: purity ethane; E/P mix; propane; N-butane

  15. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patgaonkar, R.S.; Vethamony, P.; Lokesh, K.S.; Babu, M.T.

    A 2D Hydrodynamic-Particle Analysis model was applied to the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) to estimate the residence time of pollutants. The tidal currents in the Gulf have a strong E-W component, which prevents the material in the north being transported...

  16. Arsenic and arsenic species in shellfish and finfish from the western Arabian Gulf and consumer health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Periyadan K., E-mail: kkumarpk@kfupm.edu.sa [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Qurban, Mohammad A. [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Stiboller, Michael [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Nachman, Keeve E. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Joydas, Thadickal V.; Manikandan, Karuppasamy P.; Mushir, Shemsi Ahsan [Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the levels of total arsenic and arsenic species in marine biota such as clams (Meretrix meretrix; N = 21) and pearl oyster (Pinctada radiata; N = 5) collected from nine costal sites in Jan 2014, and cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis; N = 8), shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus; N = 1), and seven commercially important finfish species (N = 23) collected during Apr–May 2013 from seven offshore sites in the western Arabian Gulf. Total As and As species such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra), arsenosugar-glycerol (As-Gly) and inorganic As (iAs) were determined by using ICPMS and HPLC/ICPMS. In bivalves, the total As concentrations ranged from 16 to 118 mg/kg dry mass; the toxic iAs fraction contributed on average less than 0.8% of the total As, while the nontoxic AB fraction formed around 58%. Total As concentrations for the remaining seafood (cuttlefish, shrimp and finfish) ranged from 11 to 134 mg/kg dry mass and the iAs and AB fractions contributed on average 0.03% and 81% respectively of the total As. There was no significant relationship between the tissue concentrations of total As and iAs in the samples. There was also no significant relationship between As levels in seafood and geographical location or salinity of the waters from which samples were collected. Based on our results, we recommend introducing a maximum permissible level of arsenic in seafood from the Gulf based on iAs content rather than based on total As. Our analyses of cancer risks and non-cancer hazards identified non-negligible risks and the potential for hazards; the greatest risks were identified for expatriate consumers of bivalves and high-end consumers of seafood. Despite this, many uncertainties remain that would be best addressed by further analyses. - Highlights: • Arabian Gulf seafood contains relatively high concentrations of total arsenic. • Non-toxic arsenobetaine forms

  17. Arsenic and arsenic species in shellfish and finfish from the western Arabian Gulf and consumer health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, Periyadan K.; Qurban, Mohammad A.; Stiboller, Michael; Nachman, Keeve E.; Joydas, Thadickal V.; Manikandan, Karuppasamy P.; Mushir, Shemsi Ahsan; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the levels of total arsenic and arsenic species in marine biota such as clams (Meretrix meretrix; N = 21) and pearl oyster (Pinctada radiata; N = 5) collected from nine costal sites in Jan 2014, and cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis; N = 8), shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus; N = 1), and seven commercially important finfish species (N = 23) collected during Apr–May 2013 from seven offshore sites in the western Arabian Gulf. Total As and As species such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra), arsenosugar-glycerol (As-Gly) and inorganic As (iAs) were determined by using ICPMS and HPLC/ICPMS. In bivalves, the total As concentrations ranged from 16 to 118 mg/kg dry mass; the toxic iAs fraction contributed on average less than 0.8% of the total As, while the nontoxic AB fraction formed around 58%. Total As concentrations for the remaining seafood (cuttlefish, shrimp and finfish) ranged from 11 to 134 mg/kg dry mass and the iAs and AB fractions contributed on average 0.03% and 81% respectively of the total As. There was no significant relationship between the tissue concentrations of total As and iAs in the samples. There was also no significant relationship between As levels in seafood and geographical location or salinity of the waters from which samples were collected. Based on our results, we recommend introducing a maximum permissible level of arsenic in seafood from the Gulf based on iAs content rather than based on total As. Our analyses of cancer risks and non-cancer hazards identified non-negligible risks and the potential for hazards; the greatest risks were identified for expatriate consumers of bivalves and high-end consumers of seafood. Despite this, many uncertainties remain that would be best addressed by further analyses. - Highlights: • Arabian Gulf seafood contains relatively high concentrations of total arsenic. • Non-toxic arsenobetaine forms

  18. Children's Attachment-Related Narratives Following US Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Linkages with Understanding and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Verbovaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The central focus of this study was the perceptions of emotional security among 64 elementary school-aged children exposed to the hurricanes that affected the US Gulf Coast in 2005. Specifically, we examined the representational qualities of attachment, exploration, and caregiving as assessed with a narrative story-stem task in relation to…

  19. Lessons learned using water quality models to develop numeric nutrient criteria for a Gulf coast estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay is a shallow, mesotrophic estuary located in the north-central coast of the Gulf of Mexico, US. In November 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) proposed numeric total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) water quality cr...

  20. Initial estimates of hurricane Katrina impacts of Mississippi gulf coast forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Glass; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pummeled the Gulf Coast of Mississippi on August 29, 2005. The eye wall of the storm passed directly over Hancock and Pearl River Counties. Harrison, Jackson, Stone, and George Counties on the windward side of the hurricane's path sustained severe damage before the storm's strength dissipated as it moved farther inland (fig. 1).

  1. Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.

  2. Sustaining Productivity of Planted Forests in the Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Bamett; Allan E. Tiarks; Mary Anne Sword

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the Gulf Coastal Region provide the basis for its economic well-being. Because of the semitropical climate, abundant rainfall and availing topography, the nation's richest plant communities thrive. These forests are predominately privately owned. Millions of private landowners are committed to managing their forests for a broad array of values which...

  3. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2017-09-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  4. Policing Iranian Sanctions: Trade, Identity, and Smuggling Networks in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Kegan Paul International, 1994), 9–10. 22 A.W. Stiffe, “Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf: VII Bahrain,” The Geographical Journal 18, no... Kegan Paul International, 1994. Al Naboodah, H.M. “The Commercial Activity of Bahrain and Oman in the Early Middle Ages.” Proceedings of the...Byman, Daniel and Jerrold Green . Political Violence and Stability in the States of the Northern Persian Gulf. California: RAND, 1999. Castles

  5. Marine archaeological exploration on the western coast, Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Bhatt, B.K.

    large number of stone anchors at Gogha, Hatab, and Gopnath. These are similar to those reported from the western coast of the Saurashtra, particularly at Dwarka (Gaur et al. 2001), Bet Dwarka (Sundaresh et al. 2004), Miyani, Visawada (Gaur et al. 2007.... Stone Anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat Coast, Bulletin of Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology 26: 43-50 Yang, Q.Z. 1990. South- Song Stone Anchors in China, Korea and Japan, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 19 (2): 113-121. ...

  6. Systematic thematic review of e-health research in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Arabian Gulf): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alan S; Turjoman, Rebal; Shaheen, Yanal; Al Sayyed, Farah; Hwang, Mu Ji; Malick, Faryal

    2017-05-01

    Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC or 'Arabian Gulf'), comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, is a political organization sharing a common history and culture. All GCC nations have made substantial investments in telecommunications and electronic health infrastructure since 2000. Methods We conducted a literature search in English and Arabic on peer-reviewed e-health research up to December 2014 originating in the GCC. The objective was to retrieve all research on e-health in the GCC and to categorize and analyse it qualitatively to reveal the current state of e-health research and development in the region. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, conference papers and graduate theses written on e-health in the GCC. Blogs, health websites and non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded. Results Three hundred and six articles were retrieved, categorized and analysed qualitatively to reveal the state of e-health research in the GCC. Both country-specific and GCC-wide major themes were identified using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software and summarized. The most common type of study was an overview (35.0%), with common study designs of case studies (26.8%) and descriptive articles (46.4%). Significant themes were: prospective national benefits from e-health, implementation and satisfaction with electronic health records, online technologies in medical education, innovative systems (case studies), and information security and personal health information. Discussion This is the first comprehensive analytical literature review of e-health in the GCC. Important research gaps were identified: few cost-benefit analyses, controlled interventional studies, or research targeting gender and religious issues were retrieved.

  7. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  8. Tides in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, R.K.; Shetye, S.R.

    the model, described in Section 2, are the same as those in Shetye (1999); similar equations have also been used earlier by Prandle (1985) amongst others. Numerical solutions to these equations in a channel that is representative of the geometry of the Gulf.... The boundary condition at upstream end (solid boundary at x ¼ L)isuðL;tÞ¼0: Periodic solutions in time to the above system of equation have been obtained using a staggered grid and an explicit finite-difference leap-frog scheme in time; h and b have been taken...

  9. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A research proposal for investigating the effect of foreign direct investments on technology transfer in the Arabian Gulf (GCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Kaher; Whelan, Susan

    2015-02-01

    In terms of hosting countries perspectives, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) could have a positive effect on its developing economy, by transferring, both: resources of finance in addition to the international technology (ITT) (Choi, 1997). Multinational companies (MNC) are engaging in the transferring of the new technology, internally as well as licensing older one; they create "Spillover" (Knowledge) for facilitating the transfer of ITT in line with geographical location, period of investment, and the type of industry. Furthermore, the effect of these spillovers depends on the level of transferring this knowledge based on FDI attraction policies of the host country (Huang, 2009). Considering the Arabian Gulf council countries (GCC) as "FDI- rich hosting countries", who are not seeking for financial resources, i.e., they already have a huge financial capacity for funding their different projects, even though FDI has been powerfully presented in GCC . They saw noticeable increases in FDI inflows beginning in 2002, (www.unctad.org.fdistatistics). Therefore by assumption, FDI inflows to GCC could positively affect their economic growth through transferring the advanced technology, in order to build up their level of technology (productivity growth) as well as their economic diversification strategy. If so how this Knowledge could be diffused and measured in order to maximize its benefit and enhancing the productivity growth, and what is the current status of (GCC).

  11. 2016 USACE National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) Gulf Coast Lidar and Imagery Acquisition - Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) plans to perform a coastal survey along the Gulf Coast in 2016 with funding provided by...

  12. Hurricane Rita Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast after Hurricane Rita made landfall. The regions photographed range from San Luis Pass, Texas...

  13. Hurricane Katrina Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama after Hurricane Katrina made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  14. 77 FR 66580 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Gulf Coast Pipeline Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... subordinate its rights, acquired under the Wetland Reserve Program, to allow the Gulf Coast Segment (Gulf.... Department of State (DOS) to build and operate the Keystone XL Project. In the original application, Trans... built in three segments: The approximately 850-mile long ``Steele City'' segment from the U.S. border to...

  15. Climatology of transport and diffusion conditions along the United States Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the atmospheric transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts was conducted to aid in planning and site selection for potentially polluting installations. This paper presents selected results from an extensive statistical study. Regular hourly observational data were obtained from 30 coastal stations from Maine to Texas and analyzed in terms of conditions important to emission transport and diffusion. The 30 stations included four pairs with one of each pair at a greater distance from the coast than the other but near the same latitude

  16. Factors affecting employment in the Arabian Gulf region, 1975-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, R E

    1991-01-01

    "This paper attempts to shed light on factors contributing to the identification of the main employment patterns in the countries of the Arab Gulf region. It also seeks to answer the question of how determinants of employment vary between national and foreign workforces and whether these determinants have changed over time." The countries concerned are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. excerpt

  17. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  18. Estimating the spatial distribution of power outages during hurricanes in the Gulf coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.-R.; Guikema, Seth D.; Quiring, Steven M.; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Rosowsky, David; Davidson, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes have caused severe damage to the electric power system throughout the Gulf coast region of the US, and electric power is critical to post-hurricane disaster response as well as to long-term recovery for impacted areas. Managing power outage risk and preparing for post-storm recovery efforts requires accurate methods for estimating the number and location of power outages. This paper builds on past work on statistical power outage estimation models to develop, test, and demonstrate a statistical power outage risk estimation model for the Gulf Coast region of the US. Previous work used binary hurricane-indicator variables representing particular hurricanes in order to achieve a good fit to the past data. To use these models for predicting power outages during future hurricanes, one must implicitly assume that an approaching hurricane is similar to the average of the past hurricanes. The model developed in this paper replaces these indicator variables with physically measurable variables, enabling future predictions to be based on only well-understood characteristics of hurricanes. The models were developed using data about power outages during nine hurricanes in three states served by a large, investor-owned utility company in the Gulf Coast region

  19. Duckling survival, fecundity, and habitat selection of mottled duck broods on the upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the western Gulf Coast have exhibited a steep population decline since the mid 1990s. Low rates of breeding incidence and nest success have been implicated in this decline, but duckling survival and the habitat needs of broods have not been previously investigated in this region. We fitted mottled duck ducklings and adult females with radio transmitters and tracked broods to estimate duckling survival and brood habitat selection on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Duckling survival to 30 days was high (range among models 0.354–0.567) compared to other dabbling duck species. Estimated fecundity was low, (range among models 0.398–0.634) however, indicating that overall reproductive output is low. Within coastal marsh, broods selected home ranges with more water cover and less upland and fresh marsh landcover than was available in the study area. Within coastal marsh home ranges, broods selected for water cover relative to other landcover types, and there was some evidence that broods avoided unvegetated landcover. Although high quality brood habitat is undeniably important, management efforts to increase mottled duck population growth on the western Gulf Coast may best be spent on increasing nesting habitat quality to increase nest success and breeding incidence.

  20. SEASONAL ASSESSMENT OF HYDROGRAPHIC VARIABLES AND PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY IN THE ARABIAN SEA WATERS OF KERALA, SOUTHWEST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of the hydrographic variables and phytoplankton species in the Arabian Sea waters of the Kerala coast, Southern India was investigated during different seasons. The variables such as pH, temperature, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll-a contents of water were found to be high during pre-monsoon season and the dissolved oxygen content was minimal. The concentration of nutrients viz., nitrate, phosphate, silicate varied independently. In the study a total of 53 species of phytoplankton were recorded. Their density was higher during the post-monsoon season than during other seasons and the diatoms were found to be the dominant species. The major phytoplankton in terms of frequency and abundance were the species namely, Biddulphia mobiliensis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Licmophora abbreviata, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum micans and Oscillatoria sp. They showed significant positive correlation with pH, temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll-a contents, whereas turbidity, dissolved oxygen and silicate exhibited significant negative correlation. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA developed two principal components with 84.74% of total variability in the water quality which separated pre- and post-monsoon periods from the monsoon season on axis I, and pre-monsoon and monsoon periods from post-monsoon on axis II.

  1. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  2. Impacts of Central American Fires on Ozone Air Quality along the US Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Wang, Y.; Estes, M. J.; Lei, R.; Talbot, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning in Central America is associated with agriculture activities and occurs regularly during April and May every year. Satellite observations have documented frequent transport of wildfire smoke from Mexico and Central America to the southern US, causing haze and exceedance of fine particle matter. However, the impacts of those fires on surface ozone in the US are poorly understood. This study uses both observations and modeling to examine the effects of the springtime Central America fire emissions on surface ozone over the Gulf coastal regions over a long-term time period (2002-2015). Passive tracer simulation in the nested-grid version of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model over North America is used to identify the days when Central American fire plumes reached the US Gulf Coast. During the identified fire-impact days, Central American fires are estimated to result in an average of 9 ppbv enhancement of regional background ozone over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) region. Satellite-observed distributions of AOD and CO are used to examine the transport pathways and effects of those fires on atmospheric composition. Finally, we integrate satellite observations, ground measurements, and modeling to quantify the impact of Central American fires on springtime ozone air quality along the US Gulf Coast in terms of both long-term (2002-2015) mean and extreme cases.

  3. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Beeville/Bay City National Topographic Map, Texas Gulf Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    As part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program Geodata International, Inc. of Dallas, Texas, conducted an airborne gamma ray and total magnetic field survey of Beeville/Bay City Quadrangle of the Texas Gulf Coast area. Volume 1 gives the description of the program and results, and volume 2 gives the flight line profile data and statistical analysis results. The Beeville/Bay City Map Sheet shows Tertiary and Quaternary-aged strata which are part of the coastal plain of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline. The Cenozoic sediments overlie Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian rocks, and have a relatively gentle homoclinal dip toward the gulf. The Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of the map sheet overlie the western flank of the Houston-East Texas Embayment, the northeastern side of the Rio Grande Embayment, and the San Marcos Arch. Recent and Pleistocene sediments crop-out in the south and east, and are more extensive in the vicinity of the structural embayments. The Pliocene-aged Goliad Formation crops-out extensively to the northwest. Miocene and Eocene strata occur in the northwestern corner of the map sheet. The uranium deposits occur in the Tertiary strata, but are most intensely mined in the Eocene strata immediately to the west of the map sheet area

  4. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013.

  5. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.

    of poten tial fishery resources from the E x- clusive Economic Zone of India (EEZ) are about 3.5 to 4.7 mt (million tonnes) 1 ? 4 . The recent estimates on a n- nual marine landings from the I n dian coast show that they fluctuate between 2.2 and 2...., John, S. and Somavanshi, V. S., Bull. Fish. Surv. India , 1990, 20 , 1 ? 37. 2. Bhargava, R. M. S., in India's Exclusive Economic Zone ( eds Qasim, S. Z. and Roonal, G. S.), Omega Scientific, New Delhi, 1996, pp. 122 ? 131. 3. Goswami, S...

  6. Large scale patterns of antimicrofouling defenses in the hard coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Martin; Al Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Saha, Mahasweta; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the patterns of antimicrofouling defenses across the Red Sea may hint at the susceptibility of corals to global change. We investigated microfouling pressure as well as the relative strength of 2 alternative antimicrofouling defenses (chemical antisettlement activity, mucus release) along the pronounced environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast in 2 successive years. Microfouling pressure was exceptionally low along most of the coast but sharply increased at the southernmost sites. Mucus release correlated with temperature. Chemical defense tended to anti-correlate with mucus release. As a result, the combined action of mucus release and chemical antimicrofouling defense seemed to warrant sufficient defense against microbes along the entire coast. In the future, however, we expect enhanced energetic strain on corals when warming and/or eutrophication lead to higher bacterial fouling pressure and a shift towards putatively more costly defense by mucus release.

  7. Cavisoma magnum (Cavisomidae), a unique Pacific acanthocephalan redescribed from an unusual host, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), in the Arabian Gulf, with notes on histopathology and metal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Bannai, Majid A

    2018-01-01

    Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) Van Cleave, 1931 was originally described from a sea bass, Serranus sp. and spotted surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Perciformes) off Sri Lanka before its more recent redescription from milkfish in the Philippines in 1995. These reports were based on only light infections of their host fishes. Of the few flathead grey mullets, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), that we examined in the Arabian Gulf, one fish was infected with 1,450 worms. One milkfish, Chanos chanos (Chanidae), from the same location in the Arabian Gulf, was also heavily infected with specimens of C. magnum. The descriptions of this unique large worm are revised and for the first time, we provide SEM images, new systematic observations, metal analysis of hooks showing extremely high levels of sulfur, and histopathology in the mullet intestinal tissue. Adjustments and corrections of previous descriptive accounts are made. The histopathology studies show extensive damage to the host intestinal tissue including epithelial necrosis, hemorrhaging and worm encapsulation. There is an extensive amount of host connective tissue surrounding the worm. Results of x-ray analysis displayed high levels of sulfur in proboscis hooks, especially at the tips and edges of these attachment structures. © O.M. Amin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  8. Cavisoma magnum (Cavisomidae, a unique Pacific acanthocephalan redescribed from an unusual host, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae, in the Arabian Gulf, with notes on histopathology and metal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Omar M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927 Van Cleave, 1931 was originally described from a sea bass, Serranus sp. and spotted surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Perciformes off Sri Lanka before its more recent redescription from milkfish in the Philippines in 1995. These reports were based on only light infections of their host fishes. Of the few flathead grey mullets, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae, that we examined in the Arabian Gulf, one fish was infected with 1,450 worms. One milkfish, Chanos chanos (Chanidae, from the same location in the Arabian Gulf, was also heavily infected with specimens of C. magnum. The descriptions of this unique large worm are revised and for the first time, we provide SEM images, new systematic observations, metal analysis of hooks showing extremely high levels of sulfur, and histopathology in the mullet intestinal tissue. Adjustments and corrections of previous descriptive accounts are made. The histopathology studies show extensive damage to the host intestinal tissue including epithelial necrosis, hemorrhaging and worm encapsulation. There is an extensive amount of host connective tissue surrounding the worm. Results of x-ray analysis displayed high levels of sulfur in proboscis hooks, especially at the tips and edges of these attachment structures.

  9. Heavy metal contamination in sand and sediments near to disposal site of reject brine from desalination plant, Arabian Gulf: Assessment of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahri, Fatimh

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environment may cause series potential risk in the living system. This study was carried out to investigate heavy metal contamination in sand samples and sediments along the beach near to disposal site of reject brine from Alkhobar desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in eastern Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Fourteen heavy metals (U, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Sr, Rb, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, and Zr) were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). The obtained data revealed that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values in sediment and soil for other studies in Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, the mean values of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, As, Sr, and Zr concentrations in sand and sediments were higher than the geochemical background values in shale. The contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mC d ) and pollution load index (PLI) were assessed. According to contamination factors (CF > 1), the results showed elevated levels of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zr, and As in all samples. The highest value of contamination factor was found for As. Based on PLI (PLI > 1), the values of all sampling sites indicate a localized pollution in the study area. Current study could be useful as baseline data for heavy metals in sand and sediments nearby a desalination plant.

  10. Radon in the Gulf Coast area: Potential problem or exaggerated risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duex, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from radon has been identified by the EPA as a serious health problem; estimates indicate that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer (after smoking) and that high levels of radon may cause as many as 20,000 to 40,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. Studies of the potential risk in the Gulf Coast have been sparse. This report summarizes over 7000 previously unreported radon analyses and relates them to geological information to identify possible problem areas for the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. High levels of indoor radon are generally associated with older open-quotes crystallineclose quotes igneous and metamorphic bedrock; thus, most areas of the Gulf Coast are of relatively low risk because they are underlain by Cenozoic sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated deposits. However, some types of sedimentary deposits, such as open-quotes black shaleclose quotes and phosphate-rich rocks, can underlie areas of high risk. According to EPA indoor radon survey results the percentage of houses with screening levels greater than 4 pCi/1 (picocuries per liter) for given states is as follows: Alabama = 0.6%, Louisiana = 0.8%, Mississippi = 2.0%, and Texas = 4.0% (no data available for Florida). The data presented here for the percentage of houses with greater than 4 pCi/1 for given states is as follows: Alabama = 6.1 %, Louisiana = 0.6%, Mississippi = 2.0%, Texas = 1.6%, and Florida = 4.5%. The areas that appear to have the greatest risk are parts of northern Alabama and Mississippi, central Texas, and some areas in Florida

  11. Reconstructing Common Era relative sea-level change on the Gulf Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Matthew J.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Cahill, Niamh

    2017-01-01

    To address a paucity of Common Era data in the Gulf of Mexico, we reconstructed ~ 1.1 m of relative sea-level (RSL) rise over the past ~ 2000 years at Little Manatee River (Gulf Coast of Florida, USA). We applied a regional-scale foraminiferal transfer function to fossil assemblages preserved in a core of salt-marsh peat and organic silt that was dated using radiocarbon and recognition of pollution, 137Cs and pollen chronohorizons. Our proxy reconstruction was combined with tide-gauge data from four nearby sites spanning 1913–2014 CE. Application of an Errors-in-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process (EIV-IGP) model to the combined proxy and instrumental dataset demonstrates that RSL fell from ~ 350 to 100 BCE, before rising continuously to present. This initial RSL fall was likely the result of local-scale processes (e.g., silting up of a tidal flat or shallow sub-tidal shoal) as salt-marsh development at the site began. Since ~ 0 CE, we consider the reconstruction to be representative of regional-scale RSL trends. We removed a linear rate of 0.3 mm/yr from the RSL record using the EIV-IGP model to estimate climate-driven sea-level trends and to facilitate comparison among sites. This analysis demonstrates that since ~ 0 CE sea level did not deviate significantly from zero until accelerating continuously from ~ 1500 CE to present. Sea level was rising at 1.33 mm/yr in 1900 CE and accelerated until 2014 CE when a rate of 2.02 mm/yr was attained, which is the fastest, century-scale trend in the ~ 2000-year record. Comparison to existing reconstructions from the Gulf coast of Louisiana and the Atlantic coast of northern Florida reveal similar sea-level histories at all three sites. We explored the influence of compaction and fluvial processes on our reconstruction and concluded that compaction was likely insignificant. Fluvial processes were also likely insignificant, but further proxy evidence is needed to fully test this hypothesis. Our results

  12. Geothermal resources: Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast. Geological circular 76-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.; Loucks, R.G.; Bosch, S.C.; Dorfman, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Major sand trends were identified in the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast as part of the evaluation of its potential for producing geothermal energy. Electrical logs from 465 wells spaced 5 to 10 miles apart were used in the study. Maps illustrating total net sand and total sand percentage of the Frio Formation are included. It was found that subsurface fluid temperatures of greater than 250/sup 0/F occur in the Frio sand bodies up to 100 ft thick downdip of the high-sand trends. LA broad band in Brazoria and Galveston Counties was delineated as having geothermal potential. (JGB)

  13. SAFOD Phase III Core Sampling and Data Management at the Gulf Coast Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lockner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFODproject is yielding new insight into the San Andreas Fault (Zoback et al., 2010; Zoback et al., this issue. SAFOD drilling started in 2002 with a pilot hole, and proceeded with three phrases of drilling and coring during the summers of 2004, 2005, and 2007 (Fig. 1. One key component of theproject is curation, sampling, and documentation of SAFOD core usage at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Gulf Coast Repository (GCR at Texas A&M University. We present here the milestones accomplished over the past two years of sampling Phase III core at the GCR.

  14. Crude imports to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries to accelerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The largest crude oil commodity market in the world--the US Gulf Coast--has experienced an important change in recent years. The decline in domestic production and the increase in imports appear destined to accelerate in the coming decades. Latin American countries will continue to be a major source of US imports, and that the shortfall will have to be made up using Middle Eastern crudes, primarily those from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The paper discusses economics, US production, imports, and future trends

  15. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  16. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  17. Merging Approaches to Explore Connectivity in the Anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the Saudi Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Nanninga, Gerrit B.

    2013-09-01

    The field of marine population connectivity is receiving growing attention from ecologists worldwide. The degree to which metapopulations are connected via larval dispersal has vital ramifications for demographic and evolutionary dynamics and largely determines the way we manage threatened coastal ecosystems. Here we addressed different questions relating to connectivity by integrating direct and indirect genetic approaches over different spatial and ecological scales in a coral reef fish in the Red Sea. We developed 35 novel microsatellite loci for our study organism the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus (Rüppel 1830), which served as the basis of the following approaches. First, we collected nearly one thousand samples of A. bicinctus from 19 locations across 1500 km along the Saudi Arabian coast to infer population genetic structure. Genetic variability along the northern and central coast was weak, but showed a significant break at approximately 20°N. Implementing a model of isolation by environment with chlorophyll-a concentrations and geographic distance as predictors we were able to explain over 90% of the genetic variability in the data (R2 = 0.92). For the second approach we sampled 311 (c. 99%) putative parents and 172 juveniles at an isolated reef, Quita al Girsh (QG), to estimate self-recruitment using genetic parentage analysis. Additionally we collected 176 juveniles at surrounding locations to estimate larval dispersal from QG and ran a biophysical dispersal model of the system with real5 time climatological forcing. In concordance with model predictions, we found a complete lack (c. 0.5%) of self-recruitment over two sampling periods within our study system, thus presenting the first empirical evidence for a largely open reef fish population. Lastly, to conceptualize different hypotheses regarding the underlying processes and mechanisms of self-recruitment versus long-distance dispersal in marine organisms with pelagic larval stages, I

  18. Lifestyle and depressive risk factors associated with problematic internet use in adolescents in an Arabian Gulf culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The use of the Internet has increased around the world but more so in the Middle Eastern countries, particularly in the Arabian Gulf region. This has also produced problematic Internet use (PIU) with potential detrimental effects on physical, mental, and psychosocial health. To determine the prevalence of PIU and its association with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), comorbid, and lifestyle factors among adolescent and young adult (12- to 25-year-old) Qatari population. A cross-sectional survey. All public and private schools and university under the Supreme Council of Education and Higher Education in Doha, Qatar. A total of 3000 students (12-25 years of age) were selected through multistage stratified random sampling from public and private schools and university under the overall administration of Qatar Supreme Council of Education. Among them, 2298 students (76.6%) consented to participate in the study during September 2009 to October 2010. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic details, lifestyle, and dietary habits. Problematic Internet use and depressive tendencies were measured through validated Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and BDI. Of 2298, 71.6% were males and 28.4% were females. The overall prevalence of PIU was 17.6%. This study revealed that a significantly larger proportion of males (64.4%; P = 0.001) and Qatari students (62.9%; P nationality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; P < 0.001), male sex (OR = 1.40; P < 0.001), having nonworking mother (housewife) (OR = 1.34; P = 0.009), eating fast foods (OR = 1.57; P < 0.001), and BDI score (OR = 1.14; P = 0.003) were positively associated with PIU, whereas moderate and mild physical activity were negatively associated with PIU (OR = 0.73, P = 0.002; OR, 0.77, P = 0.003, respectively). This study adds to the growing body of evidence linking PIU with negative lifestyle and depressive risk factors, among vulnerable adolescent and young adult. Problematic Internet use is

  19. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  20. Infection of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia Parkeri: First Report from the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...Spring, MD 20910-1230, U.S.A. Abstract The molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in a Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, collected in Delaware...near Smyrna, Delaware. All specimens were tested for the presence of Rickettsia with a genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain

  1. Intentional tanning behaviors among undergraduates on the United States' Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Casey L; Gassman, Natalie R; Fernandez, Alyssa M; Bae, Sejong; Tan, Marcus C B

    2018-04-03

    Rates of melanoma have dramatically increased among adolescents and young adults in recent years, particularly among young women. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from intentional tanning practices is likely a major contributor to this epidemic. Southern and coastal regions have higher melanoma mortality rates among non-Hispanic whites in other parts of the U.S., yet little is known about tanning practices of adolescents and young adults in these regions. This study determines the prevalence and methods of intentional tanning utilized by an undergraduate population located on the United States' Gulf Coast. Undergraduate students enrolled at a university on the Gulf Coast completed an online survey from March-April 2016, self-reporting their engagement, knowledge, and attitudes regarding outdoor tanning (OT), indoor tanning (IT) and spray tanning (ST). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with tanning behaviors. 2668 undergraduates completed the survey. Of these, 64.9% reported OT tanning, 50.7% reported ever IT, and 21.2% reported ever ST. In the largest study to date of intentional tanning behaviors of adolescents and young adults from coastal regions, we found high rates of intentional tanning behaviors. There was also significant engagement in spray tanning by this population, not previously reported for adolescents and young adults in a sample of this size. We also identified a high association between different tanning methods, indicating this population engages in multiple tanning behaviors, a phenomenon whose health consequences are not yet known.

  2. Renal Cell Toxicity of Water-Soluble Coal Extracts from the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, A. S.; Ford, S.; Ihnat, M.; Gallucci, R. M.; Philp, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Gulf Coast, many rural residents rely on private well water for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs. A large portion of this region contains lignite coal deposits within shallow aquifers that potentially leach organic matter into the water supply. It is proposed that the organic matter leached from low-rank coal deposits contributes to the development of kidney disease, however, little work has been done to investigate the toxicity of coal extracts. In this study, human kidney cells (HK-2) were exposed to water-soluble extracts of Gulf Coast Coals to assess toxicity. Cell viability was measured by direct counts of total and necrotic cells. A dose-response curve was used to generate IC50 values, and the extracts showed significant toxicity that ranged from 0.5% w/v to 3% w/v IC50. The most toxic extract was from Louisiana where coal-derived organic material has been previously linked to high incidents of renal pelvic cancer (RPC). Although the toxic threshold measured in this study is significantly higher than the concentration of organic matter in the groundwater, typically affected areas may consume contaminated water over a lifetime. It is possible that the cumulative toxic effects of coal-derived material contribute to the development of disease.

  3. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  4. Review of the NURE Assessment of the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Historic exploration and development were used to evaluate the reliability of domestic uranium reserves and potential resources estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy national uranium resource evaluation (NURE) program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province. NURE estimated 87 million pounds of reserves in the $30/lb U 3 O 8 cost category in the Coast Plain uranium resource region, most in the Gulf Coast Uranium Province. Since NURE, 40 million pounds of reserves have been mined, and 38 million pounds are estimated to remain in place as of 2012, accounting for all but 9 million pounds of U 3 O 8 in the reserve or production categories in the NURE estimate. Considering the complexities and uncertainties of the analysis, this study indicates that the NURE reserve estimates for the province were accurate. An unconditional potential resource of 1.4 billion pounds of U 3 O 8 , 600 million pounds of U 3 O 8 in the forward cost category of $30/lb U 3 O 8 (1980 prices), was estimated in 106 favorable areas by the NURE program in the province. Removing potential resources from the non-productive Houston embayment, and those reserves estimated below historic and current mining depths reduces the unconditional potential resource 33% to about 930 million pounds of U 3 O 8 , and that in the $30/lb cost category 34% to 399 million pounds of U 3 O 8 . Based on production records and reserve estimates tabulated for the region, most of the production since 1980 is likely from the reserves identified by NURE. The potential resource predicted by NURE has not been developed, likely due to a variety of factors related to the low uranium prices that have prevailed since 1980

  5. Fingerprinting groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Young, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System (GCAS) is a critical issue due to depletion of fresh groundwater and concerns for potential seawater intrusion. The study objective was to assess sources of groundwater salinity in the GCAS using ˜1,400 chemical analyses and ˜90 isotopic analyses along nine well transects in the Texas Gulf Coast, USA. Salinity increases from northeast (median total dissolved solids (TDS) 340 mg/L) to southwest (median TDS 1,160 mg/L), which inversely correlates with the precipitation distribution pattern (1,370- 600 mm/yr, respectively). Molar Cl/Br ratios (median 540-600), depleted δ2H and δ18O (-24.7‰, -4.5‰) relative to seawater (Cl/Br ˜655 and δ2H, δ18O 0‰, 0‰, respectively), and elevated 36Cl/Cl ratios (˜100), suggest precipitation enriched with marine aerosols as the dominant salinity source. Mass balance estimates suggest that marine aerosols could adequately explain salt loading over the large expanse of the GCAS. Evapotranspiration enrichment to the southwest is supported by elevated chloride concentrations in soil profiles and higher δ18O. Secondary salinity sources include dissolution of salt domes or upwelling brines from geopressured zones along growth faults, mainly near the coast in the northeast. The regional extent and large quantities of brackish water have the potential to support moderate-sized desalination plants in this location. These results have important implications for groundwater management, suggesting a current lack of regional seawater intrusion and a suitable source of relatively low TDS water for desalination.

  6. Transport and diffusion climatology of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    This study is part of a larger study of coastal meteorology and diffusion and was planned to assist in site selection of energy facilities by describing the transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts in as much detail as can be extracted from readily available meteorological data. The area covered in this study is the United States east and Gulf coasts from Maine to Texas. The region studied is all within the coastal plain and is generally characterized by flat beaches and very gentle slopes inland except in New England, where the coast is more rugged and the terrain hilly close to the sea. Meteorological variables of primary concern in this study are those which govern or influence transport and diffusion of airborne gases and particles. The most important are wind direction and speed and some measure of diffusive capacity such as turbulence, gustiness or lapse rate. Eight stations were chosen to give four pairs for comparison between a coastal station and another somewhat farther inland. The pairs are Boston and Bedford, Massachusetts; Belmar and Lakehurst, New Jersey; Cape Kennedy and Orlando, Florida; and Galveston and Houston, Texas. The same years of data were obtained for both stations in each pair. Results of selected examples are presented. The frequency of calms and of winds in the three sectors relative to the coastline is reported for the 25 coastal stations from Portland, Maine (PWM) to Brownsville, Texas (BRO). Differences between day and night in wind direction distribution are shown for six selected stations. The frequency of the five diffusion rating classes at the same coastal stations during onshore winds is also shown. Differences in dffusion conditions between day and night at six selected stations are given. The results obtained were arranged for easy use with diffusion models in which the primary meteorological inputs are wind speed and measures of lateral and vertical diffusion

  7. Understanding Nuisance Flooding Conceptualizations and Concerns of Stakeholders in the Northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Collini, R.; Stephens, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    As sea level rises, nuisance flooding along coasts is increasing. There is a need to understand how the public views flooding events in order to tailor communications to different audiences appropriately and help improve community resilience. This interdisciplinary presentation is intended to foster greater awareness about present-day nuisance flooding, ongoing conversation about best practices for accurately and effectively communicating about this "cumulative hazard" and its risks, and consideration about possible preparation and mitigation options for community resilience. The presentation will begin by defining and explaining nuisance flooding according to scientific experts and the scholarly literature. Next, we will share several specific examples of how nuisance flooding is increasingly impacting certain areas in the Northern U.S. Gulf Coast to demonstrate the importance of raising attention to and better understanding of this phenomenon across a range of audiences. We will particularly focus on the complex interrelated social, economic, and ecological issues associated with this hazard. Then, we will compare and contrast conceptualizations of nuisance flooding (characteristics, causes, consequences) and associated concerns from the viewpoints and experiences of various stakeholders in the Northern U.S. Gulf Coast (e.g., natural resource managers, community planners, extension specialists). These data are synthesized from multiple research methods and engagement mechanisms (e.g., focus groups, workshop mapping exercises) implemented during the first year of a multi-year NOAA-sponsored interdisciplinary project on Dynamic Sea Level Rise Assessments of the Ability of Natural and Nature-based Features to Mitigate Surge and Nuisance Flooding. To conclude, we will provide future research recommendations along with references and resources about nuisance flooding.

  8. Factors influencing safety among a group of commercial fishermen along the Texas Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Shepherd, Sara; Wickman, Amanda; Carruth, Ann; Nalbone, J Torey; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2010-10-01

    The commercial fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world. Little published information exists regarding some populations of commercial fishermen such as along the United States Gulf Coast. Studying these unique and often vulnerable groups is important to characterize potential influences on or barriers to safety in anticipation of designing interventions that can change safety behaviors. Working closely with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), a cross-sectional convenience sample of Gulf Coast shrimp fishermen in and near the Port of Galveston, Texas, was surveyed. The survey included demographic factors and broadly covered areas such as type of work and fishing activities, general or global perceptions and beliefs related to safety and accidents, self-report of ability to use safety equipment or apply procedures aboard vessel, and training considerations. Surveys were obtained following informed consent (n = 133). Of the participants, 96.7% were male with 60.9% ≥40 years old. A majority were of Asian descent (57.1% of all fishermen, 82.1% of shrimp fishermen). Over half claimed to speak little or no English and nearly 60% considered the job to be very safe to neutral. A third to half of respondents expressed doubt about their knowledge of using essential safety equipment in the event of emergency. A large portion of the participants preferred hands-on safety training (40.6%). Important findings about this group of commercial fishermen will help with future development of effective prevention practices through the delivery of culturally appropriate safety awareness training. One element that must be addressed in training programs is to increase the awareness among fishermen about the severe occupational risks inherent in this type of work. Community trust and collaborative partnerships are essential to the success of such initiatives.

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and others from 1999-10-18 to 1999-11-01 (NCEI Accession 0157283)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157283 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from METEOR in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean from 1995-07-14 to 1995-08-14 (NCEI Accession 0157410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157410 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from METEOR in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean...

  11. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L.; Terraneo, Tullia Isotta; Caragnano, Annalisa; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters

  12. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.

    and limited hydrographic observations. Wooster et al. [1967] stated that the winter pattern starts in October with a weak westward flow into the gulf. It developed fully in November and persisted till April . During summer, the direction of the surface current... current in the northwestern Arabian Sea, the Somali Current, flows poleward (equator ward) along the coast of Somalia during the summer (winter) monsoon (see the reviews by Schott [1983]; Shetye and Gouveia [1998]; Schott and McCreary [2001]). Owing...

  13. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  14. Hydrologic Responses to Projected Climate Change in Ecologically-Vulnerable Watersheds of the Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, R. P.; Ficklin, D. L.; Knouft, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is likely to have significant effects on the water cycle of the Gulf Coast watersheds in the United States, which contain some of the highest levels of biodiversity of all freshwater systems in North America. Understanding potential hydrologic responses to continued climate change in these watersheds is important for management of water resources and to sustain ecological diversity. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate hydrologic processes and estimate the potential hydrological changes for the mid-21st century (2050s) and the late-21st century (2080s) in the Mobile River, Apalachicola River, and Suwannee River watersheds located in the Gulf Coast, USA. These estimates were based on downscaled future climate projections from 20 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5). Models were calibrated and validated using observed data from 58, 19, and 14 streamflow gauges in the Mobile River, Apalachicola River, and Suwannee River watersheds, respectively. Evaluation indices including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and refined index of agreement (dr) were used to assess model quality. The mean values derived during calibration (NSE=0.68, R2=0.77, and dr=0.73) and validation (NSE=0.70, R2=0.78, and dr=0.74) of all watersheds indicated that the models performed well at simulating monthly streamflow. Our simulation results indicated an overall increase in mean annual streamflow for all the watersheds with a maximum increase in discharge of 28.6% for the Suwannee River watershed for RCP 4.5 during the 2080s, which is associated with a 6.8% increase in precipitation during the same time period. We observed an overall warming (4.2oC) with an increase in future precipitation (3.8%) in all watersheds during the 2080s under the worst-case RCP 8.5 scenario compared to the historical time period. Despite an increase in future precipitation, surface

  15. Effective Communication to Aid Collaboration for Digital Collections: A Case Study at Florida Gulf Coast University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeBurgt, Melissa Minds; Rivera, Kaleena

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication is one of the most important resources for successful outreach efforts. This article addresses the benefits that can emerge from successful communication as well as the negative effects that may stem from ineffective communication. A case study of Florida Gulf Coast University Archives, Special Collections, & Digital…

  16. Light requirements of seagrasses determined from historical records of light attenuation along the Gulf coast of peninsular Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanethia D. Choice; Thomas K. Frazer; Charles A. Jacoby

    2014-01-01

    Seagrasses around the world are threatened by human activities that degrade water quality and reduce light availability. In this study, light requirements were determined for four common and abundant seagrasses along the Gulf coast of peninsular Florida using a threshold detecting algorithm. Light requirements ranged from 8% to 10% of surface irradiance for Halophila...

  17. 77 FR 76066 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for the Gulf Coast Jaguarundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... protecting populations, managing threats, maintaining habitat, monitoring progress, and building partnerships... plan, you may obtain a copy by visiting our Web site at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/species/recovery... pastures if dense brush or woody cover is nearby. The primary known threats to the Gulf Coast jaguarundi...

  18. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P; Ebi, Kristie L; Culp, Derrin; Redlener, Irwin

    2015-08-11

    The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region's coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region's unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region's ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  19. 77 FR 42653 - United States Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Gulf Coast Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Gulf Coast Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; Restricted Area... restricted area established around the AUSTAL, USA shipbuilding facility located in Mobile, Alabama. The...) assumed the duties of administering new construction contracts at AUSTAL USA in Mobile, AL, on October 9...

  20. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta P. Petkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region’s coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region’s unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region’s ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  1. DNA barcoding and morphological studies confirm the occurrence of three Atarbolana (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) species along the coastal zone of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Raupach, Michael J

    2016-11-27

    Two species of Atarbolana (Cirolanidae: Isopoda) from the intertidal zone of the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf were studied and redescribed. The known distribution of this small genus is limited to the northern areas of the Indian Ocean, from the Pakistan coasts to the Persian Gulf. The analyses of DNA barcodes as well as detailed morphological studies clearly support the existence of three distinct Atarbolana species along the coastal zone of the Persian Gulf and northern Arabian Sea. Furthermore, A. dasycolus Yasmeen, 2004 is synonymized with A. setosa Javed and Yasmeen, 1989.

  2. Technical feasibility of a seabed gallery seawater intake at Ras Abu Ali Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2014-07-23

    Open-ocean intake systems require extensive and advanced pretreatment unit operation to produce feed water with low membrane fouling potential in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) facilities. Alternatively, subsurface intake systems tend to produce high quality raw seawater even before pretreatment. Subsurface intakes extract seawater indirectly through the geological structure of shoreline or nearshore sediments. Water percolation through geological units provides physical and biological treatment, so that the raw seawater is microbiologically stable with relatively low particulate and organics content. Overall, utilization of subsurface intakes will reduce the intensity of pretreatment, which reduces operating cost, lowers chemical and energy consumption, and reduces environmental impacts. An important aspect in the feasibility of a subsurface intake is the compatibility of the local geological environment. In this study, a field investigation was conducted at Ras Abu Ali Island in the Arabian Gulf. This location currently contains an of existing oil company facilities and a proposed governmental marine fish hatchery facility. Recreational, commercial, and domestic potable water uses require the need to use the SWRO process to meet demands. Characterization of the shoreline and marine offshore bottom were performed as well as observation of tidal fluctuations and wave heights. A specific grid area was chosen where 35 sediment samples were collected from the seabed floor for laboratory analysis of grain size distribution, sediment porosity, and hydraulic conductivity. Onsite observation showed that the marine bottom has a low slope creating a wide intertidal area. The lowest tidal zone is more than 150 m from the shoreline defining a far seaward boundary for the intake construction point. A relatively thin layer of mixed-type sediment (carbonate and siliciclastic) covers the marine hardground bottom. The unlithified bottom sediment contains a low mud percentage

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of column-integrated aerosol optical properties in the southern Arabian Gulf and United Arab Emirates in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Giles, D.; O'Neill, N. T.; Tsay, S.-C.; Ji, Q.; Al Mandoos, A.; Ramzan Khan, M.; Reid, E. A.; Schafer, J. S.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W.; Slutsker, I.

    2008-01-01

    A mesoscale network of 14 AERONET Sun photometers was established in the UAE and adjacent Arabian Gulf from August through September 2004 as a component of the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2). These measurements allowed for spatial, temporal and spectral characterization of the complex aerosol mixtures present in this environment where coarse mode desert dust aerosols often mix with fine mode pollution aerosols largely produced by the petroleum industry. Aerosol loading was relatively high with 2-month averages of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm (τa500) ranging from 0.40 to 0.53. A higher fine mode fraction of AOD was observed over Arabian Gulf island sites with Angstrom exponent at 440-870 nm (α440-870) of 0.77 as compared to an average of 0.64 over coastal sites and 0.50-0.57 at inland desert sites. During pollution events with α440-870 > 1 the retrieved fine mode radius was larger over an island site than a desert site probably because of hygroscopic growth over the humid marine environment. For these same pollution cases, single scattering albedo (ωo) at all wavelengths was ˜0.03 higher (less absorption) over the marine environment than over the desert, also consistent with aerosol humidification growth. At an inland desert location, the ωo at 440 nm remained relatively constant as Angstrom exponent varied since the fine mode pollution and coarse mode dust were both strong absorbers at short wavelengths. However, at longer wavelengths (675-1020 nm) the dust was much less absorbing than the pollution resulting in dynamic ωo as a function of α440-870.

  4. The impact of climate change on transportation in the gulf coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonis, M.J.; Burkett, V.R.; Potter, J.R.; Kafalenos, R.; Hyman, R.; Leonard, K.

    2009-01-01

    Climate affects the design, construction, safety, operations, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and systems. The prospect of a changing climate raises critical questions regarding how alterations in temperature, precipitation, storm events, and other aspects of the climate could affect the nation's transportation system. This regional assessment of climate change and its potential impacts on transportation systems addresses these questions for the central Gulf Coast between Houston and Mobile. Warming temperatures are likely to increase the costs of transportation construction, maintenance, and operations. More frequent extreme precipitation events will likely disrupt transportation networks with flooding and visibility problems. Relative sea level rise will make much of the existing infrastructure more prone to frequent or permanent inundation. Increased storm intensity may lead to increased service disruption and damage. Consideration of these factors in today's transportation decisions should lead to a more robust, resilient, and cost-effective transportation network in the coming decades. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  5. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico Coast: How Are Current Policies Contributing to Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Jordan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend, to a great degree, on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and human use. Employing the coastal Gulf of Mexico as an example, we explore through three case studies how government policies contribute to preventing, mitigating, or exacerbating the degradation of coastal ecosystems. We consider the effectiveness of the current systems, what alternate or additional policy solutions might be needed to ensure the sustainability of the region and its quality of life, and what this example can tell us about the sustainability of coastal systems globally. In our examples, among other aspects, policies that are proactive and networked governance structures are observed to favor sustainable outcomes, in contrast to reactive policies and hierarchical models of governance.

  6. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Brown, Dexter W.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    During March–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, collected source-water samples from 60 municipal supply wells in the Houston area. These data were collected as part of an ongoing study to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring contaminants (selected trace elements and radionuclides) in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, a reconnaissance-level survey of these constituents in untreated water from 28 municipal supply wells was completed in the Houston area. Included in this report are the complete analytical results for 47 of the 60 samples collected in 2010—those results which were received from the laboratories and reviewed by the authors as of December 31, 2010. All of the wells sampled were screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system; 22 were screened entirely in the Evangeline aquifer, and the remaining 25 wells contained screened intervals that intersected both Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The data documented in this report were collected as part of an ongoing study to characterize source-water-quality conditions in untreated groundwater prior to drinking-water treatment. An evaluation of contaminant occurrence in source water provides background information regarding the presence of a contaminant in the environment. Because source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations, the water-quality results documented by this report represent the quality of the source water, not the quality of finished drinking water provided to the public.

  7. EVALUATION OF GOAT PRODUCTION IN THE HUMID GULF COAST OF TEXAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Mante Dzakuma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our research activities are designed to support increased economic opportunities and improved quality of life for rural American farmers.  The objective of this paper is to examine our research efforts and determine where we can be more productive and sustainable.  Goat research activities using  Tennessee Stiff-legged (TS, Spanish (SP, Nubian (NU and Boer (BR breeds in different production systems at the International Goat Research Center at Prairie View A&M University,  located on the northeastern corridor of the Gulf Coast region of Texas, approximately 45 miles from Houston, have been examined.  From a diallel crossing experiment we recommended the use of terminal sire TS on the cross of NUxSP females. Goats that were fed at intermediate level of a ration (70% of ad libitum were significantly more efficient (P< 0.05 in converting feed to gain. Comparison of intensive and pasture rearing systems indicated that pasture raised SP kids were significantly heavier (P< 0.05 than intensively raised SP kids, while the opposite was true for TS and BR kids. It would appear that on pasture, the SP kids grew faster than the TS kids. Between breeds, growth performance was higher for the BR and TS breeds in the intensive system, while growth performance was higher for the SP in the pasture system.  It would appear that the SP breed is more adapted to production under pasture (or extensive production system. Even though the TS breed is smaller, under intensive system it grows more efficiently (P< 0.05 than the SP, an intermediate size breed. Under conditions existing in the Gulf Coast region of Texas, breeds that are adapted to the environment are recommended for use in initiating goat production programs. Tremendous potential exist to make a living with goats in this region.

  8. Assessment of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impact on Gulf coast microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina eLamendella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental concerns of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the ecological impact of the oil that reached shorelines of the Gulf Coast. Here we investigated the impact of the oil on the microbial composition in beach samples collected in June 2010 along a heavily impacted shoreline near Grand Isle, Louisiana. Successional changes in the microbial community structure due to the oil contamination were determined by deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Metatranscriptomics was used to determine expression of functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. In addition, potential hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were obtained in culture. The 16S data revealed that highly contaminated samples had higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Successional changes in these classes were observed over time, during which the oil was partially degraded. The metatranscriptome data revealed that PAH, n-alkane, and toluene degradation genes were expressed in the contaminated samples, with high homology to genes from Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, and Pseudomonales. Notably, Marinobacter (Gammaproteobacteria had the highest representation of expressed genes in the samples. A Marinobacter isolated from this beach was shown to have potential for transformation of hydrocarbons in incubation experiments with oil obtained from the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252 well; collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. The combined data revealed a response of the beach microbial community to oil contaminants, including prevalence of Bacteria endowed with the functional capacity to degrade oil.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Identification and Source Discrimination in Rural Soil of the Northern Persian Gulf Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Valizadeh-kakhki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to strategic situation of the Persian Gulf, identifying the petroleum pollution level and source is an important issue. Therefore, this paper enhanced fingerprinting method of applying biomarkers Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in identifying source and distribution of oil spills of the exposed areas. 10 soil samples collected from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf along three provinces in the south of Iran. PAH concentrations in the soil ranged from 42.76 to 5596.49 ng.g-1. In the present study the distribution of 3 ringed PAHs was much higher than the other PAHs. Phenanthrene and alkylated derivatives of phenanthrene such as 3-methyl, 2-methyl, 9-methyl and 1-methyl phenanthrene were distinctively higher than the other components. According to the result PAHs concentration can be considered as no or little risk of toxicity for the organisms living in soil except for Fluoranthhene, comparing LD50. Applying marker ratios revealed that in most of the sampling sites showed perogenic sources and it emphasizes on the direct impact of oil and petroleum products to the lands due to oil well exploitation and transferring pipelines.

  10. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian sea. Part 5. Hydrochemical characteristics off the Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Braganca, A.; Noronha, R.J.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Data from Arabian Sea cruises 46 (December 1978) and 59 (October 1979) of R V Gaveshani have been used to calculate rates of denitrification at intermediate depths (72-1200 m). About 34% of the available nitrate-nitrogen is depleted...

  11. New Insight into the Lithosphere Structure of the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, J.; Gurrola, H.; Mickus, K. L.; Keller, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf Coast of Texas is a passive margin remaining after the breakup of Pangaea. The opening of the western Gulf of Mexico (GOM) was the result of the Yucatan block rifting away from North America and rotating to its present location but the exact nature of this rifting is not well understood. Some models describe it as passive rifting while other models consider it to be the result of active volcanic rifting. Until recently the sparse distribution of seismic stations limits our ability to image the deep crust and upper mantle that are important to the understanding of important tectonic process of the area. Here we present new observations from passive seismic imaging using data from a broadband 26-station profile across the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP) and the EarthScope Transportable Array. Ps receiver function (RF) imaging of the GCP profile reveals possible remnants of a subducted slab beneath the GCP of the central Texas coast outboard of the Balcones fault zone. The presence of a remnant late Paleozoic slab associated with the assembly of Pangaea may imply that rifting associated with the opening of the GOM did not completely overprint older features, which suggests that passive rifting was responsible for the opening of western GOM. A remnant slab would provide a plausible explanation for a low velocity layer imaged beneath the coastal region by Sp RF imaging. A strong negative S110p phase observed in an Sp receiver functions image across the GCP of central Texas may be interpreted as the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary (LAB) but observations of other positive and negative phases in the 110 and 200 km depth interval lead us to believe the interval is a semi-ductile region with layered flow. We refer to this interval as a "Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Transition Zone" (LATZ). The LATZ model is supported by observed high P but low S-wave velocities in this depth interval of tomographic models and by SKS analysis that inferred a large amount of anisotropy in

  12. Distribution of natural radionuclides and hot points in coasts of Hormozgan, Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, M.R.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Faghihian, H.; Kamali, M.

    2006-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made on the distribution of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, 137 Cs and geochemical features in soil and sediment samples at various locations in the coast of Persian Gulf. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 50 samples of soils and sediments collected from the coast of Hormozgan. From the measured spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 40 K (range from 140 to 1172 Bq x kg -1 ), 137 Cs (from 0 to 15 Bq x kg -1 ), 238 U (from 29 to 385 Bq x kg -1 ) and 2321 Th (from 9 to 156 Bq x kg -1 ) with the lowest limit of detection (LLD) of 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq x kg -1 , respectively. The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 23 to 177 nGy x h -1 with an average of 60±7.86 nGy x h -1 . (author)

  13. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Lester

    Full Text Available Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1 to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2 to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44% will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m. Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  14. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  15. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  16. DNA damage in marine rock oyster (Saccostrea Cucullata) exposed to environmentally available PAHs and heavy metals along the Arabian Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Subhodeep; Vashistha, Deepti; Saha Sarker, Munmun; Sarkar, A

    2018-04-30

    Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S. cucullata due to exposure to environmentally available PAHs and also heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn) along the Arabian Sea coast, Goa, India exclusively around the entire coast of Goa. First, we determined significant correlation between DI in S. cucullata and the extent of exposure to and bioaccumulation of different PAH compounds including 2-3 aromatic ring PAHs (R 2 , 0.95), 4-6 aromatic ring PAHs (R 2 , 0.85), oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs, R 2 , 0.84) and total PAHs (t-PAHs, R 2 , 0.98). Second, we observed dose-dependent decrease in DI in S. cucullata with increasing concentrations of different PAH components in oyster tissues. We substantiated our field observations with appropriate laboratory controls using benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Third, we performed stepwise multiple regression analyses of different water quality parameters including pH, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite (NO 2 ), nitrate (NO 3 ), phosphate (PO 4 ), turbidity and also t-PAH-biota, t-PAH-water with DI as the dependent variable. Among all these parameters, only four parameters such as t-PAH-biota in combination with DO, BOD and NO 2 showed significant correlation (R¯ 2 = 0.95) with loss in DI in S. cucullata. Based on these results, we created a map indicating the percentage of DNA damage in S. cucullata exposed to PAHs and heavy metals at each sampling location along

  17. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively

  18. Gulf Coast Programmatic Environmental Assessment Geothermal Well Testing: The Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 711, environmental assessments are being prepared for significant activities and individual projects of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). This environmental assessment of geopressure well testing addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environments, and possible impacts in a broad sense. The specific part of the program addressed by this environmental assessment is geothermal well testing by the take-over of one or more unsuccessful oil wells before the drilling rig is removed and completion of drilling into the geopressured zone. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. In the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource. The project addressed by this environmental assessment is the performance of a geothermal well test in high potential geothermal areas. Well tests involve four major actions each of which may or may not be required for each of the well tests. The four major actions are: site preparation, drilling a salt-water disposal well, actual flow testing, and abandonment of the well.

  19. Monitoring of fogwater chemistry in the gulf coast urban industrial corridor: Baton Rouge (louisiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, S; Ravikrishna, R; Kommalapati, R R; Valsaraj, K T

    2005-11-01

    Seventeen fog events were sampled in Baton Rouge, Louisiana during 2002-2004 as part of characterizing wet deposition by fogwater in the heavily industrialized corridor along the Louisiana Gulf Coast in the United States. These samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics such as pH, conductivity, total organic and inorganic carbon, total metals and the principal ion concentrations. The dominant ionic species in all samples were NH4+, NO3-, Cl- and SO4(2-). The pH of the fogwater sampled had a mean value of 6.7 with two cases of acidic pH of 4.7. Rainwater and fogwater pH were similar in this region. The acidity of fogwater was a result of NO3- but partly offset by high NH4+. The measured gaseous SO2 accounted for a small percentage of the observed sulfate concentration, indicating additional gas-to-particle conversion of SO2 to sulfate in fogwater. The gaseous NOx accounted for most of the dissolved nitrate and nitrite concentration in fogwater. The high chloride concentration was attributable to the degradation of chlorinated organics in the atmosphere. The metal composition was traced directly to soil-derived aerosol precursors in the air. The major metals observed in fogwater were Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Mg and Zn. Of these Na, K, Ca and Mg were predominant with mean concentrations > 100 microM. Al, Fe and Zn were present in the samples, at mean concentrations fogwaters, and these were shown to result from particulates (PM2.5) in the atmosphere. The contribution to both ions and metals from the marine sources in the Louisiana Gulf Coast was minimal. The concentrations of all principal ionic species and metals in fogwater were 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than in rainwater. Several linear alkane organic compounds were observed in the fogwater, representing the contributions from petroleum products at concentrations far exceeding their aqueous solubility. A pesticide (atrazine) was also observed in fogwater, representing the contribution from the agricultural

  20. Plan for the long term environmental assessment of geopressured resource development in the Louisiana Gulf Coast Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Wilcox, R.E.; Bachman, A.L.; Newman, J.P.; Cunningham, K.J.; Hilding, R.K.; Rehage, J.A.

    1978-07-15

    Results of research to develop a plan for the long-term environmental assessment of geopressured/geothermal resource development in the Louisiana Gulf Coast region are reported. An overall view of the environmental issues facing decision-makers in the area of geopressured resource development is presented, along with a plan for monitoring potential environmental impacts. Separate assessments and plans are presented for geological effects, air and water quality, ecosystem quality, and socioeconomic and cultural considerations. (JGB)

  1. Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Beach Sediments From Aden Coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Zahran, A.M.; A ASSUBAIHI, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of natural gamma emitting 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K radionuclides in beach sediments along Aden coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen has been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometric technique. The mean activity concentrations of measured radionuclides were compared with other literature values. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index and representative level index were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values.

  2. The contribution of mangrove expansion to salt marsh loss on the Texas Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Anna R; Highfield, Wesley E; Brody, Samuel D; Louchouarn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Landscape-level shifts in plant species distribution and abundance can fundamentally change the ecology of an ecosystem. Such shifts are occurring within mangrove-marsh ecotones, where over the last few decades, relatively mild winters have led to mangrove expansion into areas previously occupied by salt marsh plants. On the Texas (USA) coast of the western Gulf of Mexico, most cases of mangrove expansion have been documented within specific bays or watersheds. Based on this body of relatively small-scale work and broader global patterns of mangrove expansion, we hypothesized that there has been a recent regional-level displacement of salt marshes by mangroves. We classified Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images using artificial neural networks to quantify black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) expansion and salt marsh (Spartina alterniflora and other grass and forb species) loss over 20 years across the entire Texas coast. Between 1990 and 2010, mangrove area grew by 16.1 km(2), a 74% increase. Concurrently, salt marsh area decreased by 77.8 km(2), a 24% net loss. Only 6% of that loss was attributable to mangrove expansion; most salt marsh was lost due to conversion to tidal flats or water, likely a result of relative sea level rise. Our research confirmed that mangroves are expanding and, in some instances, displacing salt marshes at certain locations. However, this shift is not widespread when analyzed at a larger, regional level. Rather, local, relative sea level rise was indirectly implicated as another important driver causing regional-level salt marsh loss. Climate change is expected to accelerate both sea level rise and mangrove expansion; these mechanisms are likely to interact synergistically and contribute to salt marsh loss.

  3. Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeii, G.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos

  4. Trapped in Place? Segmented Resilience to Hurricanes in the Gulf Coast, 1970–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Issar, Sukriti; Xu, Zengwang

    2016-01-01

    Hurricanes pose a continuing hazard to populations in coastal regions. This study estimates the impact of hurricanes on population change in the years 1970–2005 in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. Geophysical models are used to construct a unique data set that simulates the spatial extent and intensity of wind damage and storm surge from the 32 hurricanes that struck the region in this period. Multivariate spatial time-series models are used to estimate the impacts of hurricanes on population change. Population growth is found to be reduced significantly for up to three successive years after counties experience wind damage, particularly at higher levels of damage. Storm surge is associated with reduced population growth in the year after the hurricane. Model extensions show that change in the white and young adult population is more immediately and strongly affected than is change for blacks and elderly residents. Negative effects on population are stronger in counties with lower poverty rates. The differentiated impact of hurricanes on different population groups is interpreted as segmented withdrawal—a form of segmented resilience in which advantaged population groups are more likely to move out of or avoid moving into harm’s way while socially vulnerable groups have fewer choices. PMID:27531504

  5. Search behavior of arboreal insectivorous migrants at gulf coast stopover sites in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chieh; Barrow, W.C.; Ouchley, K.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Search behavior of arboreal insectivorous migrants was studied at three stopover sites along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico during spring migrations, 1993–1995. We examined if search behavior was affected by phylogeny, or by environmental factors. A sequence of search movements (hop, flutter, or flight) in a foraging bout was recorded for each migrant encountered. Search rate, frequency, and distance of movements were calculated for each species. Search rate was positively correlated with proportion of hop, but negatively correlated to flight distance. Hop distance was positively correlated to tarsus length, as was flight distance to wing length for the 31 species of migrants. Cluster analysis indicated closely related species generally have similar foraging modes, which range from “sit-and-wait” of flycatchers to “widely foraging” of warblers. Migrants tended to use more hops in dense vegetation, but more flights in areas with sparse vegetation. Migrants also used more flights when foraging in mixed-species flocks and during periods of high migrant density. Logistic models indicated warblers were more influenced by environmental factors than vireos, possibly because warblers are near-perch searchers and more affected by these factors.

  6. Determination and Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollutant in Soil of Persian Gulf Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Vossoughi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of petroleum pollutant in soil of Persian Gulf coast at 8 selected stations were determined and showed the concentration between 14.3-143.6 mg/kg.  Nickel has the highest concentration  level of heavy metal with 58.6 mg/kg in Emam Hassan area at 50 kilometers of west Boushehr port. Bioremediation of contaminated soil were studied in two medium in slurry and solid state fermentation and 8 bacteria types were isolated. Four species: EM2, SH, GN1 and GN3 presented optimal PAH removal efficiency.  Biodegradation efficiency under slurry condition was found after 45 days which during this period, naphthalene and phenanthrene showed 73% and 66% removal efficiency respectively. Under solid state conditions, microbial activity of mixed and pure culture were studied.  The results presented that mixed culture due to high ability of different strains for growth, showed higher degradability compared to pure culture, but due to insufficient mixing under solid state condition, mass transfer velocity of nutrient reduces to the level that caused reduction in cell activity, so removal efficiency under slurry condition was found higher than solid state respectively.

  7. Reliable Predictors of Arsenic Occurrence in the Southern Gulf Coast Aquifer of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Venkataraman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Southern Gulf Coast Aquifer of Texas is a critical public health concern as much of the area is rural in nature with decentralized water supplies. Previous studies have pointed to volcanic deposits as the regional source of arsenic but no definitive or reliable predictors of arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL exceedance have been identified. In this study, we have studied the effect of various hydrogeochemical parameters as well as soil and land-use variables on arsenic MCL exceedance using logistic regression (LR techniques. The LR models display good accuracy of 75% or higher but suffer from a high rate of false negatives, highlighting the challenges in capturing the spatial irregularities of arsenic in this region. Despite not displaying high statistical significance, pH appears to be an important variable in the LR models—its effect on arsenic exceedance is not clear and warrants further investigation. The results of the study also show that groundwater vanadium and fluoride are consistently the only significant variables in the models developed; the positive coefficients for both these elements indicates a common geogenic source for arsenic, fluoride and vanadium, corroborating the findings of earlier studies.

  8. Gulf Coast Salt Domes geologic Area Characterization Report, East Texas Study Area. Volume II. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The East Texas Area Characterization Report (ACR) is a compilation of data gathered during the Area Characterization phase of the Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage program in salt. The characterization of Gulf Coast Salt Domes as a potential site for storage of nuclear waste is an ongoing process. This report summarizes investigations covering an area of approximately 2590 km 2 (1000 mi 2 ). Data on Oakwood, Keechi, and Palestine Domes are given. Subsequent phases of the program will focus on smaller land areas and fewer specific salt domes, with progressively more detailed investigations, possibly culminating with a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data in this report are a result of drilling and sampling, geophysical and geologic field work, and intensive literature review. The ACR contains text discussing data usage, interpretations, results and conclusions based on available geologic and hydrologic data, and figures including diagrams showing data point locations, geologic and hydrologic maps, geologic cross sections, and other geologic and hydrologic information. An appendix contains raw data gathered during this phase of the project and used in the preparation of these reports

  9. Assessing Hurricane Katrina Damage to the Mississippi Gulf Coast Using IKONOS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; McKellip, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina hit southeastern Louisiana and the Mississippi Gulf Coast as a Category 3 hurricane with storm surges as high as 9 m. Katrina devastated several coastal towns by destroying or severely damaging hundreds of homes. Several Federal agencies are assessing storm impacts and assisting recovery using high-spatial-resolution remotely sensed data from satellite and airborne platforms. High-quality IKONOS satellite imagery was collected on September 2, 2005, over southwestern Mississippi. Pan-sharpened IKONOS multispectral data and ERDAS IMAGINE software were used to classify post-storm land cover for coastal Hancock and Harrison Counties. This classification included a storm debris category of interest to FEMA for disaster mitigation. The classification resulted from combining traditional unsupervised and supervised classification techniques. Higher spatial resolution aerial and handheld photography were used as reference data. Results suggest that traditional classification techniques and IKONOS data can map wood-dominated storm debris in open areas if relevant training areas are used to develop the unsupervised classification signatures. IKONOS data also enabled other hurricane damage assessment, such as flood-deposited mud on lawns and vegetation foliage loss from the storm. IKONOS data has also aided regional Katrina vegetation damage surveys from multidate Land Remote Sensing Satellite and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data.

  10. Response of Soybean to Early-Season Planting Dates along the Upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans (Glycine max L. can be planted along the upper Texas Gulf Coast from mid-March through May to take advantage of early season rains and to complete harvest before hurricane season and fall rains become a problem. However, in the Calhoun County area (28.5° north latitude, these planting dates have resulted in below average yields and reasons for these yield reductions are not clear. To determine if earlier planting dates could be an option to eliminate the low yields, field studies were conducted from 2005 through 2010 in Calhoun County, Texas, to determine soybean cultivar response to planting dates which ranged from mid-February through the last of April. Typically, soil temperatures in this area are above 18°C in mid-February and depending on weather patterns may not fall much lower during any time in the early portion of the growing season. The greatest yield was obtained with the mid-February and mid-March planting dates compared with early- or late-April planting dates. Typically, as planting date was delayed, the interval between planting and harvest decreased.

  11. Fogwater Chemistry and Air Quality in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, R. R.; Raja, S.; Ravikrishna, R.; Murugesan, K.; Collett, J. L.; Valsaraj, K.

    2007-05-01

    The presence of fog water in polluted atmosphere can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The study of interactions between fog water and atmospheric gases and aerosols are very important in understanding the atmospheric fate of the pollutants. In this Study several air samples and fogwater samples were collected in the heavily industrialized area of Gulf Coast corridor( Houston, TX and Baton Rouge, LA). A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected, comprising of nine fog events in Baton Rouge (Nov 2004 to Feb 2005) and two fog events in Houston (Feb, 2006), during the fog sampling campaigns. These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved carbon, major inorganic ions, organic acids, and aromatics, aldehydes, VOCs, and linear alkanes organic compounds. Fogwater samples collected in Houston show clear influence of marine and anthropogenic environment, while Baton Rouge samples reveal a relatively less polluted environment. Also, a time series observation of air samples indicated that fog event at the monitoring site impacted the air concentrations of the pollutants. This is attributed to presence of surface active organic matter in fog water.

  12. Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

  13. Development of artificial intelligence approach to forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenar, Shima Shamkhali; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based model, called ANN-2Day model, for forecasting, managing and ultimately eliminating the growing risk of oyster norovirus outbreaks. The ANN-2Day model was developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Toolbox in MATLAB Program and 15-years of epidemiological and environmental data for six independent environmental predictors including water temperature, solar radiation, gage height, salinity, wind, and rainfall. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks can be forecasted with two-day lead time using the ANN-2Day model and daily data of the six environmental predictors. Forecasting results of the ANN-2Day model indicated that the model was capable of reproducing 19years of historical oyster norovirus outbreaks along the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast with the positive predictive value of 76.82%, the negative predictive value of 100.00%, the sensitivity of 100.00%, the specificity of 99.84%, and the overall accuracy of 99.83%, respectively, demonstrating the efficacy of the ANN-2Day model in predicting the risk of norovirus outbreaks to human health. The 2-day lead time enables public health agencies and oyster harvesters to plan for management interventions and thus makes it possible to achieve a paradigm shift of their daily management and operation from primarily reacting to epidemic incidents of norovirus infection after they have occurred to eliminating (or at least reducing) the risk of costly incidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Final report on decommissioning boreholes and wellsite restoration, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    In 1978, eight salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi were identified for study as potential locations for a nuclear waste repository as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. Three domes were selected in Mississippi for ''area characterization'' phase study as follows: Lampton Dome near Columbia, Cypress Creek Dome near New Augusta, and Richton Dome near Richton. The purpose of the studies was to acquire geologic and geohydrologic information from shallow and deep drilling investigations to enable selection of sites suitable for more intensive study. Eleven deep well sites were selected for multiple-well installations to acquire information on the lithologic and hydraulic properties of regional aquifers. In 1986, the Gulf Coast salt domes were eliminated from further consideration for repository development by the selection of three candidate sites in other regions of the country. In 1987, well plugging and restoration of these deferred sites became a closeout activity. The primary objectives of this activity are to plug and abandon all wells and boreholes in accordance with state regulations, restore all drilling sites to as near original condition as feasible, and convey to landowners any wells on their property that they choose to maintain. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives, as outlines in Activity Plan 1--2, ''Activity Plan for Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Test Hole Sites in Mississippi.''

  15. Palynological evidence of human activity on the gulf of Gdansk coast during the late holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Miotk-Szpiganowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Gdansk is located in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The shores of the Gulf are dominated by the sandy barriers which have developed in front of the Vistula Lagoon and the Vistula Delta Plain to the south-east and south and in front of the Puck Lagoon in the north-west such as the Hel Peninsula. Cliffs occur on the western coast of the Gulf. Neolithic settlements around the coast of the Gulf of Gdansk are mainly located at the foot of the upland slope and on the Vistula Spit and the Vistula Delta and are closely related to the rise and displacement of the shoreline during the Late Holocene. Pollen analyses of the sediment cores from the Vistula Delta, the Vistula Lagoon and the coast of the Puck Lagoon allow four anthropogenic phases to be distinguished in the area of the Gulf of Gdansk. It has been shown that the first indicators of an early husbandry economy in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gdansk appeared in the Atlantic Period. Pollen grains of plants related to this kind of human activity those of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae, motherwort (Artemisia, sorrel (Rumex are present and the first pollen grains of the plantain (Plantago lanceolata also appear. The second anthropogenic phase of Neolithic settlement is one of the best investigated cultures. This is the Rzucewo Culture. Pollen analyses indicate increasing human activity at the beginning of the Subboreal Period. The preserved traces of fauna show that the seal hunting and fishing economy was preferred. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological artifacts indicates the beginning of the settlement at ca. 2 400 B.C. (ca. 4 400 years B.P. (Król 1997. The altitude of peat and marine mollusks shells and their radiocarbon age shows that during the Early Subboreal Period the water level rose from ca. 2.8 m to 1.1 m below the present-day sea level. The date of the beginning of the seal hunters settlement correlates well with the period when the shores of the Puck Lagoon

  16. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Spongberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the north- western coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica.Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of air-borne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprisingSe analizó los bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 31 muestras de sedimentos colectadas entre 1996 -2003 en el estuario del Golfo de Nicoya, costa noroeste de Costa Rica. Esto es parte de un primer estudio para evaluar la contaminación por PCB en aguas costeras de Costa Rica. En general, las concentraciones fueron bajas especialmente cuando se les compara con sedimentos de climas templados y / o sedimentos de areas altamente industrializadas. Los valores promedio son inferiores a 3 ng / dw (peso seco de sedimento. Sin embargo, unas pocas muestras contienen hasta 7 ng/ g dw de sedimento. Los sedimentos con las concentraciones más altas están localizados en el area de Punta Morales, en cienos de entre raíces de mangle. Las

  17. Subsurface associations of Acaryochloris-related picocyanobacteria with oil-utilizing bacteria in the Arabian Gulf water body: promising consortia in oil sediment bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Dhia; Eliyas, Mohamed; Rayan, Rihab; Radwan, Samir

    2013-04-01

    Two picocyanobacterial strains related to Acaryochloris were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, 3 m below the water surface, one from the north shore and the other from the south shore of Kuwait. Both strains were morphologically, ultrastructurally, and albeit to a less extend, phylogenetically similar to Acaryochloris. However, both isolates lacked chlorophyll d and produced instead chlorophyll a, as the major photosynthetic pigment. Both picocyanobacterial isolates were associated with oil-utilizing bacteria in the magnitude of 10(5) cells g(-1). According to their 16S rRNA gene sequences, bacteria associated with the isolate from the north were affiliated to Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus, and Marinobacter aquaeolei, but those associated with the isolate from the south were affiliated to Bacillus asahii and Alcanivorax jadensis. These bacterial differences were probably due to environmental variations. In batch cultures, the bacterial consortia in the nonaxenic biomass as well as the pure bacterial isolates effectively consumed crude oil and pure aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, including very high-molecular-weight compounds. Water and diethylether extracts from the phototrophic biomass enhanced growth of individual bacterial isolates and their hydrocarbon-consumption potential in batch cultures. It was concluded that these consortia could be promising in bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants, especially heavy sediments in the marine ecosystem.

  18. Dynamics of microbial communities in an integrated ultrafiltration–reverse osmosis desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-08-27

    This study demonstrated the use of high-throughput sequencing to assess the efficacy of an integrated ultrafiltration (UF)–reverse osmosis (RO) desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf, and to identify potential microbial-associated problems that may arise in this plant. When integrated into the desalination treatment system, the UF membranes were able to serve as a good pretreatment strategy to delay RO fouling by achieving up to 1.96-log removal of cells from the seawater. Consequently, the differential pressure of the RO membrane remained around 1 bar for the entire six-month study, suggesting no significant biofouling performance issue identified for this RO system. Examples of microbial populations effectively removed by the UF membranes from the feed waters included Nitrosoarchaeum limnia and phototrophic eukaryotes. Microbial-associated problems observed in this pilot plant included the presence of Pseudomonas spp. in coexistence with Desulfovibrio spp. These two bacterial populations can reduce sulfate and produce hydrogen sulfide, which would in turn cause corrosion problems or compromise membrane integrities. Chemical-enhanced backwashing (CEB) can be used as an effective strategy to minimize the associated microbial problems by removing bacterial populations including sulfate reducers from the UF membranes.

  19. The Finding of Pacific Transvenid Acanthocephalan in the Arabian Gulf, with the Description of Paratrajectura longcementglandatus N. Gen., N. Sp. from Perciform Fishes and Emendation of Transvenidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Ali, Atheer H

    2018-02-01

    The acanthocephalan Paratrajectura longcementglandatus n. gen., n. sp. (Transvenidae) is described from specimens of 2 perciform fish species, Nemipterus japonicus Bloch (Nemipteridae) and Otolithes ruber Bloch and Schneider, collected in the marine territorial waters of Iraq and Iran in the Arabian Gulf. Metal analysis of hook tip, middle, and base is also described using energy disruptive analysis for X-ray. The new genus is distinguished from the closely related genus Trajectura Pichelin and Cribb, 2001 described from wrasses (Labridae) (Perciformes) in the Pacific off Australia and Japan by having a proboscis with apical epidermal cone, long rhadinorhynchid-like tubular cement glands, relatively short and lobulated lemnisci, all proboscis hooks with prominent roots, females with subterminal gonopore and a rounded projection on the antero-dorsal end of the trunk, and males with elongate pre-equatorial testes reaching proboscis receptacle. In Trajectura, the proboscis lacks apical epidermal cone, the cement glands are pyriform or ovoid, the lemnisci are digitiform and considerably longer than the receptacle, the posterior proboscis hooks are rootless, the females have prominent finger-like trunk projection and terminal gonopore, and males with equatorial testes that may not be elongate and may be distant from the receptacle. The importance of cement glands in the diagnosis of genera and families in acanthocephalan taxonomy is stressed. Other features especially the type and arrangement of hooks on the proboscis, but not hook roots, are comparable in the 2 genera. Diagnosis of the family Transvenidae is emended.

  20. Dynamics of microbial communities in an integrated ultrafiltration–reverse osmosis desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Moosa, Nasir; Mink, Justine

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated the use of high-throughput sequencing to assess the efficacy of an integrated ultrafiltration (UF)–reverse osmosis (RO) desalination pilot plant located at the Arabian Gulf, and to identify potential microbial-associated problems that may arise in this plant. When integrated into the desalination treatment system, the UF membranes were able to serve as a good pretreatment strategy to delay RO fouling by achieving up to 1.96-log removal of cells from the seawater. Consequently, the differential pressure of the RO membrane remained around 1 bar for the entire six-month study, suggesting no significant biofouling performance issue identified for this RO system. Examples of microbial populations effectively removed by the UF membranes from the feed waters included Nitrosoarchaeum limnia and phototrophic eukaryotes. Microbial-associated problems observed in this pilot plant included the presence of Pseudomonas spp. in coexistence with Desulfovibrio spp. These two bacterial populations can reduce sulfate and produce hydrogen sulfide, which would in turn cause corrosion problems or compromise membrane integrities. Chemical-enhanced backwashing (CEB) can be used as an effective strategy to minimize the associated microbial problems by removing bacterial populations including sulfate reducers from the UF membranes.

  1. Long Term Geoelectrical Monitoring of Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic Deep-water Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf Coast, opportunities exist to study the evolution of fresh crude oil contamination in beach sediments and marshes. Grand Terre 1 Island, off the coast of Grand Isle in southern Louisiana, is an uninhabited barrier island, heavily impacted by the DWH spill, and ideal for undisturbed long term monitoring of crude oil degradation processes. A 10 channel Syscal-Pro resistivity / IP instrument (IRIS Instruments, France) is the heart of the fully autonomous geoelectrical monitoring system; the system, which is housed in a weatherproof container, relies solely on solar power, is controlled by an energy efficient PC and can be accessed remotely via web tools. The monitoring scheme involves collecting bi-daily resistivity measurements from surface and shallow boreholes, ranging from January 2011 to the present; environmental parameters, such as T, are continuously recorded at several depths. During regular field trips we perform larger scale geophysical surveys, and geochemical measurements (pH, DO, T, fluid C) to support the continuous geophysical monitoring. The contaminated layer on site is a visually distinctive layer of crude oil, isolated by cleaner sands above and below which is identified by a clear and obvious resistive anomaly in preliminary surveys. Early results show a decrease in average of the resistance values of each dataset over time. Further processing of the data yields a linearly shaped resistive anomaly, which coincides with the location of the oil layer. The changes in subsurface resistivity appear to be focused within this anomaly. Time filtering of the data by the time that they were collected, morning or evening, reveals a diurnal variation. While both time frames follow the same overall trend, the measurements in the morning are slightly more resistive than those in the evening. This indicates that there are environmental factors, such as temperature, that need to be

  2. An assessment of change in risk perception and optimistic bias for hurricanes among Gulf Coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Meyer, Michelle A; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on levels of concern for hurricanes among individuals living along the Gulf Coast during the quiescent two-year period following the exceptionally destructive 2005 hurricane season. A small study of risk perception and optimistic bias was conducted immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Two years later, a follow-up was done in which respondents were recontacted. This provided an opportunity to examine changes, and potential causal ordering, in risk perception and optimistic bias. The analysis uses 201 panel respondents who were matched across the two mail surveys. Measures included hurricane risk perception, optimistic bias for hurricane evacuation, past hurricane experience, and a small set of demographic variables (age, sex, income, and education). Paired t-tests were used to compare scores across time. Hurricane risk perception declined and optimistic bias increased. Cross-lagged correlations were used to test the potential causal ordering between risk perception and optimistic bias, with a weak effect suggesting the former affects the latter. Additional cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling was used to look more closely at the components of optimistic bias (risk to self vs. risk to others). A significant and stronger potentially causal effect from risk perception to optimistic bias was found. Analysis of the experience and demographic variables' effects on risk perception and optimistic bias, and their change, provided mixed results. The lessening of risk perception and increase in optimistic bias over the period of quiescence suggest that risk communicators and emergency managers should direct attention toward reversing these trends to increase disaster preparedness. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf Coast wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.

    1972-01-01

    Wildlife casualties from aldrin-dieldrin poisoning are associated with the planting of aldrin-treated rice seed along the Texas Gulf Coast. The fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), which depends on the rice field habitats and is highly susceptible to aldrin-dieldrin poisoning, is suffering a serious population decline in that area. Dead waterfowl, shorebirds, and passerines were collected on study areas in Wharton, Brazoria, and Chambers counties, Texas, from 1967 through 1971. Residues of aldrin or dieldrin were found in all samples of bird casualties and in all eggs, scavengers, predators, fish, frogs, invertebrates, and soils. Fulvous tree ducks appeared to be less resistant to aldrin than other ducks. Dieldrin residues in brains of dead fulvous tree ducks were low, but whole-body residues were as high as 16 ppm. Brains of other dead ducks and geese averaged 10 ppm dieldrin. Some dead birds were exposed by eating treated rice seed, but many dead birds with high dieldrin residues were species that feed largely on invertebrates. Although soil residues were low, snails and crayfish contained enough aldrin and dieldrin (average 9.5 ppm) to account for deaths in birds that fed heavily on these invertebrates over a period of time. When fulvous tree ducks were penned for 3 days in fields aerially planted with treated seed, 3 of 10 birds died with brain residues of 2.5, 2.9, and 6.8 ppm dieldrin, and others were intoxicated. None of eight died, and some gained weight, when penned in fields planted with untreated seed. This study adds further evidence for the suspected lethal effects of aldrin-treated rice seed on wild birds and other wildlife in rice field habitats.

  4. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  5. Biomonitoring of trace metal bioavailabilities to the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite along the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrolahi, A; Smith, B D; Ehsanpour, M; Afkhami, M; Rainbow, P S

    2014-10-01

    The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, and other variables measured from profile observations using CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the East Coast of the United States and Gulf of Mexico during the second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise from 2012-07-24 to 2012-08-13 (NODC Accession 0117943)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise on board NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown from Miami, took place in the Gulf of Mexico and then along the...

  7. Radiological analysis of environmental samples in some points of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Mar, Bernardo; Martinez Negrete, Marco Antonio; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Abarca Munguia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We describe in this paper the results obtained by the project 'Radiological analysis of environmental samples in some points of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico'. The purpose of the study is to identify and quantify the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides present from sediments, sand and seawater from several sites located along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribean Sea. The samples are analysed in a Canberra Multichannel analyzer system for gamma spectrometry, equipped with a detector of hyper pure germanium and a Genie 2000 software, in the 'Laboratory of Radiological Analysis of Environmental Samples', belonging to the Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The geographic sites were samples were taken include the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo. The results of this studies will be published at the end of the project and we hope they will be useful for the national health and industrial sectors. Until now we have identified and measured the presence of natural radionuclides such as Potassium-40 (K-40), Bismuth 212 (Bi-212), Lead-212 (Pb-212), Bismuth-214 (Bi-214), Lead-214 (Pb-214), Radium-226 (Ra-226), Actinium 228 (Ac-228), Uranium-235 (U-235), as well as some anthropogenic radionuclides found near the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. The project is scheduled to last for three years, finishing in 2009. At its ending we shall be able to present conclusions and identify some tendencies, in connection with the background and possible radioactive contamination of the studied zones. This project takes place under the auspice of the 'Program of Support to Projects of Research and Technological Innovation' of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. (author)

  8. A medieval port at Ghogha in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A

    The Gulf of Khambhat has been a focal area for the human settlements since the Harappan and it is also famous for the highest tidal range in India. The author of the Periplus of the Erythrenean Sea vividly described the sites of the Gulf of Khambhat...

  9. Chemical and sequential analysis of some metals in sediments from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad Martinez; Brenda Estanol; Miguel Angel Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Sediments collected from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico got carefully mixed, dried, and finally subjected to physical and chemical analysis. Metal concentration was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Sequential chemical analysis was performed by modified TESSIER technique. Results and statistical analysis (α = 0.05) show concentrations of most elements (excepting Mn, Ca, Ga, As and Pb) in the range of those of the earth crust's values, which set a sampling zone base line. Sequential extraction shows the potential risk of mobilization of metals sequestered in particulate phases by oxidation of anoxic sediments or intense organic matter degradation. (author)

  10. The impact of the gulf war on the Arabian environment—I. Particulate pollution and reduction of solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

    This paper investigates some of the air pollution problems which have been created as a result of the Gulf war in early 1991. Temporary periods of increased dust storm activity have been observed in Saudi Arabia. This is presumably due to disturbance of the desert surface by the extremely large number of tanks and other war machines before and during the war. The concentrations of inhalable dust particles (oil fields in Kuwait. The direct normal solar insolation were also measured at the photovoltaic solar power plant in Riyadh during these days and significant reductions were observed due to the effective absorption of solar radiation by soot particles. The generated power from the plant has been reduced during days with a polluted atmosphere by about 50-80% of the expected value for such days, if the atmosphere were dry and clear.

  11. New records of xanthid crabs Atergatis roseus (Rüppell, 1830 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura from Iraqi coast, south of Basrah city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khassaf Al-Khafaji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the The Brachyuran crab Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830, were collected for first times from Iraqi coast, south Al-Faw, Basrah city, Iraq, in coast of northwest of Arabian Gulf. Morphological features and distribution pattern of this species are highlighted and a figure is provided. The material was mostly collected from the shallow subtidal and intertidal areas using trawl net and hand.

  12. Northern Gulf 1 Arc-second MHW Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  13. Northern Gulf 1 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  14. Rock mechanics evaluation of potential repository sites in the Paradox, Permian, and Gulf Coast Basins: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Thermal and thermomechanical analyses of a conceptual radioactive waste repository containing commercial and defense high-level wastes and spent fuel have been performing using finite element models. The thermal and thermomechanical responses of the waste package, disposal room, and repository regions were evaluated. four bedded salt formations, in Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah and in Deaf Smith and Swisher counties in the Permian Basin of northwestern Texas, and three salt domes, Vacherie Dome in northwestern Louisiana and Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in southeastern Mississippi, located in the Gulf Coast Basin, were examined. In the Paradox Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was much greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closure was less than 10 percent after 5 years. Surface uplift was nominal, and no significant thermomechanical perturbation of the aquitards was observed. In the Permian Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closures were greater than 10 percent in less than 5 years. Surface uplift was nominal, and no significant thermomechanical perturbation of the aquitards was observed. In the Gulf Coast Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closures were greater than 10 percent in less than 5 years. No significant thermomechanical perturbation of the overlying geology was observed. 40 refs., 153 figs., 32 tabs

  15. Effects of winter marsh burning on abundance and nesting activity of Louisiana seaside sparrows in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus maritimus fisheri) breed and winter exclusively in brackish and saline marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Many Gulf Coast marshes, particularly in the Chenier Plain of southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas, are burned intentionally in fall or winter as part of waterfowl management programs. Fire reportedly has negatively affected two Seaside Sparrow subspecies (A. m. nigrescens and A. m. mirabilis) in Florida, but there is no published information regarding effects of fire on A. m. fisheri. We compared abundance of territorial male Louisiana Seaside Sparrows, number of nesting activity indicators, and vegetation structure in paired burned and unburned plots in Chenier Plain marshes in southwestern Louisiana during the 1996 breeding season (April-July) before experimental winter burns (January 1997) and again during two breeding seasons post-burn (1997-1998). We found that abundance of male sparrows decreased in burned plots during the first breeding season post-burn, but was higher than that of unburned plots during the second breeding season post-burn. Indicators of nesting activity showed a similar but non-significant pattern in response to burning. Sparrow abundance and nesting activity seemingly are linked to dead vegetation cover, which was lower in burned plots during the first breeding season post-burn, but did not differ from that in unburned plots during the second breeding season post-burn. We recommend that marsh management plans in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain integrate waterfowl and Seaside Sparrow management by maintaining a mosaic of burned and unburned marshes and allowing vegetation to recover for at least two growing seasons before reburning a marsh.

  16. Too many eggs in one basket? US Gulf coast and Gulf of Mexico risks not just technical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.

    2006-01-01

    The reasons behind the waning gas supply in North America were discussed. Gas prices in North America are currently 3 times higher than they were in 1990. Although there are twice as many rigs, drilling twice as many wells, 5 to 20 per cent deeper, they are finding one third less recoverable gas than in 1990. It was emphasized that the continental gas supply system is vulnerable to upsets in much the same way that the global surplus oil production capacity was affected by upsets. North America has relied on 2 major basins to supply two thirds of its gas. These include the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin as well as the region encompassing the Gulf of Mexico, southern Texas and Louisiana. Both major basins are in rapid decline. In addition, hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico have increased in both intensity and frequency, ensuing damage to oil and gas infrastructure and dislocating the continent's gas system. This trend is expected to continue and the periodic advisory reports from the National Petroleum Council indicate an austere future for gas supply and demand, with a reliance on difficult, remote, uncertain and costly supplies. The economy, energy consumption, storage, supply and weather are all factors that contribute to the rising gas prices in North America. The author claimed that North American gas supply has been and continues to be constrained by misguided policies. Given the decline in the main supply basins, gas supply is expected to remain tight barring weaker gross domestic product (GDP). It was emphasized that weather-dominated North American gas markets will increasingly affect the rest of the world, including Europe which has its own gas supply concerns and which is increasingly linked to North America's gas supply problem. figs

  17. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Oden, Timothy D.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, completed an initial reconnaissance-level survey of naturally occurring contaminants (arsenic, other selected trace elements, and radionuclides) in water from municipal supply wells in the Houston area. The purpose of this reconnaissance-level survey was to characterize source-water quality prior to drinking water treatment. Water-quality samples were collected from 28 municipal supply wells in the Houston area completed in the Evangeline aquifer, Chicot aquifer, or both. This initial survey is part of ongoing research to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of these constituents in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. Samples were analyzed for major ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bromide, chloride, fluoride, silica, and sulfate), selected chemically related properties (residue on evaporation [dissolved solids] and chemical oxygen demand), dissolved organic carbon, arsenic species (arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinate [DMA], and monomethylarsonate [MMA]), other trace elements (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc), and selected radionuclides (gross alpha- and beta-particle activity [at 72 hours and 30 days], carbon-14, radium isotopes [radium-226 and radium-228], radon-222, tritium, and uranium). Field measurements were made of selected physicochemical (relating to both physical and chemical) properties (oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and alkalinity) and unfiltered sulfides. Dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand are presented but not discussed in the

  18. Ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce embayments, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ureña, H

    1996-12-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in December (rainy season), 1993 and February (dry season), 1994, during the RV Victor Hensen German-Costa Rican Expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Samples from the inner, central, and outer areas of each gulf were collected in oblique tows with a bongo net of 0.6 m mouth diameter, 2.5 m long and 1000-micron mesh. A total of 416 fish larvae of 22 families were sorted out of 14 samples. Stations of both the maximum (11) and the minimum (1) family richness were located in Golfo Dulce. Mean total larval abundances were 124.9 and 197.2 individuals 10 m-2 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, respectively, while mean larval densities ranged from 95.3 larvae 10 m-2 in December to 236.7 larvae 10 m-2 in February. However, no statistical differences between gulfs or seasons were detected, due to the high within-group variability. Cluster Analysis, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and non-parametric tests showed two well-defined major groups: (1) the Gulf of Nicoya neritic assemblage, represented by Engraulids, Sciaenids, and Gobiids (inner and central stations), and (2) the oceanic assemblage, dominated by Myctophids, Bregmacerotids, Ophiidids, and Trichiurids (outer stations off the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce). A third, although less defined group, was an Ophichthid-dominated assemblage (typical in areas nearby coral or rocky reefs). These assemblages closely resemble the clusters based upon adult fish data of the beamtrawl catches of the same cruise. This publication is the first to report on the ichthyoplankton community of Golfo Dulce.

  19. Persistence of Gulf War oil versus intertidal morphology and sediments - one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montello, T.M.; Hayes, M.O.; Michel, J.; Al-Momen, A.H.; Al-Mansi, A.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the persistence of oil in the intertidal habitats of the Saudi Arabian coast was carried out one year after the Gulf war spill in conjunction with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ship Mt. Mitchell's ROPME Sea Cruise. A total of 10 kilometers of transects were surveyed at 20 stations, representing heavily oiled sheltered beaches, tidal flats, algal mats, halophyte saltmarshes, and mangroves at the heads of bays

  20. 78 FR 50030 - Implementation of New Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Science, Observation, Monitoring, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... NGOs, and develop new partnerships as appropriate; 4. Working within a management and policy framework... efforts supported and implemented collaboratively, and address in an integrated and holistic manner the critical knowledge needed for Gulf of Mexico ecosystem restoration and management. The Focus areas do not...

  1. The Gulf of Guinea Coast and the Global Quest for Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gulf of Guinea countries are endowed with petroleum resources. The discovery of more oil wells, industrial expansion in China and India, the quest for increased and different sources of oil supply by the United States and European countries, the unstable political scene and terrorism in the Middle East, the pliant nature ...

  2. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Kevin [Sprint, Reston, VA (United States); Bradley, Dwayne [Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  3. Imaging normal faults in alluvial fans using geophysical techniques: Field example from the coast of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    In this work we use geophysical methods to locate and characterize active faults in alluvial sediments. Since only subtle material and velocity contrasts are expected across the faults, we used seismic refraction tomography and 2D resistivity imaging to locate the fault. One seismic profile and one 2D resistivity profile are collected at an alluvial fan on the Gulf of Aqaba coast in Saudi Arabia. The collected data are inverted to generate the traveltime tomogram and the electric resistivity tomogram (ERT). A low velocity anomaly is shown on the traveltime tomogram indicates the colluvial wedge associated with the fault. The location of the fault is shown on the ERT as a vertical high resistivity anomaly.

  4. Gulf Coast Section SPE Production Operations Study Group-technical highlights from a series of frac pack treatment symposiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarty, J.M.; DeBonis, V.

    1995-12-31

    One of the main functions of the SPE is to provide a means for collection, dissemination, and exchange of technical information and to provide technical forums that afford opportunities for members to maintain and upgrade their technical competence. The large chapters (such as Houston SPE) located near many oil company headquarters have the advantage of being able to bring together a cross section of service company and operator personnel representing operations and research from major and independent operators. This paper describes a series of 1-day symposiums on frac pack technology that were organized by the Houston-based Gulf Coast Section SPE Production Operations Study Group. These study sessions provided a means for the local members of the industry to further develop a new technology as a team. Publishing the major focus and contributions of the seminars will allow sharing of the technology with chapters outside of Houston.

  5. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season. Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea), in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  6. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Carton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter.

    The Persian Gulf Water (PGW is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N, again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18–19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season.

    Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea, in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  7. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality

  8. Fish larval transport in a macro-tidal regime: Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.

    management strategy for the gulf, imbibing the concepts of an ecosystem-based spatially structured approach (Richardson et al., 2010). 4. CONCLUSIONS The study shows that particle transport modelling can be an effective tool and decision support system... was carried out by Martins et al. (2007) using similar methodology. No study has been carried out so far in the Indian coastal waters to determine the influence of physical forcing on fish larvae under which they are widely dispersed or locally retained...

  9. Sediment textural characteristics and elemental distribution in the core sediments, Pullivasal and Kurusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two core samples were collected in order to assess the textual characteristics and elemental distribution of the sediments, from the lagoonal environment of Pullivasal and Kurusadai island, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India. The distribution of the organic matter and calcium carbonate is chiefly controlled by the coral debris, shell fragments and mangrove litters. The elemental distribution is controlled by natural process and other trace elements are controlled by anthropogenic land based activities. Keywords: Sediment texture, Coral islands, Gulf of Mannar, Core sediments, Elemental distribution

  10. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico coast: How are current policies contributing to sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend to a great degree on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and ...

  11. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  12. Macroinfauna and sediment data from swash zones of sandy beaches along the SE Gulf of Mexico and SE Florida coast, 2010-2011 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (NODC Accession 0083190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling for macroinfauna from swash zones of beaches along the SE Gulf of Mexico and SE coast of Florida was conducted from May 2010- July 2011. At each site,...

  13. PSI Analysis of Ground Deformations Along the South-Western Coast of the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnogorska, Magdalena; Graniczny, Marek; Uscinowicz, Szymon; Nutricato, Raffaele; Triggiani, Saverio; Nitti, David Oscar; Bovenga, Fabio; Wasowski, Janusz

    2010-03-01

    We use over 40 descending ERS-1/2 SLC (Frame = 2511 , Track = 36) images from the period 1995 - 2001 and the SPINUA (Stable Point Interferometry over Un- urbanised Areas) Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) processing technique to study Earth surface deformations along the SW coast of the Gulf of Gdansk, along the SE part of the Baltic Sea.The area of interest (AOI) includes few cities and several towns, villages and harbours. The low lying coastal areas of the SW part of the Gulf of Gdansk are at risk of floods and marine erosion. It is expected that this problem can be exacerbated by the ongoing sea level rise and possibly by crustal movements (subsidence) reported in the literature.The PSI results, however, did not reveal the presence of a regional scale, spatially consistent pattern of displacements. It is likely that any crustal deformations in the AOI simply do not exceed +-2 mm/year, which is the velocity threshold we assumed to distinguish between moving and non-moving radar targets. Nevertheless, significant downward displacements, amounting to several mm/year, are locally present in the coastal zone east of Gdansk that belongs to the Vistula river delta-alluvial plain system, as well as in the inland area west of the cities of Gdansk and Sopot. It is apparent that in all these cases the movements reflect mainly differential settlements of buildings and engineering infrastructure, which have recently been built in the areas including clay-rich, compressible sediments. Indeed, one of the highest subsidence rates (- 12 mm/year) was observed in the Gdansk petroleum refinery constructed on alluvial sediments. Thus the anthropogenic loading and consolidation of the recent deposits can locally be an important factor causing ground settlements. Importantly, for the most part the urban areas of the main cities (Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot) result to be stable.

  14. Temporal migration patterns between natal locations of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and their Gulf Coast stopover site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzal, Theodore J; Contina, Andrea J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Moore, Frank R

    2018-01-01

    Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route . The ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern. To carry out our objectives, we captured hummingbirds at a coastal stopover site during autumn migration, at which time we collected feathers from juveniles for analysis of hydrogen stable isotopes. Using the hydrogen stable isotope gradient of precipitation across North America and published hydrogen isotope values of feathers from populations of breeding ruby-throated hummingbirds, we assigned migrants to probable natal latitudes. Our results confirm that individuals from across the range (30-50° N) stopover along the Gulf of Mexico and there is a positive relationship between arrival day and latitude, suggesting a type 1 migration pattern. We also found no relationship between fuel load (proxy for migration cost) or fat-free body mass (proxy for body size) and natal latitude. Our results, coupled with previous work on the spatial migration patterns of hummingbirds, show a type 1 chain migration pattern. While the mechanisms we tested do not seem to influence the evolution of migratory patterns, other factors such as resource availability may play a prominent role in the evolution of this migration system.

  15. On the distribution of bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratios in the waters of the Arabian sea off central Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Water samples from surface to 2000 m depth at two stations in the Arabian Sea collected during the 82nd cruise of R V Gaveshani in November, 1980 were analysed for bromide. The average bromide concentration was 0.068 g/kg plus or minus 0...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, fugacity of carbon dioxide, and other variables from surface observations using Niskin bottle, flow through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast of the United States during the second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise from 2012-07-22 to 2012-08-13 (NODC Accession 0117971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains ocean acidification related data from the second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise on board NOAA Ship Ronald H....

  17. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea

  18. Relative Linkages of Stream Dissolved Oxygen with the Hydroclimatic and Biogeochemical Drivers across the Gulf Coast of U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreslase, A. K.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamics of coastal stream water quality is influenced by a multitude of interacting environmental drivers. A systematic data analytics approach was employed to determine the relative linkages of stream dissolved oxygen (DO) with the hydroclimatic and biogeochemical variables across the Gulf Coast of U.S.A. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of PCA and FA, alongside Pearson's correlation matrix, were utilized to examine the interrelation of variables at 36 water quality monitoring stations from USGS NWIS and EPA STORET databases. Power-law based partial least square regression models with a bootstrap Monte Carlo procedure (1000 iterations) were developed to estimate the relative linkages of dissolved oxygen with the hydroclimatic and biogeochemical variables by appropriately resolving multicollinearity (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.58-0.94). Based on the dominant drivers, stations were divided into four environmental regimes. Water temperature was the dominant driver of DO in the majority of streams, representing most the northern part of Gulf Coast states. However, streams in the southern part of Texas and Florida showed a dominant pH control on stream DO. Further, streams representing the transition zone of the two environmental regimes showed notable controls of multiple drivers (i.e., water temperature, stream flow, and specific conductance) on the stream DO. The data analytics research provided profound insight to understand the dynamics of stream DO with the hydroclimatic and biogeochemical variables. The knowledge can help water quality managers in formulating plans for effective stream water quality and watershed management in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Keywords Data analytics, coastal streams, relative linkages, dissolved oxygen, environmental regimes, Gulf Coast, United States.

  19. Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Vinod, K.; Saravanan, K.R.; Anbalagan, T.; Saravanan, R.; Sanaye, S.V.; Mojjada, S.K.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 43 (4), April 2014, pp. 618-633 Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India A. Murugan...] Introduction The role of human activity on marine ecosystems is receiving increased attention with the perception that human activities are causing considerable economic loss for local fishing communities1. In particular, the increase in fishing pressure...

  20. The Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, P.V.

    high chI are also encountered offshore, presumably associated with the mesoscale features such as filaments and eddies. In conformity with the satellite data, elevated chI levels persist~lOOOkmfrom the Omani coast. During the Sl, chI levels are quite... is consumed rapidly for the degradation of copious amounts of organic matter produced within the Arabian Sea itself. Consequently, 02 levels fall very close to zero while nutrients accumulate in high concentrations within a zone that extends from the base...

  1. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  2. A Late Holocene Record of Human Impact in the Tropical Lowlands of the Mexican Gulf Coast: Lago Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, L.; Sosa, S.; Caballero, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Ortega, B.

    2005-05-01

    Lago Verde is a maar lake (18 36 43 N; 95 20 52 W) located on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in "Los Tuxtlas" region. The area was cover by tropical rain forest and is part of the core area of the earliest Mesoamerican cultures. A 6 m sediment core was obtained in order to document vegetation and lake level history of this area. Lago Verde is a shallow, eutrophic lake (max. 4 m), the natural vegetation has been removed and grasslands with some tropical trees such Bursera grows around the lake. According with the radiocarbon chronology the sequence covers the last 2500 yr BP. At the base of the sequence low abundance of tropical trees is record, with intermediate lake levels. A sudden change in the pollen stratigraphy occurs at ca. 2000 yr BP, with important presence of Poaceae, Ambrosia and Cheno.-Am. along with Zea mays indicating human activity in the area. This is associated with a change in limnological conditions, recording turbid, shallow environments. This pollen signals correlates with dry phases in Yucatan, suggesting that this dry climatic signal probably had effect on an ample area of Mexico. However, at 1200 yr BP, no more Zea mays pollen is recovered suggesting the abandonment of the area. Lake levels recover as well as the tropical forest. The last 150 yr BP is characterized by the reduction in the pollen of tropical forest trees, presence of Zea mays, increased erosion rates, turbidity and eutrophication in the lake, all related to deforestation.

  3. Assessment of Tsunami-related Geohazard Assessment for Coasts of Hersek Peninsula and Gulf of İzmit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gazioğlu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis are one of the most dreadful natural disasters; they could cause abysmal damage to all kind of lives in the hinterland within instantly. It is a major right-lateral moving fault that runs along the tectonic boundary between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the Anatolian Plate to the south. The western segment of the North Anatolian Fault splits into three main branches. The northern one of NAF is generally subdivided in several subsegments that have been the source of frequent large historical earthquakes. The Sea of Marmara coasts is located on the western extension of the NAFZ which is one of the most important active faults with strike-slip characteristics, which are not likely to generate tsunami. However, in the light of tsunami catalogs based on historical documents, it is possible to say that Sea of Marmara has tsunamigenic potential. The İstanbul shorelines, Gemlik Bay, Kapıdağ N-NE shores, Gelibolu, Hersek Peinsula and Gulf of İzmit are one of the most significant geohazards in Sea of Marmara due to the tsunami effect.

  4. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn's Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements

  5. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn`s Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements.

  6. Bioactive potential of some economically important marine gastropods along the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JayanthiGovindarajalu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the economically important gastropods for prospective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Methods: The bioactive potential of some gastropods i.e. Babylonia spirata (B. spirata, Phalium glaucum, Tonna dolium, Hemifusus pugilinus, Xancus pyrum, Chicoreus ramosus (C. ramosus, Harpa articularis, Ficus ficus and Babylonia zeylanica were analysed. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against 8 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains by well diffusion method. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were analyzed by standard methods. Results: In antibacterial and antifungal activities, methanolic extract of B. spirata significantly showed the highest inhibition zone against Aeromonas hydrophila and Fusarium spp. (P > 0.05. In the total antioxidant activity, the maximum activity was observed in B. spirata (510 µg/mg and in the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, B. spirata showed the highest percentage of inhibition (76.7%. In the case of cytotoxicity i.e. brine shrimp lethality tests the methanolic extract of C. ramosus showed the lowest percentage of mortality and the LC50 values were found to be 523.9 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results revealed that all the gastropods in the present study possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects. However, species like B. spirata and C. ramosus exhibited potent activity and can be used for further clinical studies.

  7. Catalase is a determinant of the colonization and transovarial transmission of Rickettsia parkeri in the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, K; Kumar, D; Karim, S

    2017-08-01

    The Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum) has evolved as a competent vector of the spotted-fever group rickettsia, Rickettsia parkeri. In this study, the functional role of catalase, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of toxic hydrogen peroxide, in the colonization of the tick vector by R. parkeri and transovarial transmission of this pathogen to the next tick generation, was investigated. Catalase gene (CAT) expression in midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues exhibited a 2-11-fold increase in transcription level upon R. parkeri infection. Depletion of CAT transcripts using an RNA-interference approach significantly reduced R. parkeri infection levels in midgut and salivary gland tissues by 53-63%. The role of CAT in transovarial transmission of R. parkeri was confirmed by simultaneously blocking the transcript and the enzyme by injecting double-stranded RNA for CAT and a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) into gravid females. Simultaneous inhibition of the CAT transcript and the enzyme significantly reduced the egg conversion ratio with a 44% reduction of R. parkeri transovarial transmission. These data suggest that catalase is required for rickettsial colonization of the tick vector and transovarial transmission to the next generation. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Soybean Yield along the Texas Gulf Coast during Periods of Variable Rainfall as Influenced by Soybean Cultivar and Planting Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Grichar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans (Glycine max can be planted along the upper Texas Gulf Coast from mid-March through May to take advantage of early season rains and to complete harvest before hurricane season and fall rains become a problem. When average to above average rainfall was received in May through July, yields were greater with the early April to mid-April planting; however, under high rainfall conditions throughout the season, the mid-April to early May planting produced the highest yields, with yields of over 4000 kg/ha. When rainfall was below normal, late March to early April plantings produced the greatest yields. When rainfall was above average, soybeans took longer to reach harvestability regardless of cultivar or plant dates, while under drought conditions the interval between planting and harvest was reduced. However, when planting was delayed, there was a greater risk of detrimental late-season effects from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula or the brown stink bug (Euschistus heros.

  9. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  10. Offshore oil spill recovery operations in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.D.; Gangsaas, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    On or about January 25, 1991, Iraqi forces in Kuwait discharged more than 4 million barrels of Kuwait crude oil into the Persian Gulf. The counterclockwise current carried the resulting slick southeastward along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian oil company, Aramco, chartered the multiclassed tanker and response vessel Al Waasit, based in Dubai, to assist in the offshore recovery operation. The Al Waasit's response resulted in the offshore recovery of about 100,000 barrels of oil during a 42-day period, without a recovery system failure. The authors both served on board Al Waasit as operations managers during this response operation

  11. An analysis of the relationship between drought events and mangrove changes along the northern coasts of the Pe rsian Gulf and Oman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi-Gholami, Davood; Mahmoudi, Beytollah; Zenner, Eric K.

    2017-12-01

    Relating the changes of mangrove forests to spatially explicit reductions in rainfall amounts and increases in drought occurrences is a prerequisite for improving the effectiveness and success of mangrove forest conservation programs. To this end, we investigated the relationship between drought events (quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Index [SPI]) and changes in area and canopy cover of mangrove forests on the northern coast of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea using satellite imagery and long-term annual rainfall data over a period of 30 years (1986-2016). Statistical analyses revealed 1998 as the year marking the most significant change-point in the mean annual rainfall values in the catchments and mangroves, after which average SPI values consistently remained at lower levels. In the period of 1998-2016, decreases in the mean annual rainfall and increases in the severity of droughts differed spatially and were greater in the catchments and mangroves on the coasts of the Oman Sea than the coasts of the Persian Gulf. These spatially explicit results were closely mirrored by the mangrove response, with differential in reductions in mangrove areas and canopy cover that corresponded closely with the spatial distribution of drought intensities in the different parts of the coasts, with correlation coefficients ≥0.89 for the different coastal regions.

  12. Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Carruthers, Emily A.; Stone, Byron D.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Details of the internal architecture and local geochronology of Plum Island, the longest barrier in the Gulf of Maine, have refined our understanding of barrier island formation in paraglacial settings. Ground-penetrating radar and shallow-seismic profiles coupled with sediment cores and radiocarbon dates provide an 8000-year evolutionary history of this barrier system in response to changes in sediment sources and supply rates as well as variability in the rate of sea-level change. The barrier sequence overlies tills of Wisconsinan and Illinoian glaciations as well as late Pleistocene glaciomarine clay deposited during the post-glacial sea-level highstand at approximately 17 ka. Holocene sediment began accumulating at the site of Plum Island at 7–8 ka, in the form of coarse fluvial channel-lag deposits related to the 50-m wide erosional channel of the Parker River that carved into underlying glaciomarine deposits during a lower stand of sea level. Plum Island had first developed in its modern location by ca. 3.6 ka through onshore migration and vertical accretion of reworked regressive and lowstand deposits. The prevalence of southerly, seaward-dipping layers indicates that greater than 60% of the barrier lithosome developed in its modern location through southerly spit progradation, consistent with a dominantly longshore transport system driven by northeast storms. Thinner sequences of northerly, landward-dipping clinoforms represent the northern recurve of the prograding spit. A 5–6-m-thick inlet-fill sequence was identified overlying the lower stand fluvial deposit; its stratigraphy captures events of channel migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling and inlet infilling associated with the migration and eventual closure of the inlet. This inlet had a maximum cross-sectional area of 2800 m2 and was active around 3.5–3.6 ka. Discovery of this inlet suggests that the tidal prism was once larger than at present. Bay infilling

  13. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Newton

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

  14. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    are described. Two of the maxima arise from the influence of Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Water. The third, which lies at the bottom of the Equatorial Surface Water, forms due to freshening at the surface of high salinity Arabian Sea near-surface waters...

  15. Salinity variations and chemical compositions of waters in the Frio Formation, Texas Gulf Coast. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Garrett, C.M. Jr.; Posey, J.S.; Han, J.H.; Jirik, L.A.

    1981-11-01

    Waters produced from sandstone reservoirs of the deep Frio Formation exhibit spatial variations in chemical composition that roughly coincide with the major tectonic elements (Houston and Rio Grande Embayments, San Marcos Arch) and corresponding depositional systems (Houston and Norias deltas, Greta-Carancahua barrier/strandplain system) that were respectively active along the upper, lower, and middle Texas Coast during Frio deposition. Within an area, salinities are usually depth dependent, and primary trends closely correspond to pore pressure gradients and thermal gradients. Where data are available (mainly in Brazoria County) the increases in TDS and calcium with depth coincide with the zone of albitization, smectite-illite transition, and calcite decrease in shales. Waters have fairly uniform salinities when produced from the same sandstone reservoir within a fault block or adjacent fault blocks with minor displacement. In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent sandstones separated by faults with large displacement usually yield waters with substantially different salinities owing to the markedly different thermal and pressure gradients across the faults that act as barriers to fluid movement.

  16. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M; Ullmann, Steven G; Backer, Lorraine C

    2009-08-01

    Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. We developed a statistical exposure-response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation.

  17. Investigation of the lithosphere of the Texas Gulf Coast using phase-specific Ps receiver functions produced by wavefield iterative deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrola, H.; Berdine, A.; Pulliam, J.

    2017-12-01

    Interference between Ps phases and reverberations (PPs, PSs phases and reverberations thereof) make it difficult to use Ps receiver functions (RF) in regions with thick sediments. Crustal reverberations typically interfere with Ps phases from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). We have developed a method to separate Ps phases from reverberations by deconvolution of all the data recorded at a seismic station by removing phases from a single wavefront at each iteration of the deconvolution (wavefield iterative deconvolution or WID). We applied WID to data collected in the Gulf Coast and Llano Front regions of Texas by the EarthScope Transportable array and by a temporary deployment of 23 broadband seismometers (deployed by Texas Tech and Baylor Universities). The 23 station temporary deployment was 300 km long; crossing from Matagorda Island onto the Llano uplift. 3-D imaging using these data shows that the deepest part of the sedimentary basin may be inboard of the coastline. The Moho beneath the Gulf Coast plain does not appear in many of the images. This could be due to interference from reverberations from shallower layers or it may indicate the lack of a strong velocity contrast at the Moho perhaps due to serpentinization of the uppermost mantle. The Moho appears to be flat, at 40 km) beneath most of the Llano uplift but may thicken to the south and thin beneath the Coastal plain. After application of WID, we were able to identify a negatively polarized Ps phase consistent with LAB depths identified in Sp RF images. The LAB appears to be 80-100 km deep beneath most of the coast but is 100 to 120 km deep beneath the Llano uplift. There are other negatively polarized phases between 160 and 200 km depths beneath the Gulf Coast and the Llano Uplift. These deeper phases may indicate that, in this region, the LAB is transitional in nature and rather than a discrete boundary.

  18. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2001 and 2002: A salinity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J.H.; Carter, J.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of marine submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; i.e., seagrass) in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been documented, but there are nonmarine submersed or SAV species occurring in estuarine salinities that have not been extensively reported. We sampled 276 SAV beds along the gulf coast in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 and 2002 in oligohaline to polyhaline (0 to 36 parts per thousand) waters to determine estuarine SAV species distribution and identify mesohaline SAV communities. A total of 20 SAV and algal species was identified and habitat characteristics such as salinity, water depth, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sediment composition were collected. Fourteen SAV species occurred two or more times in our samples. The most frequently occurring species was Ruppia maritima L. (n = 148), occurring in over half of SAV beds sampled. Eleocharis sp. (n = 47), characterized with an emergent rather than submerged growth form, was a common genus in the SAV beds sampled. A common marine species was Halodule wrightii Asch. (n = 36). Nonindigenous species Myriophyllum spicatum L. (n = 31) and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (n = 6) were present only in oligohaline water. Analyzing species occurrence and environmental characteristics using canonical correspondence and two-way indicator species analysis, we identify five species assemblages distinguished primarily by salinity and depth. Our survey increases awareness of nonmarine SAV as a natural resource in the gulf, and provides baseline data for future research. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama.

  19. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellink, Eric, E-mail: emellink@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Riojas-Lopez, Monica E., E-mail: meriojas@cucba.udg.m [Departamento de Ecologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km. 15.5 Carretera a Nogales, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Luevano-Esparza, Jaime, E-mail: jluevano@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  20. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-Lopez, Monica E.; Luevano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  1. Distribution of Archaeal Communities along the Coast of the Gulf of Finland and Their Response to Oil Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijuan; Yu, Dan; Hui, Nan; Naanuri, Eve; Viggor, Signe; Gafarov, Arslan; Sokolov, Sergei L.; Heinaru, Ain; Romantschuk, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to environmental changes. With the increasing shipping activities, the risk of oil spills remains high. Archaea are widely distributed in many environments. However, the distribution and the response of archaeal communities to oil contamination have rarely been investigated in brackish habitats. Hence, we conducted a survey to investigate the distribution, diversity, composition, and species interactions of indigenous archaeal communities at oil-contaminated sites along the coast of the Gulf of Finland (GoF) using high-throughput sequencing. Surface water and littoral sediment samples were collected at presumably oil-contaminated (oil distribution facilities) and clean sites along the coastline of the GoF in the winter 2015 and the summer 2016. Another three samples of open sea surface water were taken as offshore references. Of Archaea, Euryarchaeota dominated in the surface water and the littoral sediment of the coast of the GoF, followed by Crenarchaeota (including Thaumarchaeota, Thermoprotei, and Korarchaeota based on the Greengenes database used). The unclassified sequences accounted for 5.62% of the total archaeal sequences. Our study revealed a strong dependence of the archaeal community composition on environmental variables (e.g., salinity, pH, oil concentration, TOM, electrical conductivity, and total DNA concentration) in both littoral sediment and coastal water in the GoF. The composition of archaeal communities was season and ecosystem dependent. Archaea was highly diverse in the three ecosystems (littoral sediment, coastal water, and open sea water). Littoral sediment harbored the highest diversity of archaea. Oil was often detected in the littoral sediment but rarely detected in water at those presumably contaminated sites. Although the composition of archaeal community in the littoral sediment was sensitive to low-input oil contamination, the unchanged putative functional profiles and increased interconnectivity of the

  2. The Influence of Sediment Isostatic Adjustment on Sea Level Change and Land Motion Along the U.S. Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, Joseph; Milne, Glenn; Wolstencroft, Martin; Love, Ryan; Tarasov, Lev; Hijma, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Sea level rise presents a hazard for coastal populations, and the Mississippi Delta (MD) is a region particularly at risk due to the high rates of land subsidence. We apply a gravitationally self-consistent model of glacial and sediment isostatic adjustment (SIA) along with a realistic sediment load reconstruction in this region for the first time to determine isostatic contributions to relative sea level (RSL) and land motion. We determine optimal model parameters (Earth rheology and ice history) using a new high-quality compaction-free sea level indicator database. Using the optimal model parameters, we show that SIA can lower predicted RSL in the MD area by several meters over the Holocene and so should be taken into account when modeling these data. We compare modeled contemporary rates of vertical land motion with those inferred using GPS. This comparison indicates that isostatic processes can explain the majority of the observed vertical land motion north of latitude 30.7°N, where subsidence rates average about 1 mm/yr; however, subsidence south of this latitude shows large data-model discrepancies of greater than 3 mm/yr, indicating the importance of nonisostatic processes. This discrepancy extends to contemporary RSL change, where we find that the SIA contribution in the Delta is on the order of 10-1 mm/yr. We provide estimates of the isostatic contributions to 20th and 21st century sea level rates at Gulf Coast Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level tide gauge locations as well as vertical and horizontal land motion at GPS station locations near the MD.

  3. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway.

  4. Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators in the Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Harvest Waters along Louisiana Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Naim; Maite, Morgan; Liu, Da; Cormier, Jiemin; Landry, Matthew; Shackleford, John; Lampila, Lucina E; Achberger, Eric C; Janes, Marlene E

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. We investigated the occurrence of norovirus GI and GII and microbial indicators of fecal contamination in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and water from commercial harvesting areas along the Louisiana Gulf Coast (January to November of 2013). Microbial indicators (aerobic plate count, enterococci, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, male-specific coliphages, and somatic coliphages) were detected at the densities lower than public health concerns. Only one oyster sample was positive for norovirus GII at 3.5 ± 0.2 log10 genomic equivalent copies/g digestive tissues. A stool specimen obtained from an infected individual associated with a norovirus outbreak and the suspected oysters (Cameron Parish, La., area 30, January 2013) were also analyzed. The norovirus strain in the stool belonged to GII.4 Sydney; however, the oysters were negative and could not be linked. In general, no temporal trend was observed in the microbial indicators. Low correlation among bacterial indicators was observed in oysters. Strongest correlations among microbial indicators were observed between enterococci and fecal coliforms (r = 0.63) and between enterococci and E. coli (r = 0.64) in water (P oysters (r oysters and harvest water (r ≤ 0.36, P > 0.05). Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring of pathogenic viruses in commercial oyster harvesting areas to reduce the risks of viral gastroenteritis incidences. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the Eagle Ford Shale: Results from the USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Boehlke, Adam; Paxton, Stanley T.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Pearson, Ofori N.

    2017-01-01

    The Eagle Ford shale is a major continuous oil and gas resource play in southcentral Texas and a source for other oil accumulations in the East Texas Basin. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) petroleum system assessment and research efforts, a coring program to obtain several immature, shallow cores from near the outcrop belt in central Texas has been undertaken. The first of these cores, USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway, was collected near Waco, Texas, in September 2015 and has undergone extensive geochemical and mineralogical characterization using routine methods to ascertain variations in the lithologies and chemofacies present in the Eagle Ford at this locale. Approximately 270 ft of core was examined for this study, focusing on the Eagle Ford Group interval between the overlying Austin Chalk and underlying Buda Limestone (~20 ft of each). Based on previous work to identify the stratigraphy of the Eagle Ford Group in the Waco area and elsewhere (Liro et al., 1994; Robison, 1997; Ratcliffe et al., 2012; Boling and Dworkin, 2015; Fairbanks et al., 2016, and references therein), several lithological units were expected to be present, including the Pepper Shale (or Woodbine), the Lake Waco Formation (or Lower Eagle Ford, including the Bluebonnet, Cloice, and Bouldin or Flaggy Cloice members), and the South Bosque Member (Upper Eagle Ford). The results presented here indicate that there are three major chemofacies present in the cored interval, which are generally consistent with previous descriptions of the Eagle Ford Group in this area. The relatively high-resolution sampling (every two ft above the Buda, 432.8 ft depth, and below the Austin Chalk, 163.5 ft depth) provides great detail in terms of geochemical and mineralogical properties supplementing previous work on immature Eagle Ford Shale near the outcrop belt.

  6. Hydropedological model of vertisol formation along the Gulf Coast Prairie land resource area of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Driese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertisols are clayey soils containing slickensides and wedge-shaped aggregates formed by shrink-swell processes in seasonally wet climates. The dynamic distribution of macro- and microvoids as a by-product of this unique pedoturbation process, accompanied by microtopographic lows and highs (gilgai, mitigate our ability to make accurate and precise interpretations of aquic and hydric conditions in these problem soils. We studied Vertisols across a subhumid to humid climosequence to assess the formation of redoximorphic features on shallow, linear (nondepressional landscape positions in response to varying levels of rainfall. Approximately 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation (MAP is required to form soft iron masses that then increase in abundance, and to shallower depths, with increasing rainfall. Soft iron masses with diffuse boundaries become more abundant with higher rainfall in microlows, whereas masses with nondiffuse boundaries become more common in microhighs. Most soft iron masses form in oxygenated ped interiors as water first saturates and then reduces void walls where iron depletions form. In contrast, at least 1276 mm of MAP is needed to form iron pore linings in both microlow and microhigh topographic positions. Iron depletions do not correlate with rainfall in terms of abundance or depth of occurrence. The quantity of crayfish burrows co-varies with rainfall and first appears coincidentally with soft iron masses in microlows near 1000 mm of MAP; they do not appear until nearly 1400 mm of MAP in microhighs. Dithionite-citrate extractable and ammonium-oxalate extractable iron oxides increase systematically with rainfall indicating more frequent episodes of iron reduction and precipitation into pedogenic segregations. The sum of our data suggests that Vertisols forming in the Coast Prairie of Texas with MAP greater than 1276 mm should be classified as aquerts because of the presence of aquic conditions. These same soils may also meet

  7. Hydropedological model of vertisol formation along the Gulf Coast Prairie land resource area of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, L. C.; Driese, S. G.

    2009-11-01

    Vertisols are clayey soils containing slickensides and wedge-shaped aggregates formed by shrink-swell processes in seasonally wet climates. The dynamic distribution of macro- and microvoids as a by-product of this unique pedoturbation process, accompanied by microtopographic lows and highs (gilgai), mitigate our ability to make accurate and precise interpretations of aquic and hydric conditions in these problem soils. We studied Vertisols across a subhumid to humid climosequence to assess the formation of redoximorphic features on shallow, linear (nondepressional) landscape positions in response to varying levels of rainfall. Approximately 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation (MAP) is required to form soft iron masses that then increase in abundance, and to shallower depths, with increasing rainfall. Soft iron masses with diffuse boundaries become more abundant with higher rainfall in microlows, whereas masses with nondiffuse boundaries become more common in microhighs. Most soft iron masses form in oxygenated ped interiors as water first saturates and then reduces void walls where iron depletions form. In contrast, at least 1276 mm of MAP is needed to form iron pore linings in both microlow and microhigh topographic positions. Iron depletions do not correlate with rainfall in terms of abundance or depth of occurrence. The quantity of crayfish burrows co-varies with rainfall and first appears coincidentally with soft iron masses in microlows near 1000 mm of MAP; they do not appear until nearly 1400 mm of MAP in microhighs. Dithionite-citrate extractable and ammonium-oxalate extractable iron oxides increase systematically with rainfall indicating more frequent episodes of iron reduction and precipitation into pedogenic segregations. The sum of our data suggests that Vertisols forming in the Coast Prairie of Texas with MAP greater than 1276 mm should be classified as aquerts because of the presence of aquic conditions. These same soils may also meet the definition of

  8. Hurricane Harvey: Infrastructure Damage Assessment of Texas' Central Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Fovenyessy, S.; Patterson, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    We report a detailed ground-based damage survey for Hurricane Harvey, the first major hurricane to make landfall along the central Texas coast since the 1970 Category 3 Hurricane Celia. Harvey, a Category 4 storm, made landfall near Rockport, Texas on August 25th, 2017 at 10 PM local time. From September 2nd to 5th we visited Rockport and 22 nearby cities to assess the severity of the damage. Nearly all damage observed occurred as a direct result of the hurricane-force winds, rather than a storm surge. This observation is in contrast to the severe damage caused by both high winds and a significant storm surge, locally 3 to 5 m in height, in the 2013 Category 5 Hurricane Haiyan, that devastated the Philippines. We have adopted a damage scale and have given an average damage score for each of the areas investigated. Our damage contour map illustrates the areal variation in damage. The damage observed was widespread with a high degree of variability. Different types of damage included: (1) fallen fences and utility poles; (2) trees with branches broken or completely snapped in half; (3) business signs that were either partially or fully destroyed; (4) partially sunken or otherwise damaged boats; (5) and sheet metal sheds either completely or partially destroyed. There was also varying degrees of damage to both residential and commercial structures. Many homes had (6) roof damage, ranging from minor damage to complete destruction of the roof and second story, and (7) siding damage, where parts or whole sections of the homes siding had been removed. The area that had the lowest average damage score was Corpus Christi, and the areas that had the highest average damage score was both Fulton and Holiday Beach. There is no simple, uniform pattern of damage distribution. Rather, the damage was scattered, revealing hot spots of areas that received more damage than the surrounding area. However, when compared to the NOAA wind swath map, all of the damage was contained within

  9. Latitudinal variation in the symbiotic dinoflagellateSymbiodiniumof the common reef zoantharianPalythoa tuberculosaon the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James D.; Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Gatins, Remy; Roberts, May B.; Parkinson, John E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusions Multinomial logistic regression analyses established that predictions based on the combination of temperature, chlorophyll-a and salinity accurately reflected symbiont distributions in the central and northern Red Sea. Palythoa tuberculosa host Pt-1-a in the coldest region, the Gulf of Aqaba (annual average SST = 24.5–25.0 °C), while immediately to the south Pt-3-a dominates (SST = 26.0–26.5 °C), with warmest southern sites dominated by Pt-3-b (SST > 26.5 °C). The Gulf of Aqaba is a unique environment, and more research on Symbiodinium outside the Gulf is required to understand symbiont diversity patterns within the Red Sea.

  10. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumder, A.; Nigam, R.

    species, including two species of Bolivina and a single species of Uvigerina, with the bathymetrical variation from the northern Gulf of Mexico. But there is no attempt to correlate the total population of any important genus of rectilinear foraminifera...–900. Malakoff D 1998 Death by suffocation in the Gulf of Mexico; Science 281 190–192. Mallon J, Glock N and Scho¨nfeld J 2012 The response of benthic foraminifera to low-oxygen conditions of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone; In: ANOXIA: Evidence for eukaryote...

  11. Precipitation Dynamics and Feedback mechanisms of the Arabian Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Roelof; Kucera, Paul; Piketh, Stuart; Axisa, Duncan; Chapman, Michael; Krauss, Terry; Ghulam, Ayman

    2010-05-01

    The subtropical Arabian desert extends across the entire Peninsula. The Arabian desert finds itself in the downward branch of the Hadley cell with persistent subsidence. This stabilizes the atmosphere and lowers the relative humidity. The result is a strongly capped convective boundary layer and an extremely dry mid troposphere. Most of the area experience very little rainfall, generally below 100 mm per year, resulting in the largest uninterrupted sand desert in the world. However, local factors such as an unbroken 1000 km escarpment along the Red Sea, rocky mountains between 2000 and 3000 m, and gravel plains cut by wadis, causes micro climates with significant altered precipitation characteristics. Altitude oases with annual rainfall between 200 mm and 500 mm are found on the Asir mountains in the south west and over the Jebel Akdhar mountains on the Gulf coast of Oman. This region receives most of its rainfall in the Northern Hemisphere summer driven by a monsoon trough and the ITCZ. During summer, moist surface winds from the Red Sea converges with dry easterlies triggering convection along the Asir escarpment on a daily basis. Clear mornings grow into a layer of Altocumulus stratiformis cumulogenites by noon, which usually last until sunset. This cloud deck interacts with large severe convective cells which grow to the top of the troposphere by mid afternoon. The north experience a mediterranean climate with eastward propagating midlatitude cyclones causing wintertime rainfall. Characteristic cloud bands form over the northern interior. Vertically layered embedded convective cells that are not coupled with the surface propagate on north easterly tracks. This result in another oasis with annual rainfall exceeding 200 mm. Surface based convection causes isolated thunderstorms during spring and early summer, but cloud bases increase as the season progress until the evaporating downdraft causes dust storms. In-situ measurements, WRF model runs, radiosonde ascends

  12. PATHOGENIC LEPTOSPIRA SEROVARS IN FREE-LIVING SEA LIONS IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA AND ALONG THE BAJA CALIFORNIA COAST OF MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Téllez, Rosalía; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Atilano-López, Daniel; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Ramírez-Delgado, David; Ramírez-Echenique, María F; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Suzán, Gerardo; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2016-04-28

    The California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ), a permanent inhabitant of the Gulf of California in Mexico, is susceptible to pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection, which can result in hepatic and renal damage and may lead to renal failure and death. During summer 2013, we used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in blood of clinically healthy sea lion pups from seven rookery islands on the Pacific Coast of Baja California (Pacific Ocean) and in the Gulf of California. We also used PCR to examine blood for Leptospira DNA. Isolation of Leptospira in liquid media was unsuccessful. We found higher antibody prevalence in sea lions from the rookery islands in the gulf than in those from the Pacific Coast. Antibodies against 11 serovars were identified in the Gulf of California population; the most frequent reactions were against serovars Bataviae (90%), Pyrogenes (86%), Wolffi (86%), Celledoni (71%), and Pomona (65%). In the Pacific Ocean population, MAT was positive against eight serovars, where Wolffi (88%), Pomona (75%), and Bataviae (70%) were the most frequent. Serum samples agglutinated with more than one Leptospira serovar. The maximum titer was 3,200. Each island had a different serology profile, and islands combined showed a distinct profile for each region. We detected pathogenic Leptospira DNA in 63% of blood samples, but we found no saprophytic Leptospira. Positive PCR results were obtained in blood samples with high and low MAT titers. Together, these two methods enhance the diagnosis and interpretation of sea lion leptospirosis. Our results may be related to human activities or the presence of other reservoirs with which sea lions interact, and they may also be related to sea lion stranding.

  13. Convective Mode and Mesoscale Heavy Rainfall Forecast Challenges during a High-Impact Weather Period along the Gulf Coast and Florida from 17-20 May 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosart, L. F.; Wallace, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    Two high-impact convective storm forecast challenges occurred between 17-20 May 2016 during NOAA's Hazardous Weather Testbed Spring Forecast Experiment (SFE) at the Storm Prediction Center. The first forecast challenge was 286 mm of unexpected record-breaking rain that fell on Vero Beach (VRB), Florida, between 1500 UTC 17 May and 0600 UTC 18 May, more than doubling the previous May daily rainfall record. The record rains in VRB occurred subsequent to the formation of a massive MCS over the central Gulf of Mexico between 0900-1000 UTC 17 May. This MCS, linked to the earlier convection associated with an anomalously strong subtropical jet (STJ) over the Gulf of Mexico, moved east-northeastward toward Florida. The second forecast challenge was a large MCS that formed over the Mexican mountains near the Texas-Mexican border, moved eastward and grew upscale prior to 1200 UTC 19 May. This MCS further strengthened offshore after 1800 UTC 19 May beneath the STJ. SPC SFE participants expected this MCS to move east-northeastward and bring heavy rain due to training echoes along the Gulf coast as far eastward as the Florida panhandle. Instead, this MCS transitioned into a bowing MCS that resembled a low-end derecho and produced a 4-6 hPa cold pool with widespread surface wind gusts between 35-50 kt. Both MCS events occurred in a large-scale baroclinic environment along the northern Gulf coast. Both MCS events responded to antecedent convection within this favorable large-scale environment. Rainfall amounts with the first heavy rain-producing MCS were severely underestimated by models and forecasters alike. The second MCS produced the greatest forecaster angst because rainfall totals were forecast too high (MCS propagated too fast) and severe wind reports were much more widespread than anticipated (because of cold pool formation). This presentation will attempt to untangle what happened and why it happened.

  14. Comparative genomic characterization of a Thailand-Myanmar isolate, MS6, of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, which is phylogenetically related to a "US Gulf Coast" clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuhisa; Na-Ubol, Mathukorn; Natakuathung, Wirongrong; Roobthaisong, Amonrattana; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Chantaroj, Siriporn; Hamada, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    The cholera outbreaks in Thailand during 2007-2010 were exclusively caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant carrying the cholera toxin gene of the classical biotype. We previously isolated a V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain from a patient with diarrhea and designated it MS6. Multilocus sequence-typing analysis revealed that MS6 is most closely related to the U. S. Gulf Coast clone with the exception of two novel housekeeping genes. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of MS6 was determined and compared with those of 26 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources worldwide. We show here that the MS6 isolate is distantly related to the ongoing seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains. These strains differ with respect to polymorphisms in housekeeping genes, seventh pandemic group-specific markers, CTX phages, two genes encoding predicted transmembrane proteins, the presence of metY (MS6_A0927) or hchA/luxR in a highly conserved region of the V. cholerae O1 serogroup, and a superintegron (SI). We found that V. cholerae species carry either hchA/luxR or metY and that the V. cholerae O1 clade commonly possesses hchA/luxR, except for MS6 and U. S. Gulf Coast strains. These findings illuminate the evolutionary relationships among V. cholerae O1 strains. Moreover, the MS6 SI carries a quinolone-resistance gene cassette, which was closely related with those present in plasmid-borne integrons of other gram-negative bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that MS6 is most closely related to a U. S. Gulf Coast clone, indicating their divergence before that of the El Tor biotype strains from a common V. cholerae O1 ancestor. We propose that MS6 serves as an environmental aquatic reservoir of V. cholerae O1.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, U.S. Gulf Coast region, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pearson, Krystal; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed means of (1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 16 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the conventional Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (AU); (2) 853 MMBO, 1,707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU; and (3) 50,219 BCFG and 2,009 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  16. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Eddy Field and Surface Circulation in the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saafani, M. A.; Shenoi, S. S. C.

    2006-07-01

    The circulation in the Gulf of Aden is inferred from three different data sets: h istorical sh ip drifts , hydrography , and satellite altimeter derived sea level (Topex/Poseidon, Jason and ERS) . The circulation in th is semi-enclosed basin is marked with strong seasonality with reversals in the direction of flows twice a year follow ing the reversal in mon soonal winds. During the win ter mon soon (November - February) there is an inflow from Arabian Sea; an extension of Arabian Coastal Current (ACC) . During sou thwest mon soon (June - August) the flow is generally towards east especially along the northern coast of Gulf of Aden. The geostrophic currents also show that the circulation in the gulf is embedded with mesoscale eddies. These westward propagating eddies appear to enter the Gulf of Aden from the western Arabian Sea in win ter. The relative contribu tion of mesoscale eddies to the circulation in the gulf were estimated using altimeter derived Sea level anomaly (SLA) for the years 1993 to 2003 . The effect of these mesoscale eddies extend over the entire water colu mn . The propagation speeds, of these eddies, estimated using weekly spaced altimeter derived SLA (2002 - 2003) is ~ 4 .0 - 5 .3 cm s . The sum of the speeds of second mode Ro ssby wave and the mean current (4.8 cm s ) matches with the propagation speeds of eddies estimated using SLA . Hence, second mode baroclin ic Rossby waves appear to be responsib le for the westward propagation of eddies in the Gulf of Aden. The presence of these eddies in the temperaturesalin ity climato logy confirms that they are no t transient features.

  17. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Jena, K.B.; Pise, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    , and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India...

  18. Hydrologic aspects of marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA: Effects of structural marsh management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrology of marsh ponds influences aquatic invertebrate and waterbird communities. Hydrologic variables in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain are potentially affected by structural marsh management (SMM: levees, water control structures and impoundments) that has been implemented since the 1950s. Assuming that SMM restricts tidal flows and drainage of rainwater, we predicted that SMM would increase water depth, and concomitantly decrease salinity and transparency in impounded marsh ponds. We also predicted that SMM would increase seasonal variability in water depth in impounded marsh ponds because of the potential incapacity of water control structures to cope with large flooding events. In addition, we predicted that SMM would decrease spatial variability in water depth. Finally, we predicted that ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), and mesohaline (IM) marshes would be similar in water depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen (O2), and transparency. Using a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast, we tested these predictions by comparing hydrologic variables within ponds of impounded and unimpounded marshes during winters 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Specifically, we compared hydrologic variables (1) between IM and unimpounded mesohaline marsh ponds (UM); and (2) among IF, IO, and IM marshes ponds. As predicted, water depth was higher and salinity and O2 were lower in IM than in UM marsh ponds. However, temperature and transparency did not differ between IM and UM marsh ponds. Water depth varied more among months in IM marsh ponds than within those of UM marshes, and variances among and within ponds were lower in IM than UM marshes. Finally, all hydrologic variables, except salinity, were similar among IF, IO, and IM marsh ponds. Hydrologic changes within marsh ponds due to SMM should (1) promote benthic invertebrate taxa that tolerate low levels of O2 and

  19. Prevalence and predictors of mental health distress post-Katrina: findings from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Garfield, Richard; Redlener, Irwin

    2008-06-01

    Catastrophic disasters often are associated with massive structural, economic, and population devastation; less understood are the long-term mental health consequences. This study measures the prevalence and predictors of mental health distress and disability of hurricane survivors over an extended period of recovery in a postdisaster setting. A representative sample of 1077 displaced or greatly affected households was drawn in 2006 using a stratified cluster sampling of federally subsidized emergency housing settings in Louisiana and Mississippi, and of Mississippi census tracts designated as having experienced major damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Two rounds of data collection were conducted: a baseline face-to-face interview at 6 to 12 months post-Katrina, and a telephone follow-up at 20 to 23 months after the disaster. Mental health disability was measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12, version 2 mental component summary score. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted examining socioeconomic, demographic, situational, and attitudinal factors associated with mental health distress and disability. More than half of the cohort at both baseline and follow-up reported significant mental health distress. Self-reported poor health and safety concerns were persistently associated with poorer mental health. Nearly 2 years after the disaster, the greatest predictors of poor mental health included situational characteristics such as greater numbers of children in a household and attitudinal characteristics such as fatalistic sentiments and poor self-efficacy. Informal social support networks were associated significantly with better mental health status. Housing and economic circumstances were not independently associated with poorer mental health. Mental health distress and disability are pervasive issues among the US Gulf Coast adults and children who experienced long-term displacement or other serious effects as a result of Hurricanes

  20. Latitudinal variation in the symbiotic dinoflagellateSymbiodiniumof the common reef zoantharianPalythoa tuberculosaon the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James D.

    2016-08-08

    Aim The Red Sea presents an ideal setting to explore the variability of Symbiodinium over environmental, latitudinal and geographical gradients. We used sequences from two molecular markers to examine genetic diversity of Symbiodinium associated with the widely distributed zoantharian Palythoa tuberculosa in the northern and central Red Sea. Location Northern and central Red Sea. Methods Specimens (n = 329) were collected from 15 locations. Sequence data from nuclear ribosomal ITS2 (n = 269) and chloroplast minicircle psbAncr (n = 173) were phylogenetically analysed (maximum likelihood, neighbour joining), and Symbiodinium types identified for each P. tuberculosa colony. To establish whether environment was a strong predictor of Symbiodinium psbAncr lineage, SST, chlorophyll-a, salinity, and depth data were fit into a multinomial logistic regression using the package VGAM in the R statistical environment. Results Based on ITS2 and psbAncr results, P. tuberculosa colonies were shown to be in symbioses with Symbiodinium clade C (n = 172) and clade D (n = 1). Within clade C, four psbAncr lineages were observed; closely related lineages designated Pt-1-a and Pt-1-b, and closely related lineages Pt-3-a and Pt-3-b. By location, Pt-1-a dominated the sites within the Gulf of Aqaba (c. 86%, 37/43 colonies). At the entrance to the Gulf of Aqaba, Pt-3-a dominated (c. 88%, 15/17), while the more southern remaining sites in the Red Sea were dominated by Pt-3-b (c. 78%, 89/113). Main conclusions Multinomial logistic regression analyses established that predictions based on the combination of temperature, chlorophyll-a and salinity accurately reflected symbiont distributions in the central and northern Red Sea. Palythoa tuberculosa host Pt-1-a in the coldest region, the Gulf of Aqaba (annual average SST = 24.5–25.0 °C), while immediately to the south Pt-3-a dominates (SST = 26.0–26.5 °C), with warmest southern sites dominated by Pt-3-b (SST > 26.5 °C). The Gulf of Aqaba is

  1. Ocean currents structuring the mesozooplankton in the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Bay, southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagadeesan, L.; Jyothibabu, R.; Anjusha, A.; Mohan, A.P.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Sudheesh, K.

    for the observed variance in copepod distribution. In general, the copepod community in the Gulf of Mannar was composed both of coastal and offshore species whereas, coastal species largely inhabited the Palk Bay. This kind of a study depicting zooplankton...

  2. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING, BY PLAY, NATURAL GAS ULTIMATE RECOVERY GROWTH AND QUANTIFYING THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST BASIN AND EAST TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Fisher; Eugene M. Kim

    2000-12-01

    A detailed natural gas ultimate recovery growth (URG) analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas has been undertaken. The key to such analysis was determined to be the disaggregation of the resource base to the play level. A play is defined as a conceptual geologic unit having one or more reservoirs that can be genetically related on the basis of depositional origin of the reservoir, structural or trap style, source rocks and hydrocarbon generation, migration mechanism, seals for entrapment, and type of hydrocarbon produced. Plays are the geologically homogeneous subdivision of the universe of petroleum pools within a basin. Therefore, individual plays have unique geological features that can be used as a conceptual model that incorporates geologic processes and depositional environments to explain the distribution of petroleum. Play disaggregation revealed important URG trends for the major natural gas fields in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas. Although significant growth and future potential were observed for the major fields, important URG trends were masked by total, aggregated analysis based on a broad geological province. When disaggregated by plays, significant growth and future potential were displayed for plays that were associated with relatively recently discovered fields, deeper reservoir depths, high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures. Continued technology applications and advancements are crucial in achieving URG potential in these plays.

  3. Optimizing Surveillance for South American Origin Influenza A Viruses Along the United States Gulf Coast Through Genomic Characterization of Isolates from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, A M; Walther, P; Link, P; Poulson, R L; Wilcox, B R; Newsome, G; Spackman, E; Brown, J D; Stallknecht, D E

    2016-04-01

    Relative to research focused on inter-continental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes was detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g., the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast. © Published 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Community Resilience, Psychological Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms: An Examination of the Mississippi Gulf Coast 10 Years After Hurricane Katrina and 5 Years After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Blackmon, Bret J; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Gunnell, Mauri Stubbs

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the role of community resilience and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in areas on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that have experienced multiple disasters. Survey administration took place in the spring of 2015 to a spatially stratified, random sample of households. This analysis included a total of 294 subjects who lived in 1 of the 3 counties of the Mississippi Gulf Coast at the time of both Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey included the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was a significant inverse relationship between psychological resilience and depressive symptoms and a significant positive relationship between community resilience and psychological resilience. The results also revealed that community resilience was indirectly related to depressive symptoms through the mediating variable of psychological resilience. These findings highlight the importance of psychological resilience in long-term disaster recovery and imply that long-term recovery efforts should address factors associated with both psychological and community resilience to improve mental health outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:241-248).

  5. Overview of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission collaborative research program to assess tsunami hazard for nuclear power plants on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, A.M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Titov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear facilities in the United States. For this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with a goal of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Necessarily, the US NRC research program includes both seismic- and landslide-based tsunamigenic sources in both the near and the far fields. The inclusion of tsunamigenic landslides, an important category of sources that impact tsunami hazard levels for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts is a key difference between this program and most other tsunami hazard assessment programs. The initial phase of this work consisted of collection, interpretation, and analysis of available offshore data, with significant effort focused on characterizing offshore near-field landslides and analyzing their tsunamigenic potential and properties. In the next phase of research, additional field investigations will be conducted in key locations of interest and additional analysis will be undertaken. Simultaneously, the MOST tsunami generation and propagation model used by NOAA will first be enhanced to include landslide-based initiation mechanisms and then will be used to investigate the impact of the tsunamigenic sources identified and characterized by the USGS. The potential for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment will also be explore in the final phases of the program.

  6. Arsenic and radionuclide occurrence and relation to geochemistry in groundwater of the Gulf Coast Aquifer System in Houston, Texas, 2007–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2016-03-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, began a study in 2007 to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring trace elements and radionuclides in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Houston, Texas. Water samples were collected from 91 municipal supply wells completed in the Evangeline and Chicot aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern Houston; hereinafter referred to as northeast, northwest and southwest Houston areas. Wells were sampled in three phases: (1) 28 municipal supply wells were sampled during 2007–8, (2) 60 municipal supply wells during 2010, and (3) 3 municipal supply wells during December 2011. During each phase of sampling, samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, and radionuclides. At a subset of wells, concentrations of arsenic species and other radionuclides (carbon-14, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, and tritium) also were analyzed. Selected physicochemical properties were measured in the field at the time each sample was collected, and oxidation-reduction potential and unfiltered sulfides also were measured at selected wells. The source-water (the raw, ambient water withdrawn from municipal supply wells prior to water treatment) samples were collected for assessment of aquifer conditions in order to provide community water-system operators information that could be important when they make decisions about which treatment processes to apply before distributing finished drinking water.

  7. Geochemical Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments in the Eastern Beibu Gulf: A Reflection on the Industrial Development of the South China Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Qian, Bihua; Wu, Zhai; Huang, Peng; Chen, Kai; Li, Tianyao; Cai, Minggang

    2018-01-01

    The Beibu Gulf (also named the Gulf of Tonkin), located in the northwest of the South China Sea, is representative of a bay suffering from turbulence and contamination associated with rapid industrialization and urbanization. In this study, we aim to provide the novel baseline levels of heavy metals for the research area. Concentrations of five heavy metals (i.e., Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) were determined in surface sediments from 35 sites in the eastern Beibu Gulf. The heavy metal content varied from 6.72 to 25.95 mg/kg for Cu, 16.99 to 57.98 mg/kg for Pb, 73.15 to 112.25 mg/kg for Zn, 0.03 to 0.12 mg/kg for Cd, and 20.69 to 56.47 mg/kg for Cr, respectively. With respect to the Chinese sediment quality criteria, sediments in the eastern Beibu Gulf have not been significantly affected by coastal metal pollutions. The results deduced from the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed that the study area has been slightly polluted by Pb, which might be caused by non-point sources. Relatively high concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd were found around the coastal areas of Guangxi province, the Leizhou Peninsula and the northwest coast of Hainan Island, whereas the highest concentrations of Zn and Cr were found on the northwest coast of Hainan Island. Spatial distribution patterns of the heavy metals showed that bioavailable fractions of Pb were higher than in the residual fractions, while Cu and Cd concentrations in exchangeable and carbonate fractions were relatively higher than those in the bioavailable fractions. Hierarchical clustering analysis suggested that the sampling stations could be separated into three groups with different geographical distributions. Accompanying their similar spatial distribution in the study area, significant correlation coefficients among Cu, Cd and Pb were also found, indicating that these three metals might have had similar sources. Overall, the results indicated that the distribution of these heavy metals in the surface sediments collected from

  8. USGS Gulf Coast Science Conference and Florida Integrated Science Center Meeting: Proceedings with abstracts, October 20-23, 2008, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn L.; Rosen, Barry H.; Sumner, Dave; Haag, Kim H.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Boynton, Betsy; Koenig, Renee; Lavoie, Dawn L.; Rosen, Barry H.; Sumner, Dave; Haag, Kim H.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Boynton, Betsy; Koenig, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Welcome! The USGS is the Nation's premier source of information in support of science-based decision making for resource management. We are excited to have the opportunity to bring together a diverse array of USGS scientists, managers, specialists, and others from science centers around the Gulf working on biologic, geologic, and hydrologic issues related to the Gulf of Mexico and the State of Florida. We've organized the meeting around the major themes outlined in the USGS Circular 1309, Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017. USGS senior leadership will provide a panel discussion about the Gulf of Mexico and Integrated Science. Capstone talks will summarize major topics and key issues. Interactive poster sessions each evening will provide the opportunity for you to present your results and talk with your peers. We hope that discussions and interactions at this meeting will help USGS scientists working in Florida and the Gulf Coast region find common interests, forge scientific collaborations and chart a direction for the future. We hope that the meeting environment will encourage interaction, innovation and stimulate ideas among the many scientists working throughout the region. We'd like to create a community of practice across disciplines and specialties that will help us address complex scientific and societal issues. Please take advantage of this opportunity to visit with colleagues, get to know new ones, share ideas and brainstorm about future possibilities. It is our pleasure to provide this opportunity. We are glad you're here.

  9. Association between premonsoonal SST anomaly field in the eastern Arabian Sea and subsequent monsoon rainfall over the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sarma, M.S.S.

    -September) summer monsoon rainfall over the central west coast of India. Premonsoonal warm SST anomaly seems to be mainly the result of higher atmospheric subsidence over the ocean and may not be considered as predictor for a good ensuing monsoon, emphasizing...

  10. Measuring the Role of Ecological Shift and Environmental Change on Organic Carbon Stocks in Salt Marshes and Mangrove Dominated Wetlands from the Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, M. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Armitage, A. R.; HighField, W.; Brody, S.; White, N.

    2014-12-01

    Texas coastal wetlands are dynamic marsh-mangrove ecotones that play an important role in fishery recruitment, storm buffering, and carbon storage. Historically, C4 salt marsh plants, such as Spartina alterniflora, have dominated the Texas Gulf Coast. For the past 2-3 decades, some of these ecosystems have experienced community shifts with woody tropical plants (Avicennia germinans) competing for resources. This study presents new results on the carbon sequestration potential following such ecological shifts as well as coastal development and wetland loss along the coast of Texas. The recorded change from native grass-dominated C4 salt marshes to wood-dominated C3 mangroves over the last 20 years (1990-2010: 4,660 km2) leads to a non-significant loss in aboveground organic carbon (OC) stocks (-6.5.106 g OC). The most substantial loss of aboveground OC in Texas coastal salt marshes is due to the transformation of these wetlands into tidal flats and open water (-7.53.108 g OC). Similarly, the largest losses in aboveground OC stocks from mangrove ecosystems (-1.57.107 g OC) are due to replacement by open water. Along with the decrease in aboveground OC stocks, we identified a significant decrease in sedimentary OC inventories due to the loss of salt marsh and mangrove coverage (-3.69.109 g OC and 5.71.107 g OC, respectively). In contrast, mangrove expansion into mudflat and salt marsh environments led to a positive addition in aboveground OC stocks (2.78.108 g OC) and increased OC sedimentary inventories (2.32.109 g OC). Mangrove expansion offsets only 70% of the total calculated OC loss (-4.51.109 g OC) in coastal wetlands along the Texas gulf coast over the 20-year study period. This deficit loss is primarily attributed to environmental pressures on coastal salt marshes (i.e., sea level rise, urban and coastal development, erosion).

  11. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  12. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent; Cusack, Michael; Almahasheer, Hanan; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Krishnakumar, Periyadan Kadinjappalli; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  13. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  14. Tracer signals of the intermediate layer of the Arabian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Plähn, Olaf

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs, components F11, F12) measurements were carried out in the Gulf of Aden, in the Gulf of Oman, and in the Arabian Sea. In the Gulf of Oman, the F12 concentrations in the Persian Gulf outflow (PGW) at about 300m depth were significantly higher than in ambient surface water with saturations reaching 270%. These high values could not be caused by air-sea gas exchange. The outflow was probably contaminated with oil, and the lipophilic character of...

  15. Trophic efficiency of plankton food webs: Observations from the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Bay, Southeast Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anjusha, A.; Jyothibabu, R; Jagadeesan, L.; Mohan, A.P.; Sudheesh, K.; Krishna, K.; Ullas, N.; Deepak, M.P.

    This paper introduces the structure and trophic efficiency of plankton food webs in the Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and the Palk Bay (PB) - two least studied marine environments located between India and Sri Lanka. The study is based on the results...

  16. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  17. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Biological Data for Three Water Bodies, Texas Gulf Coast Plain, 2000-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    East, Jeffery W; Hogan, Jennifer L

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000 September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas...

  18. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  19. Tracer signals of the intermediate layer of the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Plähn, Olaf

    In 1995, hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs, components F11, F12) measurements were carried out in the Gulf of Aden, in the Gulf of Oman, and in the Arabian Sea. In the Gulf of Oman, the F12 concentrations in the Persian Gulf outflow (PGW) at about 300m depth were significantly higher than in ambient surface water with saturations reaching 270%. These high values could not be caused by air-sea gas exchange. The outflow was probably contaminated with oil, and the lipophilic character of the CFCs could then lead to the observed supersaturations. The intermediate F12 maximum decreased rapidly further east and south. At the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea outflow (RSW) was saturated with F12 to about 65% at 400m depth, and decreased to 50% while descending to 800m depth. The low saturation is not surprising, because the outflow contains deep and intermediate water masses from the Red Sea which were isolated from the surface for some time. The tracer contributions to the Arabian Sea for Indian Central Water (ICW) and PGW are about equal, while below 500m depth the RSW contribution greatly exceeds ICW. Modeling the CFC budget of the Arabian Sea, the inflow of ICW north of 12°N is estimated to be 1-6 Sv, depending mainly on the strength of the flow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea.

  20. The psychosocial impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities and independent living center staff living on the American Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael H; White, Glen W; Rooney, Catherine; Cahill, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To determine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the psychosocial health of people with disabilities and on the ability of people with disabilities in the affected area to live independently. Transcribed conversations were analyzed for 56 survivors of Hurricane Katrina on the American Gulf Coast, all of whom were persons with disabilities or persons working with them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either individually or in focus groups with participants. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using hermeneutic techniques. Six major themes emerged: faith, incredulousness, blaming others or oneself, family adaptation and resiliency, and work and professional responsibility. The resiliency of persons with disabilities to adapt to disasters can be better understood through factors such as these, providing an effective barometer of social capital that can help societies prepare for future disasters among those most vulnerable.

  1. Distribution of radioactive pollution of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in northwestern coasts of Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Abdi, Mohammad; Kamali, Mehdi; Vaezifar, Sedigheh

    2008-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the distribution of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs and geochemical features in soils and sediments samples at various locations in the northwestern coast of Persian Gulf. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 30 soil and sediment samples collected from this region. From the measured spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 40 K (range from 146 to 500 Bq kg -1 ), 137 Cs (from 5 to 20 Bq kg -1 ), 238 U (from 21 to 65 Bq kg -1 ) and 232 Th (from 15 to 45 Bq kg -1 ) with lowest limit detection (LLD) of 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 19 and 58 nGy h -1 with an average of 37.41 ± 9.66 nGy h -1

  2. Elemental concentration and potential ecological risk assessment of reef associated surface sediments of Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, P; Krishnakumar, S; Silva, Judith D; Pradhap, D; Vidyasakar, A; Radhakrishnan, K; Godson, Prince S; Arumugam, K; Magesh, N S

    2018-03-01

    Thirty three surface sediments were collected for the present study to assess the elemental concentration and its associated ecological risk in the reef associated surface sediments, Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, South east coast of India. The distribution of calcium carbonate in the reef sediments is controlled by coral debris and shell fragments whereas the Organic matter (OM) content are chiefly derived from mangroves and sea grasses. The circulation of trace elements and Fe, Mn are controlled by the fluvial process and re-suspended sediments. The concentration of Pb was primarily controlled by migration of pollutants through long shore sediment transport process. The main source of Pb in the study area is from coal incinerating power plants and coal handling operations from harbors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Satheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea spiders (Pycnogonids are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.

  4. Skin Transcriptomes of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the northern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern U.S. Atlantic coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Marion G; Morey, Jeanine S; Anderson, Paul; Balmer, Brian C; Ylitalo, Gina M; Zolman, Eric S; Speakman, Todd R; Sinclair, Carrie; Bachman, Melannie J; Huncik, Kevin; Kucklick, John; Rosel, Patricia E; Mullin, Keith D; Rowles, Teri K; Schwacke, Lori H; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2018-04-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins serve as sentinels for the health of their coastal environments as they are susceptible to health impacts from anthropogenic inputs through both direct exposure and food web magnification. Remote biopsy samples have been widely used to reveal contaminant burdens in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins, but do not address the health consequences of this exposure. To gain insight into whether remote biopsies can also identify health impacts associated with contaminant burdens, we employed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to interrogate the transcriptomes of remote skin biopsies from 116 bottlenose dolphins from the northern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern U.S. Atlantic coasts. Gene expression was analyzed using principal component analysis, differential expression testing, and gene co-expression networks, and the results correlated to season, location, and contaminant burden. Season had a significant impact, with over 60% of genes differentially expressed between spring/summer and winter months. Geographic location exhibited lesser effects on the transcriptome, with 23.5% of genes differentially expressed between the northern Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern U.S. Atlantic locations. Despite a large overlap between the seasonal and geographical gene sets, the pathways altered in the observed gene expression profiles were somewhat distinct. Co-regulated gene modules and differential expression analysis both identified epidermal development and cellular architecture pathways to be expressed at lower levels in animals from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Although contaminant burdens measured were not significantly different between regions, some correlation with contaminant loads in individuals was observed among co-expressed gene modules, but these did not include classical detoxification pathways. Instead, this study identified other, possibly downstream pathways, including those involved in cellular architecture, immune response, and oxidative stress

  5. Non-invasive treatments of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for inducing spermiation in American (Bufo americanus) and Gulf Coast (Bufo valliceps) toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Angela D.; Obringer, Amy R.; Roth, Terri L.

    2001-01-01

    As many as 20% of all assessed amphibian species are threatened with extinction, and captive breeding programs are becoming important components of conservation strategies for this taxon. For some species, exogenous hormone administration has been integrated into breeding protocols to improve propagation. However, most treatments are administered by an intraperitoneal injection that can be associated with some risks. The general goal of this study was to identify a non-invasive method of applying luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which reliably induces sperm release in toads. Specific objectives were to 1) test the spermiation response after topical application of different LHRH doses to the abdominal seat region, 2) evaluate the effects of adding the absorption enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, and glyceryl monocaprylate (GMC) to the LHRH, 3) assess the spermiation response after oral delivery of LHRH in a mealworm vehicle, and 4) compare sperm characteristics and spermiation responses to treatments in two different toad species. Male American (n = 9) and Gulf Coast (n = 7) toads were rotated systematically through a series of treatments. Urine was collected and evaluated for the presence of sperm at 0, 3, 7, 12, and 24 hours post-treatment. There were no statistical differences in spermiation induction or sperm characteristics between American and Gulf Coast toads after the treatments. Oral administration of 100 &mgr;g LHRH was occasionally successful in inducing spermiation, but results appeared largely unreliable. Ventral dermal application of 100 or 10 &mgr;g LHRH in 40% DMSO were more effective (P Zoo Biol 20:63-74, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A study on the diversity of gastropods in Hormuz Island with first record of two species from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiallah Kheirabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the diversity of gastropod species in the intertidal zone of Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf. Seasonal sampling was conducted in 7 selected sites by throwing nine random quadrates (0.5×0.5 m in each site. Samples of each site were separately transferred to the laboratory and identified by the standard keys and verified by the Conchology Museum of Tokyo University of Science. Forty -nine gastropod species were identified, from which 2 species, Turicula nelliae and Linatella caudata were recorded for the first time from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The highest number of gastropods in one site was 28 species in site 1 (East of Marine Research Center, Also highest number of gastropods in one season was 35 species in winter and lowest number was in 28 species in summer. Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener species diversity index, Margalef richness index and evenness index were calculated in the different sites and results showed that site 1 contained the most amount of the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices and site 6 (West of Island contained the most amount of the Simpson index. Also, site 3 (Mangrove forest showed the lowest amount of the Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices, while maximum amount of evenness index occurred in this site.

  7. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2014-11-21

    The monospecific scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia Klunzinger, 1879 was originally described from Al-Qusayr (Egypt) in the Red Sea based on a series of solitary specimens. Thenceforth, it has been considered a junior synonym of Symphyllia and Cynarina based on corallum macromorphology. In this study, several specimens of Sclerophyllia margariticola were collected on the coasts of Saudi Arabia in the northern and central Red Sea. Four molecular markers were sequenced, COI and the intergenic spacer between COI and l-rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and Histone H3 and ribosomal ITS2 from nuclear DNA. Phylogenetic trees and haplotype network analyses show that S. margariticola belongs to the family Lobophylliidae and that it is closely related to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters, such as the presence of free septa, high elliptical septal teeth perpendicular to the septal margin, irregular lobate tips, very wide tooth spacing, a very strong granulation with granules scattered all along the septal sides, and a palisade interarea structure, and their micromorphology differs substantially from that of Acanthastrea echinata, the type species of Acanthastrea. Therefore, we formally resurrect Sclerophyllia, provide a revised diagnosis for the genus, and move A. maxima into Sclerophyllia.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Changes in Air Pollution Along the Gulf Coast Observed During BRACE: A Case Study of the Land-Sea Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, D.; Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.

    2003-12-01

    NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. One objective of the aircraft flights was to investigate the role of the sea breeze circulation in determining patterns of nutrient deposition and pollutant loads in the Tampa Bay watershed. Results will be presented from a May 8 flight designed to investigate the effect of the sea breeze recirculation upon Tampa's air quality. The Twin Otter took off at 1425 UTC and after performing a spiral ascent over the Sydney ground site, proceeded to fly north, at 200 feet above mean sea level (MSL) just off the Gulf coast, west of St. Petersburg. Back trajectory analysis suggested the dominance of a northerly rotation in the sea breeze; thus, air sampled over the Gulf passed some hours earlier to the south of the Tampa metropolitan area, in an area largely devoid of major pollution sources, before being advected eastward in the afternoon return flow. Ozone levels in this air mass ranged from 40 to 50 ppbv. Farther north the Twin Otter encountered the advected urban plume from Tampa, displaced to the north by the combination of southeasterly sea breeze flow and westerly return flow, and tracked this plume inland. Ozone levels quickly jumped to 60 ppbv, and increased to as high as 90 ppbv as photochemical processing continued in the advected plume. Nitric acid levels, which approached 4 ppbv in the aged urban air at the coast, dropped rapidly to as low as 1 ppbv inland. A final flight leg to the east of downtown Tampa encountered fresh anthropogenic pollution from the afternoon rush hour; ozone was rapidly produced in the

  9. Local bleaching thresholds established by remote sensing techniques vary among reefs with deviating bleaching patterns during the 2012 event in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuail, Dawood; Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S; Riegl, Bernhard; Burt, John A; Petrov, Peter; Amos, Carl

    2016-04-30

    A severe bleaching event affected coral communities off the coast of Abu Dhabi, UAE in August/September, 2012. In Saadiyat and Ras Ghanada reefs ~40% of the corals showed signs of bleaching. In contrast, only 15% of the corals were affected on Delma reef. Bleaching threshold temperatures for these sites were established using remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) data recorded by MODIS-Aqua. The calculated threshold temperatures varied between locations (34.48 °C, 34.55 °C, 35.05 °C), resulting in site-specific deviations in the numbers of days during which these thresholds were exceeded. Hence, the less severe bleaching of Delma reef might be explained by the lower relative heat stress experienced by this coral community. However, the dominance of Porites spp. that is associated with the long-term exposure of Delma reef to elevated temperatures, as well as the more pristine setting may have additionally contributed to the higher coral bleaching threshold for this site. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Russia In The Foreign Policy Priorities Of The Council Of Cooperation Of The Arabian Gulf States After Events Of The «Arab Spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Melkumyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article focuses on the change in the approach of the regional organization of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC to Russia’s role in the Middle East region and the efforts of its members to establish fruitful cooperation with it. A new approach followed the events of the “Arab Spring”, among which the outcome was a complication of the regional situation and the emergence of a series of crises that forced the members of the GCC to expand the number of allies among the world’s leading powers. Russia’s active participation in resolving crisis situations in the Middle East, primarily in Syria, influenced the change in the GCC policy towards Russia, which realized its increased interest in establishing strong ties with the countries of this region. The article compares the relations that existed between Russia and the GCC states in the Soviet period and the initial period of the Russian Federation’s existence, and those relations that began to develop after 2011 amid growing instability in the Middle East region. A new stage in bilateral relations was caused by the coincidence of their interests in the fight against the increased terrorist threat. The parties were also interested in conducting political consultations to resolve regional crisis situations. The coincidence of points of view between Russia and the GCC on the Middle East settlement has always been a reliable basis for building mutual understanding between the parties. At the same time, the contradictions that arose between them on the issue of ways out of the Syrian crisis led to a cooling in their relations. The authors conclude that the place of Russia in the foreign policy priorities of the GCC is going to grow. The mutual interest of the parties in political interaction is reinforced by the need to coordinate policy in the energy market, the largest suppliers of which are both Russia and the GCC states. In addition, both sides are striving to expand economic

  11. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew

    2015-11-20

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year) and erosion (1.57 kg m year) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year) and erosion (0.43 kg m year) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  12. The combined risk of extreme tropical cyclone winds and storm surges along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, J. C.; Yuan, J.; Jagger, T. H.

    2017-03-01

    Tropical cyclones, with their nearshore high wind speeds and deep storm surges, frequently strike the United States Gulf of Mexico coastline influencing millions of people and disrupting offshore economic activities. The combined risk of occurrence of tropical cyclone nearshore wind speeds and storm surges is assessed at 22 coastal cities throughout the United States Gulf of Mexico. The models used are extreme value copulas fitted with margins defined by the generalized Pareto distribution or combinations of Weibull, gamma, lognormal, or normal distributions. The statistical relationships between the nearshore wind speed and storm surge are provided for each coastal city prior to the copula model runs using Spearman's rank correlations. The strongest significant relationship between the nearshore wind speed and storm surge exists at Shell Beach, LA (ρ = 0.67), followed by South Padre Island, TX (ρ = 0.64). The extreme value Archimedean copula models for each city then provide return periods for specific nearshore wind speed and storm surge pairs. Of the 22 cities considered, Bay St. Louis, MS, has the shortest return period for a tropical cyclone with at least a 50 ms-1 nearshore wind speed and a 3 m surge (19.5 years, 17.1-23.5). The 90% confidence intervals are created by recalculating the return periods for a fixed set of wind speeds and surge levels using 100 samples of the model parameters. The results of this study can be utilized by policy managers and government officials concerned with coastal populations and economic activity in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25-29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28-30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region.

  14. The establishment of a marine wildlife sanctuary following the 1991 Gulf War oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, F.; Khushaim, O.

    1993-01-01

    During the Gulf War about one million metric tons of oil was released into the Arabian Gulf, most of which was deposited along the Saudi Arabian coast. Since October 1991 an international, interdisciplinary team of scientists has been studying approximately 200 km of coastline north of Jubail, under the patronage of the Commission of the European Communities and the National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development of Saudi Arabia. The two embayment systems of Dawhat ad-Dafi and Dawhat al-Musallamiya, and five offshore islands are characterized by extensive salt marshes, mangroves, seagrass, and macroalgal beds, as well as the most diverse coral reefs and the most important breeding sites for sea birds and turtles in the Gulf. Objectives of the study include: Assessment of the effects of the oil spill on plant and animal life in the area; Development of remediation methods which are compatible with the ecological requirements of a protected area, and; Establishment of a marine habitat and wildlife sanctuary. The upper intertidal zone is most severely affected by the oil spill and has lost most of its typical plant and animal communities. The lower intertidal zone is only locally affected and the subtidal largely escaped oil contamination

  15. STS-45 Earth observation of the Persian Gulf and the island of Abu Ali

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of the northern reaches of the Persian Gulf with the sunglint pattern centered on the Saudi Arabian island of Abu Ali. Bright features along the coast are thought to be deposits of oil, released from a terminal offshore of Kuwait during the recent Persian Gulf War. Further up the coast, in Kuwait, the black, oil-soaked desert surrounding the site of the oil well fires is clearly visible. View was taken from an altitude of 160 nautical miles with OV-104 located at 28 degrees north and 52.8 degrees east. During the STS-45 mission, an international survey team focused on oil contamination of the shallow-water habitants in the area north of Abu Ali Island. Crewmembers contacted the NOAA survey vessel, the R/V Mt. Mitchell, several times and photographed water color and sunglint within the study area and throughout the entire Persian Gulf. These photographic data are expected to aid the Persian Gulf researchers in

  16. Crustal structure of the Arabian plate: new constraints of receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Pei, S.

    2013-12-01

    , the crust thins dramatically to approximately 29 km across a 30-50 km wide zone, then thins to 22 km over a 100-200km distance. At station FRSS located at the Farasan Island in the southern Red Sea shows a Moho depth of 13km. The Poisson's ratio are low along the Red Sea coast, most of them are smaller than 0.25, suggesting that the average crustal composition here mainly consists of felsic and slight intermediate rocks. This indicates that continental thinning at this region due to the Red Sea spreading and heat erosion may mainly happen in the lower crust. Some interspersed high values of Poisson's ratio along the Red Sea coast, especially around the Gulf of Aqaba, are spatially consistent with the location of local magmatic underplate and volcanic eruption. Poisson's ratio increases eastward and shows normal values about 0.25-0.27 in the interior of Arabian Peninsula.

  17. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.

    2015-01-12

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  18. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Osipov, Sergey; Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  19. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Vethamony, P.

    were high suggesting that the TFC is an important component of viable fractions in the region. Our observations are quite similar to those of Goyal et al, 1977 and Davies et al, (1995), who suggested that fecal coliform bacteria are often.... 50, 73-79. Goyal, S.M., Gerba, C.P., Melnik, J. L., 1977. Occurrence and distribution of bacterial indicators and pathogens in canal communities along the Texas coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34(2), 139-149. Harder, B (2005). Bacteria ride...

  20. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  1. Sea level rise drives increased tidal flooding frequency at tide gauges along the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts: Projections for 2030 and 2045.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kristina A; Fitzpatrick, Melanie F; Spanger-Siegfried, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Tidal flooding is among the most tangible present-day effects of global sea level rise. Here, we utilize a set of NOAA tide gauges along the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts to evaluate the potential impact of future sea level rise on the frequency and severity of tidal flooding. Using the 2001-2015 time period as a baseline, we first determine how often tidal flooding currently occurs. Using localized sea level rise projections based on the Intermediate-Low, Intermediate-High, and Highest projections from the U.S. National Climate Assessment, we then determine the frequency and extent of such flooding at these locations for two near-term time horizons: 2030 and 2045. We show that increases in tidal flooding will be substantial and nearly universal at the 52 locations included in our analysis. Long before areas are permanently inundated, the steady creep of sea level rise will force many communities to grapple with chronic high tide flooding in the next 15 to 30 years.

  2. Distribution of radioactive pollution of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in northwestern coasts of Persian Gulf, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Abdi, Mohammad [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.ir; Kamali, Mehdi [Central Laboratory, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezifar, Sedigheh [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    A reconnaissance study has been made of the distribution of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs and geochemical features in soils and sediments samples at various locations in the northwestern coast of Persian Gulf. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 30 soil and sediment samples collected from this region. From the measured spectra, activity concentrations were determined for {sup 40}K (range from 146 to 500 Bq kg{sup -1}), {sup 137}Cs (from 5 to 20 Bq kg{sup -1}), {sup 238}U (from 21 to 65 Bq kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th (from 15 to 45 Bq kg{sup -1}) with lowest limit detection (LLD) of 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 19 and 58 nGy h{sup -1} with an average of 37.41 {+-} 9.66 nGy h{sup -1}.

  3. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  4. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  5. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Jasmin

    Full Text Available Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07 compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97. UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001. The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

  6. The study of Forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR MEHRDAD MIRSANJARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirsanjari MM, Sheybanifar F, Arjmand F. 2014. The study of forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 159-164. In recent years, concerns about the long term effects of heavy metals as environmental polluters have arisen, since considerable quantities of heavy metals have been released into the environment as a result of extensive human activities. Heavy metal has been determined as a serious threat to the stability of ecosystems. In this study, we examined the levels of zinc‚ copper‚ lead, and cadmium in the feathers of twenty great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo, collected from Hara Biosphere Reserve during November and December in 2012. The results revealed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the feathers of males is significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. In addition‚ no significant difference was observed in heavy metal concentration between juvenile and adult birds. Moreover, according to the results, the high concentration of heavy metals in some samples indicated this fact that birds are potentially exposed to the risk of heavy metals in their habitat.

  7. Winter monsoon circulation of the northern Arabian Sea and Somali Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2000-03-01

    The winter monsoon circulation in the northern inflow region of the Somali Current is discussed on the basis of an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profiler and current meter stations deployed during 1995-1996 and a ship survey carried out in January 1998. It is found that the westward inflow into the Somali Current regime occurs essentially south of 11°N and that this inflow bifurcates at the Somali coast, with the southward branch supplying the equatorward Somali Current and the northward one returning into the northwestern Arabian Sea. This northward branch partially supplies a shallow outflow through the Socotra Passage between the African continent and the banks of Socotra and partially feeds into eastward recirculation directly along the southern slopes of Socotra. Underneath this shallow surface flow, southwestward undercurrent flows are observed. Undercurrent inflow from the Gulf of Aden through the Socotra Passage occurs between 100 and 1000 m, with its current core at 700-800 m, and is clearly marked by the Red Sea Water (RSW) salinity maximum. The observations suggest that the maximum RSW inflow out of the Gulf of Aden occurs during the winter monsoon season and uses the Socotra Passage as its main route into the Indian Ocean. Westward undercurrent inflow into the Somali Current regime is also observed south of Socotra, but this flow lacks the RSW salinity maximum. Off the Arabian peninsula, eastward boundary flow is observed in the upper 800 m with a compensating westward flow to the south. The observed circulation pattern is qualitatively compared with recent high-resolution numerical model studies and is found to be in basic agreement.

  8. A comparative study on the rheology and wave dissipation of kaolinite and natural Hendijan Coast mud, the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanpour, Mohsen; Samsami, Farzin

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rheological behavior of kaolinite and Hendijan mud, located at the northwest part of the Persian Gulf, and the dissipative role of this muddy bed on surface water waves. A series of laboratory rheological tests was conducted to investigate the rheological response of mud to rotary and cyclic shear rates. While a viscoplastic Bingham model can successfully be applied for continuous controlled shear-stress tests, the rheology of fluid mud displays complex viscoelastic behavior in time-periodic motion. The comparisons of the behavior of natural Hendijan mud with commercial kaolinite show rheological similarities. A large number of laboratory wave-flume experiments were carried out with a focus on the dissipative role of the fluid mud. Assuming four rheological models of viscous, Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic, Bingham viscoplastic, and viscoelastic-plastic for fluid mud layer, a numerical multi-layered model was applied to analyze the effects of different parameters of surface wave and muddy bed on wave attenuation. The predicted results based on different rheological models generally agree with the obtained wave-flume data implying that the adopted rheological model does not play an important role in the accuracy of prediction.

  9. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  10. Solar pond design for Arabian Gulf conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Jassim, I.A.; Al-Juburi, F.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Collection and storage of solar energy in salt gradient solar ponds under conditions of high ambient and ground temperatures and all year-round sunny weather are investigated theoretically. A transient model based on measured local environmental conditions is developed to predict solar transmission, temperature distribution and salt distribution inside the pond for any day of the year. In the model the effects of heat dissipation into the ground, bottom reflection, pond dimensions, load extraction and variation of the pond's physical properties with temperature and concentration are investigated. The generated non-linear coupled system of heat and salt concentration equations for the composite media, considered to have isothermal boundary conditions, is solved numerically using the implicit finite-difference scheme.

  11. Strategic Landpower and the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    1st Armored Division, based in Fort Bliss , Texas, has been aligned with US Central Command and has played an important role in the Eager Lion...Trainers,” Washington Post, June 27, 2013. 46 Tim Ripley, Middle East Airpower in the 21st Century (South Yorkshire, UK: Pen and Sword, 2010), 173, 188

  12. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach, Alabama. This action is necessary for the... conduct a high speed boat race on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October...

  13. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  14. Variations in organic carbon chemistry in the Gulf Coast and coastal marshes following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Orem, W. H.; Aiken, G.; Varonka, M. S.; Butler, K.; Kokaly, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    Record volumes of oil released from the Macondo well following the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil-drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico significantly impacted coastal marshes in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Remote sensing and water sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the extent of impact. Water samples were collected offshore from near the spill site July 5-10, 2010 to characterize molecular organic carbon chemistry on unfiltered samples and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on filtered samples. Three field visits were conducted in July 7-10, August 12-14, and August 24-26, 2010, to collect samples from the soil-water interface in coastal marshes along lower Barataria Bay and the Bird's Foot Delta at the distal end of the Mississippi River Delta. Visible oil in the marsh was observed as thick coatings on vegetation and soil and as sheens at the water surface. Samples were extracted for hydrocarbons with dichloromethane, separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar compound classes using standard column techniques, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A significant amount of oil was observed "dissolved" in the water column with a hydrocarbon distribution resembling that of the surface oil slick. While oils maintained many of the more volatile lower molecular weight components near the spill site, these were mostly gone in the onshore Barataria Bay samples, leaving mostly higher molecular weight components. Dissolved organic carbon was characterized using concentration, fluorescence index (FI), specific ultratviolet absorbance (SUVA) and excitation/emission fluorescence (EEM). Offshore samples had distinctive EEMs patterns, SUVA and FI. With few exceptions, marsh samples had EEMs patterns more similar to previously extracted organic matter from the Mississippi River than to the offshore oil. In spite of visible oil sheen in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on

  15. Late 20th Century Deep-seated Vertical Motions in New Orleans and implications for Gulf Coast Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Subsidence of the Mississippi River delta and adjoining coastal areas is widely thought to be dominated by compaction of Holocene sediments. Current public policies regarding hurricane protection and ecosystems restoration are founded on this interpretation. To test this hypothesis, monuments that penetrate the entire Holocene section were measured using geodetic leveling and water gauges attached to bridge foundations. Results show that the entire sampling area subsided between 1955 and 1995 in amounts unanticipated by previous models. Subsidence due to processes originating below the Holocene section locally exceeded 0.9 m between 1955 and 1995. The maxima of deep subsidence occurred in the urbanized and industrialized sections of eastern New Orleans. Subsidence decreased away from urbanized areas and north of the belt of active basin margin normal faults; this decrease in subsidence continued to the north and east along the Mississippi coast. These independent measurements provide insights into the complexity and causes of modern landscape change in the region. Modern subsidence is clearly not dominated solely by shallow processes such as natural compaction, Deep subsidence occurring east and north of the basin margin faults can be explained by regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta and local groundwater withdrawal. Sharp, local changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal fault system. Deep subsidence of the New Orleans area can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and non-groundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ~160 to 200 m deep dominated the urbanized areas from ~1960 to the early 1990s and is likely responsible for lowering flood protection structures and bridges in the area by as much as ~0.8 m.

  16. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark; DiBattista, Joseph; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Brett M.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark

    2015-12-12

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Environmental studies of the Arabian Sea using remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saxena, A.

    Fig 4. Principle of Radar altimetry 17 Fig 5. Block diagram of ArcGIS platform 20 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER II TOOL FOR STUDY Fig 6. Seasonal Variation of Sea Surface Temperature 24 Fig 7. Seasonal... from any major rivers, the excessive evaporation over precipitation (E-P) as well as proximity to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf makes the surface salinity of Arabian Sea high, in excess of 36psu (practical salinity unit). Motivation Arabian Sea...

  19. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida’s Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida’s Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  20. Determination of Mercury Daily Intake and Hair-to-Blood Mercury Concentration Ratio in People Resident of the Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.

  1. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2015-03-19

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast. © 2015 Yao, Hoteit.

  2. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  3. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Griffith, Kereen T; Larriviere, Jack C; Feher, Laura C; Cahoon, Donald R; Enwright, Nicholas M; Oster, David A; Tirpak, John M; Woodrey, Mark S; Collini, Renee C; Baustian, Joseph J; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A; Donoghue, Joseph F; Graham, Sean A; Harper, Jennifer W; Hester, Mark W; Howard, Rebecca J; Krauss, Ken W; Kroes, Daniel E; Lane, Robert R; McKee, Karen L; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Middleton, Beth A; Moon, Jena A; Piazza, Sarai C; Rankin, Nicole M; Sklar, Fred H; Steyer, Greg D; Swanson, Kathleen M; Swarzenski, Christopher M; Vervaeke, William C; Willis, Jonathan M; Wilson, K Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be used

  4. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osland

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA across political boundaries (states, wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise. Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our

  5. Comparing the cost effectiveness of nature-based and coastal adaptation: A case study from the Gulf Coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, Borja G; Beck, Michael W; Bresch, David N; Calil, Juliano; Meliane, Imen

    2018-01-01

    Coastal risks are increasing from both development and climate change. Interest is growing in the protective role that coastal nature-based measures (or green infrastructure), such as reefs and wetlands, can play in adapting to these risks. However, a lack of quantitative information on their relative costs and benefits is one principal factor limiting their use more broadly. Here, we apply a quantitative risk assessment framework to assess coastal flood risk (from climate change and economic exposure growth) across the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to compare the cost effectiveness of different adaptation measures. These include nature-based (e.g. oyster reef restoration), structural or grey (e.g., seawalls) and policy measures (e.g. home elevation). We first find that coastal development will be a critical driver of risk, particularly for major disasters, but climate change will cause more recurrent losses through changes in storms and relative sea level rise. By 2030, flooding will cost $134-176.6 billion (for different economic growth scenarios), but as the effects of climate change, land subsidence and concentration of assets in the coastal zone increase, annualized risk will more than double by 2050 with respect to 2030. However, from the portfolio we studied, the set of cost-effective adaptation measures (with benefit to cost ratios above 1) could prevent up to $57-101 billion in losses, which represents 42.8-57.2% of the total risk. Nature-based adaptation options could avert more than $50 billion of these costs, and do so cost effectively with average benefit to cost ratios above 3.5. Wetland and oyster reef restoration are found to be particularly cost-effective. This study demonstrates that the cost effectiveness of nature-based, grey and policy measures can be compared quantitatively with one another, and that the cost effectiveness of adaptation becomes more attractive as climate change and coastal development intensifies in the future. It also

  6. Physical and biological data collected along the Texas, Mississippi, and Florida Gulf coasts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Harmful Algal BloomS Observing System from 19 Aug 1953 to 11 July 2014 (NODC Accession 0120767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HABSOS (Harmful Algal BloomS Observing System) is a data collection and distribution system for harmful algal bloom (HAB) information in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal...

  7. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Kurian, S.; Gauns, M.; ChndrasekharaRao, A.V.; Mulla, A.; Naik, B.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences moderate to weak upwelling along the south-west coast of India, which subsequently propagates towards the north. This causes variation in plankton community composition, which is addressed in the present study. Here we...

  8. Southeast Regional Implementation Manual for Requirements and Procedures for Evaluation of the Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material in Southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Regional Implementation Manual was prepared by EPA Region 4 to provide guidance for applicants proposing open-water disposal of dredged material in southeastern U.S. coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Geospatial compilation of historical water-level changes in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers 1977-2013 and Jasper aquifer 2000-13, Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District has produced an annual series of reports that depict water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, from 1977 to 2013. Changes are determined from water-level measurements between December and March of each year from groundwater wells screened in one of the three aquifers. Existing published maps and unpublished geographic information system (GIS) datasets were compiled into a comprehensive geodatabase of all water-level-change maps produced as part of this multiagency effort. Annual water-level-change maps were georeferenced and digitized where existing GIS data were unavailable (1979–99). Existing GIS data available for 2000–13 were included in the geodatabase. The compilation contains 121 datasets showing water-level changes for each primary aquifer of the Gulf Coast aquifer system: 56 for the Chicot aquifer (1977; 1979–2013 and 1990; 1993–2013), 56 for the Evangeline aquifer (1977; 1979–2013 and 1990; 1993–2013), and 9 for the Jasper aquifer (2000; 2005–13).

  10. Geospatial compilation of historical water-level altitudes in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers 1977-2013 and Jasper aquifer 2000-13 in the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Ellis, Robert H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District has produced a series of annual reports depicting groundwater-level altitudes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. To produce these annual reports, contours of equal water-level altitudes are created from water levels measured between December and March of each year from groundwater wells screened completely within one of these three aquifers. Information obtained from maps published in the annual series of USGS reports and geospatial datasets of water-level altitude contours used to create the annual series of USGS reports were compiled into a comprehensive geodatabase. The geospatial compilation contains 88 datasets from previously published contour maps showing water-level altitudes for each primary aquifer of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, 37 for the Chicot (1977–2013), 37 for the Evangeline aquifer (1977–2013), and 14 for the Jasper aquifer (2000–13).

  11. Physical Controls on Oxygen Distribution and Denitrification Potential in the North West Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queste, Bastien Y.; Vic, Clément; Heywood, Karen J.; Piontkovski, Sergey A.

    2018-05-01

    At suboxic oxygen concentrations, key biogeochemical cycles change and denitrification becomes the dominant remineralization pathway. Earth system models predict oxygen loss across most ocean basins in the next century; oxygen minimum zones near suboxia may become suboxic and therefore denitrifying. Using an ocean glider survey and historical data, we show oxygen loss in the Gulf of Oman (from 6-12 to water across the Gulf of Oman and waters exported to the wider Arabian Sea.

  12. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VimalKumar, K.G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Smitha, B.R.; Rahman, H.H.; Jacob, J.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    the south, while during September by the high saline water from the north. The presence of various water masses (Arabian Sea High Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), Red Sea Water (RSW)] and their seasonal variations in the region is discussed...

  13. Zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Srivastava, Y.

    The effects of large scale oil spill, which occurred during the Gulf War in 1991 on zooplankton standing stock, community structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Sea were studied. Surface (1-0 m) and vertical zooplankton hauls (200-0 m, 250...

  14. Small scale features of sound velocity structure in the northern Arabian sea during February - May 1974

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, Y.K.; Rao, L.V.G.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    at intermediate depths (200-400 m), influence the sound velocity structure and cause formation of an upper sound channel in the northern Arabian Sea. The Persian Gulf waters spread as tongues at 1 or 2 more levels (up to a limited extent), besides the prominent...

  15. Experimental microcosm study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon MC-252 oil on the geochemistry and microbiology of Gulf Coast sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, R. J.; Bej, A.; Raulerson, A.; Rentschler, E. K.

    2011-12-01

    Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the impact of oil contamination on Gulf Coast sediment geochemistry and microbial population dynamics. Coastal sediment and seawater were collected from a salt marsh at Bayou la Batre, Alabama, which was not severely impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon accident of April 2010. Sediment/seawater microcosms were set up in glass jars combusted for 5 hours at 450 degrees C. Non-sterile microcosms spiked with 500 ppm of MC-252 oil were sacrificed in duplicate at various time intervals over a 14 day period to establish a data time series. Sterile controls with and without oil and a non-sterile control without oil were sacrificed in duplicate at 14 days for comparison with the time-series experiments. Solid and aqueous phases were separated by centrifugation and prepared for analysis. Sediment mineralogy was determined using X-ray diffraction and acid-extractable sediment chemistry determined using EPA Method 3051A and ICP-OES analysis. The aqueous phase chemistry was analyzed by ICP-OES and ion chromatography. The mineralogy of the salt marsh sediment is predominantly quartz, but includes reactive phases such as clays (smectite, illite), feldspar, and iron oxide. Iron-bearing clays and iron oxides can serve as electron acceptors for the growth of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. Microwave digestions of the microcosm substrate samples were performed in triplicate and show no significant variation in major element chemistry over the course of the two week experiment, suggesting that observed temporal trends in aqueous geochemistry may be due to ion exchange processes, rather than mineral dissolution reactions. Microcosm substrate trace element data which indicate possible differences with time are being analyzed for statistical significance. Analysis of aqueous solution geochemistry reveals several interesting temporal trends. Iron and manganese were released to solution after 2 days, suggesting the presence of facultative

  16. Gulf operations still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil

  17. Coastal versus open-ocean denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Pratihary, A.K.; DeSouza, W.; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Devol, A.H.; Yoshinari, T.; Saino, T.

    through advection from the south. The waters Published by Copernicus GmbH on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 622 S. W. A. Naqvi et al.: Arabian Sea denitrification 60 E 70 E 10 N 20 N 3204 3939 3201 TN039/18 CATS � � (a) o o o 0 500 1000 1500....: Arabian Sea denitrification 625 150 100 50 Temperature (oC) 100 50 O2 (M) Distance from coast (km) 150 100 50 Salinity G2 CATS G9 �P�P 150 100 50 150 100 50 150 NO2- (M) 150 100 50 NO3-(M) N2O (nM) 150 100 50 NH4+(M) 80 60 40 20 0 Distance from coast (km...

  18. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Classification of the Outer Coast, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains arcs representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of the outer coast of Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and...

  19. Seasonal variation of hydrographic and nutrient fields during the US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J. M.; Codispoti, L. A.; Gaurin, S.; Jones, B.; Manghnani, V.; Zheng, Z.

    nutrient concentrations. This PGW salinity maximum is associated with the suboxic portions of the Arabian Sea's oxygen minimum zone. The salinity maximum associated with Red Sea Water (RSW, core σθ=27.2) in the JGOFS study region is clearly evident at the southermost sampling site at 10'N (S-15). Elsewhere, this signal is weak or absent and salinity on the 27.2 σθ surface tends to increase towards the Persian Gulf, suggesting that the disappearance of this salinity maximum is due, at least in part, to the influence of the Persian Gulf outflow. Inorganic nitrogen-to-phosphate ratios were lower (frequently much lower) than the standard Redfield ratio of 15/1-16/1 (by atoms) at all times and all depths suggesting that inorganic nitrogen was more important than phosphate as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, and that the effects of denitrification dominated the effects of nitrogen fixation. The water upwelling off the Omani coast during the SW Monsoon has inorganic nitrogen to silicate ratios that were higher (˜2/1) than the ˜1/1 ratio often assumed as the ratio of uptake during diatom growth. The temporal evolution of inorganic nitrogen-to-silicate ratios suggests major alteration by diatom uptake only during the late SW Monsoon cruise (TN050) in August-September 1995. Widespread moderate surface layer nutrient concentrations occurred during the late NE Monsoon. A zone of high offshore nutrient concentrations was encountered during the SW Monsoon, but instead of being associated with offshore upwelling it may represent offshore advection from the coastal upwelling zone, the influence of an eddy, or both. Although our data do not contradict previous suggestions that the volume of subtoxic water may be reduced the SW Monsoon, they suggest a weaker re-oxygenation than indicated by some previous work. Similarly, they do not confirm results suggesting that secondary nitrite maxima may be common in waters with oxygen concentrations >5 μM.

  20. Watermass structure in the western Indian Ocean - Part 2. The spreading and transformation of the Persian Gulf water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Premchand, K.; Sastry, J.S.; Murty, C.S.

    The spreading and the transformation of the Persian Gulf Watermass (PGW) in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean have been presented. The core layer of this watermass is found in the depth range of 250-300 m over most of the Arabian Sea with a...

  1. Thermal Maturity Data Used by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Gulf Coast Region Oil and Gas Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Warwick, Peter D.; McDade, Elizabeth Chinn

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently assessing the oil and natural gas resources of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region using a total petroleum system approach. An essential part of this geologically based method is evaluating the effectiveness of potential source rocks in the petroleum system. The purpose of this report is to make available to the public RockEval and vitrinite reflectance data from more than 1,900 samples of Mesozoic and Tertiary rock core and coal samples in the Gulf of Mexico area in a format that facilitates inclusion into a geographic information system. These data provide parameters by which the thermal maturity, type, and richness of potential sources of oil and gas in this region can be evaluated.

  2. Influence of a big oil spill during the Gulf War on intertidal invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Ryusuke; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroo; Hanawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yukiwo

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that a massive oil spill washed ashore from Al Khafji to the west side of the Abu Ali Peninsula in the western Arabian Gulf during the Gulf War. In these areas enormous amounts of oil are still left along most beaches at the high tide level. Surveys were carried out to clarify the effects of the massive oil spill

  3. The bloom of the dinoflagellate (Noctiluca miliaris) in the North Eastern Arabian Sea: Ship and Satellite study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Goes, J.I.; Gomes, H.

    The bloom of Noctiluca miliaris (a dinoflagellate) which appears in the form of a green tide was studied from 2003-2011. This bloom covered a large area of the Arabian Sea from the west coast of India to the coast of Oman. The bloom was easily...

  4. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  5. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    industries include 2 grass-root refineries – one near E-mail: ∗ mony@nio.org; † mtbabu@nio.org; ‡ environ@vsnl.com; § sudheesh@nio.org; ¶ E.Desa@unesco.org; **mzingde@nio.org 505 September 8, 2007 5:43 RPS mtec07_new 506 P. Vethamony et al. Fig. 1. Study area... in the northern Gulf are considered. An accidental instantaneous discharge of 100 m 3 /y was specified at each SPM site. The initial and final positions of a typical spill after 44 h of release are shown in Fig. 3. The results show that for an accidental spillage...

  6. Ocean coast effect on magnetotelluric data: a case study from Kachchh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhananjai; Sinha, Martin; MacGregor, Lucy; Singh, Satish

    2008-09-01

    The effects of the ocean coast on magnetotelluric (MT) data have been studied and results are described in this article. MT soundings from various sites along coastal plains of Kachchh were acquired where volcanic rocks overlie Mesozoic sediments having potential resource prospects. The region of our study lies in the proximity of Gulf of Kachchh and Arabian Sea. This article describes the effects the presence of a conductive body on the acquired MT data. With the help of synthetic MT modelling and induction arrows we demonstrate the influence of shallow conductive body on the MT data. The modelling results when compared to the field observations show that much of the high frequencies are unaffected by the coast, however low frequencies of the data do seem to be distorted by onshore offshore resistivity contrasts. The least affect on high frequencies can be attributed to very shallow water depth as well as to the fact that the onshore offshore resistivity contrasts are not large enough to influence the high frequency data badly. The results presented here report for the first time the effect of the coast on the analysis on MT data from Kachchh. Due to several academic as well as industrial onshore offshore MT experiments presently being carried out to explore its hydrocarbon potential, our results have an important bearing on designing and acquisition of future MT surveys in this region.

  7. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.; Haridas, P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The physical and chemical forcing which drive the Arabian production is now fairly well understood. The main attributes, which contribute to the productivity are (1) the boundary processes which manifest as upwelling during summer monsoon and (2...

  8. Bycatch and catch-release mortality of small sharks in the Gulf coast nursery grounds of Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    Hueter, Robert E.; Manire, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    The bays and estuaries of the southeast United States coast generally are thought to serve as nursery areas for various species of coastal sharks, where juvenile sharks find abundant food and are less exposed to predation by larger sharks. Because these areas typically support substantial commercial and recreational fisheries, fishing mortality of sharks in the nurseries particularly by bycatch, may be significant. This two-year project assessed the relative importance of two estuaries of the...

  9. The influence of Brachyura on oil polluted subtropical intertidal shores - an example from the Arabian Gulf; Die Bedeutung von Krabben (Brachyura) bei der Regeneration von kohlenwasserstoffkontaminierten subtropischen Flachkuesten am Beispiel des Arabisch Persischen Golfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, H.J. [Geographisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Objectives. The second Gulf War (1991) led to the largest oil spill in human history. Over 770 km of coastline from southern Kuwait to Abu Ali Island (Saudi Arabia) were smothered with oil and tar, erasing most of the local plant and animal communities. This long term study was designed to reveal the processes of natural regeneration within the salt marsh ecosystems as well as the processes counter productive to regeneration. Methods. Field data were collected along permanent transect lines during annual visits from 1994 to 2004. Soil analysis included grain size, carbonate, pH and total hydrocarbon (Soxhlet extraction). Heavy metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Hydrocarbons were analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results. The dominant processes of regeneration are characterized by four types of indicators. These are (1) the composition of hydrocarbon compounds remaining in the soil, (2) the hardness of the soil surface, (3) the abundance of laminated cyanobacterial mats, and (4) the abundance and diversity of macrofauna. Cyanobacteria turned out to conserve the oil within the soil where they built laminated mats sealing the surface and thus, preventing oxygen from penetrating the substrate. On the other hand, crustaceans were the first macrofauna returning to contaminated soils. Following bioturbation by the crustaceans significantly accelerates the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. Since the occurrence of the crabs (mainly Cleistotoma dotilliforme) is primarily restricted to tidal channels the density of the channel network between the affected salt marshes determines the time which is needed for regeneration. (orig.)

  10. Redescription of Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin et Zhang, 1983 (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from the Arabian carpetshark Chiloscyllium arabicum (Chondrichthyes: Hemiscylliidae) off Iraq

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Solís, David; Ali, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 759-766 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Arabian Gulf * elasmobranchs * nematode Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2015

  11. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  12. [Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan F; Castaño, María C

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus) were compared among four mangrove types: 1) Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2) Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3) Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4) A. germinans- basin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Colombia). Mangrove types were polygon-delimited with satellite images and color aerial photographs were taken in 2009. Various (nsoil properties (e.g. temperature, pH, organic matter content). Finally, we also hypothesize that the local extinction of N. virginea due to clear-cutting may exert strong negative effects on the ecosystem function because it is a dominant omnivore.

  13. Metal concentrations in selected tissues and main prey species of the annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) in the Hara Protected Area, northeastern coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Sajjadi, Mirmasoud; Yap, Chee Kong; Ghaffari, Sanaz; Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Zohreh; Ghezellou, Parviz

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first detailed ecotoxicological study of the annulated sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocinctus. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel and vanadium were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, skin and blood of the annulated sea snake (H. cyanocinctus) and in the whole bodies of its main prey species (Periophthalmus waltoni and Boleophthalmus dussumieri) in the Hara Protected Area, the Persian Gulf. The mean concentrations of lead and vanadium were highest in the kidney, which identified the kidney as a target organ for metals in sea snakes as it is in other reptilian groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and nickel were highest in the liver and skin, respectively. Mean cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in the liver compared to prey species, which indicated that prey items may be a source of cadmium for the annulated sea snake in the study area. Data presented here may be considered as a baseline for further ecotoxicological studies in sea snakes.

  14. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2017-07-18

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic regions of the United States have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change project. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included four shoreline positions at a given location. The long-term shoreline change rates also incorporate the proxy-datum bias correction to account for the unidirectional onshore bias of the proxy-based high water line shorelines relative to the datum-based mean high water shorelines. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment project. The average rates reported here have a reduced amount of uncertainty relative to those presented in the previous assessments for these two regions.

  15. Particulate organic carbon and particulate humic material in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.

    in the southeastern side of the Arabian Sea close to the coast caused by higher biological production as a consequence of winter overturning. The PHM showed significant aggregation between 100 and 200 m during winter and was negligibly low towards north and relatively...

  16. The central and eastern Arabian Sea as a perennial source of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.

    circulation and biological production. In all seasons, the pCO sub(2) is higher in surface waters of the Arabian Sea, except along the Indian coast in the southwest monsoon, than that in atmosphere, and thus this region appears to be a perennial source...

  17. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    In order to study the response of benthic foraminifera, especially the rectilinear bi- and tri-serial benthic foraminifera (RBF) to oxygen-depleted conditions from the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India, 103 surface sediment samples...

  18. Wave transformation at select locations along the Indian coast through measurements, modelling and remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.

    difficult than a single wave system. Generation and propagation of the multi-directional swells in the Arabian Sea, especially during pre-monsoon and NE monsoon seasons, their interaction with local wind seas along the west coast of India...

  19. Geological evolution of the Afro-Arabian dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, D. C.

    1986-12-01

    The Afro-Arabian dome includes the elevated continental regions enclosing the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Ethiopian rift system, and extends northwards as far as Jordan. It is more than an order of magnitude larger than other African uplifts. Both the structures and the igneous rocks of the dome appear to be products of the superimposition of two, perhaps three, semi-independent generating systems, initiated at different times but all still active. A strain pattern dominated by NW-trending basins and rifts first became established early in the Cretaceous. By the end of the Oligocene, much of the extensional strain had been taken up along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden axes, which subsequently developed into an ocean. Palaeogene "trap" volcanism of mildly alkaline to transitional character was related to this horizontal extension rather than to doming. Further west, the East Sahara swell has a history of intermittent alkaline volcanicity which began in the Mesozoic and was independent of magmatism in the Afro-Arabian dome. Volcanicity specifically related to doming began in the Miocene along a N-S zone of uplift extending from Ethiopia to Syria. This elongated swell forms the northern termination of the East African system of domes and rifts, characterized by episodic vertical uplift but very little extension. Superimposition of epeirogenic uplift upon structures formed by horizontal extension took place in the Neogene. Volcanicity related to vertical tectonics is mildly alkaline in character, whereas transitional and tholeiitic magmas are found along the spreading axes.

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea and others from 1991-01-05 to 1993-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0157100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157100 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea, Gulf of...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 1972-07-18 to 1978-04-28 (NODC Accession 0117677)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117677 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Bering Sea, Gulf of...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 1977-12-04 to 1978-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0163183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163183 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Aden, Indian...

  3. Analysis of spatial-temporal heterogeneity in remotely sensed aerosol properties observed during 2005-2015 over three countries along the Gulf of Guinea Coast in Southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklesso, Mangamana; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Bu, Lingbing; Boiyo, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, the spatial-temporal distribution and estimation of trends of different aerosol optical properties, and related impact factors were investigated over three countries: Ghana, Togo, and Benin along the Gulf of Guinea Coast in Southern West Africa (SWA). For this purpose, long-term satellite derived aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth at 550 nm; AOD550, Ångström exponent at 470-660 nm; AE470-660, and absorption aerosol index; AAI) retrieved from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during January 2005-December 2015 were utilized. The annual mean spatial distribution of AOD550 was found to be high (>0.55) over the southern coastal area, moderate-to-high (0.35-0.55) over the central, and low (<0.35) over northern parts of the study domain. The seasonal mean variations showed high (low) values of AOD550 and AAI during the Harmattan or dry (wet) season. Whereas, low (high) AE470-660 values were characterized during the Harmattan (wet) season. Linear trend analysis revealed a decreasing trend in AOD550 and AAI, and increasing trend in AE470-660. Further, an investigation on the potential drivers to AOD distribution over the SWA revealed that precipitation, NDVI, and terrain were negatively correlated with AOD. Finally, the HYSPLIT derived back trajectory analyses revealed diverse transport pathways originated from the North Atlantic Ocean, Sahara Desert, and Nigeria along with locally generated aerosols.

  4. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  5. A numerical investigation into the ability of the Poisson PDE to extract the mass-density from land-based gravity data: A case study of salt diapirs in the north coast of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahTavakoli, Yahya; Safari, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    This paper is counted as a numerical investigation into the capability of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) at Earth's surface to extract the near-surface mass-density from land-based gravity data. For this purpose, first it focuses on approximating the gradient tensor of Earth's gravitational potential by means of land-based gravity data. Then, based on the concepts of both the gradient tensor and Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface, certain formulae are proposed for the mass-density determination. Furthermore, this paper shows how the generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy can be used for enhancing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, in a real case study, the formulae are applied to 6350 gravity stations located within a part of the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The case study numerically indicates that the proposed formulae, provided by Poisson's PDE, has the ability to convert land-based gravity data into the terrain mass-density which has been used for depicting areas of salt diapirs in the region of the case study.

  6. Incorporating future change into current conservation planning: Evaluating tidal saline wetland migration along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2015-11-02

    In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, quantified the potential for landward migration of tidal saline wetlands along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. Our analyses focused exclusively on tidal saline wetlands (that is, mangrove forests, salt marshes, and salt flats), and we combined these diverse tidal saline wetland ecosystems into a single grouping, “tidal saline wetland.” Collectively, our approach and findings can provide useful information for scientists and environmental planners working to develop future-focused adaptation strategies for conserving coastal landscapes and the ecosystem goods and services provided by tidal saline wetlands. The primary product of this work is a public dataset that identifies locations where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is expected to occur under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. In addition to identifying areas where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is possible because of the absence of barriers, these data also identify locations where landward migration of these wetlands could be prevented by barriers associated with current urbanization, future urbanization, and levees.

  7. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored

  8. Geospatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments, northern part of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Simon Peter, T; Godson, Prince S; Chandrasekar, N; Magesh, N S

    2017-12-15

    Fifty two surface sediments were collected from the northern part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve to assess the geospatial risk of sediments. We found that distribution of organic matter and CaCO 3 distributions were locally controlled by the mangrove litters and fragmented coral debris. In addition, Fe and Mn concentrations in the marine sediments were probably supplied through the riverine input and natural processes. The Geo-accumulation of elements fall under the uncontaminated category except Pb. Lead show a wide range of contamination from uncontaminated-moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated category. The sediment toxicity level of the elements revealed that the majority of the sediments fall under moderately to highly polluted sediments (23.07-28.84%). The grades of potential ecological risk suggest that predominant sediments fall under low to moderate risk category (55.7-32.7%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low to moderate risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographic features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographic range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both Isolation by Distance (IBD) and Isolation by Environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with an historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of inter-specific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  10. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; DiBattista, Joseph; Piatek, Marek J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographic features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographic range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both Isolation by Distance (IBD) and Isolation by Environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with an historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of inter-specific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  11. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relative...

  12. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    X. Carton; P. L'Hegaret

    2011-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this ...

  13. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  14. Bioaccumulation of 210Po and 210Pb in cephalopods collected from Kudankulam (Southeastern coast of Gulf of Mannar (India)) and assessment of dose in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. F.; Wesley, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in various tissues of two common species of cephalopod molluscs (cuttlefishes) of Kudankulam coast were studied. Of all the tissues, 210 Po and 210 Pb were found accumulated more in the digestive gland, shell gland and intestine. Urotheuthis duvauceli accumulated more 210 Po and 210 Pb in certain organs when compared with Sepiella inermis. The activity ratio of 210 Po/ 210 Pb fell within the range of 0.6-29.3 in the organs. The biological concentration factor for the organs ranged from 1.2x10 3 to 2x10 5 for 210 Po and 3.6x10 2 to 7.6x10 4 for 210 Pb. A significant variation in the accumulation of 210 Po and 210 Pb was noted between species, organs and seasons (p > 0.05). The whole-body internal dose rate due to 210 Po was 1.24 and 0.83 μGy h -1 and it was 2x10 -3 and 3x10 -3 μGy h -1 due to 210 Pb for both the species. The effective dose in humans due to 210 Po intake ranged from 96.3 to 376.6 μSv y -1 and that of 210 Pb ranged from 35.2 to 105.7 μSv y -1 , respectively. The data generated will act as a reference database for these organisms of this coast in which a nuclear power station is under construction. (authors)

  15. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carey W.; Gülen, Gürcan; Cohen, Stuart M.; Nuñez-Lopez, Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 602009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation.

  16. The coralline red alga Lithophyllum kotschyanum f. affine as proxy of climate variability in the Yemen coast, Gulf of Aden (NW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragnano, A.; Basso, D.; Jacob, D. E.; Storz, D.; Rodondi, G.; Benzoni, F.; Dutrieux, E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown the potential of red coralline algae as paleoclimatic archive. A previously unexplored subfamily of coralline algae, the Lithophylloideae, was investigated from the Gulf of Aden (Balhaf, Yemen). Seasonal changes in Mg/Ca, Li/Ca and Ba/Ca composition of Lithophyllum kotschyanum f. affine were investigated by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). For the first time in coralline algae, the Li/Ca composition was analyzed and showed a highly significant and positive correlation with Mg/Ca and SST. Monthly algal Mg/Ca and Li/Ca variations indicate a positive correlation with sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS), although low growth rates decrease the resolution of the algal record. Albeit no or weak positive correlation between monthly algal Ba/Ca and local SST was found, fluctuations in Ba/Ca suggest the seasonal influence of nutrient-rich deep waters introduced by upwelling, and record an increase of sedimentation at the sampling site likely due to an intensified land use in the area. The Mg/Ca age model shows an average algal extension rate of 1.15 mm yr-1, and reveals multiple intra-annual banding (previously unreported in the genus Lithophyllum) together with carposporangia formation in late February-early March, when temperature begins to increase. The concentration of MgCO3 in the thallus of L. kotschyanum f. affine is 20 mol% (1 SE), confirming that within the genus, the species sampled in warmer regions contain higher mol% MgCO3. The concentrations of LiCO3 and BaCO3 are 8 μmol% (0.7 SE) and 0.5 μmol% (0.03 SE), respectively. Despite the limitations from low-growth rate and species-specific vital effect, coralline algae confirm their utility in climate and oceanographic reconstruction.

  17. Post-tsunami oceanographic conditions in southern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, K.N.; Sudhakar, M.; Pandey, P.C.

    m depth. This high - salinity water mass was earlier ident i fied as Arabian Sea High Salinity Water mass ( ASHSW), which forms in the northern Arabian Sea du r- ing winter 12 . A pool of low - s a linity waters occupies the upper 50 m around... of t he Bay of Bengal du r ing the southwest monsoon season flows southward along the coast by the coastal currents during winter period 9 . The relatively high s a line waters (33.7 psu) are seen north of Nagapattinam, separating two low - salinity...

  18. Nitrogen cycling in the suboxic waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devol, A.H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    primary production in a section extending about 1000 km off shore from the Arabian coast (1.5 g C m-* d-'; [6]). The Northeast Monsoon (December- February) is characterized by moderate winds From the Himalayas that send cool, dry air over the region... the surface oxygen concentration is high, but by time it reaches the southern border of the ODZ (- 14"N) it loses almost all of its dissolved oxygen (Fig 1; 1771). Thus the combination of high oxygen demand and low oxygen source waters results in the strong...

  19. Occurrence of 210Po in periwinkle (Littorina undulata, Gray, 1839) collected from Kudankulam (Gulf of Mannar (GOM), Southeast coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunith Shine, S.R.; Feroz Khan, M.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Polonium-210 was quantified in the periwinkle Littorina undulata. • Smaller-sized periwinkles displayed higher Polonium-210. • Marked variation in 210 Po activity between season and sampling site. • The internal dose rate estimated using ERICA Assessment Tool. • The daily intake and committed effective dose estimated. -- Abstract: Polonium-210 activity concentration was analysed in the whole body tissue of periwinkle Littorina undulata collected from intertidal rocky shore along Kudankulam coast. We carried out the study for a period of 12 months (2011–2012) focusing on three seasons. 210 Po was found non-uniformly distributed among the periwinkles depending on the allometry. The 210 Po accumulation showed a significant difference between seasons (p 210 Po compared to larger ones (p 210 Po varied from 13.5 to 58.9 Bq/kg (wet). The activity of 210 Po was also quantified in seawater and intertidal sediments to calculate the biological concentration factor (BCF) and radiation dose rate. The dose rate to the winkles was performed using ERICA Assessment Tool and it was within the prescribed limit. The intake of 210 Po through periwinkles delivered an effective dose in the range of 2.2–9.6 μSv/y to human beings

  20. Bioavailability and Variability of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu Pollution in Soft Tissues and Shell of Saccostrea cucullata Collected from the Coast of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine pollution is a global environmental problem that its monitoring by ideal biomonitors is of great importance. Marine organisms, especially mussels, have the ability to accumulate metals from the environment; they can be considered as a biomonitoring agent. Methods: In this study, concentrations of heavy metals were measured in Saccostrea cucullata collected from seven sites on Qeshm Island's Coast. To achieve a digesting sample, each soft tissue was obtained and each of the shell homogeneous powders, 0.8 g and 1 g, respectively, were mixed with 10 mL HNO3 (69% and poured into a PTFE digestion vessel. The prepared samples were evaluated for Cd, Cu, and Zn by using a flame AAS Model 67OG and for Pb by using a graphite furnace AAS. Results: The distributions of metals between soft tissues and shells were compared in each sampling site. For seven sites, Cd, Zn, and Cu levels in soft tissues were higher than in the shells, but Pb level was higher in the shells than in the soft tissues. In addition, the results indicated the coefficient of variation (CV in the soft tissues was lower than the shells for Cd, and in the shells lower than the soft tissues for Pb, whereas the CV values were different in both the soft tissues and shells for Zn and Cu. Conclusion: The results of this study support using these materials in S. cucullata for biomonitoring. Shells are appropriate for monitoring Pb contamination, and the soft tissues are more apt for monitoring Cd, Zn, and Cu contamination.

  1. Assessing impact of climate change on Mundra mangrove forest ecosystem, Gulf of Kutch, western coast of India: a synergistic evaluation using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Mehta, Abhinav; Gupta, Manika; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Islam, Tanvir

    2015-05-01

    Mangrove cover changes have globally raised the apprehensions as the changes influence the coastal climate as well as the marine ecosystem services. The main goals of this research are focused on the monitoring of land cover and mangrove spatial changes particularly for the Mundra forest in the western coast of Gujarat state, India, which is famous for its unique mangrove bio-diversity. The multi-temporal Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Linear Imaging Self Scanning (LISS)-II (IRS-1B) and III (IRS P6/RESOURCESAT-1) images captured in the year 1994 and 2010 were utilized for the spatio-temporal analysis of the area. The land cover and mangrove density was estimated by a unique hybrid classification which consists of K means unsupervised following maximum likelihood classification (MLC) supervised classification-based approach. The vegetation and non-vegetation layers has been extracted and separated by unsupervised classification technique while the training-based MLC was applied on the separated vegetation and non-vegetation classes to classify them into 11 land use/land cover classes. The climatic variables of the area involves wind, temperature, dew point, precipitation, and mean sea level investigated for the period of 17 years over the site. To understand the driving factors, the anthropogenic variables were also taken into account such as historical population datasets. The overall analysis indicates a significant change in the frequency and magnitude of sea-level rise from 1994 to 2010. The analysis of the meteorological variables indicates a high pressure and changes in mangrove density during the 17 years of time, which reveals that if appropriate actions are not initiated soon, the Mundra mangroves might become the victims of climate change-induced habitat loss. After analyzing all the factors, some recommendations and suggestions are provided for effective mangrove conservation and resilience, which could be used by forest official to protect this precious

  2. Biodiversidad íctica de praderas de pasto marino de la costa noroeste del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela Ichthyc biodiversity of seagrass meadows from the Northwest coast of Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Ariza A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los pastos marinos son ecosistemas costeros de alta productividad, con gran diversidad y abundancia de peces, la cual es aprovechada por pescadores artesanales. En este estudio se analizó la estructura comunitaria íctica de praderas de Thalassia testudinum en Manzanillo (M y La Brea (LB, costa noroeste del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. También, se realizaron muestreos mensuales (11-2006 al 10-2007, con la utilización de una red playera. Se capturaron 34 810 organismos agrupados en 13 órdenes, 36 familias y 83 especies. En ambas zonas, el número de especies fue similar, aunque el número de organismos vario, y se encontró para M un total de 55 especies y 13 210 organismos y para LB 58 especies y 21 600 organismos. Las especies más abundantes y de mayor biomasa en el área muestreada fueron: Nicholsina usta, Haemulon boschmae, H. steindachneri, Harengula jaguana, Halichoeres bivittatus y Hemiramphus brasiliensis. Los visitantes ocasionales fue el componente comunitario más frecuente con 59%, los cíclicos y los residentes permanentes obtuvieron 22 y 19%, respectivamente. En M la H’n fue de 1.71±0.64bits/ind; entretanto en LB fue 1.95±0.51bits/ind. Los valores de la diversidad estuvieron relacionados directamente con la equitabilidad e inversamente con la dominancia. Los bajos valores del índice de similaridad, entre localidades permite establecer que estas comunidades ícticas son disimiles, debido quizás a la estructuración de cada pradera de Thalassia y a la conectividad con otros sistemas.Ichthyc biodiversity of seagrass meadows from the Northwest coast of Cariaco Gulf , Venezuela. Seagrasses are highly productive coastal ecosystems with a high diversity and abundance of fishes, very important to support artisanal fisheries. We analyzed the fish community structure of Thalassia testudinum in the communities of Manzanillo (M and La Brea (LB, Northwest coast of Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela. Samples were taken monthly (Nov. 2006-Oct

  3. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  4. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair

  5. Distribution of oil from the Gulf War spill within intertidal habitats - one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.O.; Michel, J.; Montelo, T.M.; Al-Mansi, A.M.; Jensen, J.R.; Narumalani, S.; Aurand, D.V.; Al-Momen, A.H.; Thayer, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a land-based intertidal survey of the impacts of the Gulf War oil spill on the Saudi Arabian coast, carried out from 1 March to 4 April 1992 in conjunction with Leg II of the NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell's ROPME Sea cruise, show that there is a striking correlation between the near shore geomorphology and the persistence of intertidal oil. Significant quantities of oil (measured in millions of gallons) remained in the sediments of the sheltered tidal flat/marsh areas, and significant erosion of oiled sediments has occurred along many of the outer exposed areas. A massive asphalt pavement, tens of meters wide and over 20 kilometers long, which is believed to have formed as a result of the Nowruz spill of 1983, occurs along the outer coast of the Abu Ali headland. Along certain other exposed outer sand beaches, conditions are conducive to the formation and preservation of a similar asphalt pavement as a result of the Gulf War spill. The most severely impacted areas studied were several halophyte marsh algal mat complexes and mudflats at the heads of sheltered bays, where all the halophytes were dead and there was no sign of living epibiota in the mid to upper intertidal areas. Before the spill, burrowing infauna, such as crabs and polychaetes, occurred in large numbers in these sheltered areas. The previously occupied burrows were heavily oiled, with some containing liquid black oil to depths of over 40 cm. The deep penetration of oil into the burrows and probable slow weathering rates of the oil could result in many years of pollution of these sheltered habitats. Depths of penetration of oil into bubble sand exceeding 40 cm were found at several localities. This deep oil will also remain in the sediment for many years, because of the slow erosion rates that occur in these sheltered environments. Many unoiled portions were rich in epifaunal and infaunal populations of invertebrates and plants. Shorebirds were observed feeding in these unoiled areas

  6. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants (GSH, vitamins C and E) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in mice administered. Arabian coffee ... cancer [9,10]. In addition ... HFD alone. IV. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom. V. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom + cloves.

  7. Long-range transport of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian region – A case study using satellite data and ground-based measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badarinath, K.V.S.; Kharol, S.K.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Sharma, A; Ramaswamy, V.; Kambezidis, H.D.

    The present study addresses an intense dust storm event over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea (AS) region and its transport over the Indian subcontinent using multi-satellite observations and ground-based measurements. A time series of Indian...

  8. Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.

  9. On an upwelling front, propagation of upwelling and vertical velocity in the eastern Arabian sea during monsoon, 1987

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    A coastal upwelling front parallel to the coast and identifiable upto a depth of 75 m was observed between 12.5 and 16 degrees N along the eastern Arabian Sea in September, 1987 from closely spaced digital BT data. With a north-south slope...

  10. Composition of Atmospheric Dust from Qatar in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Ansari, I. S.; Abdel-Moati, M.; Al-Ansi, M.; Paul, B.; Nelson, A.; Turner, J.; Murray, J. W.; Alfoldy, B. Z.; Mahfouz, M. M. K.; Giamberini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Samples of atmospheric dust from Qatar have been collected and analyzed for major and trace elemental composition. Twenty-one samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 from Doha, Al Khor, Katara, Sealine, and Al Waab by a variety of techniques. Some samples were collected during the megastorms that occurred in April 2015. Back trajectories were determined for each sample using the NOAA HYSPLIT model over a 50 hour time interval. Our samples were about equally divided between northerly (n=12; northern Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or Iraq) and southerly (n=8; SE Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Oman) sources. One sample originated directly westward, in Saudi Arabia. Samples were microwave-assisted total acid digested (HF+HCl+HNO3) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). There are only 12 out of 23 elements for which the Qatari dust was enriched relative to upper continental crust (UCC). Calcium was especially enriched at 400% relative to UCC. About 33% of the total sample mass was CaCO3, reflecting the composition of surface rocks in the source areas. Of the elements typically associated with anthropogenic activity, Ag, Ni and Zn were the most enriched relative to UCC, with enrichment factors of 182%, 233% and 209%, respectively. Others like Pb and V were not significantly enriched, with enrichment factors of 25% and 3%, respectively. The major elements Al, Mn and Fe were depleted relative to UCC because of the strong enrichment in CaCO3, with enrichment factors of -58%, -35% and -45% respectively. We separately averaged the samples with northern and southern origins to see if composition could be used to identify source. Only three elements had a statistical difference. Pb and Na were higher in the samples from the Se while Cr was higher in those from the north.

  11. Polychaete community structure of Indian west coast shelf, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joydas, T.V.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Damodaran, R.

    the effects of pollution on marine communities. As TS moves progressively to species, costs, in terms of the expertise and time needed to identify organisms, decrease 4 . It is quicker and easier to train personnel to sort higher taxonomic levels than... to results obtained from the analysis of higher taxa which show analogous results to those based on species level. The major benefit of being able to detect community patterns at higher taxonomic SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 97...

  12. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Ocean, including the Arabian Sea. As a result, the windward side of the Ghats receives high precipitation due to the topographic effect. The rainfall along the central west coast of India is about 250 cm during June–September. The Mandovi and the Zuari are two estuaries that are located along the west coast, in Goa.

  13. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Noronha, R.J.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    deficits because the approach requires denitrification to be restricted to Persian Gulf water. A method involving oxidative ratios has been modified and used to calculate nitrate deficits. The deficits so calculated lie between the values reported earlier...

  14. Gas hydrate occurrence in the Krishna-Godavari offshore basin off the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.

    as the ecology of environment below the water and subsurface as well. Recent gas hydrate expeditions (Hydrate Ridge, Oregon Margin, Cascadian Margin, Gulf of Mexico, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, South China Sea, East Sea) aboard JOIDES... boundaries, and associates with amplitude blanking above and below it. Further, the BSR also indicates a depth below which the hydrate destabilises. Some of the best known world major oilfields (for example the Gulf of Mexico, the Norwegian Sea, and along...

  15. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the

  16. Gulf of Mexico Kemps ridley sea turtle age and growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 333 Kemps ridley sea turtles stranded dead along the Gulf of Mexico US coast (hatchling to...

  17. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel GULF TIGER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of Alternate... for the h offshore supply vessel GULF TIGER. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and the Inland Rules Act...

  18. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico. 166.200 Section 166.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... the erection of structures therein to provide safe approaches through oil fields in the Gulf of Mexico... for Fairway Anchorages in the Gulf of Mexico. Structures may be placed within an area designated as a...

  19. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  20. 2002 Upper Texas Coast Lidar Point Data, Gulf of Mexico Shoreline in the Northeast 3.75-Minute Quadrant of the Lake Como 7.5-Minute Quadrangle: Post Fay Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains elevation data derived from a lidar survey approximately 300m wide of the Gulf of Mexico shoreline in the Northeast Lake Como...

  1. It Is Time to MOOC and SPOC in the Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutawa, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we will explain massive open online courses (MOOCs)-how they started, their targeted audience, and what services they provide- and demonstrate selected MOOC service providers that best suit the Arabian Gulf region. The record annual growth for MOOCs has made many respected institutions reconsider their educational strategies. Many…

  2. American Policy in the Persian Gulf Region: Peace, Security, and the Spread of Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Darin J

    2008-01-01

    To achieve lasting security in the Arabian Gulf region, U.S. policy, though currently focused on Iraq, must engage Saudi Arabia and Iran with all of its instruments of national power to encourage the spread of democracy within the region...

  3. English as a Medium of Instruction in the Gulf: When Students and Teachers Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhiah, Hassan; Elhami, Maha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, with special focus on the situation in the United Arab Emirates. The study, undertaken at six universities located in major cities of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras Al Khaimah, examines students' and teachers'…

  4. Revisiting the Gulf Coast after Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In August 2005, the world witnessed one of the most destructive natural disasters on America's mainland. Hurricane Katrina, followed a month later by Hurricane Rita, brought more than broken levees, flooded streets and homes, and destroyed businesses. It caused changes in the dynamics and the demographic and cultural makeup of the region. One of…

  5. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An unusually wide swath of significant snow cover resulted from a series of winter storms moving northeastward across the central United States during January 29-31, 2002. Total snowfall accumulations across the Great Plains, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions were as high as 6-18 inches. Along the southeastern edge of the heavy snow band, significant freezing rain resulted in a 1-3 inch coating of ice across parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. This was one of the worst ice storms in Oklahoma history, downing 4,000 electric power poles and causing loss of power to a quarter of a million homes and businesses. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite produced an image of the area on February 1, 2002. In visible wavelengths (above, top) the ice appears transluscent, in contrast to the bright white snow and darker ground. The ice is visible as a thick black stripe along the lower right edge of the medium gray snow in the near infrared image (above, lower). Because water absorbs near-infrared light so strongly, bare ground is actually brighter than the snow in this image. full resolution image (1.1 MB JPEG) A clear, dry wind from the north blew southward across the Great Lakes yesterday, picking up moisture from the lakes and pushing it high into the air. The resulting cloud formation can be seen in this image of United States taken on February 4, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) aboard the OrbView-2 satellite. The cloud formation stretches across Indiana, Ohio, and northeastern Pennsylvania before stopping abruptly at central and southern Appalachian Mountains. A band of snowfall can also be seen lying across southern Nebraska, Oklahoma, Iowa, and Michegan. The crisp, straight boundaries of the snow are easily discernable in the image. In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders. MODIS image courtesy University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center, and the MODIS Science Team SeaWiFS image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. Regional CMS Modeling: Southwest Florida Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    District (SAJ) jurisdiction and includes the coastline from Clearwater Beach in Pinellas County, FL, to Venice Beach in Sarasota County, FL (Figure 1...moving into inlet channels/shoals (Legault, in preparation). Mining this resource of beach quality sediment carries inherent risks of disrupting the...adjacent beaches. For Federal projects where it is deemed necessary to mine sediment from an ebb shoal, the CMS (a process-based, morphology-change

  7. Indian Monsoon and denitrification change in the Laxmi Basin (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. E.; Khim, B. K.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a famous site for the basin-wide denitrification in the globe. The Western Arabian Sea has been acknowledged by its upwelling-induced denitrification related to the Indian Monsoon system (Altabet et al., 1999). It was recently reported that the denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) has been persistent and consistent during the mid-Pleistocene as reflected in the bulk sediment δ15N values (Tripathi et al., 2017). Based on the age model reconstructed by δ18O stratigraphy of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data at Site U1456 drilled in the Laxmi Basin of the Eastern Arabian Sea, the glacial-interglacial fluctuations of denitrification in association with the development of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) were resolved in the context of Indian Monsoon activity. One of striking features in the Eastern Arabian Sea is that the δ15N values of bulk sediment show clear and consistent denitrification with minimum δ15N values exceeding 6‰ even during glacial periods, when its western counterpart experienced a temporal collapse of OMZ and denitrification. The Eastern Arabian Sea is fed not only by the upwelling-induced productivity in the western margin during the summer monsoon but also by the high productivity during the winter monsoon, both of which maintain the increased productivity affecting the OMZ through the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the degradation of sinking organic particles. The Eastern Arabian Sea is further influenced by the clockwise surface currents, intermediate water ventilation change by the blockage of Antarctic Intermediate Water, limited inflow from the Red Sea/Persian Gulf, and the freshwater salinity stratification due to nearby riverine discharges, all of which make the denitrification process more complicated than the Western Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, the glacial-interglacial denitrification change in the Eastern

  8. Futuristic isotope hydrology in the Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, U.; Hadi, Khaled

    2018-03-01

    The Gulf region is one of the most water-stressed parts in the world. Water in the region is very scarce, shortage of supply and lacking of renewable water resources, while the demand for water is growing day by day. It is thus essential to implement modern approaches and technologies in addressing water-related issues. In this context, isotope hydrology will provide invaluable aid. Some of the most important areas of futuristic applications of isotope hydrology include evaluation of aquifer recharge, storage and their recovery system, understanding of dynamic changes due to long-term exploitation of the groundwater, development and management of shared groundwater aquifers, fresh groundwater discharge along the Arabian Gulf, identification and quantification of hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater; soil moisture and solute movement in unsaturated zone, paleoclimate reconstruction, etc. Literature survey suggests, in general, not many isotope studies on the above have been reported.

  9. Oil in nearshore subtidal sediments of Saudi Arabia from the Gulf War spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.; Hayes, M.O.; Keenan, R.S.; Jensen, J.R.; Narumalani, S.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed sedimentological and dynamic-process studies of the shallow, subtidal habitats of Dawhats ad Dafi and al Mussallamiyah and the bays at Tanaqib on the Saudi Arabian coast were carried out one year after the Gulf War oil spill. These studies were part of Leg II of the NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell cruise. Satellite imagery and space shuttle photography were used extensively to develop detailed study plans. Work accomplished during the study included deployment of three current meters, a tide gauge, and suspended sediment traps (at seven locations). Bathymetric surveys were conducted along 14 transects, and 197 bottom observation dives were carried out. More than 170 bottom sediment samples were collected for chemical and/or textural analysis. Sediment hydrocarbon screening by HPLC fluorescence was conducted on board to verify and refine the sampling plan. The results to date show no evidence of large-scale sinking of oil as a result of the spill. Subtidal oil, as sparse tar balls, was visually observed by divers at three locations, all of which were associated with the erosion of oiled sand from outer beaches. On-board chemical results showed that subtidal sediments have been contaminated at levels ranging from 20 to 2,000 mg petroleum hydrocarbons/kg, with the highest contamination up in the sheltered, muddy basins. However, the oil initially stranded in the intertidal zone does not appear to be accumulating in the nearshore subtidal region in significant quantities one year later

  10. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  11. Circulations in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea with Reference to Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Near the Indian Coasts; Les Circulations dans les Eaux du Golfe du Bengale et de la Mer d'Oman et l'Elimination sans Danger des Dechets Radioactifs pres des Cotes Indiennes; 0426 0418 0420 0414 ; Circulaciones en el Golfo de Bengala e en el Mar Arabico con Relacion a la Evacuacion sin Riesgos de Desechos Radiactivos Frente al Litoral Indio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama Sastry, A. A. [Meteorological Office, Poona 5 (India)

    1960-07-01

    The author briefly reviews the general knowledge of oceanographic conditions in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. On the basis of studies made for some years by the numerous oceanographic stations which operate along the coasts of India, the author studies such oceanographic conditions from the point of view of the safe disposal of radioactive wastes and, using data collected by various expeditions in the Indian Ocean, he studies the physical oceanography of the region north of the equator. Early knowledge of the oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is briefly reviewed. In the light of the numerous oceanographic stations occupied along the coasts of India, in recent years, oceanographic conditions with reference to safe disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea are discussed. Also utilizing the data collected by different expeditions to the Indian Ocean, the physical oceanography of the region north of the equator has been studied. In the upper 200 m there are at least three different water masses both in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. Because of very great dilution in the Bay of Bengal, the surface waters could be further sub-classified. From horizontal distributions of various oceanographic parameters, circulation at different levels along the Indian Coasts is given for the upper 150 m and the same is inferred down to 500 m from the vertical sections. The level of no motion seems to be well above the 500 m depth level and fluctuates both in space and time. Mixing of water is deduced from the T-S relations. The seasons of occurrence of upwelling and sinking along the coasts and the region affected are given. Intensity of up we I ling along the coast is more pronounced and during that period a complete overturning of water over the continental shelf takes place. In deeper levels, water masses in the order of their abundance are the Indian equatorial water, Antarctic intermediate water together with Red Sea water and a slight

  12. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean, frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  13. Gulf of Aqaba Field Trip - Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Klinger, Yann

    2013-01-01

    and 2D resistivity imaging to locate the fault. One seismic profile and one 2D resistivity profile are collected at an alluvial fan on the Gulf of Aqaba coast in Saudi Arabia. The collected data are inverted to generate the traveltime tomogram

  14. Fisheries-Independent Biological and Environmental Trawl Data from the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources and the University of Southern Mississippi's Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (1973-2005) as Part of the Comparative Assessment of Gulf Estuarine Systems (CAGES) Database (NODC Accession 0115183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAGES program (Comparative Assessment of Gulf Estuarine Systems) is designed to examine the differences between estuarine ecosystems and investigate why some are...

  15. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  16. Denitrification processes in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    rate in the vicinity of 30 Tg Ny@u-1@@, but the extent of benthic contribution remains unknown. A decoupling of denitrification from primary production, unique to the Arabian Sea, is revealed by nitrite, Electron Transport System (ETS) activity...

  17. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  18. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Resplandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of OMZs (oxygen minimum zones due to climate change and their possible evolution and impacts on the ecosystems and the atmosphere are still debated, mostly because of the unability of global climate models to adequatly reproduce the processes governing OMZs. In this study, we examine the factors controlling the oxygen budget, i.e. the equilibrium between oxygen sources and sinks in the northern Arabian Sea OMZ using an eddy-resolving biophysical model.

    Our model confirms that the biological consumption of oxygen is most intense below the region of highest productivity in the western Arabian Sea. The oxygen drawdown in this region is counterbalanced by the large supply of oxygenated waters originated from the south and advected horizontally by the western boundary current. Although the biological sink and the dynamical sources of oxygen compensate on annual average, we find that the seasonality of the dynamical transport of oxygen is 3 to 5 times larger than the seasonality of the biological sink. In agreement with previous findings, the resulting seasonality of oxygen concentration in the OMZ is relatively weak, with a variability of the order of 15% of the annual mean oxygen concentration in the oxycline and 5% elsewhere. This seasonality primarily arises from the vertical displacement of the OMZ forced by the monsoonal reversal of Ekman pumping across the basin. In coastal areas, the oxygen concentration is also modulated seasonally by lateral advection. Along the western coast of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Current transports oxygen-rich waters originated from the south during summer and oxygen-poor waters from the northeast during winter. Along the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea, we find that the main contributor to lateral advection in the OMZ is the Indian coastal undercurrent that advects southern oxygenated waters during summer and northern low-oxygen waters during winter. In this region, our model indicates that

  19. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  20. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabins, F.F. (Remote Sensing Engerprises, Inc., Fullerton, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2[degrees]. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46[degrees] API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  1. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabins, F.F. [Remote Sensing Engerprises, Inc., Fullerton, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2{degrees}. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46{degrees} API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  2. 77 FR 28569 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-36-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 92--Gulfport, MS Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC, (Shipbuilding), Gulfport, MS The Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 92, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Gulf Ship, LLC (Gulf...

  3. 2015 Gulf Guardian Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program Partnership developed the Gulf Guardian awards as a way to recognize and honor the businesses, community groups, individuals, and agencies that are taking positive steps to keep the Gulf healthy, beautiful and productive.

  4. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Ecology and biology of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Extensive studies on occurrence, distribution and species composition of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea were carried out from various habitats. Luminous bacterial population was by far the highest in the environs of the Arabian Sea...

  6. Factors controlling vertical fluxes of prrticles in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.; Shankar, R.

    )) in the western Arabian Sea. Carbonate contributed mainly by foraminifers and coccolithophorids, are the dominant component in all the traps. Opal fluxes were maximum in the western Arabian Sea. At all the locations, lithogenic percentages increased with depth...

  7. Distribution of organic carbon in sediments from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; PrakashBabu, C.

    Many earlier studies on the distribution of organic carbon in the Arabian Sea, sediments have projected contradictory opinions on the factors favouring accumulation and preservation of organic carbon in the Arabian Sea. An attempt is made...

  8. Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities

  9. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  10. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Vicente M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546 and complete mtDNA (7 sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%, detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62% of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the

  11. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  12. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  13. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenic levels in ten species of fish from the east coat of the Arabian Sea, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffar, M.; Tariq, J.; Ashraf, M.

    1994-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations are estimated in ten marine fish species from the East Coast of the Arabian Sea, Pakistan, by the atomic absorption method. The following species are included in the study: Picnic seabream, Indian scad, Indian ariomma; Bigeye scad, Threadfins Cornet fish; Lefteye flounder, Goldband goatfish, Smooth dwarf monoclebream and half mourning coraker. A total of 716 fish samples within a preselected narrow weight range and comprising of 5-7 specimens of each species are analysed. Of all the species investigated the maximum concentration (17.602) micro g/g dry weight was found in goldband goatfish. (author)

  15. Inter-annual variations in wave characteristics off Ratnagiri, Northeast Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.

    location off the central west coast of India during 2008 to 2010 is negligible. The studies based on satellite derived data and ERA-Interim data have indicated that the significant wave height is marginally increasing in the south Indian Ocean and Arabian... for the monsoon period is the same (~ 2 m) in different years. Similarly the variation in annual average Hs during 2010 to 2013 is negligible (< 0.1 m). The average Hs during the monsoon is around 3 times that in the non-monsoon period and ~ 2 times...

  16. Water masses and general hydrography along the west coast of India during early March

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Varkey, M.J.; Das, V.K.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Structure of water masses along the west coast of India from Bombay to Trivandrum has been studied through vertical sections of temperature, salinity and density during 3-17 March 1977. The Arabian Sea high salinity water spreads south as a core...

  17. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    with sediments. Cross sectional dimensions between 15 to 100 m width and 2 to 6 m depth suggest a fluvial origin of the channels. These buried channels appear to mark former positions of rivers flowing from the nearby coast and debouching into the Arabian Sea...

  18. Topobathymetric Model of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1888 to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accurate, high-resolution elevation information is vital to understanding the highly dynamic Northern Gulf Coast, with Louisiana being the location of North...

  19. The Gulf of Mexico research initiative: It takes a village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Rita R.

    2016-07-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) was established at the time of one of the most significant ecological events in recent memory, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Defined by the discharge of over 150 million gallons of crude oil and the introduction of over 1.8 million gallons of chemical dispersants into the Gulf system, the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon disaster reached the Gulf Coast's wetlands and beaches and impacted the surface and deep ocean. The ecological story of the event reveals a strong linkage between the deep sea research community and research priorities in the Gulf of Mexico (coastal processes, human health, etc.). Deep Sea research efforts have revealed critical parts of the story, providing information on transport, fate, and effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil release and subsequent recovery of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystems.

  20. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  1. Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Moffett, J.W.; Vedamati, J.; Goepfert, T.J.; Pratihary, A.K.; Gauns, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian Sea James W. Moffett,*1 Jagruti Vedamati,†1 Tyler J. Goepfert,1 Anil Pratihary,2 Mangesh Gauns,2 S. W. A. Naqvi2 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 2National...

  2. Pyritized ooids from the Arabian Sea basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    Pyritized ooids in association with turbidites were observed in a box core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea Basin. Ooids having a shallow water origin were transported to the present depth by turbidity currents or slumping...

  3. The nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bange, H.W.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    to enhanced rates of denitrification that occur in suboxic portions of the water column in the Arabian Sea. Sedimentary denitrification is small compared to water column denitrification, and additions of fixed-N via N sub(2) fixation also are small compared...

  4. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  5. First dinosaur tracks from the Arabian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar

  6. 78 FR 69803 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Venice, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Venice, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... that governs the Hatchett Creek (US-41) Twin Bridges, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway mile 56.9, Venice, FL... mile 56.9 at Venice, FL as listed in Sec. 117.287(b), provides the draw of the Hatchett Creek (US-41...

  7. Tiered on-the-ground implementation projects for Gulf of Mexico water quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Improving Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin (USEPA 2008) and the GOMA Governors’ Action Plan II for Healthy and Resilient Coasts (GOMA 2009) call for the development and ...

  8. Application of spatial models to the stopover ecology of trans-Gulf migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore R. Simons; Scott M. Pearson; Frank R. Moore

    2000-01-01

    Studies at migratory stopover sites along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico are providing an understanding of how weather, habitat, and energetic factors combine to shape the stopover ecology of trans-Gulf migrants. We are coupling this understanding with analyses of landscape-level patterns of habitat availability by using spatially explicit models to simulate...

  9. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.

    2013-07-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A R; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl L.; Baker, Andrew C.; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geó rgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David Glen; Grandcourt, Edwin Mark; Hill, Ross; John, David Michael; Jones, David Alan; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda M A; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood A.; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam J.; Riegl, Bernhard M.; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles R C; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2013-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The Iranian century: the tension between Iran and the Gulf States

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the region...

  12. Definition of Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous Lower Cenomanian Shale Gas Assessment Unit, United States Gulf of Mexico Basin Onshore and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment unit (AU) for undiscovered continuous “shale” gas in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian and Albian) and basal Upper Cretaceous (lower Cenomanian) rocks in the USA onshore Gulf of Mexico coastal plain recently was defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The AU is part of the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Definition of the AU was conducted as part of the 2010 USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Gulf Coast Mesozoic stratigraphic intervals. The purpose of defining the Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous Shale Gas AU was to propose a hypothetical AU in the Cretaceous part of the Gulf Coast TPS in which there might be continuous “shale” gas, but the AU was not quantitatively assessed by the USGS in 2010.

  13. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.

  14. Behavior and trends for Zn in Saronikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkiadakis O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of Zn in the water column of Saronikos Gulf in Greece during a two year period between 2008 and 2010 added data to the available time series of metal data for this marine area since 1985. The Saronikos Gulf, is directly influenced by the Athens metropolitan area. The operation of the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Athens situated on the small island of Psitalia, in 1995, was considered to be the turning point in the efforts of de-pollution of the gulf. Major sources of pollution for the gulf include also the port of Piraeus, with intensive navigation and shipping activities and the significant industrial activity occurring along the coast of Attica. This study of dissolved and particulate Zn gave results consistent with previous studies of the area such as the prevalence of the dissolved form of Zn and the most affected areas being the smaller most enclosed Gulf of Elefsina and Psitalia Island near the wastewater outfall. However, the concentrations of Zn were below toxic levels for marine aquatic organisms. Furthermore, a clear decrease in the Eastern part of the gulf was exhibited as well as a more subtle decrease in the gulf of Elefsina. The levels of Zn in Saronikos Gulf were found comparable to those of other Greek coastal areas.

  15. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  16. Change in the intensity of low-salinity water inflow from the Bay of Bengal into the Eastern Arabian Sea from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene: Implications for monsoon variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahesh, B.S.; Banakar, V.K.

    A 100–400 km wide region of the coastal Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS), off the west-coast of India, is characterized by a low-salinity tongue formed by the inflow of low-salinity surface water from the Bay of Bengal (BoB). This low-salinity tongue...

  17. Biogeography and molecular diversity of coral symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium around the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Burt, John A.; Dobretsov, Sergey; Roder, Cornelia; Lajeunesse, Todd C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. Location: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG). Methods: Next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 marker gene was used to assess Symbiodinium community composition and diversity comprising 892 samples from 46 hard and soft coral genera. Results: Corals were associated with a large diversity of Symbiodinium, which usually consisted of one or two prevalent symbiont types and many types at low abundance. Symbiodinium communities were strongly structured according to geographical region and to a lesser extent by coral host identity. Overall symbiont communities were composed primarily of species from clade A and C in the RS, clade A, C, and D in the SO, and clade C and D in the PAG, representing a gradual shift from C- to D-dominated coral hosts. The analysis of symbiont diversity in an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based framework allowed the identification of differences in symbiont taxon richness over geographical regions and host genera. Main conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive overview over biogeography and molecular diversity of Symbiodinium in the Arabian Seas, where coral reefs thrive in one of the most extreme environmental settings on the planet. As such our data will serve as a baseline for further exploration into the effects of environmental change on host-symbiont pairings and the identification and ecological significance of Symbiodinium types from regions already experiencing 'Future Ocean' conditions.

  18. Biogeography and molecular diversity of coral symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium around the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2017-01-02

    Aim: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. Location: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG). Methods: Next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 marker gene was used to assess Symbiodinium community composition and diversity comprising 892 samples from 46 hard and soft coral genera. Results: Corals were associated with a large diversity of Symbiodinium, which usually consisted of one or two prevalent symbiont types and many types at low abundance. Symbiodinium communities were strongly structured according to geographical region and to a lesser extent by coral host identity. Overall symbiont communities were composed primarily of species from clade A and C in the RS, clade A, C, and D in the SO, and clade C and D in the PAG, representing a gradual shift from C- to D-dominated coral hosts. The analysis of symbiont diversity in an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based framework allowed the identification of differences in symbiont taxon richness over geographical regions and host genera. Main conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive overview over biogeography and molecular diversity of Symbiodinium in the Arabian Seas, where coral reefs thrive in one of the most extreme environmental settings on the planet. As such our data will serve as a baseline for further exploration into the effects of environmental change on host-symbiont pairings and the identification and ecological significance of Symbiodinium types from regions already experiencing \\'Future Ocean\\' conditions.

  19. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  20. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Lower Paleogene Midway and Wilcox Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group, of the Northern Gulf coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas potential of Tertiary strata underlying the onshore areas and State waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The assessment was based on a number of geologic elements including an evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks, suitable reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon traps in an Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System defined for the region by the USGS. Five conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined for the Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox (Paleocene-Eocene) Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) interval including: (1) the Wilcox Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU; (2) the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone Gas and Oil AU; (3) the Wilcox-Lobo Slide Block Gas AU; (4) the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; and (5) the Wilcox Mississippi Embayment AU (not quantitatively assessed).The USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Midway-Wilcox-Carrizo interval resulted in estimated mean values of 110 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 36.9 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), and 639 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the four assessed units. The undiscovered oil resources are almost evenly divided between fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Stable Shelf (54 MMBO) AU and deltaic sandstone reservoirs of the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone (52 MMBO) AU. Greater than 70 percent of the undiscovered gas and 66 percent of the natural gas liquids (NGL) are estimated to be in deep (13,000 to 30,000 feet), untested distal deltaic and slope sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU.