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Sample records for arabia sudan syrian

  1. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  2. Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation

  3. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  4. Sudan PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The development of this system was awarded to MSI in May 2013 to design and help USAID/South Sudan manage a web-based PIMS that is customized to USAID/South Sudan's...

  5. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  6. Dialysis and transplantation in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, S M; Beliela, M H; Hamza, H

    1995-01-01

    In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.

  7. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.

  8. Petrographic of Northwestern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nafi M; Abdullatif O M

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentology of the Northwestern Sudan consists of lower, middle and upper cycles.The lower and upper cycles are composed of intercalated fluvial and shallow marine facies, whereas the middle cycle consists entirely of fluvial and glaciofluvial facies. The petrographic analysis shows that the lower and upper cycles consist of quartz and lithic arenite sandstones, whereas the middle cycle consists of arkosic and lithic arenite sandstones. The lower and upper cycle sandstones reflect derivation mainly from recycled orogens with minor contribution from craton interior provenances. However, the middle cycle sandstones indicate derivation from basement uplift, transitional and mainly recycled orogens provenances.

  9. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  10. Impact of the Syrian Crisis on the Hospitalization of Syrians in a Psychiatric Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Souaiby; François, Kazour; Marwan, Zoghbi; Sami, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Determine the impact of the Syrian crisis on the hospitalization of Syrians in a psychiatric setting. All Syrians admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Lebanon between the 1st of January 2009 and the 31st of December 2013 were included. Number of admissions, psychiatric disorders and demographic and clinical data relative to patients were compared between those admitted before and after the crisis. 44 patients were admitted before the crisis and 106 after it. The distribution of diagnosis varied significantly after the crisis (p = 0.056) with the majority of patients being admitted for schizophrenia (37.7 %). The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher after the crisis (p = 0.03) but suicidal attempts, need for electroconvulsive therapy and length of hospitalization did not differ significantly between both groups. Clinicians should be aware of the possible burden of mental illness in Syrians after the beginning of the Syrian crisis.

  11. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850...

  12. Olie skaber fred i Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Sydsudan forventes formelt at erklære sin uafhængighed den 9. juli 2011. Men hvad sker der, når Sudan nu deles i Nordsudan og Sydsudan? Oliekilderne ligger i Sydsudan, men den helt nødvendige infrastruktur der skal transformere olie til dollars har man i nord. Da op imod 90% af Sydsudans indtægter...

  13. How to support the Syrian uprising?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohns, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria.......The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria....

  14. Earth Science Education in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullatif, Osman M.; Farwa, Abdalla G.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes Earth Science Education in Sudan, with particular emphasis on the University of Khartoum. The first geological department in Sudan was founded in 1958 in the University of Khartoum. In the 1980s, six more geological departments have been added in the newer universities. The types of courses offered include Diploma, B.Sc. (General), B.Sc. (Honours), M.Sc. and Ph.D. The Geology programmes are strongly supported by field work training and mapping. Final-year students follow specialised training in one of the following topics: hydrogeology, geophysics, economic geology, sedimentology and engineering geology. A graduation report, written in the final year, represents 30-40% of the total marks. The final assessment and grading are decided with the help of internal and external examiners. Entry into the Geology programmes is based on merit and performance. The number of students who graduate with Honours and become geologists is between 20% to 40% of the initial intake at the beginning of the second year. Employment opportunities are limited and are found mainly in the Government's geological offices, the universities and research centres, and private companies. The Department of Geology at the University of Khartoum has long-standing internal and external links with outside partners. This has been manifested in the training of staff members, the donation of teaching materials and laboratory facilities. The chief problems currently facing Earth Science Education in Sudan are underfunding, poor equipment, laboratory facilities and logistics. Other problems include a shortage of staff, absence of research, lack of supervision and emigration of staff members. Urgent measures are needed to assess and evaluate the status of Earth Science Education in terms of objectives, needs and difficulties encountered. Earth Science Education is expected to contribute significantly to the exploitation of mineral resources and socio-economic development in the Sudan.

  15. Leadership Styles at Syrian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Bayan; Ayoubi, Rami M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the two major types of leadership, i.e transactional and transformational, and organizational learning at public and private universities in Syria. It further aims at exploring the role of transactional and transformational leadership in enhancing organizational learning at Syrian universities.…

  16. Comparison of the binding of the dyes Sudan II and Sudan IV to bovine hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haoyu; Xia, Qing; Liu, Rutao, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    Sudan dyes are widely used in industry, and sometimes illegally used as food additives despite their potential toxicity. In this work, the interactions of Sudan II and Sudan IV with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS), UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling techniques. Binding of Sudan dyes to BHb could cause static quenching of the fluorescence, indicating changes in the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. The binding constants estimated for Sudan II and IV were 1.84×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1} and 2.54×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1}, respectively, at 293 K (20 °C). Each protein molecule bound one Sudan molecule approximately. Sudan II and IV were held at the hydrophobic cavity of BHb mainly by hydrophobic interaction. The decrease of α-helix and the increase of β-sheet seen in the CD spectra revealed a conformational alteration of the protein. From all the results, we conclude that Sudan IV has a stronger impact on the structure and function of BHb than that of Sudan II. -- Highlights: • Spectroscopic results show interaction details of Sudan II and IV with BHb. • The interaction of BHb with Sudan dyes is spontaneous with a 1:1 stoichiometry. • Sudan II and IV are located at the hydrophobic cavity of the BHb, and form complexes via hydrophobic interaction. • A stronger influence of bovine hemoglobin is caused by Sudan IV than that of Sudan II.

  17. Sudan and the Not so Comprehensive Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curless, Gareth; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2013-01-01

    This special section examines the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army. It focuses on why the agreement was possible, the challenges involved in reaching and implementing it, and the issues that now...

  18. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  19. Dermatological face of Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The frequency and variety of dermatological diseases significantly changed after 2011 in the regions where the Syrian refugees migrated because of the civil war in Syria where is bordered by our country. To reveal these changing, the demographic and dermatological data of the Syrian refugees were retrospectively examined in faculty of medicine, department of dermatology of our city where a significant amount of Syrian refugees have been living. Materials and Methods: A total of 326 refugees immigrated to our city and have been living in tent cities, and applied to our department between September 2012-July 2014 were included to our study. Age, gender, dermatological and laboratory findings were retrospectively examined. Skin diseases were examined in 16 groups according to the their frequency. The patients were divided into 4 age groups as 0-20, 21-40, 41-60 and, 61 and over; three most common diseases for each age group were analyzed. Results: Of 326 patients, 126 (38.7% were males, 200 (61.3% were females and the difference was significant in term of gender. The age range of the patients was 0 to 77 years, and the mean age was 21.6±10.5. The majority of patients were in 0-20 age group. Dermatological infectious diseases were the most frequent diseases group and cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most diagnosed dermatological disease among patients. Conclusion: Preventive health care services should be performed to prevent dermatological infectious diseases which are commonly seen in Syrian refugees, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis which is already endemic in our country, and limitations to reach physicians of these patients should be amended.

  20. Stone structures in the Syrian Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    An arid land, known as the Syrian Desert, is covering a large part of the Middle East. In the past, this harsh environment, characterized by huge lava fields, the "harraat", was considered as a barrier between Levant and Mesopotamia. When we observe this desert from space, we discover that it is crossed by some stone structures, the "desert kites", which were the Neolithic traps for the game. Several stone circles are visible too, as many Stonehenge sites dispersed in the desert landscape.

  1. Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    indicate their widespread interest in returning to South Sudan to help with the reconstruction efforts. In 2004, Leslie Coffe asserted, “All hoped...of Lost Boys, also supports their return to South Sudan. In 2007, Representative Frank Wolf of Virginia introduced a bill in the House of...Have you made any investment in Southern Sudan? Yes _______ No. _______ Q 5.4 If yes, please specify the type of investment. 1. House 2. Land 3

  2. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  3. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    was the Tijaniyah, a sect begun by Ahmad at Tijani in Morocco, which eventually penetrated Sudan in about 1810 via the western Sahel (see Glossary...rainfall in the usually productive regions of the Sahel (see Glossary) and southern Sudan added to the country’s economic problems. Refugees, both Sudanese...be irrigated for the first time. Heavy silting as well as serious problems of drainage and salinity occurred. As a result, by the late 1970s the

  4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  5. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11, 2009... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. In addition, the waiver request must address any... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule...

  6. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  7. Maternal and Child Health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngatho Mugo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of South Sudan continues to face considerable challenges in meeting maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH care needs and improving health outcomes. Ongoing instability and population displacement undermine scope for development, and damaged infrastructure, low coverage of health services, and limited government capacity and a human resource base have resulted in a fragmented health system. Despite considerable attention, effort and support, the issues and challenges facing South Sudan remain deep and sustained, and urban–rural disparities are considerable. There is a need to maintain investments in MNCH care and to support developing systems, institutions, and programs. This review of the literature offers a commentary and appraisal of the current MNCH situation in South Sudan. It explores the barriers and challenges of promoting MNCH gains, and identifies priorities that will contribute to addressing the Millennium Development Goals and the emerging health priorities for the post-2015 development agenda.

  8. A climate trend analysis of Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, Jim; Rowland, Jim; Marshall, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by 10-20 percent since the mid-1970s. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another 10-20 percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood. Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years.

  9. Cystic echinococcosis in Sudan and South Sudan: research history of a neglected zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab A; Daugschies, Arwid; Romig, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly various species of livestock and humans. This study aims at highlighting the course of research on cystic echinococcosis in different animals and humans in Sudan (including the recently independent state of South Sudan) since the disease was first reported in 1908. Recent data about the genetic identification of the parasite in the countries in both humans and animals and its importance for future control programs is discussed.

  10. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  11. Enduring crisis : refugee problems in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, H.J.; Kuhlman, T.

    1990-01-01

    The Free University in Amsterdam has undertaken several research projects in the Sudan. One programme (1983-1986) was aimed at comparing spontaneous and organized settlement of refugees as roads towards integration; the locations studied were in the region of Gedaref, in the southern part of the Eas

  12. Education in Emergencies: Case of a Community School for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    With the break of the civil war in Syria, many Syrians have been displaced either internally or as refugees. Turkey, one of the leading host of Syrian refugees, has made changes to the policies to accommodate the needs of Syrians. Education is one of the most prominent needs of displaced refugee children. While 80 percent of refugee children…

  13. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  14. Humanitarian Aid, Internal Displacement and Social Impacts in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal M.

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Di...

  15. Humanitarian aid, internal displacement and social impacts in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal M.

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Di...

  16. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Karlin PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  17. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  18. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  19. Decoding Hermitian Codes with Sudan's Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1999-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q-polynomial......, and a reduction of the problem of factoring the Q-polynomial to the problem of factoring a univariate polynomial over a large finite field....

  20. Political humor as a confrontational tool against the syrian regime

    OpenAIRE

    Camps-Febrer, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to analyze the inclusion of political humor into the set of actions used by opponents to the Syrian regime during the first year of a state-wide uprising in 2011. The research ar-gues that although political humor has traditionally been seen mainly as a concealed voice against dominant elites, it can nevertheless take a confrontational stance and challenge a regime. In this paper we assess the role of political humor in challenging the legitimacy of the Syrian...

  1. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  2. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fi

  3. The Game of Peace and Justice in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den internationale strafferetsdomstol udsendte i marts 2009 en arrestordre på Sudans præsident Omar al-Bashir. Det internationale samfund har siden været delt på spørgsmålet om arrestordrens konsekvenser og betydning i forhold til at skabe fred og stabilitet i Sudan. I dette brief analyserer majo...

  4. Reasons behind the Failure of Teaching Sudan Practical Integrated National English (SPINE 5) in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the development of English language learning and curriculum design, English language series became a very important issue that affects education globally and in Sudan. In specific, this study reports reasons behind the failure of teaching SPINE 5 (which is one of SPINE series) from the teachers' point of view. In Bahry Locality in…

  5. Syrians' Acceptance of Digital Lectures: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Technology-based learning modules are mostly challenged by their acceptance. A single-case study and mixed research method are used to explore a unique situation of applying digital lectures at the postgraduate Programmes at the Faculty of Tourism at Damascus University as a solution for brain drain in the Syrian higher education system. Results…

  6. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    2002-01-01

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  7. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M Samy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM. For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  8. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  9. Prehospital emergency care and injury prevention in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Elbashir

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Due to an absence of published literature in Sudan, much of the data have been recorded from paper records and empirical observations. Prehospital care and injury prevention in the Sudan is a recent initiative, but it is developing into a promising model with many opportunities for improvement. This momentum should be nurtured and requires a purposive, collective collaboration to draw a blueprint for a locally relevant, effective and efficient prehospital system in Sudan. It is hoped that this article will highlight and encourage further progress.

  10. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  11. Improving the specifications of Syrian raw phosphate by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Watti

    2016-09-01

    In this research we treated the Syrian raw phosphate by thermal way in order to: (1 Enriching of studied Syrian raw phosphate that contains proportions of 28.60% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, 6.12% of carbonate, which we got after treatment at 850 °C for 30 min on a phosphate containing proportion of 33.95% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, small amount of carbonate 0.75% and almost free of organic materials. (2 Preparing phosphate fertilizer by thermal treatment in the presence of sodium carbonate, where it was found that the best conditions are adding 40% of sodium carbonate by weight of phosphate ore; temperature 1100 °C; time 120 min.

  12. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  13. Stone circles on the harraat of Syrian desert

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Recently some stone structures covering the harraat of the Syrian desert had been investigated using satellite imagery (arXiv:1106.4665). Dispersed in an arid landscape, they were probably made during the Neolithic period. Some of these structures are here discussed, which display a possible use as ancient sun observatories. For the analysis, a freely available software is used which can be quite suitable for evaluating the effect of solar radiation on physical features of natural structures too.

  14. Obstacles to health care: a nurse's experience in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Whitney C

    2007-10-01

    Sudan is a country known for its long history of wars, poverty, and disease. These factors combine to cause a high incidence of morbidity and mortality and the inability of the population to seek and receive medical care.

  15. Currency Crisis in Sudan in 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamedin Bannaga, Dr.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sudan currency crisis in 2012 occurred when the Sudanese pound lost 66 percent of its value against the US dollar. In this article we adopt statistical methods such as the signal approach and econometric methods such as the Probit Model for identifying and evaluating the currency crisis. We utilize some economic indicators that have the ability to predict the crisis. We examined the capability of these indicators in generating an early warning system for Sudan currency crisis. The study confirms that the incidence of currency crisis in Sudan increases by increase in inflation rate, increase in import percentage of GDP, rise in claims against the central government, reduction in external reserves and existence of political crisis. Moreover, the study finds that the most important predictor of currency crisis in Sudan is decline in external reserves.

  16. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-01-01

    Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt man...

  17. Generalized Sudan's List Decoding for Order Domain Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-01-01

    We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity.......We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity....

  18. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tajeldin M Abdallah; Abdel Aziem A Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological factors of tuberculosis (TB) in eastern Sudan. Methods:The socio-demographic and clinical data was retrieved from the database at Kassala hospital during the year of 2011. The medical file of consequent patients who was discharged from the same ward in the hospital was reviewed to act as control for the TB patients. Results:A total of 670 patients were registered at Kassala hospital with clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence proven TB. Pulmonary TB accounted for 73.4%while extra-pulmonary TB was reported in 26.6%of all TB patients. The mean age (SD) was not significantly different between the cases and controls (670 in each arm). TB patients were those who had less education, and the infection more likely common among male patients. Conclusions: Intervention from outside the health field in particular awareness of associated risk factors and improvement of the educational level potentially will strengthen TB control.

  19. Hypospadias in Sudan, clinical and surgical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y.H Abdelrahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypospadias is one of the commonest penile abnormalities in new born males, and occurs as a result of a birth defect resulting in a urethral opening anywhere from the glans penis along the ventral aspect of the shaft of the penis up to the scrotum or the perineum in extreme cases. The condition has a huge impact on the patient′s psychological, emotional and sexual well being. This study aimed to evaluate the current trend in the treatment of hypospadias in Sudan. Materials and Methods: The was a retrospective study done in Elribat university hospital, department of Paediatrics surgery, for patients who underwent hypospadias surgical repair in the period January 2006 to June 2007. Results: There were 50 patients in this study. Regional distribution of the patients showed that 52% of the patients live in Khartoum state, the capital, while 48% were from the peripheries; 12% of patients had family history of similar condition (Hypospadias and 54% were of low socioeconomic status. Anterior hypospadias was the commonest type (46%, and associated chordee occurred in most of the patients (88%. The most common associated anomalies found were undescended testicles (20% and inguinal hernia only in 2%. The most common type of repair was MAGPI (meatal advancement and glanuloplasty with 42% of cases, anterior hypospadias commonest type with 46% of cases, 12% of cases had a family history of the condition and an overall complication rate of 26%. Chordee was the most prevalent association in 88% of cases. Conclusion: There is a high familial tendency for hypospadias in Sudan. Associated chordee and other anomalies are in keeping with other reports. Corrective surgery for hypospadias is associated with high complication rate in our setting. Collaboration between surgical specialties such as plastic surgeons, paediatrics urologist and general surgeons may improve the present complication scenario.

  20. Application of Raman spectroscopy technology to studying Sudan I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Guoping; Chen, Chen

    2006-06-01

    Being an industrial dye, the Sudan I may have a toxic effect after oral intake on the body, and has recently been shown to cause cancer in rats, mice and rabbits. Because China and some other countries have detected the Sudan I in samples of the hot chilli powder and the chilli products, it is necessary to study the characteristics of this dye. As one kind of molecule scattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is characterized by the frequency excursion caused by interactions of molecules and photons. The frequency excursion reflects the margin between certain two vibrational or rotational energy states, and shows the information of the molecule. Because Raman spectroscopy can provides quick, easy, reproducible, and non-destructive analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, with no sample preparation required, Raman spectroscopy has been a particularly promising technique for analyzing the characteristics and structures of molecules, especially organic ones. Now, it has a broad application in biological, chemical, environmental and industrial applications. This paper firstly introduces Sudan I dye and the Raman spectroscopy technology, and then describes its application to the Sudan I. Secondly, the fingerprint spectra of the Sudan I are respectively assigned and analyzed in detail. Finally, the conclusion that the Raman spectroscopy technology is a powerful tool to determine the Sudan I is drawn.

  1. Developing a comprehensive and sustainable integration strategy for Syrian refugee children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    A 2013 United Nations Refugee Agency report entitled The Future of Syria stated that two million Syrian children have been forced into exile as a result of the persistent civil war: “The world must act to save a generation of traumatized, isolated and suffering Syrian children from catastrophe. I...

  2. Profile of illness in Syrian refugees: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Barbre, Kira A; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Stauffer, William; Rothe, Camilla; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Hamer, Davidson H; Esposito, Douglas H; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Screening of 488 Syrian unaccompanied minor refugees (refugees examined at GeoSentinel clinics worldwide, cutaneous leishmaniasis affected one in three patients; other noteworthy infections were active tuberculosis (11%) and chronic hepatitis B or C (9%). These data can contribute to evidence-based guidelines for infectious disease screening of Syrian refugees.

  3. Arabia: from craters to stone circles

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The Arabia Shield has a volcanic nature inside. A region of the Western Saudi Arabia is in fact covered with vast fields of lava known as harraat. These lands are spotted by many stone circles and other quite interesting archaeological remains of the Neolithic period, such as the "desert kites", the hunters used to guide the game across the harrah in some corrals. With Google Maps, we can observe both sceneries, the volcanic nature of the land and a portrait of Arabia during the Neolithic times.

  4. Pre-Vocational Training in Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses prevocational education in Saudi Arabia: separate schools for boys and girls, primary school curriculum, factors contributing to academic failure and dropout rates, prevocational training centers, educational facilities, program restructuring, and curriculum revitalization. (CT)

  5. President Li Xiaolin Visits Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of Prince Alwaleed,chairman of Kingdom Holding Company of Saudi Arabia,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin led a delegation to visit Saudi Arabia from Feb 16 to 20.During the visit,Ms.Li met with the prince,visited Kingdom Hospital and Kingdom School and held working talks with Alwaleed Philanthropies.During the meeting with Prince Alwaleed,Ms.Li mentioned that Chi-

  6. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of m...

  7. Talisman Energy Inc : corporate social responsibility report 2001 : Sudan operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Talisman Energy Inc. is a large independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, including operations in Sudan, Malaysia, Trinidad and Colombia. This report includes a discussion on seismic exploration in the Acevedo block in Colombia, but most of the report focuses on operations in Sudan because that is the primary concern of many stakeholders, particularly the impact of the long-running civil war in that country and the way in which oil revenues will be used. The report describes Talisman Energy's compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business which Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. It was noted that the funding provided by the Sudan oil project consortium Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) for community development was increased for 2002. Talisman and GNPOC funding helps in community development initiatives such as the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) was asked by Talisman to gather comments on the company's operations in Sudan from a range of stakeholder groups. This report presents audit statements by PwC regarding Talisman's social responsibility. The report also included an independent opinion regarding the challenge of facing ethical dilemmas in business. tabs., figs.

  8. Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Tajeldin M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old. Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2% adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%; 129 (20.0% and 37 (5.7% had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7, rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9, female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3, educational level ≥ secondary level vs. P = 0.8 and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1 were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting.

  9. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of dengue in PortSudan, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Hagir M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate maternal and perinatal outcomes (maternal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight and perinatal mortality of dengue at PortSudan and Elmawani hospitals in the eastern Sudan. Method This was a retrospective Cohort study where medical files of women with dengue were reviewed. Results There were 10820 deliveries and 78 (0.7% pregnant women with confirmed dengue IgM serology at the mean (SD gestational age of 29.4(8.2 weeks. While the majority of these women had dengue fever (46, 58.9%, hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome were the presentations in 18 (23.0% and 12, (15.3% of these women, respectively. There were 17(21.7% maternal deaths. Fourteen (17.9% of these 78 women had preterm deliveries and 19 (24.3% neonates were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. Nineteen (24.3% women gave birth to low birth weight babies. There were seven (8.9% perinatal deaths. Eight (10.2% patients delivered by caesarean section due to various obstetrical indications. Conclusion Thus dengue has poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in this setting. Preventive measures against dengue should be employed in the region, and more research on dengue during pregnancy is needed.

  10. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  11. Mod en aktivistisk udenrigspolitik? - Et casestudie af Kina i Sudan & Sydsudan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns Chinese presence in Sudan and Southern Sudan. China has had difficul-ties balancing their economic interests in Sudan with matters of politics, security and ideolo-gy. Sudan is of economic interest to China because of their large oil reserves. China’s economic growth following market reforms in the late seventies has caused a boom in Chinese demand for foreign oil, and China has bought a significant amount of oil from Sudan, and invested heavily in the country’s oil infras...

  12. Exploiting social media for Army operations: Syrian crisis use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Al Amin, Tanvir; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    Millions of people exchange user-generated information through online social media (SM) services. The prevalence of SM use globally and its growing significance to the evolution of events has attracted the attention of the Army and other agencies charged with protecting national security interests. The information exchanged in SM sites and the networks of people who interact with these online communities can provide value to Army intelligence efforts. SM could facilitate the Military Decision Making Process by providing ongoing assessment of military actions from a local citizen perspective. Despite potential value, there are significant technological barriers to leveraging SM. SM collection and analysis are difficult in the dynamic SM environment and deception is a real concern. This paper introduces a credibility analysis approach and prototype fact-finding technology called the "Apollo Fact-finder" that mitigates the problem of inaccurate or falsified SM data. Apollo groups data into sets (or claims), corroborating specific observations, then iteratively assesses both claim and source credibility resulting in a ranking of claims by likelihood of occurrence. These credibility analysis approaches are discussed in the context of a conflict event, the Syrian civil war, and applied to tweets collected in the aftermath of the Syrian chemical weapons crisis.

  13. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  14. Distribution of some trace metals in Syrian phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Amin, Y.; Ibrahim, S.; Al-Bich, F

    2004-05-01

    Distribution of Cu, Cd, Zn and U in a Syrian phosphoric acid plant byproduct, phosphogypsum, has been determined. Uranium, Cd, Zn and Cu were found to be more enhanced in small phosphogypsum particles (45-75 {mu}m) where the highest concentration was found for Cu (51.7 ppm). In addition, the element transfer factors (((Trace element concentration in phosphogypsum (mg/kg))/(Trace element concentration in phosphate rock (mg/kg)))x100) from Syrian phosphate rock to phosphogypsum were calculated and found to be 30, 8 and 17% for Zn, Cd and U, respectively. Moreover, laboratory leaching experiments of phosphogypsum by distilled water, dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions and selective extractants have been performed. Leaching results have shown that around 20% of the U and 100% of the Zn are transferred to the aqueous phase. Batch-wise leaching with dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions shows increased solubility of U, Zn, Cu and Cd from phosphogypsum, while leaching with selective extractants has been performed to determine the amount of exchangeable trace metals which are adsorbed, on gypsum particle surfaces, the amount of trace metals present inside the gypsum lattice, the amount of trace metals associated with organic materials and the amount of trace metals soluble in acids. The results obtained in this study can be utilized to verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils.

  15. Optimization of Field Development Scheduling, East Unity Oil Field, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa A. Musa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reservoir performance in East Unity oil field Sudan, the studies focused on characterization, modeling and simulation of the actual performance and future development. A model was constructed using a three-phase, three dimensional, black oil simulator (ECLIPSE. In this study a data from East Unity oil field Sudan started production at July 1999 was used to perform the optimal oil rate and designing the best location of the new operating wells. Cumulative oil production, oil production rate, Water cut and recovery factor were used as key criteria to see if adding new wells in the area under study are economic risk.

  16. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt management mechanism and economic corruption were a product of the lack of political and fiscal accountability in the context of personal rule.

  17. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old males (76%. The majority (68% were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%. In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%. History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76% and hand (8% were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%, thigh (2%, buttock (2% and arm and forearm (1%. Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2% of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7% had postoperative recurrence. Different types of

  18. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  19. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan : policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, Muna Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  20. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  1. Security Promotion Seen from Below: Experiences from South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Rouw, H.

    2011-01-01

    The report is based on 8 weeks of field research in South Sudan between March and April 2011, and looks at the linkages between security interventions such as DDR, SALW control and SSR in relation to community security. It opens with an analysis of what security constitutes and assesses what various

  2. Encampment at Abu Rakham in Sudan: a personal account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Misbah Yousif

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores camp policy as embodied in the rural settlement approach which has characterised the work of UNHCR and its implementing partners in their search for a durable solution to Eritrean/Ethiopian refugee issues in eastern Sudan.

  3. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan. Policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  4. Turkey's policy toward Syrian refugees: domestic repercussions and the need for international support

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadoun, Souad

    2014-01-01

    Turkey’s humanitarian activities toward Syrian refugees are part and parcel of its overall policy in the Syria conflict. Yet, it has become increasingly clear that the Turkish government has overestimated its capacities, and thus failed to deliver sufficient assistance to Syrian refugees on its territory. At the same time the government’s handling of the refugee issue has led to stark tensions among Turkey’s political and societal forces, as Turkey’s border regions contend with increasing sec...

  5. War, memories and Little Waterfall; a Syrian village that is no more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    million Syrians are displaced. According to the UNHCR, over 3 million have fled to Syria's immediate neighbours Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq while about 6.5 million are internally displaced within Syria. Meanwhile, under 150,000 Syrians have declared asylum in the European countries, while member...... refugees and the displaced people from Little Waterfall who are located inside Syria, Turkey, Lebanon and at an immigration center in the Netherlands....

  6. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  7. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  8. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  9. Jordan’s migration diplomacy and the Syrian refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Taking its point of departure in the newly published World Bank Economic Outlook for Jordan (October 2016) the article discusses the recent political and economic realities in Jordan with a focus on the Syrian refugees and the socalled Jordan Compact programme, launched in connection...... with the conference “Supporting Syria and the Region”, held in London 4 February 2016. The initiative can be seen as an example of a successful migration diplomacy effort in the sense that Jordan mobilized strong international state actors and also the World Bank behind the Jordanian interests. At the conference...... moving away from its official encampment policy and this provides Jordan with new opportunities in the context of migration diplomacy....

  10. Uranium Extraction from Syrian Phosphate: A case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.STAS, I. OTHMAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uranium and trace elements were studied in few hundred samples from phosphatic formations in Syria. Uranium and trace elements were enriched in phosphorites facies compared to carbonate and siliceous facies. Uranium content of Syrian phosphorite by fission track method shows that uranium is related to the apatite mineral and organic matter. The concentration of uranium in phosphatic elements depends on the quality of these elements (grains, biogenic-elements. Further, uranium is relatively mobile during biomicritisation, coating and weathering. Investigation of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid produced at Homs plant (G.F.S by using phosphate concentrate from Khneifiss and Charquieh mines, have been carried out in a micro pilot and pilot plant scales. The result shows that the yield of uranium extraction from H3 PO4 is more than 95%.

  11. A study of the carcinogenicity of glycidol in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M

    1992-01-01

    The industrial chemical glycidol is a directly acting mutagen and a broadly acting carcinogen in rats. It was administered to Syrian golden hamsters (20 male and 20 female) by gavage of 12 mg twice a week for 60 weeks. The total dose per animal was 1.45 g or 20 mmol. Survival was not different from control hamsters treated with corn oil/ethyl acetate. Of the treated males, 9 had tumors and 13 of the treated females had tumors, some of which were adrenal cortex tumors seen in controls. More tumors were seen in the glycidol-treated hamsters than in controls, but the spleen was the only notable target organ and the number of animals with spleen hemangiosarcomas was small. Glycidol appeared to be less carcinogenic in hamsters than in rats or mice.

  12. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

    2014-06-05

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  13. Pediatric pulmonary services in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society. Results: Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%. The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years′ experience (44.8% and were North American training programs graduates (69%. The majority of the respondents (51% were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma′a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85% lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year. Conclusion: Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.

  14. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  15. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  16. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  17. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  18. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  19. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, A RECOVERY SCHEME IN PERIPHERIES: THE PETRONAS AND CNPC ENTERPRISES IN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy and mainly the impact of multinational corporations on performing construction, as well as the basic services supply in fragile social economic conditions in Sudan. It reveals that within Sudan state weakness and poor conditions in peripheries, war zone areas in particular, reflect invasive challenges facing the country, and thus, applying corporations’ helps to meet and increase the supply of public needs and recovery in instable Sudan. Through a qualitative ...

  20. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  1. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  2. The 2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ahmed Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus (RVFV affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is transmitted through bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals. During 2007 a large RVF outbreak occurred in Sudan with a total of 747 confirmed human cases including 230 deaths (case fatality 30.8%; although it has been estimated 75,000 were infected. It was most severe in White Nile, El Gezira, and Sennar states near to the White Nile and the Blue Nile Rivers. Notably, RVF was not demonstrated in livestock until after the human cases appeared and unfortunately, there are no records or reports of the number of affected animals or deaths. Ideally, animals should serve as sentinels to prevent loss of human life, but the situation here was reversed. Animal contact seemed to be the most dominant risk factor followed by animal products and mosquito bites. The Sudan outbreak followed an unusually heavy rainfall in the country with severe flooding and previous studies on RVF in Sudan suggest that RVFV is endemic in parts of Sudan. An RVF outbreak results in human disease, but also large economic loss with an impact beyond the immediate influence on the directly affected agricultural producers. The outbreak emphasizes the need for collaboration between veterinary and health authorities, entomologists, environmental specialists, and biologists, as the best strategy towards the prevention and control of RVF.

  3. Talisman Energy Inc : corporate social responsibility report 2000 : Sudan operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Talisman Energy Inc., the largest independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, owns a subsidiary Talisman (Greater Nile) B.V., which is in turn a 25 per cent owner in the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) whose share of oil production accounted for 11 per cent of Talisman's worldwide production in 2000. GNPOC operates three exploration and two development blocks encompassing 12,200,000 acres of land in Sudan. Production began in 1999 and is currently at 200,000 barrels per day. This report describes Talisman Energy's operations in Sudan and measures compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business that Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. In addition, Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. Talisman's community development initiatives include the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. tabs., figs.

  4. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    identified to accomplish the mission of AFRICOM in its fact sheet , three of those objectives can only be realized through security cooperation. Those...papayas, bananas , sweet potatoes, sunflowers, cotton, sesame, cassava, beans, peanuts, cattle, and sheep. Trade: Major trading partner--Sudan...2010, 11. 2 President, National Security Strategy 2010, 3. 3 United States Africa Command, Fact Sheet : United States Africa Command: U.S

  5. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  6. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  7. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence.

  8. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  9. C-reactive protein (CRP) of the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Holden, S N

    1991-10-01

    Complementary and genomic clones encoding the mRNA and gene for a protein in the Syrian hamster that is highly homologous to C-reactive protein (CRP) have been isolated and studied. Coding sequence of the genomic clone is identical with that of the cDNA clone and predicts a mature protein of 206 amino acids and a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The single intron is 217 base pairs long and contains a short repetitive (GT)n motif. RNA blot analysis demonstrates that mRNA for hamster CRP is approximately 2.0 kb long, and unlike the closely related pentraxin female protein (FP), expression of this mRNA is not affected by the gender of the animal and accumulates equally in males and females during inflammation. In vivo administration of interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor induces accumulation of hepatic CRP mRNA, and the acute-phase alterations in CRP mRNA levels arise as a result of enhanced gene transcription.

  10. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Tumors of the eye in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, A; Cavender, J C

    1991-11-01

    The geographic incidence of tumors usually uncovers the influence that environment, race and culture exert upon the prevalence of cancer. Therefore this study of tumors of the eye is presented as a baseline for Saudi Arabia between the years 1982G and 1989G. The most common malignant tumors, in decreasing order of frequency, are retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, and malignant melanoma. The most common benign tumors, in the same order, are nevi, epithelial cysts, hemangiomas and dermoid cysts. There are, in Saudi Arabia, certain unique features for retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Furthermore, these conditions have distinctive incidence rates when compared with cancer incidence in Western countries.

  12. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  13. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

  14. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Hassan; O.F. Osman; F.M.A. El-Raba'a; H.D.F.H. Schallig; D.E.A. Elnaiem

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a re

  15. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  16. 78 FR 1872 - Extension and Redesignation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... conflict and extraordinary and temporary conditions in that country that prevent Sudanese who now have TPS from returning in safety. This Notice also sets forth procedures necessary for nationals of Sudan (or... Country: Sudan'' from the menu on the left of the TPS Web page. You can also contact the TPS...

  17. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  18. Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

    2011-01-01

    After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

  19. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were u

  20. On the state of business: trade, entrepreneurship and real economic governance in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twijnstra, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides an insight into the everyday realities of economic life and regulation in the Republic of South Sudan for the period between 2010 and 2013, encompassing its independence from the Sudan in July 2011 and the period of economic austerity following the January 2012 oil shutdown . By

  1. The Syrian Hamster Pineal Gland Responds to Isoproterenol in Vivo at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Society Printed in U.S.A. A THE SYRIAN HAMSTER PINEAL GLAND RESPONDS TO ISOPROTERENOL IN VIVO AT NIGHT George M. Vaughan 1 and Russel J. Reiter 2 1US...then kept in light for 2 h, pineal melatonin was equally low 0 • after ISO or vehicle injection. The Syrian hamster pineal gland can respond in vivo...responsiveness during the day, pineal highly concentrated at the pinealocyte glands taken 6 1/2 h into the night after a during the nocturnal surge of pineal

  2. Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J; Carnes, K; Hess, R A

    2014-07-01

    Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56% of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Non-ciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal non-ciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localisation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1.

  3. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  4. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... interested in participating in the ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia must complete and submit an application... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission...

  5. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results: Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions: Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities.

  6. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  7. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  8. Music in the Syrian city of Ebla in the late third millennium B.C.*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.

    2012-01-01

    Musicians and musical instruments in the (bilingual Sumero-Akkadian) lexical and administrative texts from the Syrian city of Ebla (± 2300 B.C.) with occasional reference to the musical instruments of the city of Mari (±1750 B.C.)

  9. Causes and consequences of Canada’s resettlement of Syrian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Bélanger McMurdo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of February 2016, Canada had fulfilled its promise to resettle 25,000 Syrian refugees. However, this initiative has put a considerable strain on the settlement services that refugees receive after arrival, and raises questions about fair treatment for other refugees.

  10. 77 FR 20038 - Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... minimum course load requirement, unless the student's course of study is in a language study program. See... maintains his or her TPS, then the student maintains F-1 status and TPS concurrently. Under the second... SECURITY RIN 1653-ZA04 Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing...

  11. Temporal organisation of hibernation in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Daan, S; Strijkstra, AM; Heldmaier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal pattern of hibernation was studied in three genotypes of Syrian hamsters with different circadian periodicity to assess a potential circadian control of alternating torpor and euthermy. We recorded the pattern of hibernation by measuring activity in continuous dim light and constant env

  12. Syrian Kurdish Autonomy: A Decisive Strategy for Bashar al-Assad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    University of Texas Press, 2014), 213. 2 The author will first present an analysis of Iraqi Kurdish territorial autonomy , drawing parallels between...Marc Weller and Katherine Nobbs, Asymmetrical Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 22...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Syrian Kurdish Autonomy : A Decisive Strategy for Bashar al-Assad

  13. Quality of life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Izaddin A; Hutchinson, Claire V; Maltby, John

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the perceived quality of life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in refugee camps in the Erbil region in Kurdistan completed the WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL) within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. However, respondents in the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL. The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL.

  14. Effects of flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Gold Syrian Hamster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects of a flavonoid-rich diet supplemented with cranberry on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters. Animals were fed one of four diets: high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet, HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+...

  15. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  16. Metabolic rate changes proportionally to circadian frequency in tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S; Loudon, ASI; Stirland, AJ; Loudon, Andrew S.I.; Stirland, Anne J.

    1997-01-01

    The tau mutation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) is phenotypically expressed in a period of the circadian rhythm of about 20 h in homozygotes (SS) and about 22 h in heterozygotes (S+). The authors investigate whether this well-defined model for variation in circadian period exhibits associ

  17. From the Field: “Teach Syrians how to live here, to communicate, how to exchange information and knowledge”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Horz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Refugees do heavily rely on (social media before and during migration, as the article by Anke Fiedler in this GMJ special issue impressively demonstrates. But what happens after refugees have reached their country of destination? Some become media producers like our interviewee, media and social media activist Monis Bukhari from Syria. He is the founder of Syrisches Haus (Syrian House in Germany, an information platform from and for fellow Syrians who arrived here as refugees. This Facebook group currently has over 132.000 members – a huge part of the Syrian community in Germany. We asked him about his motivation and the goals of Syrisches Haus.

  18. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  19. A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

    2012-11-01

    Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate.

  20. Statistical Methods for Predicting Malaria Incidences Using Data from Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Khidir E.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Sudan. The entire population is at risk of malaria epidemics with a very high burden on government and population. The usefulness of forecasting methods in predicting the number of future incidences is needed to motivate the development of a system that can predict future incidences. The objective of this paper is to develop applicable and understood time series models and to find out what method can provide better performance to predict future incidences level. We used monthly incidence data collected from five states in Sudan with unstable malaria transmission. We test four methods of the forecast: (1) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); (2) exponential smoothing; (3) transformation model; and (4) moving average. The result showed that transformation method performed significantly better than the other methods for Gadaref, Gazira, North Kordofan, and Northern, while the moving average model performed significantly better for Khartoum. Future research should combine a number of different and dissimilar methods of time series to improve forecast accuracy with the ultimate aim of developing a simple and useful model for producing reasonably reliable forecasts of the malaria incidence in the study area.

  1. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  2. Oxytetracycline residues in Sheep meat in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El Rayah Yousif Hussein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the chemical and biological contaminants in livestock and livestock products worldwide have been considered as one of the causes that threatens life of both man and animals. In Sudan very little work has been done in this field. This study was carried out to detect Oxytetracycline (OTC residues in sheep liver and muscle samples in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 150 samples comprising of liver (n=75 and muscle (n=75 of sheep were collected from three different localities in Khartoum State during the period from March to September 2013. The OTC residues were detected using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and one plate test (OPT. The results of HPLC showed that the level of OTC residues in liver samples above maximum residue limit (MRL was 4% (n=3/75 and under MRL was 96%. Regard to muscle samples, the level of OTC residues above MRL was 60.3% (n=35/58, whereas, under MRL was 39.7%. Using OPT, 14.7% (n=11/75 and 6.7% (n=5/75 of liver and muscle samples showed inhibition zone, respectively. It is concluded that OTC residues are detected in sheep liver and muscle sample with different levels in Khartoum state. Further investigation on level of OTC residues in other farm animals and other organs throughout the country is recommended. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 321-325

  3. [The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Klebnikoff, S

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.

  4. The Partition of Sudan and Its Impact on China's Oil Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin

    2011-01-01

    After over half a century of war, South Sudan declared independence .on July 9, 2011, setting up the Republic of South Sudan andcomplying with a Comprehensive North and the South in 2005. As Peace Agreement reached between the well as competition for oil resources, there are ethnic and religious causes behind the division between the north and south. Independence for Southern Sudan however did not resolve these problems. On the contrary, it complicated the existing situation. Consequently, China's oil interests in the region are threatened.

  5. Armenian hamster female protein (serum amyloid P component). Comparison with the sex-regulated homolog in Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Waggoner, D J

    1989-12-01

    Complementary DNA clones for Armenian hamster female protein (FP) were isolated and the complete nucleotide sequence and derived amino acid sequence were determined and compared with relevant data for the closely related Syrian hamster. Although biosynthesis of preSAP is directed by a 1.0-kb mRNA in both genera and the molecular mass of the primary translation product of FP is identical, the FP gene structure and regulation of expression of FP are different in Syrian and Armenian hamsters. Whereas the direction of alteration in FP mRNA levels is divergent in Syrian hamsters during an acute phase reaction, hepatic FP mRNA levels increase in both male and female Armenian hamsters during inflammation. Regulation of expression of Armenian and Syrian hamster FP genes occurs at a pretranslational level.

  6. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  7. Further records of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnert, Volker; Sharaf, Mostafa; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2014-02-11

    Five species of pseudoscorpions are recorded from the southwestern mountains of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pseudochthonius arabicus Mahnert n. sp. is described as new to science; this genus was previously known only from sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America and represents the first record of the family Chthoniidae from the Arabian Peninsula. Paratemnoides ellingseni (Beier, 1932), a widespread species in tropical Africa, and Withius piger (Simon, 1878) are added to the faunal list of Saudi Arabia. Minniza monticola Mahnert, 1991 and Rhacochelifer sonyae Mahnert, 1991 are apparently endemic to the southwestern mountains of Saudi Arabia.

  8. 78 FR 1866 - Extension and Redesignation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... civil war in Sudan. There was significant progress towards fulfilling the mandates of the CPA, such as... population movements, rape, and forced conscription of children. Rebel groups are also responsible...

  9. 76 FR 63629 - Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Agreement (CPA) that ended more than two decades of civil war between the Government of Sudan in Khartoum..., abduction, rape, mutilation, looting, and destruction of property. According to Human Rights...

  10. An Empirical Study Evaluating the Adoption of Mobile Banking in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WISAL TINGARI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the revolution of information and communication technology (ICT. It deals with the evolution of banking technology (BT, electronic banking (e-banking and mobile banking (m-banking in Sudan. It intends to explore the practice of m-banking in Sudan. The focus is on the availability of adequate infrastructure and on the challenges and risks that face m-banking services in Sudan. The findings showed that although mbanking is believed to be essential, still the services provided are at an infant stage. It is also found that concerned parties are not fully cooperating. This raises risks and constitutes challenges that hinder full utilization of m-banking in Sudan. Based on these results, the main recommendation of the researchers was that regulatory policies should be stated clearly to ensure full collaboration between all concerned parties. This is to support bank managers and decision makers in formulating their strategic plans to deliver competitive services.

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the... in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security...

  12. Two new species of Afroarabiella Yakovlev, 2008 (Lepidoptera, Cossidae from Sudan and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Yakovlev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes two new species of Afroarabiella (Cossidae: A. sulaki sp. nov. from Sudan and A. strohlei sp. nov. from Ethiopia. For all the species of the genus Afroarabiella images and distribution maps are given.

  13. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as Sudan with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Sudan. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across Sudan. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in Sudan is warranted.

  14. Schistosomiasis as a disease and its prevalence in Sudan: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassir Sulieman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in the developing world. In Sudan, since the year 1919, the disease has been discovered in the northern part of the country, and later it was reported from different parts including Eastern and Western Sudan, Lake Nasser area, and many agricultural schemes such as Gezira Scheme, Rahad Scheme and Gunaid Sugar Cane Scheme.

  15. Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South Sudan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K

    2012-09-01

    A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South Sudan, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines.

  16. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-08-21

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  17. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ishag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54% were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  18. Carbonization of some fast-growing species in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P.; Khalifa, A.W. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan). Forestry Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Four wood species, indigenous Acacia seyal (talh) and exotic fast-growing Conocarpus lancifolius (damas), Eucalyptus microtheca (kafur) and Prosopis chilensis (mesquite) grown in Sudan, were assessed and compared as raw materials for charcoal making. The effects of production method (traditional earth mound and improved metal kiln) and the physical and chemical properties of the wood and bark on the yield and quality of charcoal produced were assessed. Regression analyses of wood properties and heat value data indicated high negative correlations of the wood heat value with halocellulose and ash, and high positive correlations with wood density, lignin, and alcohol-benzene and hot-water solubles. Carbonization with the Tropical Products Institute metal kiln produced higher yields (33%) than the traditional earth mound (27%), although the difference in energy transformation yields was found to be insignificant both between appliances and species. (author)

  19. EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, Sultan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

  20. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... universities. Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's... practices in Saudi Arabia to security; Pre-scheduled meetings with potential partners, distributors,...

  1. Epidemiology of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taj; Eldin; Mohammedein; Abdallah; Fatah; Elrahman; Mohmmed; Toum; Osman; Habeeb; Bashir; Tajedin; Ibrahim; mansoor; Mona; Mamoun; Yuosif; Mustafa; Awad-Elseed; Elkhawad; Idris; Osman; Okud; Abbashar; Osman; Mohammed; Abdel; Aziem; Abdalla; Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological factors associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis(EPTB) in Kassala, Eastern Sudan.Methods: Patients infected with TB(pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) documented at the hospital were interviewed with a structured questionnaire used to gather socio-demographic information. The diagnosis of EPTB cases was based on presence of tuberculous granulomas in the histological samples, positive PCR to DNA of mycobacterium tuberculosis, radiological i ndings and l uid analysis suggestive of EPTB and clinical diagnosis with adequate response to anti-tuberculous therapy.Results: A total of 985 patients with TB were enrolled in the study, including 761(77.3%) with PTB and 224(22.7%) with EPTB. The mean age(SD) of patients with PTB and EPTB was 33.2(15.4) and 34.7(14.6) years respectively. The prevalence of EPTB was at(22.7%), with TB lymphadenitis 79(35.3%), marking the frequent form of EPTB followed by peritoneal TB 27(12.05%). While residence and occupation were not associated with EPTB, those with lower level of education(OR = 0.3; coni dence intervals(CI) = 0.2-0.5; P < 0.001), female(OR = 8.7, CI = 4.9-15.1, P < 0.001), non vaccination(OR=70.3, CI = 34.2-144.3, P < 0.001), and non smoker(OR = 0.1; CI = 0.06-0.20; P < 0.001), were associated with high prevalence of EPTB. Conclusions: Around one quarter of patients with TB in this study were more likely to have EPTB. Therefore, ef ective strategic plans regarding diagnostic procedures and control measures are needed to reduce the burden of the disease in Sudan.

  2. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  3. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  4. Factors for success in collaboration between high- and low-income countries: Developing a physiotherapy education programme in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background This study presents an example of collaboration between two higher education institutions: one in Norway, a high-income country, and one in Sudan, a low-income country, in developing an entry-level physiotherapy education programme in Sudan. The institution in Sudan had minimal theoretical and practical knowledge in physiotherapy. The study examined the factors important for the success of the bilateral collaboration. Material and methods We analysed written documents produced in t...

  5. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie;

    2012-01-01

    on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters...... despite persisting photoinhibitory conditions. By contrast RFRP-3 does not have a hypophysiotrophic effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate that, in the male Syrian hamster, RFRP-3 exerts a stimulatory effect on the reproductive axis, most likely via hypothalamic targets. This places RFRP-3...... in a decisive position between the melatonergic message and Kiss1 seasonal regulation. Additionally, our data suggest for the first time that the function of this peptide depends on the species and the physiological status of the animal model....

  6. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    Full Text Available In 2012 a novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe respiratory disease emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, 55 human cases have been reported, including 31 fatal cases. Several of the cases were likely a result of human-to-human transmission. The emergence of this novel coronavirus prompts the need for a small animal model to study the pathogenesis of this virus and to test the efficacy of potential intervention strategies. In this study we explored the use of Syrian hamsters as a small animal disease model, using intratracheal inoculation and inoculation via aerosol. Clinical signs of disease, virus replication, histological lesions, cytokine upregulation nor seroconversion were observed in any of the inoculated animals, indicating that MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

  7. Leadership Styles at Syrian Universities and the Differences Caused by Sector and Follower Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ayoubi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing two modern leadership styles: transactional leadership and transformational leadership at Syrian universities. It also aims at exploring whether or not there are differences in leadership styles caused by sector or follower demographics. A quantitative research paradigm was employed. Using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from managerial employees at two public and private universities. In total, 216 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS. The findings revealed that there is a high level of transactional leadership except one of its dimensions, management by exception-passive, which occurred in a medium level. There is also a high level of transformational leadership except one of its dimensions, individualized consideration, which occurred in a medium level. Furthermore, the study found significant differences in leadership styles that are caused by follower demographics, but not sector. Suggestions for Syrian universities are presented. Proposals for future studies are highlighted in the study.

  8. Developing a comprehensive and sustainable integration strategy for Syrian refugee children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    A 2013 United Nations Refugee Agency report entitled The Future of Syria stated that two million Syrian children have been forced into exile as a result of the persistent civil war: “The world must act to save a generation of traumatized, isolated and suffering Syrian children from catastrophe....... If we do not move quickly, this generation of innocents will become lasting casualties of an appalling war”. Such a statement has found ritual credence in images of refugees braving (and perishing) in the tumultuous waters of the Mediterranean in search of a safe haven. But more recently, the possible...... abduction of 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children by organised trafficking syndicates has confirmed that children are indeed the most vulnerable when in exile. In view of this critical problematique a workshop was organized by International Alert, Copenhagen University and Roskilde University and hosted...

  9. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues.

  10. Publications indexed in Medline and Embase originating from the Syrian Arab Republic: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, H E; Almerie, M Q; Adams, C E; Essali, A

    2009-01-01

    Health research in the Syrian Arab Republic faces many difficulties, including limited funds, infrastructure and means of dissemination. In a search of Medline and Embase databases in March 2006 we extracted data on 386 biomedical papers originating from the Syrian Arab Republic. Embase had the superior coverage. A total of 64% were published in journals from Europe, 22% from North American journals and 12% in periodicals from the Middle East. Output of papers increased by 1.4 articles/year since 1979. The topics of 57% of papers were biomedical, with the remainder being pure science or agricultural/veterinarian issues. Dentistry, public health and surgery were the commonest subjects of the biomedical papers. Funding was largely from government.

  11. Expression and sequence analyses of serum amyloid A in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C F; Tucker, P W; Dowton, S B

    1989-05-30

    Reactive amyloidosis occurs during chronic inflammation and involves deposition of amyloid A (AA) fibrils in many organs. Amyloid A is derived by proteolysis from serum amyloid A component (SAA), a major acute-phase reactant in many species. Since spontaneous amyloidosis occurs commonly in Syrian hamsters, we have studied the structure and expression of SAA genes during inflammation in these animals. Two cDNA clones and one genomic clone were sequenced, suggesting that Syrian hamster SAA is encoded by at least two genes. Hepatic mRNA analyses showed that SAA was inducible in many hamster organs during acute inflammation. These studies also demonstrated that SAA mRNA for one isotype is maximally expressed at a site of local tissue damage.

  12. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  13. The Alligator Farther From the Canoe: Shaping the Post-Civil War Syrian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    wrested control of the Syrian government from the Alawites when the French mandate ended in 1946, but they left the predominantly Alawite armed forces... Revolution Sunnis Lament Assad Backers,” Syria Direct, June 21, 2013, http://syriadirect.org/news/sunni-vs-sunni-pro- revolution -sunnis-lament-assad-backers...Nuha Shabaan. “Sunni vs. Sunni: Pro- Revolution Sunnis Lament Assad Backers.” Syria Direct, June 21, 2013. http://syriadirect.org/news/sunni-vs-sunni

  14. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  15. Setting the Syrian stage: A case study of dance and power

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article first presents the Syrian stage of official dance representations as portrayed by the Ba’thist regime. Second, it criticises the official ideology on the basis of anthropological/ philosophical understandings. Third it shows how criticisms are always already embedded within the official ideological discourse. The aim, thus, is twofold: on one hand it strives to underlie the necessity for more political ethnographic studies of dance, and on the other, it aspires to show how, in th...

  16. War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Alasaad, Samer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Social media introduce pivotal changes to communication between individuals, organizations and communities. A clear example of the power of social media is the spread of the revolutionary outbreaks in the Arabic countries during 2011, where people used Facebook, YouTube and Skype to communicate, organise meetings and protest actions. Here I report how Doctor-Activists use these social media as an alarm system for ‘war disease’ outbreaks in the Syrian Spring. Social media are used as ...

  17. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  18. Response of Gut Microbiota to Fasting and Hibernation in Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were all...

  19. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al-Qayoudhi; Hanan Al-Kindi; Nabil Meki; Amal Al-Maani

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hos...

  20. Maintenance of dominance status is necessary for resistance to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Bader, Lauren R.; Clinard, Catherine T.; Gerhard, Danielle M; Gross, Sonya E.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Resilience is an active process that involves a discrete set of neural substrates and cellular mechanisms and enables individuals to avoid some of the negative consequences of extreme stress. We have previously shown that dominant individuals show less stress-induced changes in behavior compared to subordinates using a conditioned defeat model in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). To rule out pre-existing differences between dominants and subordinates, we examined whether 14 days of...

  1. Daidzin and daidzein suppress free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search ...

  2. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, Wing Ming; Klyosov, Anatole A; Vallee, Bert L.

    1997-01-01

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation betwe...

  3. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-01-01

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetald...

  4. Effect of aging on brain respiration and carbohydrate metabolism of Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J H; Parmacek, M S; Patel-Mandlik, K

    1975-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were used to study the effect of aging on brain slice respiration and metabolism. Young animals (average age 8 months) and old animals (average age 18 months) were incubated under standard conditions with the following parameters being measured: oxygen uptake, 14CO2 production, glucose utilization, lactate and pyruvate formation. No differences were found in the two groups. It is still very likely that subtle differences exist but can only be documented under conditions of metabolic stress.

  5. Getting to Negotiations in Syria: The Shadow of the Future and the Syrian Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    they were held simultaneously with, or after, a major donor’s conference to gather pledges for postconflict reconstruction and a meeting of the Secu...guarantee the peace and provide resources for reconstruction , they Getting to Negotiations in Syria The Shadow of the Future and the Syrian Civil War Paul D...promising a peacekeeping and reconstruction force that will start after they have agreed to peace. Background The civil war in Syria war grew out of

  6. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  7. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  8. Systemic violence against Syrian refugee women and the myth of effective intrapersonal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmine, Rola; Moughalian, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Since the uprising in Syria in March 2011, over 4.3 million Syrians have fled to neighboring countries. Over a million have sought refuge in Lebanon, constituting almost a quarter of the Lebanese population and becoming the largest refugee population per capita in the world. With inequitable health coverage being a longstanding problem in Lebanon, Syrian refugee women's health, and specifically their sexual and reproductive health, is disproportionately affected. An increase in gender-based violence and early marriage, a lack of access to emergency obstetric care, limited access to contraception, forced cesarean sections, and high cost of healthcare services, all contribute to poor sexual and reproductive health. In this commentary, we conceptualize violence against Syrian refugee women using the ecological model, exploring the intersections of discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, while critiquing interventions that focus solely on the intrapersonal level and ignore the role of microsystemic, exosystemic, and macrosystemic factors of negative influence. These social determinants of health supersede the individual realm of health behavior, and hinder women in taking decisions about their sexual and reproductive health.

  9. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  10. Evaluation of impact of exposure of Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites on human intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; He, Gui-Xin; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2012-08-01

    Sudan azo dyes are banned for food usage in most countries, but they are illegally used to maintain or enhance the color of food products due to low cost, bright staining, and wide availability of the dyes. In this report, we examined the toxic effects of these azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on 11 prevalent human intestinal bacterial strains. Among the tested bacteria, cell growth of 2, 3, 5, 5, and 1 strains was inhibited by Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red, respectively. At the tested concentration of 100 μM, Sudan I and II inhibited growth of Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus rhamnosus with decrease of growth rates from 14 to 47%. Sudan II also affected growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, C. perfringens, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Peptostreptococcus magnus was affected by Sudan III and IV with decrease in growth rates from 11 to 67%. C. perfringens was the only strain in which growth was affected by Para Red with 47 and 26% growth decreases at 6 and 10 h, respectively. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a common metabolite of the dyes, was capable of inhibiting growth of most of the tested bacteria with inhibition rates from 8 to 46%. However, the other metabolites of the dyes had no effect on growth of the bacterial strains. The dyes and their metabolites had less effect on cell viability than on cell growth of the tested bacterial strains. Clostridium indolis and Clostridium ramosum were the only two strains with about a 10 % decrease in cell viability in the presence of Sudan azo dyes. The present results suggested that Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites potentially affect the human intestinal bacterial ecology by selectively inhibiting some bacterial species, which may have an adverse effect on human health.

  11. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Also Known... Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a Specially... determine that the entity known as Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan, also known as Ansaru,...

  12. Human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: how can we prevent a new epidemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Ruiz-Postigo

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in South Sudan. It is a review of the available data, interventions over time, and current reports on the status of HAT in South Sudan. Since 2006, control interventions and treatments providing services for sleeping sickness have been reduced. Access to HAT diagnosis and treatment has been considerably diminished. The current status of control activities for HAT in South Sudan could lead to a new outbreak of the disease unless 1 the remaining competent personnel are used to train younger staff to resume surveillance and treatment in the centers where HAT activities have stopped, and 2 control of HAT continues to be given priority even when the number of cases has been substantially reduced. Failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control and surveillance will increase the risk of a new epidemic. That would cause considerable suffering for the affected population and would be an impediment to the socioeconomic development of South Sudan.

  13. A review of analytical techniques for determination of Sudan I-IV dyes in food matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebane, Riin; Leito, Ivo; Yurchenko, Sergei; Herodes, Koit

    2010-04-23

    Sudan dyes are a family of lipophilic azo dyes, extensively used in industrial and scientific applications but banned for use as food colorants due to their carcinogenicity. Due to the continuing illicit use of Sudan dyes as food colorants their determination in different food matrices--especially in different chilli and tomato sauces and related products--has during the recent years received increasing attention all over the world. This paper critically reviews the published determination methods of Sudan I-IV dyes. LC-UV-vis and LC-MS are the dominating methods for analysis of Sudan I-IV dyes. Sudan dyes are usually found in food at mg kg(-1) levels at which it may be necessary to use a preconcentration step in order to attain the desired detection limits. Liquid-solid extraction is the dominating sample preparation procedure. In recent years it has been supplemented by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Various solid phase extraction types have been used for sample cleanup. The large majority of works use conventional C18 columns and conventional LC eluents. Traditionally the UV-vis absorbance detection has been the most frequently used. In the recent years MS detection is applied more and more often as it offers more reliable identification possibilities.

  14. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes.

  15. Conflicts in the Horn of Africa and their Consequences on Sudan's Stability and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfatih Abdullahi Abdel Salam

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflicts in the Horn of Africa have been raging in that region for the last forty years with tragic consequences for human life and for economic advancement. These conflicts have three different, but overlapping dimensions: the intrastate, the interstate, and the global levels. The conflicts are of a decided relevance for the Sudan, and particularly to the rebellion in the southern Sudan. The lack of security and stability in southern Sudan forced hundreds of thousand southerners into neighbouring countries, especially Ethiopia and Uganda. Likewise, the Sudan hosted hundreds of thousands Eritreans, Ethiopians, and Ugandans caught in the crossfire of their national conflicts. This development not only created a heavy economic burden on these relatively poor and economically underdeveloped communities, but led to strained political relations among governments. The Sudan has deep-seated security concerns emanating from the tragic developments in that part of the world. It is argued that one practical step to defuse the situation is to look for political solutions for essentially political problems. The next step that follows logically from the first step is to establish economic cooperation arrangements with a view to creating a future economic community in that African region.

  16. Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

  17. The role of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viral infections in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, R.E.; Veer, van 't P.; Kadaru, A.M.Y.; Kampman, E.; Khidir, I.M.E.; Fedail, S.S.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Sudan, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high and increasing. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important risk factors of HCC. This study aims to assess the role of HBV and HCV infections in the incidence of HCC in 2 regions of Sudan. A case-control study wa

  18. Method for the Determination of Sudan Dyes in Foods-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Jointly Issued by AQSIQ and SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Sudan Red are the chemosynthesis dyes of series of azo, which are mainly used as coloring additives in manufacturing of some products, such as the wax, the oil-dyes, the petrol, and etc. In the process of food production, Sudan Dyes are banned to be used as food dyes in our country.

  19. Collective representations, discourses of power, and personal agency: three incommensurate histories of a collaborator's rebellion in the colonial Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, G.

    2012-01-01

    Scattered sources left in Sudan, Britain, and some private archives allow the reconstruction of an anti-colonial rebellion in the Sudan's Nuba Mountains, as well as some insights into the manufacture of tailor-made discourses of history mixed with contending mythologies. British Army archives tell a

  20. Ocular disorders among schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushood, A A; Azmat, S; Shariq, M; Khamis, A; Lakho, K A; Jadoon, M Z; Sial, N; Rushood, A A; Kamil, E A

    2013-03-01

    From December 2005 to June 2007, a total screening of all 1418 government primary schools in Khartoum State, Sudan, was performed to estimate ocular problems among children aged 6-15 years. We screened 671,119 children (56.7% males) for significant refractive error and other eye ailments. Ocular problems were found in 20,321 (3.03%) children. The 3 localities with highest ocular pathology were Karary (26.2%), Ummbada (21.0%) and Jabal Awlia (15.7%). The overall prevalence of refractive error was 2.19%. Myopia was found in 10,064 (1.50%) children while 4661 (0.70%) were hyperopic. Other ocular problems included vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vitamin A deficiency, microbial conjunctivitis, strabismus and corneal opacity. Only 288 (0.04%) children were diagnosed with active trachoma: 86.5% of these were from Ummbada locality, on the periphery ofthe State, where transportation facilities are poor and poverty is widespread. Overall, 99% of the eye ailments identified are either treatable or preventable. To reduce these and to achieve the goals of Vision 2020, an effective and efficient school health programme is needed.

  1. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1% was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7% and theft (19.7%. Peers (40.9% were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17. Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences.

  2. Constraints of camel pastoralists in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Abdalatif,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study was conducted between Oct 2005 and Aug 2008 in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan. The objective was to provide knowledge on constraints faced by camel herders, and to identify the solutions as an essential step towards the development of camel herding in this state. A set of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from camel herders. The results showed that, nomadic tribes in the study area (58.8% represented by Lahaween and Rofaah tribes and their dwelling type is tents made from (Hair & wool. Semi nomadic tribes (30.9% represented by Kenana and Rashaida tribes and their dwelling type is cottage made from branches of trees and sorghum stalk and the sedentary tribe (10.3% represented by Shokria tribes and their dwelling type are buildings made from either mud or bricks with cement. There was a high percent of family members who are illiterate. It was clear that the level of provision of most services needed by the herders and owners is relatively very low. The camel owners annually need to sell 5 to 6 camels to feed 100 camels on sorghum stalks in the dry season. The serious livelihood constraints were education, electricity, water supply and veterinary services. More care from the government and non government organizations is recommended.

  3. Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in Sudan, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing and development of an expression microarray platform for liver infection in adenovirus type 5-infected Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Baoling; Toth, Karoly; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Aurora, Rajeev; Wold, William S M

    2015-11-01

    The Syrian golden hamster is an attractive animal for research on infectious diseases and other diseases. We report here the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Syrian hamster transcriptome. We include transcripts from ten pooled tissues from a naïve hamster and one stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Our data set identified 42,707 non-redundant transcripts, representing 34,191 unique genes. Based on the transcriptome data, we generated a custom microarray and used this new platform to investigate the transcriptional response in the Syrian hamster liver following intravenous adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection. We found that Ad5 infection caused a massive change in regulation of liver transcripts, with robust up-regulation of genes involved in the antiviral response, indicating that the innate immune response functions in the host defense against Ad5 infection of the liver. The data and novel platforms developed in this study will facilitate further development of this important animal model.

  5. [Rapid determination of Sudan dyes adulterated in natural paprika red by FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Liu, Ling-ling; Wu, Yan-wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-qin

    2012-04-01

    How to rapidly determine synthesized pigments or dyes adulterated in natural pigments is a difficult problem for food analysts. Natural paprika red is widely used in foods because of its coloration and pharmaceutical effect, but it is sometimes adulterated with Sudan dyes for its poor stability under light or heat treatment. In the present paper, the macro-fingerprint characteristic of infrared spectroscopy was utilized to identify Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red. The strong peaks at 1 621, 1 500 and 751 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra and at the fingerprint region of 753, 684 and 496 cm(-1) in the secondary deriative FTIR spectra were remarkable characteristics for Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red, of which the limit of determination was about 1%.

  6. Preliminary study on some productive and reproductive traits of Saanen goats under Sudan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tag Eldin sabil,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the difference in performance of pure Saanen goats reared in Sudan and Swiss the origin of the animal considering birth weight, twining, puberty, mating age, gestation period, motility rate, milk production and quality. 200 does from Goat Research Centre (GRC at Khartoum were used for the study for three consecutive years (2008-2010. The results show that hot climate (Sudan delayed the reproductive parameters of the goat and increased the mortality rate. On the other hand milk production decreased but no change in the quality was observed. The research concluded that keeping pure Saanen in Sudan is not beneficial and it is recommended to cross the animal with local breeds. Moreover, improve the environment for better performance and welfare of the animals.

  7. Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were collected from two localities in the Sudan: Eddamer in Northern Sudan and Wad-Medani in Central Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, 49.6 % of 123 ticks examined were infected with Theileria and the mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (i.e. the number of infected acini / number of infected ticks. At Wad-Medani, 8.6 % of 162 ticks were infected and the mean intensity of infection was 7.9. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities. When adult H. a. anatolicum were applied onto two susceptible calves, both animals developed the severe form of theileriosis.

  8. Molecular identification of different Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological aspects of sheep piroplasmosis in Sudan are poorly studied, and further investigations using sensitive and precise techniques are required. In this study, the Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to detect and simultaneously differentiate between Theileria and Babesia species. DNA was extracted from blood collected on filter paper (n=219) from apparently healthy sheep from six different geographical localities in Sudan. Results indicated that Theileria ovis (88.6%), T. separata (20.1%), T. lestoquardi (16.4%) and T. annulata (16.4%) DNA could be detected in the blood samples. Single and mixed Theileria infections were detected in 74 (33.8%) and 124 (56.6%) respectively and T. ovis being the most prevalent species in the country. T. ovis and T. separata were reported for the first time in sheep in Sudan.

  9. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  10. Patient's medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia: Are we doing well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  12. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  13. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  14. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  15. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana and Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Michela; Durand, Patrick; Menard, Didier; Legrand, Eric; Picot, Stéphane; Nour, Bakri; Davidyants, Vladimir; Santi, Flavia; Severini, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphic genetic markers and especially microsatellite analysis can be used to investigate multiple aspects of the biology of Plasmodium species. In the current study, we characterized 7 polymorphic microsatellites in a total of 281 Plasmodium vivax isolates to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax populations from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana, and Armenia. All four parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-32 alleles per locus. Mean genetic diversity values was 0.83, 0.79, 0.78 and 0.67 for Madagascar, French Guiana, Sudan, and Armenia, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between all four populations was observed.

  17. The state of emergency care in the Republic of the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Hassan A. A-Rahman; Gabrielle A. Jacquet

    2014-01-01

    Sudan is one of the largest African countries, covering an area of 1.9 million km2—approximately one fifth of the geographic area of the United States. The population is 30 million people, the majority of whom (68%) live in rural areas, as compared with the sub-Saharan African average of approximately 62%. Sudan is considered a lower-middle income country—with 47% of the population living below the poverty line and a gross domestic product (GDP) of US $62 billion in 2010. In addition to exces...

  18. The politics of language planning in the Sudan: the case of the Naivasha language policy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhay, Ashraf K

    2008-01-01

    The National Congress Party (NCP), representing the government of the Sudan, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed key peace protocols on the 26th May 2004 in the Kenyan town of Naivasha. The Protocol on Power–sharing contains a significant section on language policy. Having a language policy interwoven within the very discoursal fabric of the Protocol on Power–sharing is an arena of intense power struggle between the south and the north. Indeed, it ha...

  19. Application of Standard Penetration Test(SPT)in Hydro-power Projects in Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang xiaoqiang; Wanglei

    2010-01-01

    For the Past two years,our institute has accomplished the Geo-technical investigation of Kajbar,Shereik,Sabaloka,Dal,Dagash,and Mograt Hydro-power Project etc.in Republic of Sudan.Based on the experiences in Dagash Hydro-power Project,this article elaborates on the operation & application of SPT in above mentioned 6projects and points out the differences from domestic operation of the test,by which,we hope to contribute to the sharing and communication of knowledge.[Kew Words]Sudan,Dam,Standard Penetration Test(SPT),differences.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of Sudan Blue II in environmental samples after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre Unsal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure coupled to spectrophotometry is described for the determination of the trace levels of Sudan Blue II. Analytical parameters, such as pH, volume of extraction solvent (carbon tetrachloride, volume of dispersant (ethanol, volume of sample, and extraction time, were optimized. Matrix effects were also investigated. Preconcentration factor was found to be 200. Detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD were 0.55 µg L-1 and 3.9%, respectively. The procedure was successfully used for the determination of trace levels of Sudan Blue II in food, ink, antifreeze, and industrial waste-water samples.

  1. Syrian China Town: Ample Opportunities Ready for China-Middle East Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Syria's first China Town is situated in Addla Free Zone, Damascus. It is sanctioned by Syrian Ministry of Economy, recognized by China Embassy in Syria and supported by the Syria Government departments.Nowadays, china Town(first phase project) covers l0000sq. meters, where contains l00-more independent shops, storages and relevant establishment, etc.. The total investment is US$6.7 million. In September,China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mr. Wu Peiqing, General Manager of China Town, the follows are his answer.

  2. Detecting overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys based on skinfold thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bachir Mahfouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide baseline and reference data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys using skin-fold thickness measurements and deuterium dilution (DD as a reference method. The sample of 2470 healthy Syrian 18- to 19-year-old boys were enrolled in this study. SFTs were measured at the biceps (B, triceps (T, subscapular (SI and suprailiac locations (SS were done and validated using the DD technique as a reference method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the Σ2 limb SFT (T+B, Σ2 trunk SFT (SI+SS, Σ4 SFT (T+B+SI+SS and Log Σ4 SFT for defining overweight and obesity. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys, based on biceps SFT, triceps SFT, subscapular SFT, suprailiac SFT, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT, logarithm Σ4 SFT, and DDT were 35.3%, 32%, 31.6%, 14.8%, 32.9%, 26.6%, 28.1%, 24.1%, 46.5%, respectively. Strongly positive correlation was found between SFT and total body fat in adolescents. For diagnosing overweight on the basis of Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT, we propose the following cut-off points: 17.25 mm, 23.50 mm, 39.25 mm and 1.60, respectively. To predict obesity, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT threshold were increased to 23.25 mm, 32.50 mm, 55.25 and 1.75, respectively. Basing on SFT clearly leads to underestimates of the prevalence of weight problems among young boys. SFT measurement screen missed 11.2 to 31.7% of overall overweight and obesity cases.

  3. War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, Samer

    2013-04-12

    Social media introduce pivotal changes to communication between individuals, organizations and communities. A clear example of the power of social media is the spread of the revolutionary outbreaks in the Arabic countries during 2011, where people used Facebook, YouTube and Skype to communicate, organise meetings and protest actions. Here I report how Doctor-Activists use these social media as an alarm system for 'war disease' outbreaks in the Syrian Spring. Social media are used as an alarm system to attract the attention of international organizations, which should assume their responsibilities and play their part in controlling the outbreak of such war diseases.

  4. Construction of cosmid genomic libraries for the normal and myopathic Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, J D; Jandreski, M A; Liew, J; Sole, M J; Liew, C C

    1987-11-01

    Cosmid genomic libraries from both normal and myopathic Syrian hamsters have been constructed. MboI was used to generate 35- to 50-kilobase DNA fragments which were isolated from a 5-25% NaCl gradient. The 35- to 50-kilobase DNA fragments were ligated to the cosmid vector pCV108 and packaged into Escherichia coli DK1. Approximately 3 X 10(5) - 4 X 10(5) clones were obtained per microgram of ligated DNA. Thirteen clones have been isolated from 2 X 10(5) colonies using a cardiac myosin heavy chain clone as a probe. Restriction maps of two of these clones are presented here.

  5. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  6. Maternal near-miss in a rural hospital in Sudan

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    Adam Gamal K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of maternal near-miss is a useful complement to the investigation of maternal mortality with the aim of meeting the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal. The present study was conducted to investigate the frequency of near-miss events, to calculate the mortality index for each event and to compare the socio-demographic and obstetrical data (age, parity, gestational age, education and antenatal care of the near-miss cases with maternal deaths. Methods Near-miss cases and events (hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders, anemia and dystocia, maternal deaths and their causes were retrospectively reviewed and the mortality index for each event was calculated in Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan over a 2-year period, from January 2008 to December 2010. Disease-specific criteria were applied for these events. Results There were 9578 deliveries, 205 near-miss cases, 228 near-miss events and 40 maternal deaths. Maternal near-miss and maternal mortality ratio were 22.1/1000 live births and 432/100 000 live births, respectively. Hemorrhage accounted for the most common event (40.8%, followed by infection (21.5%, hypertensive disorders (18.0%, anemia (11.8% and dystocia (7.9%. The mortality index were 22.2%, 10.0%, 10.0%, 8.8% and 2.4% for infection, dystocia, anemia, hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders, respectively. Conclusion There is a high frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality at the level of this facility. Therefore maternal health policy needs to be concerned not only with averting the loss of life, but also with preventing or ameliorating maternal-near miss events (hemorrhage, infections, hypertension and anemia at all care levels including primary level.

  7. Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience.

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    Eshraga A Ezaldeen

    Full Text Available It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3% had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required.

  8. Oral health of visually impaired schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI) (44.6%)]. Two calibrated dentists examined the participants (n=79) using DMFT/dmft, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), dental care index, and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) index. Oral health related quality of life (C-OIDP) was administered to 82 schoolchildren. Results Caries experience was 46.8%. Mean DMFT (age≥12, n=33) was 0.4 ± 0.7 (SiC 1.6), mean dmft (age<12, n=46) was 1.9 ±2.8 (SiC 3.4), mean OHIS 1.3 ± 0.9. Care Index was zero. One fifth of the children suffered TDI (19%). Almost one third (29%) of the 11–13 year old children reported an oral impact on their daily performances. A quarter of the schoolchildren (25.3%) required an urgent treatment need. Analysis showed that children with partial visual impairment (PVI) were 6.3 times (adjusted) more likely to be diagnosed with caries compared to children with complete visual impairment (CVI), and children with caries experience were 1.3 times (unadjusted) more likely to report an oral health related impact on quality of life. Conclusions Visually impaired schoolchildren are burdened with oral health problems, especially caries. Furthermore, the 11-13 year olds' burden with caries showed a significant impact on their quality of life. PMID:23866155

  9. LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION IN THE IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM IN SUDAN

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    R.M. ELZAKI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of the 1990’s a significant decline in the areas sown to various crops and a sharp drop in productivity have been witnessed in Sudan's irrigated agriculture. At the same time feed shortages formed a main constraint on livestock production in the country. Under such a situation integration of fodder production activities within the existing crop rotations in irrigated agriculture seems plausible. Based on an optimization economic model, namely linear programming, this paper aims at investigating such prospects. The objective function in the basic model was to maximize farm returns. The analysis was based on primary data collected in the irrigated Gezira Scheme, generated through a comprehensive field survey in addition to supportive secondary data. The results showed the feasibility of introducing the fodder legume Dolichos lablab in the rotation for various reasons, such as no fertilizer needs and low demands for water and labour. A number of scenarios analyses of fodder-introducing were conducted around the results of the basic model run. All scenarios demonstrated tangible increases in farm returns, indicating that fodder cultivation would be profitable. Farmers’ income would be enhanced, either directly through fodder returns or indirectly by raising livestock products. Furthermore, fodder introduction would be conducive to reducing irrigation water requirements. Under the present and suggested changes in resource availability tomato, sorghum and cotton production would yield superior profitability to that of wheat, groundnut and onions. With the optimal production plan returns were higher than in the present situation by about 24%, while water requirement was 32% less.

  10. Uranium recovery from Uro area phosphate ore, Nuba Mountains, Sudan

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    Abdelmajid A. Adam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a laboratory scale to recover uranium from Uro area phosphate ore in the eastern part of Nuba Mountains in Sudan. Phosphate ore samples were collected, and analyzed for uranium abundance. The results showed that the samples contain a significant concentration of uranium with an average of 310.3 μg/g, which is 2.6 times higher than the world average of phosphate. The green phosphoric acid obtained from the samples was found to contain uranium in the range of 186–2049 μg/g, with an average of 603.3 μg/g, and about 98% of uranium content of the phosphate ore was rendered soluble in the phosphoric acid. An extraction process using 25% tributylphosphate, followed by stripping process using 0.5 M sodium carbonate reported that more than 98% of uranium in the green phosphoric acid exists as uranyl tricarbonate complex, moreover, sodic decomposition using 50% sodium hydroxide showed that about 98% of the uranium was precipitated as sodium diuranate concentrate that is known as the yellow cake (Na2U2O7. Further purification and calcinations of the yellow cake led to the formation of the orange powder of uranium trioxide (UO3. The chemical analysis of the obtained uranium concentrates; yellow cake and uranium trioxide proved their nuclear purity and that they meet the standard commercial specification. The obtained results proved that uranium from Uro phosphate ore was successfully recovered as uranium trioxide with an overall recovery percentage of 93%.

  11. Why did Arabia separate from Africa ?

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    Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.; Daniel, J. M.; Jolivet, L.

    2003-04-01

    We have performed 3-D scaled lithospheric experiments to investigate the role of the gravitational force exerted by subduction slab on the deformation of the subducting plate itself. Experiments have been constructed using a dense silicone putty plate, to simulate a thin viscous lithosphere, floated in glucose syrup, simulating the upper mantle. We show different plate configuration: (i) subduction of a uniform oceanic plate, (ii) subduction of oceanic-continental plate system, and (iii) subduction of a more complex oceanic-continental system simulating the asymmetric Africa-Eurasia system at the beginning of the Tertiary. Each model has been performed including or not the presence of circular weak zone inside the subducting plate simulating the near-surface weakening effect of a plume activity. Our results show that a subducting plate can deform in its interior only if the velocity field generated by the slab varies laterally along the subduction zone, i.e. by the asymmetrical entrance of continental material at trench. The result of this study can be used to analyze the formation of the Arabian plate. We found that intraplate stresses, similar to the one that generated the Africa-Arabia break-up, can be related to the Neogene evolution of the northern convergent margin of the African plate where a lateral change from collision (Mediterranean and Bitlis) to active subduction (Makran) has been described. Second, intraplate stress and strain localization are favored by the presence of a weakness zone, such as the one generated by the Afar plume, producing a pattern of extensional deformation belts resembling to the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system.

  12. Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan The paper extends the recent literature on collapsing exchange roles and balance of payment crises to the case when currency inconvertibility gives rise to the emergence of an "illegal" black market. The presence of the black market generates indirect speculative attacks on the official reserves because, due to inconvertibility, agents cannot directly buy official reserves. The paper derives several c...

  13. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees

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    Sezen Koçarslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. Materials and Methods: At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients′ medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Results: Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years, consisting of 32 males (59.3% and 22 females (40.7%, were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%. The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%. Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. Conclusion: CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  14. Immunosuppression enhances oncolytic adenovirus replication and antitumor efficacy in the Syrian hamster model.

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    Thomas, Maria A; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Toth, Karoly; Sagartz, John E; Phillips, Nancy J; Wold, William S M

    2008-10-01

    We recently described an immunocompetent Syrian hamster model for oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) that permits virus replication in tumor cells as well as some normal tissues. This model allows exploration of interactions between the virus, tumor, normal organs, and host immune system that could not be examined in the immunodeficient or nonpermissive animal models previously used in the oncolytic Ad field. Here we asked whether the immune response to oncolytic Ad enhances or limits antitumor efficacy. We first determined that cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in the Syrian hamster and that CP alone had no effect on tumor growth. Importantly, we found that the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic Ads was significantly enhanced in immunosuppressed animals. In animals that received virus therapy plus immunosuppression, significant differences were observed in tumor histology, and in many cases little viable tumor remained. Notably, we also determined that immunosuppression allowed intratumoral virus levels to remain elevated for prolonged periods. Although favorable tumor responses can be achieved in immunocompetent animals, the rate of virus clearance from the tumor may lead to varied antitumor efficacy. Immunosuppression, therefore, allows sustained Ad replication and oncolysis, which leads to substantially improved suppression of tumor growth.

  15. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

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    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  16. Molecular characterization of Syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

    2012-02-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the Near East and North African countries. This tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "Bayoud" disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. In this study, 18 Syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs. A PCR strategy that employs plasmid-like DNAs-specific primer pair was used. These primers amplify a product of either 373-bp or 265-bp that corresponds to the S-(Bayoud-susceptible) or the R-plasmid (Bayoud-resistant), respectively. Generated data revealed that only six cultivars ('Medjool', 'Ashrasi', 'Gish Rabi', 'Khineze', and yellow- and red-'Kabkab') have the S-plasmid, suggesting their susceptibility to the fusariosis, while the remaining 12 cultivars and the four male trees contain the R-plasmid, suggesting their resistance to the fusariosis. The PCR process applied here has been proved efficient for the rapid screening for the presence of the S and R DNAs in Syrian date palm. PCR markers developed in this study could be useful for the screening of date palm lines growing in the field. The availability of such diagnostic tool for plasmid characterization in date palm would also be of great importance in establishing propagation and breeding programs of date palm in Syria.

  17. WHY HAS THE SYRIAN KOBANI ESCAPED FROM ISIL? (MY REVIEW ROM THE EVENT

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    Amin DERHAMI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the problem of covering by mass media the military events of September-October 2014 in the area of Kobani located on the Syrian-Turkish border, shows the ideological significance of the city for the Kurdish population. The article considers the peculiarities of interaction between the Iraqi and Syrian Kurdistan and Turkey's position in this matter. The author presents the information obtained by him personally and directly from the event in the process of his journalistic activities. According to a source of the Fox News TV channel, «Seizing Kobani can be an important victory for the ISIL; in this case there will be a serious concern that the Sunni military group is advancing ahead despite the air strikes made by the coalition,» said Fox News. Analyzing the impact of information processes on the course of the modern armed conflict on the example of the events in Kobani, we can conclude that political, ideological and geopolitical views are formed among a large part of society solely on the basis of telecommunication. Mass media in modern society play not only an auxiliary role, as in the past, but become a powerful independent factor that can make a strong impact on the historical destiny of the people. 

  18. Seropositivity of Hepatitis B and C among Syrian Multi-transfused Patients with Hemoglobinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaji, Widad; Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Blood transfusion is a lifesaving therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies. However, the need of frequent transfusion carries the risk of transmitting hepatitis B and C infections which are intermediately prevalent in Syria. Despite screening blood donations with sensitive methods, the risk of transmission is still present when infectious blood is donated within the window period. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of HBV and HCV seropositivity, and its association with multiple transfusions among Syrian hemoglobinopathies patients. Materials and Methods HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV were tested for 159 Syrian multi-transfused patients by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results Thirty-nine of 159 (24.5%) multi-transfused patients were HBsAg/anti-HBc or anti-HCV positive, 26 (16%) of which never visited the dentist, and they either tested postsurgically negative for HBsAg and anti-HCV or never underwent a surgical procedure. On the contrary of anti-HCV seropositivity, HBsAg/anti-HBc seropositivity was significantly associated with the number of blood transfusions, number of blood units and age (P < 0.001). Conclusion About one-sixth of our patients most likely acquired HBV/HCV infection via blood transfusion. Administering HBV vaccine, ensuring the immune status, and monitoring hepatitis markers might considerably minimize the incidence of viral hepatitis among multi-transfused patients. PMID:27648209

  19. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

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    Ceren Acarturk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective: Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method: Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15 or wait-list control (n=14. The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64. The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92. Conclusion: The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost- effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed.

  20. Response of gut microbiota to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were allocated to either torpid, fed active, or fasted active groups. Hibernation was successfully induced by maintaining darkness at 4 degrees C. Flow cytometry analysis of cecal bacteria showed that 96-h fasting reduced the total gut bacteria. This period of fasting also reduced the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the cecal contents. In contrast, total bacterial numbers and concentrations of short chain fatty acids were unaffected by hibernation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that fasting and hibernation modulated the cecal microbiota. Analysis of 16S rRNA clone library and species-specific real-time quantitative PCR showed that the class Clostridia predominated in both active and torpid hamsters and that populations of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, were increased by fasting but not by hibernation. From these results, we conclude that the gut microbiota responds differently to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

  1. Pineal melatonin is a circadian time-giver for leptin rhythm in Syrian hamsters

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    Ibtissam eChakir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland may affect central and peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known involvement in the control of seasonal physiology. The Syrian hamster is a photoperiodic species, which displays gonadal atrophy and increased adiposity when adapted to short (winter-like photoperiods. Here we investigated whether pineal melatonin secreted at night can impact daily rhythmicity of metabolic hormones and glucose in that seasonal species. For that purpose, daily variations of plasma leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose were analyzed in pinealectomized hamsters, as compared to sham-operated controls kept under very long (16h light/08h dark or short photoperiods (08h light/16h dark. Daily rhythms of leptin under both long and short photoperiods were blunted by pinealectomy. Furthermore, the phase of cortisol rhythm under a short photoperiod was advanced by 5.6 h after pinealectomy. Neither plasma insulin, nor blood glucose displays robust daily rhythmicity, even in sham-operated hamsters. Pinealectomy, however, totally reversed the decreased levels of insulin under short days and the photoperiodic variations in mean levels of blood glucose (i.e., reduction and increase in long and short days, respectively. Together, these findings in Syrian hamsters show that circulating melatonin at night drives the daily rhythmicity of plasma leptin, participates in the phase control of cortisol rhythm and modulates glucose homeostasis according to photoperiod-dependent metabolic state.

  2. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  3. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Intakhab Alam

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…

  4. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  5. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  6. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  7. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  8. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  9. Educational R&D in Saudi Arabia: An Ethnomethodological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Paul

    Educational development in Saudi Arabia is closely related to Moslem religious belief. A review of the socio/cultural behavior based upon Saudi religious belief can provide insight to educators on how to make educational and research activities in developing nations more relevant to people with a non-Western frame of reference. Among muslims,…

  10. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  11. Strategic Importance of Saudi Arabia - Neither A Friend Nor Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    civilizations to include Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, Rome , Byzantium, India, China, and Persia to mention just a few.2 The Koran, or book of faith for... catapulted the United States’ relationship with Saudi Arabia into the limelight. Many Americans around the country, to include influential members

  12. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  13. Mineral deposits in western Saudi Arabia; a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Greenwood, William R.; Worl, Ronald G.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral deposits in Saudi Arabia include a variety of deposits which were formed in many geologic environments. These include magmatic and late magmatic deposits in igneous masses, contact metamorphic deposits along the margins of igneous bodies, and stratiform sulfide deposits and veins. Notable deposits of sedimentary origin include deposits of iron oxides and phosphate.

  14. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

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    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  15. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population.

  16. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse them

  17. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  18. Reconstruction of head-to-knee voxel model for Syrian adult male of average height and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashira Taleb

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Comparisons with SAFs data of Zubal model accentuated the fact that the organ masses and the specific anatomy have a significant effect on SAFs. SyrMan model can be considered as the first model built in the Middle East region, and it is an important step toward the Syrian Reference Man.

  19. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  20. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  1. 8 CFR 1245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 106-378. 1245.20 Section 1245.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.20 Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility. An alien is eligible to apply to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the...

  2. 8 CFR 245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 106-378. 245.20 Section 245.20 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility. An alien is eligible to apply to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria;...

  3. Lower respiratory tract tumours in Syrian golden hamsters after intratracheal instillations of diethylnitrosamine alone and with ferric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Emmelot, P.; Vossenaar, T.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 37 tumours of the lower respiratory tract (bronchi, bronchioli and alveoli) was observed in 62 male and female Syrian golden hamsters following 15 weekly intratracheal instillations of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) alone. The number of tumours in this segment of the respiratory system was 3 t

  4. Vasopressin immunoreactivity and release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, EA; Oklejewicz, M; Jansen, K; Daan, S; Gerkema, MP

    2002-01-01

    Despite the prominent role of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in studies of circadian rhythms, there are no data available on the temporal dynamics of the neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP), a major output system of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We studied the hamster SCN-AVP system in vi

  5. E-learning Sudan, formal learning for out-of-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, H.; Badri, A.; Telford, R.; Hulst, A. van der; Joolingen, W. van

    2016-01-01

    E-Learning Sudan (ELS) is a custom-built computer/tablet game that provides alternative learning opportunities to Sudanese children who are excluded from education. Unique in ELS is that children can learn mathematics, in their own remote village, without a teacher. This research study assessed the

  6. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Andrew S; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations.

  7. South Sudan: Stakeholders' Views of Technical and Vocational Education and Training and a Framework for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Dominic Odwa; McKague, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of South Sudan, recently emerging from the longest civil war in contemporary African history, has set goals towards post-conflict reconstruction in many areas of social services. However, the educational infrastructure continues to struggle, and many stakeholders in government and international and local organisations are not…

  8. First report of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus antigen from pneumonic cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intisar Kamil Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expected role of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV in pneumonia in cattle, cattle lungs (n=242 showing signs of pneumonia were collected from slaughter houses of three different localities located at Northern, Central and Western Sudan during 2010–2013. The collected samples were tested for the presence of BVDV antigen using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, and Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT. Twenty six (10.7% out of 242 samples were found to be positive for BVDV. Positive results were seen in all the three studied areas, with the highest prevalence (16.7%; n=4/24 at Gezira State in Central Sudan. BVDV genome could be detected in all ELISA positive samples. The results indicated the existence of BVDV infection in cattle in different areas in Sudan, and its possible association with respiratory infections in cattle. Analysis using BLAST indicated that the sequence was identical to the previously reported BVDV-1 (GenBank accession AF220247.1.; nucleotide A was found in our study at position 9 of our sequence, whereas T was present instead in the reference virus. This is the first report of detecting BVDV antigen, genome, and its sequence analysis collected from cattle lungs in Sudan.

  9. The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  10. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in eastern Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resource infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  11. Reconstructing Southern Sudan in the post-war era : challenges and prospects of 'Quick Impact Programmes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2004-01-01

    This report gives a personal assessment of the local needs of the Southern Sudanese population in the period of societal reconstruction envisaged in the likely event of a meaningful peace agreement being realized in 2004 between the SPLM/A and the government of Sudan. In particular, the report exami

  12. Experimental and ab initio DFT calculated Raman Spectrum of Sudan I, a Red Dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Liu, Chuan;

    2011-01-01

    . Comparison was made with other azo dyes in the literature on natural, abundant plant pigments. The results show that there is a possibility in foodstuff analysis to distinguish Sudan I from other dyes by using Raman spectroscopy with more than one laser wavelength for resonance enhancement of the different...

  13. Application of Rapid Drilling Optimization Technology in P Oilfield of Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Mingzhang; Qi Mingming; Li Ying

    2009-01-01

    @@ P Oilfield is situated in the southeast of Sudan. Up to 100 wells have been completed since 2003. Due to the complex formation lithology, the oilfield at the initial stage of development encountered several problems,involving hole shrinkage, hole instability, well deviation,lost circulation, bit bailing, blockage during tripping and large section of reaming.

  14. Literacy in the Southern Sudan: A Case Study of Variables Affecting Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J. Ronayne

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Local Languages Literacy Project in the Southern Sudan; delineates the most important educational, socioeconomic, and linguistic variables affecting the success of large-scale literacy programs in Africa; and questions the widely held assumption that indigenous language literacy is essential to subsequent literacy in the prestige…

  15. Multi-Trial Guruswami–Sudan Decoding for Generalised Reed–Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Zeh, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An iterated refinement procedure for the Guruswami–Sudan list decoding algorithm for Generalised Reed–Solomon codes based on Alekhnovich’s module minimisation is proposed. The method is parametrisable and allows variants of the usual list decoding approach. In particular, finding the list...

  16. ""Sudan Red I"" and China's Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI

    2005-01-01

    FIVE days after the UK Food Standards Agency announced the recall of food contaminated with the carcinogenic dye Sudan Red I, China's food safety authorities demanded a comprehensive examination of all domestically produced food. Evidence suggests that Cbina's Food Safety Administration acts in accordance with international practices, and has the ability to deal with emergencies.

  17. Investigation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in Sudan using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa H. Halfawi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This seroprevalence study was carried out to detect anti Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV antibodies in goat sera in five States in the Sudan during 2009 and 2010. Materials and Methods: In this study, four hundred and thirty two sera samples collected from five States in the Sudan were screened for anti-CAE virus antibodies using a commercial competitive ELISA (cELISA kit. Results: Out of 432 samples, 25 (5.8% tested positive using ELISA. The highest prevalence was recorded in El-gazira State (19%, whereas in Kassala State the prevalence was 10.7%, Khartoum State (0.92% and no positive antibodies were found in Northern and River Nile. Conclusion: The information obtained in this study showed that the disease spread to other states in the Sudan beside Khartoum state. Therefore, further epizootiological investigation on CAEV and Maedi Visna Virus at the country level is important to monitor its spread and determine its economic impact in the Sudan, while better control on imported animals for genetic improvement must be instituted. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 558-562

  18. Civic Education and Peacebuilding: Examples from Iraq and Sudan. Special Report 254

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Daniel H.; Bishai, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, the United States Institute of Peace developed several civic education programs for Iraq and Sudan as part of broader efforts to promote postconflict stability and development and help prevent a return to violence. This report describes those programs after first examining the conceptual bases for civic education and how…

  19. The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Satti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  20. A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

  1. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  2. Nitrite in processed meat products in Khartoum, Sudan and dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, Aziza Hussein Bakheit; Mustafa, Nazik Eltayeb Musa; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from locally processed meat in Khartoum, Sudan was estimated and compared to established safety levels. For this purpose, 90 locally processed meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets and analysed for nitrite levels according to the British standard 1992 protocol and 3

  3. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Azman, AS; Rumunu, J; Abubakar, A.; West, H.; Ciglenecki, I; Helderman, T; Wamala, JF; Vázquez, OR; W Perea; Sack, DA; Legros, D; Martin, S; Lessler, J; Luquero, FJ

    2016-01-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations.

  4. They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

    2013-01-01

    This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

  5. The impact of ICT in public and private universities in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of ICT in public and private Sudanese universities. We verify the first and third hypotheses that the use of ICT facilitates connection, networks and collaboration within public and private universities in Sudan, with local, regional and international institutions. We

  6. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  7. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  9. Enzymes oxidizing the azo dye 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol (Sudan I) and their contribution to its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborova, Marie; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Hodek, Petr; Martinek, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    Sudan I [1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthol, C.I. Solvent Yellow 14] is an industrial dye, which was found as a contaminant in numerous foods in several European countries. Because Sudan I has been assigned by the IARC as a Category 3 carcinogen, the European Union decreed that it cannot be utilized as food colorant in any European country. Sudan I induces the malignancies in liver and urinary bladder of rats and mice. This carcinogen has also been found to be a potent mutagen, contact allergen and sensitizer, and exhibits clastogenic properties. The oxidation of Sudan I increases its toxic effects and leads to covalent adducts in DNA. Identification of enzymatic systems that contribute to Sudan I oxidative metabolism to reactive intermediates generating such covalent DNA adducts on the one hand, and to the detoxification of this carcinogen on the other, is necessary to evaluate susceptibility to this toxicant. This review summarizes the identification of such enzymes and the molecular mechanisms of oxidation reactions elucidated to date. Human and animal cytochrome P450 (CYP) and peroxidases are capable of oxidizing Sudan I. Of the CYP enzymes, CYP1A1 is most important both in Sudan I detoxification and its bio-activation. Ring-hydroxylated metabolites and a dimer of this carcinogen were found as detoxification products of Sudan I generated with CYPs and peroxidases, respectively. Oxidative bio-activation of this azo dye catalyzed by CYPs and peroxidases leads to generation of proximate genotoxic metabolites (the CYP-catalyzed formation of the benzenediazonium cation and the peroxidase-mediated generation of one-electron oxidation products), which covalently modify DNA both in vitro and in vivo. The predominant DNA adduct generated with the benzenediazonium cation was characterized to be 8-(phenylazo)guanine. The Sudan I radical species mediated by peroxidases reacts with the -NH2 group in (deoxy)guanosine, generating the 4-[(deoxy)guanosin-N(2)-yl]Sudan I product. Sudan I

  10. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bocklitz, Thomas [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Weber, Karina [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Cialla-May, Dana, E-mail: dana.cialla-may@uni-jena.de [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts.

  11. Action of tumor initiators and promoters in the Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.A.; Huberman, E.

    1986-06-01

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay is unique among the rodent fibroblast transformation systems in that it uses normal, diploid cells. Alteration in the control of growth in carcinogen-treated cultures is used to indicate the onset of neoplastic development. An evaluation of the SHE assay for screening carcinogens is reported. Using coded chemicals, the degree of intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with the system was evaluated. Overall, there was a good qualitative correlation between the carcinogenicity of the chemicals and their ability to induce morphological cell transformation. Unfortunately, the low level of response and lack of good dose-response relationships with certain chemical are still major constraints to the use of this system in routine testing. Further consideration needs to be given to developing procedures that select for, or amplify, expression of the transformed phenotype. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Efficacy evaluation of some antibiotics against syrian brucella spp isolates, in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Mazen; Al-Mariri, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonosis in Syria, affecting large numbers of animals and there are an increasing number of cases in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro efficacy of various traditional and new antibiotics against 89 Brucella isolates (isolated from domestic animals) collected from different Syrian regions. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of seventeen antibiotics were determined. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics, whereas sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, doxycycline and tetracycline had a moderate activity. In contrast, moxifloxacin and rifampicin had a low activity, while streptomycin, spiramycin and cephalosporines were ineffective. As a result, we come to the conclusion that a combination between one effective quinolone and doxycycline has a good efficacy against Brucella. Further in vivo studies are necessary to support this suggestion. PMID:24031952

  13. Learned Avoidance in the Male Syrian Hamster: Investigating the Outcome of a Glucocorticoid Antagonist on Reconsolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Haugsnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we used our Conflict Alleyway Apparatus and a glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone, to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in the reconsolidation of learned avoidance in defeated male Syrian hamsters. Subjects were tested for memory deficits 48 hours and 96 hours after the drug/vehicle was administered. It were hypothesized that mifepristone administration would produce memory deficits when the defeat memory had been reactivated, and that this deficit would be present 48 hours and 96 hours after the administration. Prolonged deficits that are dependent upon memory reactivation would suggest that glucocorticoids play a role in reconsolidation of learned avoidance. Our results indicated a strong evidence for learned avoidance after defeat; however, we did not find any significant drug effect.

  14. Regulation of serum amyloid A gene expression in Syrian hamsters by cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Peters, C N; Jestus, J J

    1991-10-01

    Amyloid A (AA) protein is derived from serum amyloid A (SAA) and deposited as beta-pleated sheet fibrils in reactive amyloidosis, a disease that occurs spontaneously in golden Syrian hamsters. The precursor SAA is an acute-phase reactant in many species including hamsters, and in this report we have defined the in vivo kinetic and dosage responses for SAA mRNA accumulation in hamsters following administration of various cytokines. Elevations in levels of hepatic SAA mRNA were documented when the doses of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor were increased. The increase in dosages applied ranged from 2 1/2-fold for interleukin-6 to 10-fold for interleukin-1. SAA transcript levels were highest 8 h following administration of interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor, whereas maximal amounts of SAA-specific mRNA were found 24 h after administration of interleukin-1.

  15. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  16. Modulatory effects of rutin on biochemical and hematological parameters in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Kanashiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit several pharmacological properties, mainly in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we observed that rutin, a known glycosylated flavonoid isolated from Dimorphandra mollis, had a lowering effect on plasma triglyceride levels of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters, but did not change total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, high-fat or rutin supplemented diets showed no immunotoxic effects, since no significant changes were observed on total white blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear cells, as well as on the neutrophil apoptosis degree, when compared to untreated animals. Therefore, rutin seems to be a selective and non-toxic modulator of hypercholesterolemia, which can be promising for the development of new drugs.Os flavonóides possuem diversas propriedades farmacológicas, principalmente nas doenças cardiovasculares e inflamatórias. No presente estudo, observamos que a rutina, um conhecido flavonóide glicosilado isolado da Dimorphandra mollis, diminuiu o nível de triglicerídeos plasmáticos em hamsters Golden Syrian hipercolesterolêmicos sem alterar os níveis de colesterol total e colesterol HDL. Além disso, observamos que dietas hipercolesterolêmicas ou suplementadas com rutina não apresentaram efeito imunotóxico, uma vez que nenhuma alteração significativa foi observada nos leucócitos totais, granulócitos e células mononucleares, bem como no grau de neutrófilos em apoptose, quando comparado com animais não tratados. Portanto, a rutina parece ser um modulador seletivo e não tóxico da hipercolesterolemia, o que pode ser promissor para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos.

  17. Post occupancy evaluation of primary schools in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Sana; Woodcock, Andree

    2012-01-01

    The physical school environment has been shown to be important in helping children fulfill their academic potential and in providing appropriate working conditions for staff. However, few tools have been developed that enable multi stakeholder consultation which takes into account the opinions of young students. In Saudi Arabia there has been widespread investment in schools, but few guidelines have been provided to assist design or continuous evaluation. A Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method was developed and used to evaluate three international primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The methods identified weaknesses in the three schools and differences in responses from the three groups consulted (children, teachers and parents). Conclusions drawn from the study are that greater efforts need to be made to draw together research about how school facilities can support teaching and learning, increase effectiveness and levels of satisfaction. POE, when used in conjunction with checklists could be used as a means of driving up standards of educational facilities.

  18. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

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    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  19. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

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    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  1. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...

  2. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Adminis...

  3. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  4. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Saudi Arabia needs to continue to take steps to exercise oversight of fundraising activities in the Kingdom and Saudi charitable activities abroad...a personal minute to Attorney General in December 2006, Prime Minister Blair wrote “it is in my judgment very clear that the continuation of the SFO...nationwide fundraising campaign under the auspices of the Saudi Committee to Support the Palestinian People in response to Israel’s military

  6. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    position—from one of repeated surpluses to one of actual and projected deficits—rooted in drastic reductions in global market prices for crude oil. Oil... market , its vast wealth, and its global investment posture. Saudi Military Campaigns and Policy in Yemen Saudi Arabia has long exercised a strong role...America, and Saudi officials have appeared committed to preserving and expanding the kingdom’s share of global oil markets , with apparently mixed

  7. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Dynamics of Post-Conflict Political Partnership in Sudan Das Umfassende Friedensabkommen im Sudan und die Dynamik politischer Partnerschaft in der Nachkriegsphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the researches on peace agreements conclude that powersharing arrangements included in these are mostly to the detriment of longterm democratic transformation. The basic argument of these studies is that peace deals consolidate mainly the power of the signatories to the detriment of other major political forces. This article illustrates that, in contrast to many cases, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, which was signed in 2005 between the government of Sudan represented by the ruling party, the National Congress Party (NCP and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A, has led to an important political transformation in state structure as well as in power relations. Although the CPA enhanced the legitimacy of the SPLM and the NCP and consolidated their political domination, it, nevertheless, contributed to a significant political opening for other political forces in the North and in the South. The CPA put an end to the historically exclusive political hegemony of the North. This article focuses on the dynamics of relations between the SPLM and the NCP during the transitional period and illustrates how these dynamics have impacted upon the process of political transformation. Untersuchungen zu Friedensvereinbarungen kommen zumeist zu dem Schluss, dass die enthaltenen Machtteilungsklauseln einer langfristigen demokratischen Transformation abträglich sind. Als wichtigstes Argument wird dabei angeführt, dass Friedensvereinbarungen vor allem die Position der unterzeichnenden Partner stärken – zum Schaden anderer bedeutender politischer Kräfte. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, dass – im Gegensatz zu vielen anderen Fällen – das Umfassende Friedensabkommen (Comprehensive Peace Agreement, CPA, das 2005 von der Regierung des Sudan, repräsentiert durch die Regierungspartei National Congress Party (NCP und die Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A, unterzeichnet wurde, zu einem erheblichen Wandel sowohl

  8. Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Elbadawi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan The paper extends the recent literature on collapsing exchange roles and balance of payment crises to the case when currency inconvertibility gives rise to the emergence of an "illegal" black market. The presence of the black market generates indirect speculative attacks on the official reserves because, due to inconvertibility, agents cannot directly buy official reserves. The paper derives several conditional probability statements regarding the likelihood of successful devaluation as a way to unify the official and black market exchange rates and achieve economic stabilization.

  9. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.

    1995-05-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  11. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers.

  12. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  13. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

  15. MINERALS PROFILE IN PRE-AND POST FED DESERT SHEEP IN THE SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. BABEKER

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the changes in serum minerals profile in desert sheep in Sudan in relation to feed interval; pre feeding (fasting overnight, post feeding (3hrs after feeding. Twenty one yearling unsaturated males of Sudan desert sheep with an average body weight of 31.11kg were used in this study.The serum level of (Cu and Mn was significantly high (P<0.05 in post feeding than pre feeding, while serum level of (Zn was high in pre feeding when compared with the post feeding with percentage of changes amounting for (15%. However the serum level of (Na was significantly (P<0.05 higher during pre feeding than post feeding whereas serum level of (Mg was higher, while serum level of (K was lower during pre feeding than post feeding with percentage of changes (8% and (10%, respectively.

  16. Seroprevalence of East Coast fever in Central Equatoria State, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani L. Marcellino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 in different cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka localities of Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Serum samples were collected from 514 cattle of different age groups. Samples were analysed using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with commercially available polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM ELISA kits. The overall serological prevalence of Theileria parva was 70.8% (364/514. The highest rate of prevalence was observed in Mangalla (91.2% and the lowest in Juba (61.8%, with Terekeka recording 71.8%. Regarding the age groups, older cattle (over four years of age showed a significantly higher rate of prevalence (p>0.001 than calves (below one year of age. The implications of these results in the overall epidemiology of East Coast fever in South Sudan are discussed and possible recommendations for future implementation of disease control measures are outlined.

  17. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for flood forecasting at Dongola Station in the River Nile, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Hag Elsafi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy seasonal rains cause the River Nile in Sudan to overflow and flood the surroundings areas. The floods destroy houses, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, resulting in the displacement of people. This study aimed to forecast the River Nile flow at Dongola Station in Sudan using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a modeling tool and validated the accuracy of the model against actual flow. The ANN model was formulated to simulate flows at a certain location in the river reach, based on flow at upstream locations. Different procedures were applied to predict flooding by the ANN. Readings from stations along the Blue Nile, White Nile, Main Nile, and River Atbara between 1965 and 2003 were used to predict the likelihood of flooding at Dongola Station. The analysis indicated that the ANN provides a reliable means of detecting the flood hazard in the River Nile.

  18. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself.

  19. South Sudan Negotiated Independence: A Critique of African Union’s Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubkar o. Sulaiman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011 as the world's 195th independentState, 54th Member State of the African Union (AU and 209th Federation of InternationalFootball Association member (FIFA marks the final stage of a six year peace agreementending decades of protracted civil war. According to BBC between 1983 and the peaceagreement signed in January 2005, Sudan's civil war took nearly two million lives and leftmillions more displaced. It is reputed as Africa's longest-running civil war. The Sudanesecivil war took roots from its colonial experience, which led to forceful cohabitation ofArabic (North and African (South ethnic groups into a single state.

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of the Spontaneous Volunteer Response to the 2013 Sudan Floods: Changing the Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahari, Amin; Schultz, Carl H

    2017-03-08

    Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster?

  1. Camel Owners And Perception Towards Management Practices At Butanaarea Gaderif State Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Amir .M. Osman; Mohammed Abdelkreim; S.M.A. Abukashawa; M. T. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea Gaderif state Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 bred camel for mil...

  2. Climate change, conflict and development in Sudan: global neo-Malthusian narratives and local power struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Dystopian accounts of climate change posit that it will lead to more conflict, causing state failure and mass population movements. Yet these narratives are both theoretically and empirically problematic: the conflict–environment hypothesis merges a global securitization agenda with local manipulations of Northern fears about the state of planetary ecology. Sudan has experienced how damaging this fusion of wishful thinking, power politics and top-down development can be. In the 1970s, global resource scarcity concerns were used locally to impose the fata morgana of Sudan as an Arab-African breadbasket: in the name of development, violent evictions of local communities contributed to Sudan's second civil war and associated famines. Today, Darfur has been labelled ‘the world's first climate change conflict’, masking the long-term political-economic dynamics and Sudanese agency underpinning the crisis. Simultaneously, the global food crisis is instrumentalized to launch a dam programme and agricultural revival that claim to be African answers to resource scarcity. The winners, however, are Sudan's globalized Islamist elites and foreign investors, whilst the livelihoods of local communities are undermined. Important links exist between climatic developments and security, but global Malthusian narratives about state failure and conflict are dangerously susceptible to manipulations by national elites; the practical outcomes decrease rather than increase human security. In the climate change era, the breakdown of institutions and associated violence is often not an unfortunate failure of the old system due to environmental shock, but a strategy of elites in wider processes of power and wealth accumulation and contestation.

  3. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  4. The state of emergency care in the Republic of the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hassan A. A-Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudan is one of the largest African countries, covering an area of 1.9 million km2—approximately one fifth of the geographic area of the United States. The population is 30 million people, the majority of whom (68% live in rural areas, as compared with the sub-Saharan African average of approximately 62%. Sudan is considered a lower-middle income country—with 47% of the population living below the poverty line and a gross domestic product (GDP of US $62 billion in 2010. In addition to excessive burden of communicable diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and schistosomiasis, Sudan is particularly susceptible to both natural and manmade disasters. Drought and flood are quite common due to Sudan’s proximity to and dependency on the Nile, and throughout history Sudan has also been plagued with internal conflicts and outbreaks of violence, which bring about a burden of traumatic disease and demand high quality emergency care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of emergency care and Emergency Medicine education, and their context within the Sudanese health care system. As is the case in most African countries, emergency care is delivered by junior staff: new graduates from medical schools and unsupervised medical officers who handle all types of case presentations. In 2001, increased mortality and morbidity among unsorted patients prompted the Ministry of Health to introduce a new triage-based emergency care system. In late 2005, twenty-one Emergency physicians delivered these new Emergency Services. In 2011, following a curriculum workshop in November 2010, the Emergency Medicine residency program was started in Khartoum. Currently there are 27 rotating registrars, the first class of whom is expected to graduate in 2015.

  5. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-10-01

    sandflies based on total collections in the area. Solid black bars. on R. H. and temperature rows represent average daily minimums per month and...and other arthropods of pUblic health and veterinary significance. DECK 2 PHLEBOTOMUS SANDFLIES OF THE PALOICH AREA IN THE SUDAN (DIPTERA...PSYCHODIDAE)’ 2860 By Laurence W. Quate2 Abstract: This report describes results of field studies on Phlebotomus sandflies from August 1962 to October

  6. Elemental analysis of soils from central Sudan by energy dispersive XRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousif, A. A.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1986-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is employed to determine the concentration of nineteen elements in seven profiles representing the aridisols and vertisols groups from agricultural plains of Sudan. A significant variation in the concentration of alkaline and alkaline earth elements...... in the different regions is observed, which is discussed in relation to the texture of the soil and climatic factors. Uranium, determined by the delayed neutron technique, is observed to increase with depth in one area....

  7. The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi; Suliman Zakaria Suliman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic gr...

  8. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

  9. Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (Taq-I & Apa-I) in Syrian healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Shaden

    2014-12-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system regulates bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis as well as cellular proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates Vit-D activity, thus VDR gene polymorphisms may correlate with different diseases. This study aimed to determine the distribution of VDR gene (Taq-I and Apa-I) polymorphisms using a RFLP in unrelated normal healthy individuals of Syrian population. Allelic frequencies were 65% vs 35% and 66% vs 34% for T vs t and A vs a alleles, respectively. Genotype distribution was 36%, 58% and 6% for TT, Tt and tt and 42%, 47% and 10% for AA, Aa and aa, respectively. These results demonstrate that the frequency and distribution of the VDR polymorphisms in Syrian population are different from other populations worldwide.

  10. The Syrian Golden Hamster Estrous Cycle: Unique Characteristics, Visual Guide to Staging, and Comparison with the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanut, Franck J A; Williams, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is a suitable rodent species for standard regulatory toxicity studies. However, little is published about the female Syrian hamster reproductive system. It has unique anatomic features that differ from the other rodent species. In the hamster, the upper cervix is composed of 2 canals and the vagina shows 2 lateral pouches where keratin debris accumulates. These pouches must be distinguished from the vagina in order to stage the estrous cycle properly. The microscopic changes occurring during all the estrous cycle stages show some differences with the other rodents, the lower cervix and upper vagina presenting the more dramatic changes. The aim of this work was to produce a practical guide to staging the cycle and to highlight some of the differences between the rat and hamster reproductive system.

  11. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs...... in potato tubers has previously been shown to increase substantially as a result of improper handling and postharvest storage. A short-term study was performed to investigate the dose-response profile of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine alone or in combination, administered daily by oral gavage to Syrian...... Golden hamsters. Daily doses of 100 mg of alpha-solanine [kg body weight (BW)](-1) induced death in two of four hamsters within 4 days, when administered by gavage to female Syrian hamsters. Doses of 100 mg of alpha-chaconine alone or alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine combined in a ratio of 1...

  12. Recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia; Saikin no Saudi Arabia no sekiyu tanko to kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, N. [Arabian Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia. At present Saudi Arabia yielding crude oil of 8 million BPD is the biggest oil yield and export country in the world. The estimated amount of oil deposits of nearly 2.6 hundred billion bbl accounts for nearly 25% of that over the world. Oil exploration was started by American enterprise in 1933, and a promising oil deposit was first confirmed in carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arabian stratum in 1938. The survey area of oil exploration gradually expanded up to all of eastern provinces and Arabian Bay. Ghawar oil field largest in the world and Safaniya oil field largest in the world as marine oil field were found in 1948 and 1951, respectively. Oil exploration in Central Arabia started in 1988 after nearly 50 years from oil exploration in eastern provinces, and low-sulfur/super-light oil was found in Paleozoic sand rock stratum. Up to this day light oil was confirmed at 15 sites in these areas, and further oil exploration is now in promotion. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Analysis of water footprints of rainfed and irrigated crops in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamseddin Musa Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water rather than land is the limiting factor for crop production in Sudan. This study attempts to use the water footprint (WFP and virtual water concepts to account for crops water consumption under the Sudanese rainfed and irrigated conditions. The general average of the green WFP of sorghum and millet were found to be about 7700 and 10700 m3 ton-1, respectively. According to experimental results at three different climates, in-situ rainwater harvesting techniques could reduce the WFP of rainfed sorghum by 56% on the average. The blue component (surface water shows the highest contribution to the total WFP of irrigated crops: 88% for cotton, 70% for sorghum, 68% for groundnut and 100% for wheat. However, the role of the green water (rainwater is not marginal since it largely influences the operation and maintenance (silt clearance of the gravity-fed irrigation system. Under normal conditions, the annual total virtual water demand of sorghum (the dominant food crop in Sudan is found to be 15 km3, of which 91% is green water. During a dry year, however, Sudan could experience a deficit of 2.3 km3 of water, necessitating the adoption of a wise food stocking-exporting policy.

  14. Para influenza virus 3 infection in cattle and small ruminants in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intisar Kamil Saeed

    2016-09-01

    Results: Positive results were found in 29 (12.8% cattle, 31 (9.8% sheep and 11 (47.8% goat samples. All the studied areas showed positive results. Highest prevalence (66.7% was detected in the sheep and goats in Khartoum, followed by in goats in Nyala (33.3% at western Sudan. Sequence analyses of PIV3 of different regions of Sudan indicated that these were similar in sequence and length. The BLAST analysis indicated that the test sequences were closely related to the available annotated sequences at the GenBank. All these sequences matched with Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 except two those were matching with Swine parainfluenza virus 3. Conclusion: The results prove the existence of PIV3 infection in cattle, sheep and goats in the studied areas in Sudan and suggest its possible role in the respiratory infections. Genetic analysis indicate that the virus is mostly similar with bovine PIV3. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 236-241

  15. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  16. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyingilili, Hamisi Said

    2017-01-01

    The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius) could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State) using microscopical (blood film) and molecular technique (PCR). A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males) were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p = 0.011) but not between the different sexes (p = 0.515). PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended. PMID:28293445

  17. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine as a treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Tajeldin M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in most areas of the world, where malaria is endemic, including Sudan. However, few published data are available on the use of ACT for treatment of P. vivax malaria. Methods This study was conducted at a health centre in Kassala, eastern Sudan, from October to December 2011. Patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria received artemether-lumefantrine (AL tablets (containing 20mg artemether and 120 mg lumefantrine and were monitored for 28 days. Results Out of the 43 cases enrolled in this study, 38 completed the 28-day follow-up. Their mean age was 25.1 years (SD: 1.5. On day 3 following AL treatment, all of the patients were afebrile and aparasitaemic. By day 28, all 38 patients exhibited adequate clinical and parasitological responses to AL treatment. The cure rate was 100% and 88.4% for the per protocol analysis andfor the intention to treat analysis, respectively. Mild adverse effects (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness and/or rash that resolved spontaneously were observed in four (10.5% of the patients. Conclusion AL combination therapy was fully effective for treatment of P. vivax malaria in the study in eastern Sudan. Trial registration Trial. Gov: NCT01625871

  18. Linking Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature with Cholera: A Case Study for South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaach, H. S. V.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    A sudden onset of cholera in South Sudan, in April 2014 in Northern Bari in Juba town resulted in more than 400 cholera cases after four weeks of initial outbreak with a case of fatality rate of CFR 5.4%. The total number of reported cholera cases for the period of April to July, 2014 were 5,141 including 114 deaths. With the limited efficacy of cholera vaccines, it is necessary to develop mechanisms to predict cholera occurrence and thereafter devise intervention strategies for mitigating impacts of the disease. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and air temperature are related to epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. However, due to coarse resolution of both datasets, it is not possible to precisely locate the geographical location of disease. Here, using Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODIS sensors, we have developed an algorithm to identify regions susceptible for cholera. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance in South Sudan and were statistically sensitive to hydroclimatic anomalies of land surface and air temperature, and precipitation. Our results indicate significant spatial and temporal averaging required to infer usable information from LST over South Sudan. Preliminary results that geographically location of cholera outbreak was identifiable within 1km resolution of the LST data.

  19. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State using microscopical (blood film and molecular technique (PCR. A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p=0.011 but not between the different sexes (p=0.515. PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Elmardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90 and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1. Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development.

  1. Awakening in Sudan: women seek to bridge the gap between traditional customs and modern needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernush, K

    1979-04-26

    The point was strongly made at the opening session of the symposium to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Ahfad University College in Sudan - the 1st secular school for girls and the beginning of women's education in Sudan - that in Africa the woman is unrecognized and oppressed by both traditional and modern society. Even when education is available, women must contend with prevailing attitudes that often make it impossible for them to use their special knowledge and skills. The program itself was divided into 2 parts - formal presentations and discussion of some 50 scholarly papers and an informal workshop for rural women leaders and trainers from various government ministries. The point was made that illiteracy among women is about 92%, far greater than among men. Some speakers provided insights into the impact of customs and traditions on women and into the impact of the women's movement on Sudanese law and politics. 1 speaker traced women's inferior status to discrepancies between Sudanese constitutional law and personal or religious laws. The most well-attended session focused on female circumcision, widely practiced in Sudan but never before openly discussed in public, with both women and men present. Sudanese doctors, sociologists, and a clinical psychologist repeatedly refuted accepted notions about the practice's supposedly religious basis and physical benefits. Male and female attitudes toward circumcision were also analyzed. At the symposium's end it was concluded that Sudanese women still lagged very much behind men in education, legal and political rights, health and nutrition and social matters.

  2. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged refugees and asylum seekers at that time.

  3. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster: the exception proves the rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2012-03-01

    In seasonal mammals, a distinct photoneuroendocrine circuit that involves the pineal hormone melatonin tightly synchronizes reproduction with seasons. In the Syrian hamster, a seasonal model in which sexual activity is inhibited by short days, we have previously shown that the potent GnRH stimulator, kisspeptin, is crucial to convey melatonin's message; however, the precise mechanisms through which melatonin affects kisspeptin remain unclear. Interestingly, rfrp gene expression in the neurons of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, a brain region in which melatonin receptors are present in the Syrian hamster, is strongly down-regulated by melatonin in short days. Because a large body of evidence now indicates that RFamide-related peptide (RFRP)-3, the product of the rfrp gene, is an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion in various mammalian species, we sought to investigate its effect on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters despite persisting photoinhibitory conditions. By contrast RFRP-3 does not have a hypophysiotrophic effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate that, in the male Syrian hamster, RFRP-3 exerts a stimulatory effect on the reproductive axis, most likely via hypothalamic targets. This places RFRP-3 in a decisive position between the melatonergic message and Kiss1 seasonal regulation. Additionally, our data suggest for the first time that the function of this peptide depends on the species and the physiological status of the animal model.

  4. The Role of Interleukin-1 Genotype in the Association between Coronary Heart Disease and Periodontitis in a Syrian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, Lina; Khattab, Razan; Harfoush, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether differences exist between periodontitis subjects with and without Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in a Syrian population in the distribution of IL-1 alleles at positions IL-1α+4845, IL-1β+3954, IL-1β-511, and IL-1RN VNTR. Background. The role of Interleukin-1 genes in the association between periodontitis and CHD has been demonstrated in previous studies. No study has been carried out on the Syrian population to asses for such a role. Methods. 200 Syrian Arab periodontitis patients (184 males, 16 females; mean age 52.61) were divided into two groups: cases group 100 subjects with CHD (92 males, 8 females; mean age 52.06); controls group 100 subjects without CHD (92 males, 8 females; mean age 53.16). Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and alveolar bone loss (ABL) were performed for patients. Blood samples were collected for genotyping analysis of IL-1α+4845, IL-1β+3954, and IL-1β-511 using PCR-RFLP technique and IL-1RN VNTR using normal PCR. Results. An association between both (CAL and ABL) and CHD was shown after adjustment for other confounders (OR: 7.659, P = 0.001; OR: 3.645, P = 0.006, resp.). Also, an association between allele 2 of IL-1α+4845, IL-1β+3954, and IL-1β-511 and ABL was shown. Allele 2 of IL-1α+4845 and IL-1β-511 was associated with ABL among individuals with and without CHD. But after adjustment for other confounders, the association remained only between allele 2 of IL-11α+4845 and both CHD and severe ABL (OR: 0.189, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Allele 2 of IL-11α+4845 may be considered a risk indicator for having both CHD and severe ABL in the investigated Syrian population.

  5. 75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive...

  6. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of...

  7. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the accompanying Memorandum...

  8. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease.

  9. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  10. FosB in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Syrian and Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, F J; Maywood, E S; Mehta, M; Hancock, D C; McNulty, S; De Bono, J; Bray, S J; Hastings, M H

    1996-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generates circadian rhythms of behavior and hormone secretion in mammals, and integrates responses to light and nonphotic stimuli to synchronize such rhythms with the external environment. Previous studies have demonstrated a close association between the induction of the immediate early gene (IEG) c-fos in the SCN by light and phase shifts of circadian rhythms induced by light, but nonphotic stimuli (e.g., arousal), which also cause phase shifts, do not increase c-fos expression in the SCN. Because c-fos is now known to be a member of a large family of IEGs which can regulate transcription and thus cellular function, the aim of the current study was to determine whether induction of another member of this immediate early gene family, fosB, is associated with photic and nonphotic phase shifts. An antiserum that recognizes a unique peptide sequence derived from FosB was produced so that the expression of fosB could be investigated in cells within the SCN by immunocytochemical detection of its protein product. The regional distribution of FosB-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the SCN of Syrian and Siberian hamsters was broadly similar to that for c-Fos-ir cells. However, whereas c-fos expression in the SCN was constitutively low, but could be massively induced by light at particular circadian phases, FosB-ir cells were present at all circadian phases studied, irrespective of photic stimulation, and light only produced marginal increases in the number of FosB-ir cells compared with nonstimulated controls. Moreover, blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission by pretreatment of hamsters with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 significantly reduced photic induction of c-Fos-ir cells, but did not influence the number of FosB-ir cells in the SCN. Finally, an arousing nonphotic stimulus known to cause phase advances in wheel-running behavior in Syrian hamsters did not alter significantly the number of FosB-ir cells in the SCN. These

  11. Application of DNA (RAPD and ultrastructure to detect the effect of cadmium stress in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Aly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn recent years, several plant species have been used as bioindicators to evaluate the toxicity of environmental contaminants on vegetal organisms. In this study, Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd concentration levels (0.0, 25, 50 and 100 µM in MS media to analyze growth responses, Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots of plantlets, proline contents, chlorophylls content and MDA levels of both plantlets. As well as RAPD analysis and leaves ultrastructure were detected.ResultsThe results showed that there was a significant decrease in root and shoot lengths, Chl a, Chl b, total Chl and carotenoids contents for both Egyptian clover and Sudan grass. However, there was a significant increase in Cd accumulation, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. The genetic variation between Egyptian clover and Sudan grass were evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR markers to establish specific DNA markers associated with Cd stress. The results of transimssion electron microscopy (TEM showed a clear disorder in the Cd treated Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings.ConclusionIn conclusion, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructure changes in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass could be used as a useful biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of Cd stress on plants. However, it is necessary to be further confirmed and optimized in the future research.

  12. A nosocomial transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever to an attending physician in north kordufan, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Mustafa I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, a tick-borne disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, is a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Recently, CCHFV has been reported as an important emerging infectious viral pathogen in Sudan. Sporadic cases and multiple CCHF outbreaks, associated with nosocomial chain of transmission, have been reported in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Aims To confirm CCHF in an index patient and attending physician in North Kordufan region, Sudan, and to provide some information on virus genetic lineages. Methods Antibody captured ELISA, reverse transcription PCR, partial S segment sequences of the virus and subsequent phylogenetic analysis were used to confirm the CCHFV infection and to determine the virus genetic lineages. Results CCHF was confirmed by monitoring specific IgM antibody and by detection of the viral genome using RT-PCR. Treatment with oral ribavirin, replacement with fluid therapy, blood transfusion and administration of platelets concentrate resulted in rapid improvement of the health condition of the female physician. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial S segment sequences of the 2 CCHFV indicates that both strains are identical and belong to Group III virus lineage, which includes viruses from Africa including, Sudan, Mauritania, South Africa and Nigeria. Conclusion Further epidemiologic studies including, CCHFV complete genome analysis and implementation of improved surveillance are urgently needed to better predict and respond to CCHF outbreaks in the Kordufan region, Sudan.

  13. Amperometric detection of Sudan I in red chili powder samples using Ag nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, E; Pandian, K

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical method was developed to determine the concentration of Sudan I in chili powder based on silver nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs@GO/GCE). The voltammetry behaviour of Sudan I on modified GCE was investigated in phosphate buffer medium (PBS) with various pH ranges and the electron transfer properties were studied. It is found that the AgNPs@GO/GCE can catalyse the reduction of azo group, -N=N- followed by electrochemical oxidation of (-)OH group present in Sudan I dye molecule. Quantitative detection of Sudan I present in food products was carried out by amperometry method in which reduction potential was fixed at -0.77 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The amperometry method showed an excellent performance with a sensitivity of 6.83 μA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 11.4 × 10(-7)ML(-1). A linear calibration graph was constructed in the ranging 3.90 × 10(-6) to 3.19 × 10(-5)ML(-1). The method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in red chili powder samples.

  14. Andes virus recognition of human and Syrian hamster beta3 integrins is determined by an L33P substitution in the PSI domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Valery S; Gorbunova, Elena E; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Mackow, Erich R

    2010-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans and Syrian hamsters. Human alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are receptors for several pathogenic hantaviruses, and the function of alpha(v)beta(3) integrins on endothelial cells suggests a role for alpha(v)beta(3) in hantavirus directed vascular permeability. We determined here that ANDV infection of human endothelial cells or Syrian hamster-derived BHK-21 cells was selectively inhibited by the high-affinity alpha(v)beta(3) integrin ligand vitronectin and by antibodies to alpha(v)beta(3) integrins. Further, antibodies to the beta(3) integrin PSI domain, as well as PSI domain polypeptides derived from human and Syrian hamster beta(3) subunits, but not murine or bovine beta(3), inhibited ANDV infection of both BHK-21 and human endothelial cells. These findings suggest that ANDV interacts with beta(3) subunits through PSI domain residues conserved in both Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Sequencing the Syrian hamster beta(3) integrin PSI domain revealed eight differences between Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Analysis of residues within the PSI domains of human, Syrian hamster, murine, and bovine beta(3) integrins identified unique proline substitutions at residues 32 and 33 of murine and bovine PSI domains that could determine ANDV recognition. Mutagenizing the human beta(3) PSI domain to contain the L33P substitution present in bovine beta(3) integrin abolished the ability of the PSI domain to inhibit ANDV infectivity. Conversely, mutagenizing either the bovine PSI domain, P33L, or the murine PSI domain, S32P, to the residue present human beta(3) permitted PSI mutants to inhibit ANDV infection. Similarly, CHO cells transfected with the full-length bovine beta(3) integrin containing the P33L mutation permitted infection by ANDV. These findings indicate that human and Syrian hamster alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are key receptors for ANDV and that specific residues within the

  15. 78 FR 68499 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Aso Known... Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a Foreign... amended (hereinafter ``INA'') (8 U.S.C. 1189), exist with respect to Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi...

  16. Rosiglitazone improves intestinal lipoprotein overproduction in the fat-fed Syrian Golden hamster, an animal model of nutritionally-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Nathalie; Naples, Mark; Uffelman, Kristine; Szeto, Linda; Adeli, Khosrow; Lewis, Gary F

    2004-06-01

    We have recently shown that the fructose-fed Syrian Golden hamster, a non-diabetic animal model of nutritionally-induced insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia, is characterized by intestinal lipoprotein overproduction. In order to determine whether intestinal lipoprotein overproduction is specific to fructose feeding or applies generally to other models of insulin resistance, we studied intestinal lipoprotein production and the response to insulin sensitization in the high fat-fed Syrian Golden hamster. Syrian Golden Hamsters were fed either (1). chow (CHOW), (2). 60% fat (FAT) or (3). 60% fat with rosiglitazone, 20 micromol/kg per day (FAT + RSG) for 5 weeks. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies confirmed that FAT is a good model of insulin resistance and rosiglitazone treatment resulted in a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity. In addition, there was a significant approx. two- to four-fold increase in intestinal apoB48 particle production in FAT. Rosiglitazone treatment resulted in partial normalization of apoB48-containing intestinal lipoprotein secretion. In summary: (1). the fat-fed Syrian Golden Hamster is a good model of nutritionally-induced insulin resistance, (2). intestinal overproduction of lipoproteins appear to contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia of insulin resistance in this animal model and (3). insulin sensitization with rosiglitazone ameliorates intestinal apoB48 particle overproduction in the fat-fed Syrian Golden Hamster. These data further support the link between insulin resistance and intestinal lipoprotein overproduction.

  17. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

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    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  18. The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Ameera; Barriball, Louise; While, Alison

    2013-09-01

    The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.

  19. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  20. Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

  1. Online sources of health statistics in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers looking for health statistics on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) may face difficulty. This is partly due to the lack of awareness of potential sources where such statistics can be found. The purpose of this paper is to review various online sources of health statistics on KSA, and to highlight their content, coverage, and presentation of health statistics. Five bibliographic databases where local research can be found are described. National registries available are summarized. Governmental agencies, as well as societies and centers where the bulk of health statistics is produced are also described. Finally, some potential international sources that can be used for the purpose of comparison are presented.

  2. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.

  3. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

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    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  4. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  5. Valganciclovir Inhibits Human Adenovirus Replication and Pathology in Permissive Immunosuppressed Female and Male Syrian Hamsters

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    Karoly Toth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients can develop into serious and often deadly multi-organ disease. There are no drugs approved for adenovirus infections. Cidofovir (an analog of 2-deoxycytidine monophosphate is used at times but it can be nephrotoxic and its efficacy has not been proven in clinical trials. Brincidofovir, a promising lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, is in clinical trials. Ganciclovir, an analog of 2-deoxyguanosine, has been employed occasionally but with unknown efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we evaluated valganciclovir against disseminated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 infection in our permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. We administered valganciclovir prophylactically, beginning 12 h pre-infection or therapeutically starting at Day 1, 2, 3, or 4 post-infection. Valganciclovir significantly increased survival, reduced viral replication in the liver, and mitigated the pathology associated with Ad5 infection. In cultured cells, valganciclovir inhibited Ad5 DNA replication and blocked the transition from early to late stage of infection. Valganciclovir directly inhibited Ad5 DNA polymerase in vitro, which may explain, at least in part, its mechanism of action. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are approved to treat infections by certain herpesviruses. Our results support the use of valganciclovir to treat disseminated adenovirus infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  6. N-nitrosodiethanolamine: analysis, formation in tobacco products and carcinogenicity in Syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Rivenson, A.; Hecht, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical GC-TEA method has been developed for the quantitative determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. US smoking and chewing tobaccos and experimental cigarette tobaccos contained between 80 and 420 micrograms/kg of NDELA. Two snuff samples contained 3200 and 6800 micrograms/kg of NDELA. NDELA in mainstream smoke of US cigarettes amounted to 10 - 68 ng per cigarette. Evidence was presented which incriminates diethanolamine as a major precursor for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Diethanolamine is used as a solubilizing agent for maleic hydrazide, the major sucker-growth inhibitor for US tobacco crops. NDELA was bioassayed in Syrian golden hamsters by skin painting, swabbing of the oral cavity and by subcutaneous injection. Independently of the form of application, NDELA at the higher dose (500 mg/kg) induced carcinomas of the nasal cavity, papillomas of the trachea and tumours of the larynx in some animals. NDELA uptake through the oral cavity in hamsters is presumably greater than through the skin, judging by the higher tumour yield induced by painting of the oral cavity, compared to skin painting. Studies with 14C-labeled NDELA are currently underway to document this observation quantitiatively. The present analytical data for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke, together with the carcinogenicity data reported here and elsewhere, strongly suggest a review of the use of maleic hydrazide-diethanolamine as sucker-growth inhibitor in the cultivation of tobacco and other crops.

  7. Valganciclovir inhibits human adenovirus replication and pathology in permissive immunosuppressed female and male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Karoly; Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Balakrishnan, Lata; Sagartz, John E; Buller, Robert Mark L; Wold, William S M

    2015-03-23

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients can develop into serious and often deadly multi-organ disease. There are no drugs approved for adenovirus infections. Cidofovir (an analog of 2-deoxycytidine monophosphate) is used at times but it can be nephrotoxic and its efficacy has not been proven in clinical trials. Brincidofovir, a promising lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, is in clinical trials. Ganciclovir, an analog of 2-deoxyguanosine, has been employed occasionally but with unknown efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we evaluated valganciclovir against disseminated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection in our permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. We administered valganciclovir prophylactically, beginning 12 h pre-infection or therapeutically starting at Day 1, 2, 3, or 4 post-infection. Valganciclovir significantly increased survival, reduced viral replication in the liver, and mitigated the pathology associated with Ad5 infection. In cultured cells, valganciclovir inhibited Ad5 DNA replication and blocked the transition from early to late stage of infection. Valganciclovir directly inhibited Ad5 DNA polymerase in vitro, which may explain, at least in part, its mechanism of action. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are approved to treat infections by certain herpesviruses. Our results support the use of valganciclovir to treat disseminated adenovirus infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  8. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  9. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.

  10. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Qayoudhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.

  11. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L

    1997-03-04

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.

  12. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-09-12

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters.

  13. Daidzin and daidzein suppress free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-11-01

    Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search for and identification of new agents for the treatment of alcohol abuse. The model has enabled us to confirm the putative antidipsotropic effect of Radix puerariae (RP), an herb long used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of patients who abuse alcohol. A crude extract of RP at a dose of 1.5 g.kg-1 x day-1 significantly suppresses (> 50%) the free-choice ethanol intake of Golden hamsters. Moreover, two major constituents of RP, daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and daidzin (the 7-glucoside of daidzein), were also shown to suppress free-choice ethanol intake. Daidzin and daidzein, at doses of 150 and 230 mg.kg-1 x day-1, respectively, suppress ethanol intake by > 50%. RP, daidzein, and daidzin treatment do not significantly affect the body weight and water or food intake of the hamsters. These findings identify a class of compounds that offer promise as safe and effective therapeutic agents for alcohol abuse.

  14. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  15. Development of chronic and acute golden Syrian hamster infection models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuerner, R L; Alt, D P; Palmer, M V

    2012-03-01

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several Leptospira species. Onset of an acute lethal infection following inoculation with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for pathogenesis studies. An important exception is the outcome following inoculation of hamsters with live L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, the primary cause of bovine leptospirosis and a cause of human infections. Typically, inoculation of hamsters with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo fails to induce clinical signs of infection. In this study, the authors defined LD(50) and ID(50) for 2 strains of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo: JB197 and 203. Both strains infected hamsters with ID(50) values of approximately 1.5 × 10(2) bacteria yet differed in tissue invasion and interaction with leukocytes, resulting in widely divergent clinical outcomes. Hamsters infected with strain 203 established renal colonization within 4 days postinfection and remained asymptomatic with chronic renal infections similar to cattle infected with serovar Hardjo. In contrast, hamsters infected with strain JB197 developed a rapidly debilitating disease typical of acute leptospirosis common in accidental hosts (eg, humans) with an LD(50) of 3.6 × 10(4) bacteria. Evidence that strain JB197 resides in both extracellular and intracellular environments during hamster infection was obtained. Development of models that result in chronic and acute forms of leptospirosis provides a platform to study L. borgpetersenii pathogenesis and to test vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis.

  16. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-05-31

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  17. Efficient gene targeting in golden Syrian hamsters by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Fan

    Full Text Available The golden Syrian hamster is the model of choice or the only rodent model for studying many human diseases. However, the lack of gene targeting tools in hamsters severely limits their use in biomedical research. Here, we report the first successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently conduct gene targeting in hamsters. We designed five synthetic single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs--three for targeting the coding sequences for different functional domains of the hamster STAT2 protein, one for KCNQ1, and one for PPP1R12C--and demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient in introducing site-specific mutations in hamster somatic cells. We then developed unique pronuclear (PN and cytoplasmic injection protocols in hamsters and produced STAT2 knockout (KO hamsters by injecting the sgRNA/Cas9, either in the form of plasmid or mRNA, targeting exon 4 of hamster STAT2. Among the produced hamsters, 14.3% and 88.9% harbored germline-transmitted STAT2 mutations from plasmid and mRNA injection, respectively. Notably, 10.4% of the animals produced from mRNA injection were biallelically targeted. This is the first success in conducting site-specific gene targeting in hamsters and can serve as the foundation for developing other genetically engineered hamster models for human disease.

  18. An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaecher, Scott R; Stabenow, Jennifer; Oberle, Christina; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark; Sagartz, John E; Pekosz, Andrew

    2008-10-25

    Several small animal models have been developed for the study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and pathogenesis. Syrian golden hamsters are among the best small animal models, though little clinical illness and no mortality are observed after virus infection. Cyclophosphamide was used to immunosuppress hamsters leading to a prolonged disease course and higher mortality after SARS-CoV infection. In addition, there was a significant weight loss, expanded tissue tropism, and increased viral pathology in the lung, heart, kidney, and nasal turbinate tissues. Infection with recombinant SARS-CoV viruses bearing disruptions in the gene 7 coding region showed no significant change in replication kinetics, tissue tropism, morbidity, or mortality suggesting that the ORF7a (7a) and ORF7b (7b) proteins are not required for virus replication in immunosuppressed hamsters. This modified hamster model may provide a useful tool for SARS-CoV pathogenesis studies, evaluation of antiviral therapy, and analysis of additional SARS-CoV mutants.

  19. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2014-08-30

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine׳s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrease alcohol drinking. In this study, we used the Syrian golden hamster to test whether the ability of risperidone to reduce alcohol drinking would be enhanced if it was used in combination with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until they reached a steady drinking baseline. They were then treated daily with each drug or drug combination for 20 days. Risperidone (0.2mg/kg) only transiently decreased alcohol drinking. However, 5.0mg/kg, and possibly 1.0mg/kg, desipramine added to 0.2mg/kg risperidone appeared to produce a more substantial and relatively sustained effect than risperidone alone. Data from this study provide leads toward the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism, and also for those with alcoholism alone.

  20. Effective cryopreservation of golden Syrian hamster embryos by open pulled straw vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z; Meng, Q; Bunch, T D; White, K L; Wang, Z

    2016-02-01

    Golden Syrian hamster embryos are difficult to cryopreserve due to their high sensitivity to cryoprotectants and in vitro handling. The objective of this study is to develop a robust open pulled straw (OPS) vitrification technique for cryopreserving hamster embryos at various developmental stages. We first systematically tested the concentrations of cryoprotectants and the exposure times of two-cell embryos to various vitrification solutions. We identified pretreatment of two-cell embryos with 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (EG) + 10% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for 30 s followed by exposure in the vitrification solution, EDFS30 (containing 15% EG + 15% DMSO), for 30 s before plunging into liquid nitrogen (two-step exposure method) as the optimal OPS vitrification protocol. We then investigated the resourcefulness of this protocol for vitrifying hamster embryos at different developmental stages. The results showed that high blastocyst rates from embryos vitrified at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, or morula stage (62%, 78%, 80%, or 72%, respectively), but not those verified at pronuclear (0%) or blastocyst stage (24%; P  0.05) from the 40% birth rate of the unvitrified controls. In conclusion, we have developed an effective two-step OPS vitrification protocol for hamster embryos.

  1. Study the effect of beryllium reflector poisoning on the Syrian MNSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, H; Ghazi, N; Haddad, Kh; Ezzuddin, H

    2012-06-01

    Neutron interactions with beryllium lead to formation of (3)H and strong neutron absorbers (3)He and (6)Li in the reflector (so called beryllium poisoning). After the reactor shutdown, the concentration of (3)He increases in time due to tritium decay. This paper illustrates the impact of poisoning accumulation in the beryllium reflectors on reactivity for the Syrian MNSR research reactor. The prediction of (6)Li and (3)He poison concentrations, initiated by the 9Be(n,α) reaction, in the beryllium reflectors of the MNSR was also presented. The results were based on MCNP Monte Carlo calculations and solutions to the differential equations which describe the time dependent poison concentrations as a function of reactor operation time and shutdown periods. The whole reactor history was taken into account to predict reliable values of parasitic isotope concentrations. It was found that the (3)He and (6)Li accumulations in the beryllium reflectors during the actual working history decreased the excess reactivity by about 28%. While, the effect became more significant at the reactor life's end and the reactor became subcritical after 25,000 h operation. The results contained in this paper could be used in assess the safety analysis of the MNSR reactor.

  2. Internet Censorship Circumvention Tools: Escaping the Control of the Syrian Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Saqaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that authoritarian regimes tend to censor the media to limit potential threats to the status quo. While such censorship practices were traditionally aimed at broadcast and print media, the emergence of the Internet and social media in particular, prompted some authoritarian regimes, such as the Assad regime in Syria, to try and exert a similar level of censorship on the Internet as well. During the Arab Spring, the Syrian regime blocked hundreds of websites that provided social networking, news, and other services. Taking Syria as a case study, this paper examines whether Internet censorship succeeded in preventing Internet users from reaching censored online content during 2010−2012. By analyzing the use of Alkasir, a censorship circumvention tool created by the author, the paper provides empirical evidence demonstrating that users were in fact able to bypass censorship and access blocked websites. The findings demonstrate that censorship circumvention tools constituted a threat to the information control systems of authoritarian regimes, highlighting the potential of such tools to promote online freedom of expression in countries where Internet censorship is prevalent.

  3. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Boue, Stephen M; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2013-06-19

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy are believed to contribute to the health benefits. Glyceollin is one of the candidate phytochemicals synthesized in stressed soy that may account for many unique biological activities. In this study, the in vivo cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins was investigated. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets including (1) 36 kcal% fat diet, (2) 36 kcal% fat diet containing 250 mg/kg diet glyceollins, or (3) chow for 28 days. Hepatic cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, hepatic total lipid content, plasma lipoproteins, fecal bile acid, fecal total cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolism related gene expressions were measured. Glyceollin supplementation led to significant reduction of plasma VLDL, hepatic cholesterol esters, and total lipid content. Consistent with changes in circulating cholesterol, glyceollin supplementation also altered expression of the genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver. In contrast, no change in plasma LDL and HDL, fecal bile acid, or cholesterol content was observed. The cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins appeared not to go through the increase of bile excretion. These results supported glyceollins' role as novel soy-derived cholesterol-lowering phytochemicals that may contribute to soy's health effects.

  4. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.

  5. Sex differences in the photoperiodic regulation of RF-Amide related peptide (RFRP) and its receptor GPR147 in the syrian hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jo B; Poirel, Vincent-Joseph; Mikkelsen, Jens D;

    2016-01-01

    RF-(Arg-Phe) related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3) are considered to play a role in the seasonal regulation of reproduction; however, the effect of the peptides depends on species and gender. This study aimed at comparing the RFRP system in male and female Syrian hamsters over long and short photoperi......RF-(Arg-Phe) related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3) are considered to play a role in the seasonal regulation of reproduction; however, the effect of the peptides depends on species and gender. This study aimed at comparing the RFRP system in male and female Syrian hamsters over long and short...... photoperiods to investigate the neuroanatomical basis of these differential effects. The neuroanatomical distribution of RFRP neurons and fibers, revealed using an antiserum recognizing RFRP-1 and -3, as well as GPR147 mRNA, are similar in male and female Syrian hamsters. RFRP neurons are mainly found...

  6. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mo'awia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is the most widely spread sand fly in Sudan. No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here. Methods Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State, Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan and White Nile area (Central Sudan using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1 of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE, non-specific carboxylesterases (EST, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450. Results Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST. Conclusions The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years.

  7. Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. Sudan's huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that Sudan's water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political implications within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of Sudan's optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision

  8. Sources of Sahelian-Sudan moisture: Insights from a moisture-tracing atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Tjernström, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The summer rainfall across Sahelian-Sudan is one of the main sources of water for agriculture, human, and animal needs. However, the rainfall is characterized by large interannual variability, which has attracted extensive scientific efforts to understand it. This study attempts to identify the source regions that contribute to the Sahelian-Sudan moisture budget during July through September. We have used an atmospheric general circulation model with an embedded moisture-tracing module (Community Atmosphere Model version 3), forced by observed (1979-2013) sea-surface temperatures. The result suggests that about 40% of the moisture comes with the moisture flow associated with the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and originates from Guinea Coast, central Africa, and the Western Sahel. The Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Peninsula, and South Indian Ocean regions account for 10.2%, 8.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Local evaporation and the rest of the globe supply the region with 20.3% and 13.2%, respectively. We also compared the result from this study to a previous analysis that used the Lagrangian model FLEXPART forced by ERA-Interim. The two approaches differ when comparing individual regions, but are in better agreement when neighboring regions of similar atmospheric flow features are grouped together. Interannual variability with the rainfall over the region is highly correlated with contributions from regions that are associated with the ITCZ movement, which is in turn linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Our result is expected to provide insights for the effort on seasonal forecasting of the rainy season over Sahelian Sudan.

  9. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr(-1)) was converted into harvested biomass (m(3)) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m(-3). For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4x10(3) m(3) of wood biomass, including 267.6x10(3) m(3) round wood and 240.8x10(3) m(3) branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378028 t CO(2), 15554 t CO, 1778 t CH(4), 442 t NO(X), 288 t NO and 12 t N(2)O per annum. The combined CO(2)-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO(X) and NO) is 455666 t yr(-1). While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  10. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community.

  11. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful [Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 (Finland)], E-mail: ashraful.alam@helsinki.fi; Starr, Mike [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr{sup -1}) was converted into harvested biomass (m{sup 3}) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m{sup -3}. For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of wood biomass, including 267.6 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} round wood and 240.8 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378 028 t CO{sub 2}, 15 554 t CO, 1778 t CH{sub 4}, 442 t NO{sub X}, 288 t NO and 12 t N{sub 2}O per annum. The combined CO{sub 2}-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO{sub X} and NO) is 455 666 t yr{sup -1}. While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  12. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III

    OpenAIRE

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M. [UNESP; Assis,Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1×10-4molL-1 and generation of 7.6×...

  13. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

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    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR INTERNET ACCESS IN SAUDI ARABIA

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    Hisham Jameel Bardesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Metapneumovirus in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majority of the strains belonged to subgroup B, while all strains of subgroup A were members of genotype A2. In 2008, only subgroup B was recognized, whereas in 2009 both subgroups were identified to be cocirculating at similar rates. The full-length attachment (G) gene and a partial sequence of the fusion (F) gene of positive samples were sequenced. The G gene showed a high degree of genetic diversity and exhibited a variable number of positively selected sites in different lineages. In contrast, the F gene demonstrated an extensive genetic stability with a higher tendency toward purifying selection. This is the first report on HMPV genotype circulation in Saudi Arabia; however, the exact circulation kinetics requires further retrospective and prospective study.

  16. Detection of Toxic Metalsin Lipsticks Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia Mohamed Ahmed Al-Qahtani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Since the dawn of civilization cosmetics have constituted a part of routine body care not only by the upper strata of society but also by middle and low class people. Heavy metals contamination in cosmetic products is becoming an important health problem in both worldwide and locally at the level of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA.The aim of this study was tostudy.Quantitatively estimated heavy metals “lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic” using graphite.Methods: total of 21 popular brands used lipstick products sold in Riyadh market samples from 3 different types of lipsticks frequently used among females in Saudi Arabia was digested. The digested samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic using graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:the mercury concentration was high followed by arsenic and cadmium, finally lead. The results indicate that the toxic heavy metals in all the samples were below the US FDA and SFDA permissible limits for cosmetic products with the exception the mercury content in some lipstick samples was higher than SFDA. There was no significant difference among the lipsticks in price categories.Conclusion: Continuous use and possible unintended ingestion of these toxic heavy metals, though in low levels in the cosmetics, may pose potential health risk due to their bioaccumulation in body organs.

  17. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  18. Premedication for neonatal intubation: Current practice in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mosalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strong evidence of the benefits of rapid sequence intubation in neonates, it is still infrequently utilized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU, contributing to avoidable pain and secondary procedure-related physiological disturbances. Objectives: The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the practice of premedication and regimens commonly used before elective endotracheal intubation in NICUs in Saudi Arabia. The secondary aim was to explore neonatal physicians′ attitudes regarding this intervention in institutions across Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based, structured questionnaire was distributed by the Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, to neonatal physicians and consultants of 10 NICUs across the country by E-mail. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics were conducted on the variables extracted. Results: 85% responded to the survey. Although 70% believed it was essential to routinely use premedication for all elective intubations, only 41% implemented this strategy. 60% cited fear of potential side effects for avoiding premedication and 40% indicated that the procedure could be executed more rapidly without drug therapy. Treatment regimens varied widely among respondents. Conclusion: Rates of premedication use prior to non-emergent neonatal intubation are suboptimal. Flawed information and lack of unified unit policies hampered effective implementation. Evidence-based guidelines may influence country-wide adoption of this practice.

  19. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world.

  20. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  1. Binding of Sudan II and IV to lecithin liposomes and E. coli membranes: insights into the toxicity of hydrophobic azo dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jian-Fu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudan red compounds are hydrophobic azo dyes, still used as food additives in some countries. However, they have been shown to be unsafe, causing tumors in the liver and urinary bladder in rats. They have been classified as category 3 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A number of hypotheses that could explain the mechanism of carcinogenesis have been proposed for dyes similar to the Sudan red compounds. Traditionally, investigations of the membrane toxicity of organic substances have focused on hydrocarbons, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and DDT. In contrast to hydrocarbons, Sudan red compounds contain azo and hydroxy groups, which can form hydrogen bonds with the polar head groups of membrane phospholipids. Thus, entry may be impeded. They could have different toxicities from other lipophilic hydrocarbons. The available data show that because these compounds are lipophilic, interactions with hydrophobic parts of the cell are important for their toxicity. Lipophilic compounds accumulate in the membrane, causing expansion of the membrane surface area, inhibition of primary ion pumps and increased proton permeability. Results This work investigated the interactions of the amphiphilic compounds Sudan II and IV with lecithin liposomes and live Escherichia coli (E. coli. Sudan II and IV binding to lecithin liposomes and live E. coli corresponds to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the Sudan red compounds – lecithin liposome solutions, the binding ratio of Sudan II to lecithin is 1/31 and that of Sudan IV to 1/314. The binding constant of the Sudan II-lecithin complex is 1.75 × 104 and that of the Sudan IV-lecithin complex 2.92 × 105. Besides, the influences of pH, electrolyte and temperature were investigated and analyzed quantitatively. In the Sudan red compounds – E.coli mixture, the binding ratios of Sudan II and Sudan IV to E.coli membrane phospholipid are 1/29 and 1

  2. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  3. Exposure to pesticides in agriculture: a survey of spraymen using dimethoate in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, J. F.; Fakhri, Z. I.; Miles, J. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Osman, Y.; Wolfe, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need for objective data on the exposure of spraymen to pesticides in agriculture in order to assess minimum requirements for practicable protection in tropical areas. To provide data, a survey was carried out in the Sudan on spraymen using dimethoate. No cholinesterase depressions were found and the calculated dose received by each man per day was within safe limits in the circumstances of this survey. Respiratory exposure was only a minor part of total exposure. The methodology of such surveys is discussed and the need for the use of a standard protocol is emphasized. PMID:1088104

  4. The efficacy of artemether in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhassan, I M; Satti, G H; Ali, A E;

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of artemether (a qinghaosu derivative) administered intramuscularly for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was compared to quinine in an open randomized trial including 54 patients in eastern Sudan, where chloroquine resistance is common. The artemether treatment (5 d...... intramuscular regimen) was effective and the drug was well tolerated. All patients had cleared the parasitaemia and were free of symptoms 48 h after initiation of treatment. The parasite clearance time was comparable in patients receiving artemether and quinine. No side effect was reported by patients receiving...

  5. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Maiga, Abdou;

    2012-01-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic...... changes and their perceptions were compared across north–south and west–east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60–80% of households. Contrary...

  6. Chronic Plasmodium falciparum infections in an area of low intensity malaria transmission in the Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamad, A A; El Hassan, I M; El Khalifa, A A

    2000-01-01

    Chronic Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in a Sudanese village, in an area of seasonal and unstable malaria transmission, were monitored and genetically characterized to study the influence of persistent infection on the immunology and epidemiology of low endemicity malaria. During...... the October-December malaria season of 1996, 51 individuals out of a population of 420 had confirmed and treated P. falciparum malaria in the village of Daraweesh in eastern Sudan. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in December 1996, an additional 6 individuals were found to harbour a microscopically...

  7. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector mediates postexposure protection against Sudan Ebola hemorrhagic fever in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Williams, Kinola J N; Geisbert, Joan B; Leung, Anders; Feldmann, Friederike; Hensley, Lisa E; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing homologous filoviral glycoproteins can completely protect rhesus monkeys against Marburg virus when administered after exposure and can partially protect macaques after challenge with Zaire ebolavirus. Here, we administered a VSV vector expressing the Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) glycoprotein to four rhesus macaques shortly after exposure to SEBOV. All four animals survived SEBOV challenge, while a control animal that received a nonspecific vector developed fulminant SEBOV hemorrhagic fever and succumbed. This is the first demonstration of complete postexposure protection against an Ebola virus in nonhuman primates and provides further evidence that postexposure vaccination may have utility in treating exposures to filoviruses.

  8. Roseires Dam Heightening Project in Sudan Works of Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志敏

    2014-01-01

    Works of pre-tensioned and pre-stressed concrete beams at dam crest of Roseires Dam Heightening Project located on Nile Riv-er in the Country of Sudan was in a big quantity, complexity and tight completion time. For pre-tensioning operation, frame type pedestal was built. Strict work method statement and applicable work procedure were also developed to assure high work quality and timely completion. All these have become precious experience in the field of pre-tensioning and pre-stressing beams.

  9. An epidemiological survey of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Sahafa Town, Sudan.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease and to initiate a programme of secondary prophylaxis in Sahafa Town, Sudan. DESIGN--The study was a prospective case finding survey, carried out by a specially trained team headed by a cardiologist. SETTING--The study involved high risk school children (5-15 years of age) from Sahafa Town in the period 1986-1989. SUBJECTS--A total of 13,332 children on the school registers (7892 boys and 54...

  10. Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiewski, Evan E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Evans, Jennifer A; Glickman, Gena L; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ≈ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.

  11. "Scolicidal effect of alcoholic, aqueous and total alkaloids of Peganum Harmala L. (Syrian Rue against hydatid cysts protoscolices "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdavi M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts and total alkaloids of the seed of (Syrian rue peganum harmala L. as scolicidal compound against Hydatid cyst protoscolices were assessed in this study. Methods and Materials: This study was carried out both invitro and by inoculating inside the intact cysts in the shaking bath and dry incubator at 37°c. Different concentration of suspensions were tested in different exposure times. Mortality of protoscolices was determined by their loss of mortality, ability to take vital stains and inactivity of flame cells. Results: The results indicated that alcoholic extract had scolicidal effect against protoscolices; total alkaloids had stronger action and rapid effect on protoscolices.

  12. Social status alters defeat-induced neural activation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, K E; Curry, D W; Cooper, M A

    2012-05-17

    Although exposure to social stress leads to increased depression-like and anxiety-like behavior, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to these stress-induced changes in behavior. Prior social experience is one factor that can modulate how individuals respond to stressful events. In this study, we investigated whether experience-dependent resistance to the behavioral consequences of social defeat was associated with a specific pattern of neural activation. We paired weight-matched male Syrian hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included control animals that were exposed to an empty cage each day for 2 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, half of the subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters, whereas the others were not socially defeated. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains after social defeat and processed the tissue for c-Fos immunoreactivity. We found that dominants were more likely than subordinates to counter-attack the resident aggressor during social defeat, and they showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared with subordinates. Also, social status was associated with distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation in select brain regions, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and lateral septum. Our results indicate that social status is an important form of prior experience that predicts both initial coping style and the degree of resistance to social defeat. Further, the differences in defeat-induced neural activation suggest possible brain regions that may control resistance to conditioned defeat in dominant individuals.

  13. Maintenance of dominance status is necessary for resistance to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathleen E; Bader, Lauren R; Clinard, Catherine T; Gerhard, Danielle M; Gross, Sonya E; Cooper, Matthew A

    2014-08-15

    Resilience is an active process that involves a discrete set of neural substrates and cellular mechanisms and enables individuals to avoid some of the negative consequences of extreme stress. We have previously shown that dominant individuals show less stress-induced changes in behavior compared to subordinates using a conditioned defeat model in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). To rule out pre-existing differences between dominants and subordinates, we examined whether 14 days of dominance experience is required to reduce the conditioned defeat response and whether the development of conditioned defeat resistance correlates with defeat-induced neural activation in select brain regions. We paired hamsters in daily 5-min aggressive encounters for 1, 7, or 14 days and then exposed animals to 3, 5-min social defeat episodes. The next day animals received conditioned defeat testing which involved a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. In separate animals brains were collected after social defeat for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. We found that 14-day dominants showed a decreased conditioned defeat response compared to 14-day subordinates and controls, while 1-day and 7-day dominants did not differ from their subordinate counterparts. Also, the duration of dominance relationship was associated with distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation such that only 14-day dominants showed elevated c-Fos immunoreactivity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, medial amygdala, and lateral portions of the ventral medial hypothalamus. Our data suggest that resistance to social stress develops during the maintenance of dominance relationships and is associated with experience-dependent neural plasticity in select brain regions.

  14. Ganciclovir inhibits human adenovirus replication and pathogenicity in permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Balakrishnan, Lata; Dewhurst, Stephen; Capella, Cristina; Buller, R Mark L; Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S M

    2014-12-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients can develop into deadly multiorgan or systemic disease. The virus is especially threatening for pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients; according to some studies, 10% or more of these patients succumb to disease resulting from adenovirus infection. At present, there is no drug approved for the treatment or prevention of adenovirus infections. Compounds that are approved to treat other virus infections are used off-label to combat adenovirus, but only anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of these drugs exists. Ganciclovir, a drug approved for the treatment of herpesvirus infection, was previously reported to be effective against human adenoviruses in vitro. To model adenovirus infections in immunocompromised humans, we examined ganciclovir's efficacy in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters intravenously infected with type 5 human adenovirus (Ad5). This animal model is permissive for Ad5 replication, and the animals develop symptoms similar to those seen in humans. We demonstrate that ganciclovir suppresses Ad5 replication in the liver of infected hamsters and that it mitigates the consequences of Ad5 infections in these animals when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. We show that ganciclovir inhibits Ad5 DNA synthesis and late gene expression. The mechanism of action for the drug is not clear; preliminary data suggest that it exerts its antiadenoviral effect by directly inhibiting the adenoviral DNA polymerase. While more extensive studies are required, we believe that ganciclovir is a promising drug candidate to treat adenovirus infections. Brincidofovir, a drug with proven activity against Ad5, was used as a positive control in the prophylactic experiment.

  15. Activation of cellular oncogenes by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, R.; Reiss, E.; Roellich, G.; Schiffmann, D. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (West Germany)); Barrett, J.C.; Wiseman, R.W. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); Pechan, R.

    1990-08-01

    Carcinogen-induced point mutations resulting in activation of ras oncogenes have been demonstrated in various experimental systems such as skin carcinogenesis, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis. In many cases, the data support the conclusion that these point mutations are critical changes in the initiation of these tumors. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model system has been widely used to study the multistep process of chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Recent data suggest that activation of the Ha-ras gene via point mutation is one of the crucial events in the transformation of these cells. The authors have now cloned the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene from SHE cDNA-libraries, and we have performed polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing to analyze tumor cell lines induced by different chemical carcinogens for the presence of point mutations. No changes were detectable at codons 12, 13, 59, 61, and 117 or adjacent regions in tumor cell lines induced by diethylstilbestrol, asbestos, benzo(a)pyrene, trenbolone, or aflatoxin B{sub 1}. Thus, it is not known whether point mutations in the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are essential for the acquisition of the neoplastic phenotype of SHE cells. Activation of other oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may be responsible for the neoplastic progression of these cells. However, in SHE cells neoplastically transformed by diethylstilbestrol or trenbolone, a significant elevation of the c-Ha-ras expression was observed. Enhanced expression of c-myc was detected in SHE cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or trenbolone.

  16. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  17. Negotiating health and life: Syrian refugees and the politics of access in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Sarah E; Behrouzan, Orkideh

    2015-12-01

    In the context of ongoing armed conflicts in Libya, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq, it is vital to foster nuanced understandings of the relationship between health, violence, and everyday life in the Middle East and North Africa. In this article, we explore how healthcare access interacts with humanitarian bureaucracy and refugees' daily experiences of exile. What are the stakes involved with accessing clinical services in humanitarian situations? How do local conditions structure access to healthcare? Building on the concept of "therapeutic geographies," we argue for the integration of local socio-political context and situated knowledge into understandings of humanitarian healthcare systems. Using evidence gathered from participant observation among Syrian and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, we demonstrate how procedures developed to facilitate care-such as refugee registration and insurance contracting-can interact with other factors to simultaneously prevent and/or disincentivize refugees' accessing healthcare services and expose them to structural violence. Drawing on two interconnected ethnographic encounters in a Palestinian refugee camp and in a Lebanese public hospital, we demonstrate how interactions surrounding the clinical encounter reveal the social, political, and logistical complexities of healthcare access. Moreover, rather than hospital visits representing discrete encounters with the Lebanese state, we contend that they reveal important moments in an ongoing process of negotiation and navigation within and through the constraints and uncertainties that shape refugee life. As a result, we advocate for the incorporation of situated forms of knowledge into humanitarian healthcare practices and the development of an understanding of healthcare access as nested in the larger experience of everyday refugee life.

  18. Somatic mutations in stilbene estrogen-induced Syrian hamster kidney tumors identified by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Deodutta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors. The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate, in a single step, DNA sequences representing genetic alterations in stilbene estrogen-induced cancer cells, including losses of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion and insertion mutations. RAPD-PCR provides an alternative molecular approach for studying cancer cytogenetics in stilbene estrogen-induced tumors in humans and experimental

  19. Curcuma oil ameliorates hyperlipidaemia and associated deleterious effects in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Misra, Ankita; Khanna, Vivek; Rana, Minakshi; Prakash, Prem; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2013-08-28

    Essential oil components from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) are documented for neuroprotective, anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. The present study aimed to investigate the disease-modifying potential of curcuma oil (C. oil), a lipophilic component from C. longa L., in hyperlipidaemic hamsters. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed a chow or high-cholesterol (HC) and fat-rich diet with or without C. oil (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) for 28 d. In HC diet-fed hamsters, C. oil significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TAG, and increased HDL-cholesterol when compared with the HC group. Similar group comparisons showed that C. oil treatment reduced hepatic cholesterol and oxidative stress, and improved liver function. Hyperlipidaemia-induced platelet activation, vascular dysfunction and repressed eNOS mRNA expression were restored by the C. oil treatment. Furthermore, aortic cholesterol accumulation and CD68 expression were also reduced in the C. oil-treated group. The effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg was comparable with the standard drug ezetimibe. Delving into the probable anti-hyperlipidaemic mechanism at the transcript level, the C. oil-treated groups fed the chow and HC diets were compared with the chow diet-fed group. The C. oil treatment significantly increased the hepatic expression of PPARa, LXRa, CYP7A1, ABCA1, ABCG5, ABCG8 and LPL accompanied by reduced SREBP-2 and HMGCR expression. C. oil also enhanced ABCA1, ABCG5 and ABCG8 expression and suppressed NPC1L1 expression in the jejunum. In the present study, C. oil demonstrated an anti-hyperlipidaemic effect and reduced lipid-induced oxidative stress, platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. The anti-hyperlipidaemic effect exhibited by C. oil seems to be mediated by the modulation of PPARa, LXRa and associated genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport.

  20. Effects of Fungal Pancreatic Enzymes on the Function of Islet Cells in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Nozawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Our previous studies showed that porcine pancreatic enzymes in Syrian golden hamsters with peripheral insulin resistance normalizes the plasma insulin level, reduces the size of enlarged islets and inhibits the increased DNA synthesis in the beta-cell of islets. Objective In order to exclude the possibility that these effects was attributed to some contaminants of this crude material, we tested the effect of purified fungal pancreatic enzyme (FPE that contains primarily amylase and lipase without (FPE and with addition of chymotrypsin (FPE+chy. Material and methods In a pilot study we tested the effect of different doses of FPE given in drinking water on insulin level, islet size and DNA synthesis of islet cells in hamsters with induced peripheral insulin resistance by a high fat diet. The most effective dose of FPE on these parameters was used in a long-term experiment with FPE and FPE+chy in hamsters fed a high-fat diet for 36 or 40 weeks. Results In the pilot study a dose of 2 g/kg body weight was found to be optimal for controlling the body weight, normalizing plasma insulin level, the size of islets, the DNA synthesis and the number of insulin cells in the islets. These data were produced in the long-term study, where steatorrhea was also inhibited. Addition of chymotrypsin had no effects on these parameters. Conclusion Pancreatic lipase and amylase appear to be responsible for the observed effects and offer a safe and effective natural product for the treatment of pancreatic diseases, including acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatic, cystic fibrosis and any conditions associated with peripheral insulin resistance, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The possible mechanism of the action is discussed.

  1. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Chapman, Jennifer; Asher, Ludmila; Fisher, Robert; Zimmerman, Michael; Larsen, Tom; Hooper, Jay W.

    2007-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) are rodent-borne hantaviruses that cause a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). There are no vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HPS, and the pathogenesis is not understood. Syrian hamsters infected with ANDV, but not SNV, develop a highly lethal disease that closely resembles HPS in humans. Here, we performed a temporal pathogenesis study comparing ANDV and SNV infections in hamsters. SNV was nonpathogenic and viremia was not detected despite the fact that all animals were infected. ANDV was uniformly lethal with a mean time to death of 11 days. The first pathology detected was lymphocyte apoptosis starting on day 4. Animals were viremic and viral antigen was first observed in multiple organs by days 6 and 8, respectively. Levels of infectious virus in the blood increased 4 to 5 logs between days 6 and 8. Pulmonary edema was first detected ultrastructurally on day 6. Ultrastructural analysis of lung tissues revealed the presence of large inclusion bodies and substantial numbers of vacuoles within infected endothelial cells. Paraendothelial gaps were not observed, suggesting that fluid leakage was transcellular and directly attributable to infecting virus. Taken together, these data imply that HPS treatment strategies aimed at preventing virus replication and dissemination will have the greatest probability of success if administered before the viremic phase; however, because vascular leakage is associated with infected endothelial cells, a therapeutic strategy targeting viral replication might be effective even at later times (e.g., after disease onset). PMID:17475651

  2. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  3. Pathogenesis and host response in Syrian hamsters following intranasal infection with Andes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Safronetz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, also referred to as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, is a rare but frequently fatal disease caused by New World hantaviruses. In humans HPS is associated with severe pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock; however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear largely due to a lack of suitable animal models for the study of disease progression. In this study we monitored clinical, virological, pathophysiological parameters and host immunological responses to decipher pathological factors and events in the lethal Syrian hamster model of HPS following intranasal inoculation of Andes virus. Transcriptional profiling of the host gene responses demonstrated a suppression of innate immune responses in most organs analyzed during the early stage of infection, except for in the lung which had low level activation of several pro-inflammatory genes. During this phase Andes virus established a systemic infection in hamsters, with viral antigen readily detectable in the endothelium of the majority of tissues analyzed by 7-8 days post-inoculation. Despite wide-spread infection, histological analysis confirmed pathological abnormalities were almost exclusively found in the lungs. Immediately preceding clinical signs of disease, intense activation of pro-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses were observed in the lungs as well as the heart, but not in peripheral organs, suggesting that localized immune-modulations by infection is paramount to pathogenesis. Throughout the course of infection a strong suppression of regulatory T-cell responses was noted and is hypothesized to be the basis of the aberrant immune activations. The unique and comprehensive monitoring of host immune responses to hantavirus infection increases our understanding of the immuno-pathogenesis of HPS and will facilitate the development of treatment strategies targeting deleterious host immunological responses.

  4. Frequency of BCR-ABL Transcript Types in Syrian CML Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaf Farhat-Maghribi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Syria, CML patients are started on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs and monitored until complete molecular response is achieved. BCR-ABL mRNA transcript type is not routinely identified, contrary to the recommendations. In this study we aimed to identify the frequency of different BCR-ABL transcripts in Syrian CML patients and highlight their significance on monitoring and treatment protocols. Methods. CML patients positive for BCR-ABL transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR were enrolled. BCR-ABL transcript types were investigated using a home-made PCR method that was adapted from published protocols and optimized. The transcript types were then confirmed using a commercially available research kit. Results. Twenty-four transcripts were found in 21 patients. The most common was b2a2, followed by b3a2, b3a3, and e1a3 present solely in 12 (57.1%, 3 (14.3%, 2 (9.5%, and 1 (4.8%, respectively. Three samples (14.3% contained dual transcripts. While b3a2 transcript was apparently associated with warning molecular response to imatinib treatment, b2a2, b3a3, and e1a3 transcripts collectively proved otherwise (P=0.047. Conclusion. It might be advisable to identify the BCR-ABL transcript type in CML patients at diagnosis, using an empirically verified method, in order to link the detected transcript with the clinical findings, possible resistance to treatment, and appropriate monitoring methods.

  5. Amygdalar orexinergic-GABAergic interactions regulate anxiety behaviors of the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Ennio; Alò, Raffaella; Carelli, Antonio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2011-04-15

    At present neurobiological interests are directing more attention towards the major role of the amygdalar GABA(A) receptor on orexin-dependent behaviors. This telencephalic region has been widely studied especially in view of its control on various psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Recently, cross-talking relationships between these two specific neuroreceptor systems of the central-cortical amygdalar complex has been considered an important element for anxiety type of behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of central amygdalar infusions with orexin-A, orexin-B±GABA(A) receptor α₂ subunit agonist (flunitrazepam) on elevated plus-maze and light-dark explorative behaviors of the facultative hibernating Syrian hamster. In a first case, it seemed that doses of orexin administered directly into the central nucleus were responsible for greater anxiogenic type of effects as shown by more time being spent both in the dark compartment and the closed arm of the elevated plus-maze, whereas, these effects were suppressed in the presence of flunitrazepam. At the cellular level, the effects of orexin accounted for evident argyrophilic reactions (neurodegeneration phenomena) including altered cell membrane and loss of cytoplasmic architecture in most amygdalar and hippocampal neuronal fields, while in the presence of flunitrazepam these reactions resulted to either be unappreciable or absent. Overall the actions of α₂-dependent inhibitory signals tend to corroborate, for the first time, a neuroprotective role against the over-excitatory orexinergic neurodegeneration reactions and thus its abnormal anxiety-like indications may prove to be therapeutically useful for orexin-dependent sleeping disorders.

  6. Effects of iloperidone, combined with desipramine, on alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Green, Alan I

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia dramatically worsens their clinical course, and few treatment options are available. Clozapine appears to reduce alcohol use in these patients, but its toxicity limits its use. To create a safer clozapine-like drug, we tested whether the antipsychotic iloperidone, a drug that combines a weak dopamine D2 receptor blockade and a potent norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor blockade would reduce alcohol drinking, and whether its effect on alcohol drinking could be increased if combined with an agent to facilitate norepinephrine activity. Syrian golden hamsters (useful animal model for screening drugs that reduce alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia) were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until stable drinking was established. Animals (n = 6-7/group), matched according to alcohol intake, were treated daily with each drug (iloperidone; clozapine; haloperidol; desipramine [norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor]; with idazoxan [norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor antagonist]) or with a two-drug (iloperidone + desipramine; iloperidone + idazoxan) combination for 14 days. Moderate doses of iloperidone (1-5 mg/kg) significantly reduced alcohol drinking (p hamster, whereas higher doses (10-20 mg/kg) did not. In addition, 5 mg/kg of iloperidone reduced alcohol drinking to the same extent as clozapine (8 mg/kg), whereas haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) did not. Moreover, iloperidone's effects were enhanced via the addition of desipramine (3 mg/kg), but not idazoxan (1.5/3 mg/kg). In this animal model, iloperidone decreases alcohol drinking as effectively as clozapine, and desipramine appears to amplify this effect. The data suggest that iloperidone, alone or in combination with desipramine, should be tested in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder.

  7. Serum amyloid P (female protein) of the Syrian hamster. Gene structure and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B

    1993-10-15

    The structure and expression of the gene encoding serum amyloid P (SAP) component of the Syrian hamster have been studied by isolation of cosmid clones, nucleotide sequence analyses, and quantitation of nuclear run-on transcripts, nuclear RNA, mRNA, and protein levels. Hamster SAP, originally identified as female protein (FP), is a unique pentraxin because pretranslational expression of this gene is modulated by mediators of inflammation and sex steroids. SAP(FP) levels are high in sera from female hamsters and low in males. The response to inflammation is divergent; SAP(FP) levels decrease in females and increase in males during an acute phase response. The SAP(FP) gene encodes a 211 amino acid residue mature polypeptide as well as a 22-residue signal peptide. The intron/exon organization is similar to that of other pentraxins, but additional transcripts are generated from alternate polyadenylation sites in the 3' region. Circulating levels of SAP(FP) and the corresponding hepatic transcript levels are augmented by estrogen, while testosterone, dexamethasone, and progesterone cause a decrease in these levels. In addition the cytokines interleukin-1, -6, and tumor necrosis factor mediate a decrease in hepatic SAP(FP) transcript levels in female hamsters but did not cause a significant elevation of SAP(FP) mRNA in livers of male hamsters. The differences in expression of the SAP(FP) gene between male and female hamsters and between unstimulated male hamsters and male hamsters stimulated with an injection of lipopolysaccharide are due, at least in part, to alterations in transcription.

  8. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  9. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    peninsular India through fluvial discharge. Since formation of palygorskite calls for an arid and hot climate and saline conditions, occurrence of this clay mineral in the sediments of the study area documents aeolian sediment contribution from Arabia...

  10. Emergency department musculoskeletal radiological requests abuse and patients attitude toward radiological exposure in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Montaser*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: People in Saudi Arabia expose to huge amount of radiological hazardous with a common believe that radiology is essential for diagnosis all musculoskeletal injuries. Wealthy medical system does not always lead to competent practice.

  11. Poor practice and knowledge among traditional birth attendants in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Siddig, M F

    2012-11-01

    To identify and understand knowledge and practice among traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a total of 111 TBAs were interviewed at Kassala, Eastern Sudan between March and April 2011. Hand-washing prior to the delivery was a universal practice but only 25.2% of the interviewed TBAs used sterilised equipment. TBAs in this study appeared to have a low level of awareness about when a mother should be referred to hospital, and lacked basic information on family planning and HIV/AIDS. None of these 111 TBAs knew or used equipment for neonatal resuscitation (such as bag, tube and mask) or knew neonatal signs that needed extra attention such as change in skin colour, weak suckling and respiratory distress, and nearly one-third (28.8%) of the respondents believed in a few days delay in milk production. Thus, substantial effort is needed to improve the knowledge and practice among TBAs in Eastern Sudan, including training programmes, and this might be the best hope to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  12. Mesozoic palynology and continental sediments in NE Africa (Egypt and Sudan) - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, E.

    In Egypt and Sudan most palynogical data are derived from predominantly clastic sequences in research wells for oil, water and other sedimentary deposits. The partly coal-bearing Middle Jurassic is characterized by dominance of pteridophytes while increasing percentages of gymnosperms may be noted in the Late Jurassic. The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary is difficult to define, but Ischyosporites-Cicatricosisporites assemblages have been interpreted as Late Jurassic and overlying assemblages with Impardecispora, Geicheniidites, Classopollis etc. as Neocomian. The appearance of rare early angiosperms and their subsequent rise is documented e.g. in the Six Hills (Barremian) and in the shallow marine Abu Ballas Formation (Aptian). More advanced angiosperm types (tricolpates, tricolporates, triporates) occur in the post-Aptian. Elater-bearing spores ( Elaterosporites) associated with Afropollis form a distinctive element of the Albian (to Early Cenomanian) palynofloras known from Northern Egypt and recently discovered in Northern Sudan. In the Coniacian-Santonian, the spinose tetrads of Droseridites senonicus and large tricolpate pollen of the Foveotricolpites giganteus group become the most characteristic members of the terrestrial palynofloras. Distinctly marine palynomorphs reach the middle latitudes of Egypt for the first time with the Campanian-Maastrichtian transgression. Reduced salinity in the Phosphate Formation is reflected by peridinoid (e.g. Andalusiella, Senegalinium) communities interfingering with pollen and spores dominated associations. More open marine conditions in the overlying Dakhla Shale are documented by the rise of cosmopolitan gonyaulacoids such as Spiniferites, Glaphyrocysta and Florentinia.

  13. Re-engineering the state, awakening the nation: Dams, islamist modernity and nationalist politics in Sudan

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    Maimuna Mohamud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how and why dam building has fulfilled a crucial role in hegemonic projects of elite consolidation and nation-building. By drawing on the case of Sudan’s Dam Programme and the associated propaganda the Khartoum government has produced, we show how the dams have not just served to materially restructure the Sudanese political economy but have also been essential in the attempted rekindling of the identity of both the regime and the country. Massive investment in hydro-infrastructure dovetailed with the political rebalancing of an authoritarian system in crisis, turning dam-builders into nation-builders: the message of the dams as midwife to a pious, prosperous and revitalised Sudan allowed it to reconcile the nationalism of its military and security wing with the enduring ambitions for transformation of its Islamist base. Dam building in Sudan, as elsewhere, has thus meant a physical redrawing of the landscape and intensified rent creation and seeking but also embodies a high modernist narrative that matches the interests and worldviews of very different constituencies. This, we argue, helps explain its salience in earlier periods of state-building and nation-building, as well as contemporarily

  14. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  15. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ≥1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ≥1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (pCoast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection.

  16. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-11-15

    Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, southern Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from Sudan EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004.

  17. Haemophilia Laboratory diagnosis training and care in Rural communities in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathelrahman M. Hassan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty nine per cent of people with hemophilia symptoms in rural areas were accessed to laboratory diagnosis and care support in Sudan, where technical expertise and health care facilities was less than optimal. There were many reasons for the inadequate care of hemophilic patients: the perception of rarity of the disease; lacked of laboratory facilities to diagnose the disorder; lacked of understanding of the disorder by patients, their relatives, and even healthcare providers; poorly developed blood bank facilities; and lacked of adequate factor supply were just some examples. The Sudanese Hemophilia Care Association (SHCA was attempted to address many of these issues by establishing hemophilia care programs and by educating and training healthcare practitioners so that a healthcare team could be organized that attempts to ameliorate these problems and provides treatment options. However, it was possible to manage hemophiliac’s patients with limited resources. Strategies for conserving factor concentrates were included education of doctors and patients, prenatal diagnosis, increasing the use of anti fibrinolytic agents, physiotherapy, the use of fibrin glue, and simple orthotics and prosthetic measures. An outreach program would be initiated to ensure that hemophilia care and diagnosis was available outside the capital city. Official recognition of hemophilia laboratory diagnosis and treatment centers and designated centers by the government could also be very beneficial in ensuring adequate care in rural areas in Sudan.

  18. Targeting trachoma control through risk mapping: the example of Southern Sudan.

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    Archie C A Clements

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a major cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. Its distribution has only been partially established and many communities in need of intervention have therefore not been identified or targeted. The present study aimed to develop a tool to improve targeting of survey and control activities. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national trachoma risk map was developed using Bayesian geostatistics models, incorporating trachoma prevalence data from 112 geo-referenced communities surveyed between 2001 and 2009. Logistic regression models were developed using active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular and/or trachomatous inflammation intense in 6345 children aged 1-9 years as the outcome, and incorporating fixed effects for age, long-term average rainfall (interpolated from weather station data and land cover (i.e. vegetation type, derived from satellite remote sensing, as well as geostatistical random effects describing spatial clustering of trachoma. The model predicted the west of the country to be at no or low trachoma risk. Trachoma clusters in the central, northern and eastern areas had a radius of 8 km after accounting for the fixed effects. CONCLUSION: In Southern Sudan, large-scale spatial variation in the risk of active trachoma infection is associated with aridity. Spatial prediction has identified likely high-risk areas to be prioritized for more data collection, potentially to be followed by intervention.

  19. A black sun in a white mind: In memory of Sudan mission 1848–1858

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Frelih

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ignacij Knoblehar (1819–1858 worked as a Catholic missionary in southern Sudan, in particular among the Bari people. He sent regular reports home about his work and many newspapers also published his letters. Above all, he became known when he sailed beyond 4° north latitude. He was the first European to carry out systematic measurements of the White Nile and his discoveries were reported in both Europe and America. While he lived there, Slovenians became acquainted for the first time in their history with a part of Africa. In 1850 he brought a large collection of diverse artifacts from the Nilotic peoples back to Ljubljana. These artifacts are preserved in the Slovene Ethnographic Museum today, and part of the collection was put on display in a temporary exhibition entitled “Sudan Mission 1848–1858” at the museum in May 2009. The arrival of a number of African children in Ljubljana arguably constituted the highpoint of this early Slovenian contact with Africa. Missionaries bought the children at a slave market and brought them back to Europe with the intention of training the boys to be priests and the girls to be nuns. However, the plan fell through because the children all died of pneumonia and tuberculosis. The public baptism of the African children and the relationship of the general public to them in the mid-nineteenth century helped shape stereotypical representations of Africans as well as certain forms of racial discrimination that are still present today.

  20. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon.

  1. Do grain reserves necessarily contribute to prices stability and food security in Sudan? An assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most governments in Africa implement policies aiming to stabilize the prices of staple foods, which often include building up grain reserves, besides other trade measures insulating their domestic market from the world market. The mechanism should ideally work as follows, grains should be bought and stored from areas, during the surplus seasons (after harvest so as to assure fair prices to producers and should be distributed during deficit seasons, in deficit areas besides in cases of emergencies. However, ideal approaches are not necessarily followed in many developing countries due to different constraints and situations. The Strategic Reserve Corporation (SRC is an institution that is established ten years ago to play such a role in Sudan. This paper tries to assess the performance of the SRC against the overall goals and to study the related obstacles if any. We use a sample of 112 respondents from the SRC staff, related and grain farmers as our data source. Results of the research revealed numerous financial and administrative constraints that obstruct SRC from playing the intended role, which need to be considered so as to contribute to price stability and food security in Sudan.

  2. Prevalence of Protozoa Species in Drinking and Environmental Water Sources in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8% amoebae, 17 (25.7% Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9% ciliates, and 5 (7.6% flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  3. Prevalence of protozoa species in drinking and environmental water sources in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  4. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  5. From emergency to social security in Sudan - part I: the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, M

    1990-09-01

    This is the first part of a two-part article which stresses the need to move away from short term emergency measures to a more general system of social security. A weakness in much of the thinking on food security in Sudan is its conception of a normally self-provisioning peasantry which is pushed into distress only as a consequence of exceptional external conditions. Food catastrophes are therefore seen as, essentially, temporary phenomena requiring emergency interventions. This article proposes a different view: that the commercial development of Sudan has engendered a crisis of subsistence synonymous with the collapse of indigenous support systems, the spread of absolute poverty and the erosion of the country's resource base. In the North this situation has come about through economic means and in the South through war. The spread of absolute poverty and the resulting vicious struggle for scarce resources cannot, however, be separated from the decay in governance. Part I of the article attempts to establish the interconnections between these elements and thereby to indicate the problems which a system of social security would have to overcome. Part II will examine the institutional consequences of the crisis, namely the imposition of a donor-led system of social security.

  6. A cross sectional study on reproductive health disorders in dairy cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.

  7. The experience of Chinese physicians in the national health diplomacy programme deployed to Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Gimbel, Sarah; Malik, Elfatih; Hassen, Sara; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Medical Teams have been working in developing countries since 1963 as a health diplomacy strategy. In 2010, 1252 Chinese medical personnel were assigned to 48 countries. We conducted a review of Chinese literature and governmental websites to describe the history and current distribution of Chinese Medical Teams around the world. In addition, we interviewed members of a 36-member Chinese Medical Team deployed to Sudan (primarily about their motivations to join the programme and the challenges and benefits they face), along with their Sudanese hosts. The most significant challenge health workers described was homesickness. Most members said they were able to maintain motivation through their curiosity and the doctor-friendly environment. All but two rated their own working performance as 'good' or 'very good', while their Sudanese colleagues consistently rated them even higher. Participants reported conflicting beliefs regarding the perceived responsibilities of the team and challenges around communication. Three pillars support the Chinese Medical Team programme in Sudan: bilateral government commitment, the professionalism of the Medical Teams, and the welcoming medical environment. Future success of this or similar Chinese programmes depend on the willingness of both governments to participate, the ongoing commitment of younger Chinese doctors, and the hospitality of physicians in the host country. There are also some threats to the programme, including a potentially diminishing need for Chinese doctors to support increasingly well-trained host country physicians.

  8. Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aujan S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ≥18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction

  9. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaid AI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ali I Swaid,1 Abdelkhalig H Elhilu,2 Mohamed S Mahfouz3 1Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85 enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results: Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively. Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32, while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39. Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively. The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%, while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion: It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Jazan University, internship program, gynecology and

  10. Oxidation of the carcinogenic non-aminoazo dye 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxy-naphthalene (Sudan I) by cytochromes P450 and peroxidases: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, Marie; Martínek, Václav; Semanská, Marcela; Hodek, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Cvačka, Josef; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Frei, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Sudan I [1-(phenylazo)-2-hydroxynaphthalene, C.I. Solvent Yellow 14, CAS No: 842-07-9] is used as the compound employed in chemical industry and to color materials such as hydrocarbon solvents, oils, fats, waxes, plastics, printing inks, shoe and floor polishes and gasoline. Such a wide used could result in a considerable human exposure. Sudan I is known to cause developments of tumors in the liver or urinary bladder in rats, mice, and rabbits, and is considered a possible weak human carcinogen and mutagen. This carcinogen is also a potent contact allergen and sensitizer. Here, we compare the data concerning the Sudan I oxidative metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and peroxidase enzymes, which has been investigated in our laboratory during the last two decades. These two types of enzymes are responsible both for Sudan I detoxication and activation. Among the Sudan I metabolites, C-hydroxylated derivatives and a dimer of Sudan I are suggested to be the detoxication metabolites formed by CYPs and peroxidases, respectively. Metabolic activation of Sudan I by both types of enzymes leads to formation of reactive species (the benzenediazonium ion by CYP and Sudan I radicals by peroxidase) that bind to DNA and RNA, generating covalent adducts in vitro and in vivo. Whereas the structure of the major adduct formed by the benzenediazonium ion in DNA has already been identified to be the 8-(phenylazo)guanine adduct, the structures of adducts formed by peroxidase, have not been characterized as yet. Biological significance of the DNA adducts of Sudan I activated with CYP and peroxidase enzymes and further aims of investigations in this field are discussed in this study. PMID:21217854

  11. Success Factors Contributing to eGovernment Adoption in Saudi Arabia: G2C approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abunadi, Ibrahim; Sanzogni, Louis; Sandhu, Kuldeep; Woods, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is predetermined to implement eGovernment and provide world-class government services to citizens by 2010. However, this initiative will be meaningless if the people did not adopt these electronic services. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine success factors that will facilitate the adoption of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia. The results of the literature review have been deployed into surveys with Saudi eGovernment users. The discussion of the analysis from results...

  12. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take c...

  13. Motivation for domestic tourism : a case study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogari, Naima Bakor

    2002-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...

  14. Chronic Hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia: Three Years Local Experience in a University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Hisham O; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Qattan, Faten; Fallatah, Hind I.; Al Rumani, Maha

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a global infection. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of CHC is declining due to the implementation of a blood screening program. However, CHC still remains a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives This is a retrospective study of CHC patients at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods Out of a total of 291 CHC patients from the hepatology clinic at King Abdul Aziz University h...

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P

  16. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... January 10, 2012 Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan... of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations, I hereby certify that members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in...

  17. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  18. 76 FR 63635 - Extension of the Designation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... displaced persons, and the sharing of vital natural resources, such as Nile River water and oil reserves in... humanitarian crisis in Sudan. Sporadic eruptions of political and intercommunal violence caused civilian deaths... factors, have created one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world. Despite encouraging incidents...

  19. Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis along the Nile River north of Khartoum (Sudan) in the aftermath of an epidemic in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadaro, A Y; Ghalib, H W; Ali, M S

    1993-01-01

    Based on a pilot clinical study of the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) among school children in villages on both banks of the Nile River north of Khartoum, Sudan in the aftermath of a 1985 epidemic, we studied a random sample (303 individuals) from one of these villages to determine...

  20. Spatial distribution of populations of solitarious adult desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsk.) on the coastal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldewahid, G.; Werf, van der W.; Huis, van A.; Stein, A.

    2004-01-01

    1 Densities of solitarious adult desert locusts were measured on regular grids of up to 126 sample sites in the southern part of the coastal plain of Sudan during the winters of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Geostatistical procedures were used to characterize spatial dependence of locust density, to eval

  1. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method.

  2. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum fuel

  3. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  4. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  5. Satisfaction of trainees of Saudi Diploma Family Medicine, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; AlDawood, Kassim M; AlKhudeer, Basima K; AlSaqqaf, Abdullah A

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to assess trainees' satisfaction with the process and assessment aspects of the Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine (SDFM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2015 among trainees undertaking the SDFM. A questionnaire was distributed to all trainees in four examination centres in Saudi Arabia, under the supervision and guidance of the investigators (four members of the scientific committee of SDFM). There was a total of 97 participants in this study, the majority of whom were Saudis. More than 85% were satisfied with most elements of training including; an adequate number and variety of patients and cases, allocating time for training, giving regular written evaluation. Satisfaction with mentoring and giving constructive feedback scored less well and trainees were less satisfied with some hospital clinical rotations, which requires further exploration.

  6. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  7. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

  8. C.N.S. tumors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A W

    1992-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the total captured cases (1,568 cases of malignant tumors at all sites). The population of the Eastern Province is estimated to be 1.37 million, the Saudis forming 80% of the total population. Out of the 85 cases captured over two years, there were 64 cases diagnosed in indigenous Saudi population forming 75%. The remaining occurred in non-Saudi residents. The male/female ratio in Saudis was 1:1.1 with a slight predominance of the female, while the reverse is true in the non-Saudis (2:1). The total captured cases per annum is 43, making the incidence of primary CNS neoplasms in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 3.1/100,000 of all the population and 2.9/100,000 in Saudi nationals. Comparing this incidence to the international figure, it was clear that it is far less than the incidence reported from North America and Europe, particularly in the Caucasian population, but similar to incidences reported in the Chinese, black Americans, Romanians and Yugoslavians, but certainly less than the Ashkenazi or Safari Jews, and slightly higher than the incidence reported in Japan and Southeast Asia. Malignant brain tumors of various types dominated the primary CNS neoplasms reported over these two years forming 69% of the cases and 52% of the primary brain tumors.

  9. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  10. Centro de Conferencias, Hotel y Mezquita Riyadh - Arabia Saudita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannatt, Trevor

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.

    El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.

  11. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Ali I; Elhilu, Abdelkhalig H; Mahfouz, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Background Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85) enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively). Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32), while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39). Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively). The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%), while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:28203115

  12. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.

  13. Altering Courses in Unknown Waters: Interaction between Traditional and New Media during the first Months of the Syrian Uprising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Trombetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This papers aims at investigating the relationship between traditional and social media during the first six months of the Syrian uprising. Thanks to direct testimony made available to the author by various cyber activists inside and outside Syria and through constant monitoring of the official propaganda and the coverage of the Syrian events by the two main pan-Arab satellite TVs, this article intends to investigate how both the regime and the activists attempt to represent the “real events on the ground”. In a country where the foreign and pan-Arab press have been mostly expelled since the beginning of the protests and the consequent repression, these two opposite poles heavily fight on the media level. On the one hand, the propaganda dominates traditional media and has sought to show familiarity with new methods, while maintaining the same content and rhetorical tone. On the other hand, the activists, masters of the new media, attempted to overcome the limitations of their tools, aiming at more traditional forms of communication. In both cases, the Internet has emerged as the main weapon of this media confrontation.

  14. Analysis of constant tissue remodeling in Syrian hamster Harderian gland: intra-tubular and inter-tubular syncytial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coto-Montes, Ana; García-Macía, Marina; Caballero, Beatriz; Sierra, Verónica; Rodríguez-Colunga, María J; Reiter, Russel J; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) has a marked sexual dimorphism and exhibits an extraordinary rate of porphyrinogenesis. The physiological oxidative stress, derived from constant porphyrin production, is so high that the HG needs additional survival autophagic mechanisms to fight against this chronic exposure, provoking the triggering of a holocrine secretion in female glands that forms two types of secretory masses: intra-tubular-syncytial and inter-tubular-syncytial masses. The aim of this work was to study the development of this inter-tubular holocrine secretion. To approach this task, we have considered that the steps developed during the formation of the so-called invasive masses consist of the growth of epithelial cells, cell detachment from the basal lamina and invasion of surrounding tissues. The presence of these masses, particularly in the female HG, are closely linked to sexual dimorphism in redox balance and to alterations in the expression of certain factors such as cytokeratins, P-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin H, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53, CD-31 and vascular endothelial growth factor, which seem to be involved in tissue remodeling. The results document unusual mechanisms of secretion in Syrian hamster HG: an extraordinary system of massive secretion through the conjunctive tissue, disrupting the branched structure of the gland.

  15. Acute toxicity of polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenol ether in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damon, E.G. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM); Halliwell, W.H.; Henderson, T.R.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response studies were conducted with Syrian hamsters exposed to polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) via inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage. Syrian hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of Triton X-100 with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 ..mu..m and a concentration of 3.0 mg/liter. Estimated initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 ranged from 800 to 3100 ..mu..g. Hamsters were lavaged with concentrations of Triton X-100 ranging from 0.01 to 0.10% in isotonic saline resulting in initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 that ranged from 300 to 3200 ..mu..g. The LD50/7 values were 1700 ..mu..g (1300 to 2100 ..mu..g, 95% confidence limits) for the inhalation study and 2100 (1900 to 2700) ..mu..g for the lavage study. The difference between the LD50/7 values for the two methods of exposure was not significant. However, histopathological examination revealed differences in the nature and distribution of pathologic changes observed in animals exposed by the two routes of administration. Animals exposed by inhalation died as a result of ulcerative laryngitis and laryngeal edema with only minimal pulmonary pathologic alterations. Animals exposed by lavage, where the larynx was not exposed to Triton X-100, died from pulmonary edema and acute exudative pneumonia. These results demonstrate the need for careful selection of exposure methods to meet the specific objectives of a toxicology study.

  16. Assessment of milk ring test and some serological tests in the detection of Brucella melitensis in Syrian female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Ramadan, Lila; Akel, Rand

    2011-04-01

    Brucella melitensis infection prevalence among Syrian female sheep, to evaluate a number of serological tests and to discuss some epidemiological aspects of brucellosis, was studied. A total of 2,580 unvaccinated Syrian female sheep sera samples were tested for B. melitensis antibodies detection using four serological methods: the Rose Bengal test (RBT), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the complement fixation test (CFT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). In addition, 2,375 milk samples were collected, then milk ring test (MRT) and bacterial isolation test were employed to evaluate the natural organism shedding. The samples were considered positive in 66%, 64%, and 60% when we employed the RBT, SAT, and iELISA tests, respectively. Whereas, the CFT test revealed the smallest number of positive samples. By using the MRT, the total prevalence of brucellosis was nearly 38% of samples. A large variation was observed concerning the studied areas, ranging from 24% in Tartous to 44% in both Damascus and Damascus rural areas. Brucella was isolated from only 677 samples out of the 2,375 female sheep milk samples.

  17. A 1-bp deletion in Fgf5 causes male-dominant long hair in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuhiro; Wada, Kenta; Shimoi, Gaku; Shiomi, Gaku; Kameyama, Yuichi; Wakabayashi, Yuichi; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Hashizume, Ryoichi

    2015-12-01

    Hair length in mammals is generally regulated by the hair cycle, and its disruption leads to abnormal hair morphogenesis in several species. FGF5, one of the hair cycle regulators, has a role in inducing catagen, and that mutation causes abnormal hair length in both sexes in humans, mice, dogs, and cats. Male-dominant long-haired coat (MALC) is an inbred strain of Syrian hamster exhibiting spontaneous long hair in males. After castration, MALC exhibited significantly shorter hair than the control individuals, but testosterone administration to castrated MALC showed reversion to the original phenotype. Moreover, flutamide administration led to MALC phenotype repression. Histological analysis revealed that hair follicle regression was shown in the wild-type 4 weeks after depilation, but that of MALC remained in the anagen phase. We detected a c.546delG of Fgf5 in MALC (Fgf5malc) that might lead to truncation resulting from a frame shift in FGF5 (p.Arg184GlyfsX6). Additionally, homozygous Fgf5malc was only detected in long-haired (Slc:Syrian×MALC)F2 and (J-2-Nn×MALC)F2 progenies, and all homozygous wild and heterozygous Fgf5malc individuals showed normal hair length. Thus, Fgf5malc leads to male-dominant long hair via a prolonged anagen phase which is affected by testosterone in hamsters. To our knowledge, this report is the first to present the sexual dimorphism of hair length caused by the Fgf5 mutation.

  18. Research Progress in Toxicity of Sudan%苏丹红的毒性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明; 侯进

    2012-01-01

    苏丹红是人工合成的偶氮化合物,属工业染料,不能用作食品添加剂.苏丹红在体内能够代谢成相应的胺类物质,主要包括苯胺、萘酚等,均为有毒的有机化合物.食品中的苏丹红给人类健康构成了潜在的严重威胁.大量毒理学研究证实,苏丹红有致癌性,遗传毒性,代谢产物毒性,致敏性等毒性作用.苏丹红与食品安全及人类健康息息相关,只有加强对苏丹红的认识研究及卫生监督,才能更好地保障食品卫生安全和人类健康.%Sudan is synthetic azo compound and a kind of industrial dye, which is not allowed to be used as food additives. Sudan can be metabolized in vivo into corresponding amines such as aniline and naphthol, which are all toxic organic compounds. Current study shows sudan in food poses a potential serious threat to human health. A large number of toxicological studies confirmed that sudan has carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, metabolite toxicity and allergenicity. In order to protect the safety of food hygiene and human health, the government should strengthen the knowledge, study and health supervision of sudan.

  19. Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgadir Tareg M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of fevers and their management in areas of low malaria transmission in Africa is not well understood. The characteristics of fever, its treatment and association with infection prevalence from a national household sample survey in the northern states of Sudan, an area that represents historically low parasite prevalence, are examined in this study. Methods In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT. All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering. Results Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299 reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035 of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875 were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382 of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP and 13% (n = 122 with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296 of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who

  20. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the

  1. Arabicization in high education: The case of medical colleges in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadni Suliman, Issameldin

    This thesis explores language policies, language conflict and language-user attitudes toward arabicization which refers to the use of Arabic as a medium of instruction in teaching medicine in universities in the Sudan. It follows up these objectives: (1) To highlight the roots of arabicization and implemented language planning activities through document analysis. (2) To report on the advantages and disadvantages of both Arabic and English as media of instruction in teaching medicine in the Sudan. (3) To survey the attitudes of students and their instructors in the colleges of Khartoum, Omdurman and Gezira universities towards arabicization using two similar developed questionnaires and an interview for faculty members. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and faculty members in the three colleges to probe six factors: (I) The extent of use of languages of instruction (2) Readiness of the students to receive medical studies in English (3) The difficulties they face (4) English as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (5) Arabic as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (6) Students' preference of a language of instruction. The study utilized tables, charts and chi square tests to illustrate the attitudes of students and their faculty members. The study has revealed that the attitude of most of the students and their faculty members were in favor of arabicization in principle. In fact, students showed support for the pedagogical benefits of Arabic like they can prepare and study in Arabic in less time than English. They can take more notes in Arabic than in English. The study has highlighted that Arabic as a native language of the students offers them a mighty and indispensable support for the ability to convey ideas, capacity for imaginative or creative thinking than the limited capacity given by the foreign language. Notwithstanding, English is reported to be very important for students' current medical studies and future career. The

  2. A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area,Blue Nile state (Sudan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Ibrahim; Romig Thomas; Kern Peter; Rihab All Omer

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD).Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan.Methods A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2

  3. Sudan; Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Debt Sustainability Analysis; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; Statement by the Executive Director

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    Sudan has been adversely affected by the global crisis through a sharp decline in oil receipts. Executive Directors welcomed the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP), which aimed to reduce the fiscal deficit, tighten monetary stance, and increase exchange rate flexibility. Directors urged the authorities to maintain prudent macroeconomic policies and to accelerate fiscal and financial sectors as well as structural reforms. Directors agreed that progress on debt relief under HIPC for Sudan is essenti...

  4. Transitional coordination in Sudan (2006-08): lessons from the United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John N

    2013-07-01

    With the increase in internal conflicts following the end of the Cold War, the scale and scope of the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict environments grew markedly. As a result, the coordination of programming and policy in the transition from relief to recovery has been a central preoccupation of academics and practitioners alike. Intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) have made these topics a subject of regular discussion, while some countries have altered their bureaucratic structures to respond more effectively in post-crisis settings, particularly in cases involving the deployment of national troops. The United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office in Sudan provides a model for other transitional countries and is a useful case study of the broader challenges of post-crisis programming. Effective coordination structures and planning/programming processes are identified as interdependent prerequisites for ensuring a successful transition from relief to recovery.

  5. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Leff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  6. A survey of antimicrobial residues in table eggs in Khartoum State, Sudan, 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sirdar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The risk to consumers of antimicrobial residues in table eggs produced in Khartoum State, Sudan, was studied. All producing layer farms (n = 175 in the state were sampled in April, June and August 2008. A total of 933 eggs from 335 layer houses were screened for antimicrobial residues by using the growth inhibition of Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis in-house test. A high proportion of layer farms (72% in April, 61% in June and 66% in August and layer houses (63% April, 59% in June and 61% in August were found to have antimicrobial residues, with no significant difference in prevalence (p = 0.57 between study periods. The study showed that the consumer was at constant risk of exposure to antimicrobial residues in table eggs. The paper discusses reasons for the high prevalence of antimicrobial residues in Sudanese eggs and its implications, and makes recommendations to address this important public health problem.

  7. Lay perceptions of malaria and therapeutic itinerary of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 95% of South Sudan is malaria-endemic and transmission is high throughout the year. Annually, 2.3 million people are at risk of malarial infection, but children under 5 years, pregnant women and their unborn children are particularly at high risk. Appropriate policies...... The study showed that the therapeutic itinerary was prompted by fever and composed of five steps that were simultaneously or successively explored. The household and community constitute the first-line treatment options for fever. Interviewees relied on homemade remedies and concoctions, traditional healers......' cures, magician's rituals and private formal and informal medicine vendors at the local market before seeking malarial diagnosis and treatment at the health centre. Conclusions Improving capacities for proper identification and management of malarial fever at household and community level is a priority...

  8. The mythology of the killer deciduous canine tooth in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, S P; Kay, E J

    1989-01-01

    In Southern Sudan it is a commonly held belief that the unerupted deciduous canine tooth is injurious to the health of infants and that it causes diarrheal diseases. The teeth are therefore often removed by native extractors in an attempt to alleviate the symptoms of these dangerous diseases. This study examined the prevalence of this practice among babies presenting at a hospital, and examined the health status of the infants involved. The 90 infants in the study had all had at least one deciduous tooth removed, and the great majority were suffering from dehydration, caused by various abdominal diseases. It is clear that an educational campaign aimed at reducing the prevalence of this practice is required.

  9. A marked seasonality of malaria transmission in two rural sites in eastern Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamad, Amel A; Nugud, Abd El Hamid D; Arnot, David E;

    2002-01-01

    . The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was estimated to be around two to three infective bites per person per year, although heterogeneity in the transmission indices of malaria between the two villages was observed. The implications of these patterns of anopheline population dynamics for the epidemiology......The ecology of Anopheles arabiensis and its relationship to malaria transmission was investigated in two villages in eastern Sudan. Seasonal malaria case incidence was compared with the number of vectors detected and with climatic variables. Following the end of the short rainy season in October...... season between February and May, sporadic asymptomatic malaria infections were detected in the two villages. The low endemicity of malaria in the area was reflected by the relatively low total September-December parasite and sporozoite rates (15 and 1.4%, respectively) measured in the villages...

  10. Assesment of Vegetation Cover Status in Dry Lands of The Sudan Using Social and Terrestrial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hamed Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted in 2015 in Bara Locality, North Kordofan, Sudan. The study area has experienced recurrent drought spells since 1970s of the past century. The main objective of this study was to assess and map the vegetation cover in the area using social, terrestrial and remotely sensed data. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, the study was based on qualitative and quantitative data. In qualitative data, household survey was conducted in which 100 respondents were randomly interviewed. Quantitative data was collected using terrestrial inventory and satellite imageries. In terrestrial inventory, 22 ground control points (GCPs were randomly registered using GPS in order to get general overview of the land cover of the study area. In each GCP, tree species by number was inventoried within an area of 1 ha. Remote sensing data, covering the target study area, were acquainted using LANDSAT5 imageries (2014 with spatial resolution of 30×30 m. Results of the household survey revealed that only 13 shrub/tree species mentioned by 45% of the respondents, while only 9 woody species were identified, belonging to 8 families from terrestrial inventory. The results of the household survey, 45% of the respondents, indicated that vegetation cover was very good 20 years ago. The study categorized the present land cover as woody vegetation (19%, Acacia senegal stands (5%, shrubs i.e. Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Acacia nubica (18%, small scale farms and grasses (19% and sandy soil and dunes (39%. The results of the land cover distribution indicated that vegetation cover decreased by 24% while sand/sand dunes was increased by 21% from 1985 to 2015. The study concluded that the study area is under threat of land degradation that may lead to depletion of vegetation cover and decline land productivity. Keywords: Acacia senegal, land cover, remote sensing, sand dune, Sudan.   Pengukuran Status Penutupan Vegetasi di Lahan Kering

  11. Sudan research says listen to what people really want in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C

    1998-03-01

    A recent Oxfam study in south Sudan indicates that reproductive health care (RHC) remains important to communities during crisis situations. RHC involves emergency obstetrics, family planning, prenatal care, prevention and management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV infection, treatment of unsafe abortions, and prevention of female genital mutilation. A needs assessment revealed that all of the respondents were concerned about STDs and about infertility. Service providers and community members targeted different needs. For example, service providers maintained that induced abortion did not occur, but people reported deaths from self-induced abortion. The findings led to the recommendations that service provision be changed to prevent and treat STDs, that needs assessments be conducted among different age and sex groups, and that RHC be addressed in emergency situations.

  12. Book Review: Al-Seghayer, Khalid 2011, English Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Status, Issues, and Challenges, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Hala Print CO. 175 pages, ISBN 978-6030079254

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghsoon Reda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this book, Khalid Al-Seghayer offers a thorough study of the history and status of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, highlighting deficiencies and suggesting remedies in an attempt to cure the current standards of English education, particularly in public schools which, in his own words, “have deteriorated perhaps beyond hope of recovery” (p. 95.

  13. Studies on biology and ecology of Galeatus scrophicus Saunders (Hemiptera: Tingidae in Sudan

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    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among insect fauna reported in Sudan, Galeatus scrophicus Saunders, was detected earlier in last century, and known as a pest of sunflower. Nevertheless, very limited research works have yet been conducted on this pest. Therefore, this study was proposed to cover certain bio-ecological aspects of G. scrophicus, including host range, geographical and intra-host distributions, seasonal abundance and life cycle of pre-adult stages. Such parameters were fulfilled through surveys, field experiments and laboratory works. The results revealed seven host plants for the pest under the family Compositae, viz., Helianthus annus L., Lactuca sativa L., Lactuca taraxifolia (Willd. Schumach, Sonchus cornutus Hochst. Ex Oliv.+ Hiern, Sonchus oleraceus L., Xanthium brasilicum Vell. and Pluchea diosecoridis (L. DC., all of them, except the former species, were new records. Higher numbers of nymphs and adults were reported on the upper surfaces than on the lower sides of plant leaves. However, the pest was found in all sunflower areas in central Sudan. The seasonal counts showed that the highest population of the pest occurred in winter as compared with autumn season. On the other hand, the mean total durations of pre-imaginal stages were shorter in autumn (14.12 ± 0.15 days than in winter (25.27 ± 0.26 season. Therefore, some detrimental factors that seem to suppress the pest population buildup in autumn were suggested, and recommended for additional studies so as to design appropriate ecologically sound control measures.

  14. Investigation of hepatitis E outbreak among refugees - Upper Nile, South Sudan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    During the week of July 2, 2012, the deaths of two pregnant women and one child were reported by household mortality surveillance in Jamam refugee camp, Maban County, Upper Nile State, South Sudan. All were reported to have yellow eyes before death. During July 27-August 3, 2012, three adult males with acute onset jaundice were admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) hospital in Jamam camp; two died within 4 days of admission. The Republic of South Sudan Ministry of Health, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), CDC, and humanitarian organizations responded through enhanced case surveillance, a serosurvey investigation, and targeted prevention efforts. As of January 27, 2013, a total of 5,080 acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) cases had been reported from all four Maban County refugee camps (Doro, Gendrassa, Jamam, and Yusuf Batil). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was confirmed in a convenience sample of cases in each camp. A cross-sectional serosurvey conducted in Jamam camp in November 2012 indicated that 54.3% of the population was susceptible to HEV infection. Across all camps, an AJS case-fatality rate (CFR) of 10.4% was observed among pregnant women. The outbreak response has focused on improving safe drinking water availability, improving sanitation and hygiene, conducting active case finding, and optimizing clinical care, especially among pregnant women. Sustaining these improvements, along with strengthening community outreach, is needed to improve outbreak control. Further investigation of the potential role for the newly developed HEV vaccine in outbreak control also is needed.

  15. Quaternized chitosan/silver nanoparticles composite as a SERS substrate for detecting tricyclazole and Sudan I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kaihang; Shen, Zuguang [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Jiwen, E-mail: holdit@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoying, E-mail: xyw@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun, Runcang [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Institute of Biomass Chemistry and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis optimization of Ag NPs with quaternized chitosan (QCS) was studied. • The size of Ag NPs was tuned by changing the DS and Mw of QCS. • QCS/Ag NPs exhibited much better SERS performance than Ag NPs without free QCS. • QCS/Ag NPs as SERS substrate detected tricyclazole in low concentration of 50 ppb. • QCS/Ag NPs as SERS substrate detected Sudan I with the detection limit of 10 ppm. - Abstract: There is an urgent need to develop a highly sensitive detection system for detecting trace amounts of food contaminants. In this study, optimal synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with stable and narrow size distribution in the range of 15–25 nm was performed under microwave irradiation, using quaternized chitosan (QCS) as reducing and stabilizing agent. The results showed that the ratio of QCS to [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +}, reaction temperature, irradiation time, the degree of substitution (DS) and molecular weight (Mw) of QCS had obvious effects on the formation, particle size and size distribution of Ag NPs. In addition, utilizing QCS/Ag NPs composite as SERS substrate, tricyclazole and Sudan I could be rapidly and sensitively detected with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 50 ppb and 10 ppm, respectively. Compared with previously reported works, our detection system are of great stability and operability. The QCS was coated on the surface of Ag core, avoiding aggregation of Ag NPs and creating hot spots, in turn, providing superior amplification of SERS. Thus, it is believed that the QCS/Ag NPs composite could be considered as an ideal SERS-active substrate for detection of food contaminants.

  16. First record and bionomics of the mycophagous ladybird Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildews caused by several fungi, particularly of the genera Erysiphe, Sphaerotheca and Leveillula, are destructive diseases of various cultivated and wild plants during winter season (December–March in Sudan. Application of synthetic fungicides is the only control measure practiced. Fortuitously, during a field survey, congregations of coccinellid adults and grubs were found associated with powdery mildews on a wild plant, Xanthium brasilicum Vell., locally known as “Ramtouk”, at Shambat area/Khartoum North. Therefore, the insect was subjected to some bionomical studies conducted during winter season 2011/12. Emphasis was devoted to morphometric investigations, supported with life cycle durations and seasonal trend on the foregoing host. Accordingly, the species was recognized as Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Muls., a well known powdery mildew feeder in several countries. This is the first record of a mycophagous insect in Sudan. Hence, the important morphological features of the different stages were presented. The rearing of the insect on powdery mildew infected Ramtouk leaves in the laboratory (27.50 ± 3.75 °C and 15.83 ± 3.82% R.H. revealed that the mean total lifecycle from egg to adult was 25.28 ± 1.57 days. The insect appeared on X. brasilicum in a very small number in December, peaked in February, and then gradually declined thereafter coinciding with an increase in temperature and a decrease in powdery mildew infection. So far, the real distribution of this mycophagous species and its host range are waiting for more investigations. Meticulous bio-ecological studies are important to ascertain the proper habitat for such insect throughout the year, and to evaluate its potential role as a biocontrol agent for the powdery mildews.

  17. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3μgkg(-1), 1-50μgkg(-1), 50-28,000μgkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration.

  18. Simultaneous determination of four Sudan dyes in rat blood by UFLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhu; Yijun Chen; Changshun Huanga; Yangyang Han; Yiwei Zhang; Shucan Xie; Xiaohong Chen; Micong Jin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Sudan Ⅰ, Sudan Ⅱ, Sudan Ⅲ, and Sudan Ⅳ levels in rat whole blood. Cleanert C18 mixed-mode polymeric sorbent was used for effective solid-phase extraction cleanup. Separation was carried out on a reversed-phase C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water/0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile as the mobile phase in gradient elution. Quantification was performed by an electrospray ionization source in the positive multiple reaction monitoring mode using D5-Sudan I as the internal standard. Calibration curves showed good linearity between 0.2 and 20.0 μg/L, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9990. The average recovery rates were between 93.05% and 114.98%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were within 6.2%. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2 μg/L. All the analytes were found to be stable in aseries of stability studies. The proposed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of four Sudan dyes after oral administration to rats.

  19. A new strategy for determination of bisphenol A in the presence of Sudan I using a ZnO/CNTs/ionic liquid paste electrode in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    The electrochemistry of bisphenol A (BPA) was studied by voltammetric methods at a surface of carbon paste electrode modified by a ZnO/CNTs nanocomposite and room-temperature ionic liquid of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide. The ratio of ZnO/CNTs and ionic liquid (IL) on the surface of the electrode has to be controlled carefully because the charging currents. The anodic peaks of BPA and Sudan I in their mixture can be well separated. At pH 7.0 the two peaks are separated ca. 0.47 and 0.70 V, respectively; hence BPA can be determined in the presence of Sudan I and more than 8.7 times current excess of BPA. The peaks current of square wave voltammograms (SWV) of BPA and Sudan I increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.002-700 μmol L(-1)BPA and 0.2-800 μmol L(-1) Sudan I. The detection limits for BPA and Sudan I were 9.0 nmol L(-1) and 80 nmol L(-1), respectively. The modified electrode has been successfully applied for the assay of BPA in food samples. This study provides a simple and easy approach to selectively detect BPA in the presence of Sudan I.

  20. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek; Meyer, Otto; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard; Poulsen, Morten

    2008-09-24

    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs in potato tubers has previously been shown to increase substantially as a result of improper handling and postharvest storage. A short-term study was performed to investigate the dose-response profile of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine alone or in combination, administered daily by oral gavage to Syrian Golden hamsters. Daily doses of 100 mg of alpha-solanine [kg body weight (BW)] (-1) induced death in two of four hamsters within 4 days, when administered by gavage to female Syrian hamsters. Doses of 100 mg of alpha-chaconine alone or alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine combined in a ratio of 1:2.5, in doses of 75 or 100 mg (kg BW) (-1), induced death in one of four hamsters within the same period. Animals dosed with alpha-solanine alone or in combination with alpha-chaconine suffered from fluid-filled and dilated small intestines. The GA administration had no effect on acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) activity in plasma or brain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics showed that there was a specific accumulation of alpha-chaconine in the liver tissues. In addition, metabolomics gave direct evidence of glycolytic metabolism of the GA with the beta 1, beta 2, and gamma-GAs detected in the urine and, to a lesser extent, the feces. Doses from 75 mg (kg BW) (-1) of alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, or the two compounds combined were potentially lethal within 4-5 days in the Syrian Golden hamster. However, the cause of death in these studies could not be established. No synergistic effects of alpha-solanine combined with alpha-chaconine were evident.