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Sample records for arabia clinical variables

  1. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

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    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers.

  2. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

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    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  3. Towards integration of health economics into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia.

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    Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M

    2015-04-01

    In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.

  4. Strategic initiatives to maintain pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacists sufficiency in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulkareem M Albekairy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1 instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2 expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3 offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4 recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem.

  5. Dental students’ perceptions of undergraduate clinical training in oral and maxillofacial surgery in an integrated curriculum in Saudi Arabia

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    Mahmoud Al-Dajani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to understand dental students’ experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students’ confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice. Methods: The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student’s confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident. A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted. Results: The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%, understanding extraction indications (93.8%, and performing simple extractions (90.6%. Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%, extracting molars with separation (50.0% or extracting third molars (56.3%. The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55, ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student’s confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003. Conclusion: It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students’ confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported.

  6. Autoimmune hepatitis: Single-center experience of clinical presentation, response to treatment and prognosis in Saudi Arabia

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    Fallatah Hind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background /Aim : Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a common cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide. It is a disease prevalent in children and adults, with female predominance and variable clinical presentations. AIH has favorable responses to steroids and immunomodulators. Diagnosis of AIH is based on clinical and laboratory criteria, as suggested by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group. Data on the disease pattern of AIH from the Middle East countries is scarce. Materials and Methods : In this retrospective analysis, we studied clinical and laboratory features, immunological data, radiological findings, liver biopsy findings and response to therapy in patients with AIH from the hepatology clinics of King Abdul Aziz, University Hospital, Jeddah, from 1994 to 2008. Results : We diagnosed 41 patients with AIH, and 33 were included in the analysis. The mean age was 32.3 years, with female predominance of 75.7%. De- compensated cirrhosis at presentation was found in 45.5% of the patients. Acute hepatitis was associated with significantly higher levels of the serum ALT and bilirubin (P=0.001 and P=0.03, respectively. All our patients had type 1 AIH. Treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine resulted in complete or partial remission in majority of the patients (54.8%. However, patients with advanced disease showed a poorer response to treatment (P=0.016. Six patients with poor compliance had relapse of AIH. Two patients had a flare of the disease during pregnancy, and they responded well with prednisolone. The longest follow-up was 14 years and the shortest was 2 months. Four patients died from liver disease. Conclusion : AIH patients in Saudi Arabia are likely to present with advanced disease at a young age and would have a poorer response to therapy as compared with patients in other countries worldwide.

  7. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy: Ten years experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

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    Ayman A Al-Talib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Reviewed medical records of all molar pregnancy cases among all the deliveries at a tertiary care hospital in Dammam from 2005 to 2014, after approval by institutional ethical review committee. Data abstracted included patient′s age, parity, presenting symptoms, gestational age at diagnosis, uterine size, ultrasonographic findings, BhCG level at the time of diagnosis and at follow-up after evacuation, and blood loss during evacuation. Data was entered and analyzed using Excel; frequency distribution for categorical variables and descriptive statistics for continuous variables were computed. Results: Of a total of 25,000 deliveries in ten years, 22 cases of complete molar pregnancy were encountered: 0.9 cases of molar pregnancy per 1000 pregnancies. Majority of patients (63.7% were older than 35 years, and were nulliparous (45.5%. The commonest symptom was vaginal bleeding (86.4% followed by hyperemesis gravidarum (41.0%; Hyperthyroidism was seen in 1 patient (4.5%. Ovarian enlargement by theca-lutin cyst was seen in 3 patients (13.6%. The majority of patients (63.6% had normal BhCG within 9 weeks (63 days after suction curettage. The majority of the cases followed a benign course. Conclusion: Aged older than 35 years seems a risk factor and vaginal bleeding is the commonest presenting symptom. Early booking of pregnant women to antenatal care clinics and routine first trimester ultrasound made diagnosis easier and earlier before complications appear.

  8. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy: Ten years experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Ayman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of molar pregnancy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Reviewed medical records of all molar pregnancy cases among all the deliveries at a tertiary care hospital in Dammam from 2005 to 2014, after approval by institutional ethical review committee. Data abstracted included patient's age, parity, presenting symptoms, gestational age at diagnosis, uterine size, ultrasonographic findings, BhCG level at the time of diagnosis and at follow-up after evacuation, and blood loss during evacuation. Data was entered and analyzed using Excel; frequency distribution for categorical variables and descriptive statistics for continuous variables were computed. Results: Of a total of 25,000 deliveries in ten years, 22 cases of complete molar pregnancy were encountered: 0.9 cases of molar pregnancy per 1000 pregnancies. Majority of patients (63.7%) were older than 35 years, and were nulliparous (45.5%). The commonest symptom was vaginal bleeding (86.4%) followed by hyperemesis gravidarum (41.0%); Hyperthyroidism was seen in 1 patient (4.5%). Ovarian enlargement by theca-lutin cyst was seen in 3 patients (13.6%). The majority of patients (63.6%) had normal BhCG within 9 weeks (63 days) after suction curettage. The majority of the cases followed a benign course. Conclusion: Aged older than 35 years seems a risk factor and vaginal bleeding is the commonest presenting symptom. Early booking of pregnant women to antenatal care clinics and routine first trimester ultrasound made diagnosis easier and earlier before complications appear. PMID:27625583

  9. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

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    Mahmoud H. A. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA. Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences, whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas.

  10. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed, Mahmoud H. A.; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M.; Al-Habeeb, Malik A.; Al-Hammady, Yousef M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA). Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq) were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences), whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas. PMID:27397979

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Variability within Uromastyx ornata philbyi (Agamidae: Squamata from Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Sayed A. M. Amer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2.4 kbp of mitochondrial DNA was sequenced from 9 individuals of Uromastyx ornata philbyi originating from Taif, Namas, Al-Baha, and Jazan in southwestern Saudi Arabia. The sequenced regions cover eight tRNA genes (tRNAGln, tRNAIle, tRNAMet, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, and tRNATyr and two protein-coding genes (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b. U. ornata philbyi had an insertion of 170 bp length between tRNAGln and tRNAIle genes. The first 128 bp of this insertion was similar to the one identified earlier in U. ornata ornata and can be folded into a stem-and-loop structure, which was less stable in U. ornata philbyi than in U. ornata ornata, or the second tRNAGln gene. The next 42 bp of the insertion was unique in U. ornata philbyi and additionally retained a stable stem-and-loop structure. Most base substitutions found in the sequenced genes were synonymous transitions rather than transversions. Tree analyses supported the sister group relationship between the two U. ornata subspecies and divided U. ornata philbyi into two groups: Taif+Namas group in the east of Sarawat and Al-Baha+Jazan group in the west of Sarawat. These molecular data are in agreement with current classification of U. ornata.

  12. CLINICAL PATTERN OF ACNE VULGARIS AND ITS ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE OF KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: A HOSPITAL-BASED CLINICAL STUDY

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    Al-Ameer, Ali M.; Al-Akloby, Omar M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to review the clinical pattern of acne vulgaris cases referred to one hospital in the Eastern Province. Methods: Two hundred cases diagnosed in the Dermatology Department at King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia were studied Results: Inflammatory acne was the predominant type observed in both males and females (76% and, 79%, respectively). Seborrhea (greasy skin) was the most frequently associated condition 22 (11%) followed by dandru...

  13. Hepatitis B genotypes: Relation to clinical outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Saudi Arabia

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    Ayman A Abdo; Badr M Al-Jarallah; Faisal M Sanai; Ahmad S Hersi; Khalid Al-Swat; Nahla A Azzam; Manal Al-Dukhayil; Amira Al-Maarik; Faleh Z Al-Faleh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify the most common hepatitis B virus (HBV)genotype in Saudi Arabia, and correlate the prevailing genotypes with the clinical outcome of patients.METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the hepatology clinics of two tertiary care referral centers. Patients were categorized into 4 different groups:group 1, patients with hepatitis B and normal liver enzymes; group 2, patients with hepatitis B and abnormal liver enzymes but without cirrhosis; group 3, patients with hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis; group 4, patients with hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients had a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Genotyping of HBV was performed by nested PCR-mediated amplification of the target sequence and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotides.RESULTS: Seventy patients were enrolled in this study.They were predominantly male (72.9%) in their midforty's (mean age 47 years). Forty-nine (70%) patients were hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) negative.The majority of patients (64%) acquired HBV through unknown risk factors. Hepatitis B genotyping revealed that 57 patients (81.4%) were genotype D, 1 patient (1.4%) had genotype A, 1 patient (1.4%) had genotype C, and 4 patients (5.7%) had genotype E, while 7 patients (10%) had mixed genotype (4 patients ADG, 1 patient DE, 1 patient DF, and 1 patient ADFG). Based on univariate analysis of genotype D patients, significant predictors of advanced liver disease were age, gender,aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, albumin,bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (all P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis decreased hemoglobin (r = -0.05;95% CI: -0.08 to -0.03; P = 0.001) and albumin levels (r = -0.004; 95% CI: -0.007 to -0.001; P = 0.002) were highly significant predictors of advanced liver disease.In patients with HBV genotype D, HBeAg negativity was found to increase across advancing stages of liver disease (P = 0.024).CONCLUSION: This study highlights that the vast

  14. Equatorial Layered Deposits in Arabia Terra, Mars: Facies and Process Variability

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    Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Le Deit, L.; Glamoclija, M.; Cavalazzi, B.; Franchi, F.; Fueten, F.; Hauber, E.; Zegers, T.

    2012-12-01

    Genetic mechanisms proposed to explain Equatorial Layered Deposits (ELDs) formation include subglacial volcanism, aeolian/airfall, lacustrine, lacustrine/volcanic and spring-fed deposition. ELDs have been frequently shown to consist of sulfates (e.g. Gendrin et al., 2005) that might form as a response to evaporation in a playa environment (Hoefen et al., 2003) or during spring precipitation (e.g. Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008). The importance of groundwater-dominated hydrological systems was proposed to explain the formation of light-toned deposits in Meridiani Planum and Arabia Terra (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al. 2007). Additionally, fluid expulsion processes have been invoked to explain the formation of mounds within the light-toned deposits in Arabia Terra (Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008; Pondrelli et al., 2011). Potential for habitable conditions of both playa and spring-related settings (Cavalazzi et al., 2007; Glamoclija et al., 2011) coupled with the high preservation potential within sulfates (Panieri et al., 2010), make these deposits a good candidate to understand the potential past habitability of the planet. In order to investigate ELDs genesis, an area in the vicinity of Firsoff crater, where ELDs are present within and outside the craters, was selected for geological mapping and analysis of the landforms and their association using the available dataset, including CRISM in order to infer ELDs composition. Within Firsoff crater, ELDs form a bulge that can be estimated to be at least a few hundred meters thick, while, outside the craters, ELDs form flat-lying deposits. Although heavily eroded by wind and carved by yardangs, several morphologies within the ELDs in the craters seem to be depositional, which would exclude that the entire Firsoff basin had been originally filled by ELDs. Within craters, ELDs consist of roughly meter thick layers draping and onlapping the substratum. They appear affected by polygonal patterns with no

  15. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed A. Alsunni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12, moderate (13-24 and high (25-36 scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56% subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%, while 122 (61% had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%, 124 (62% were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56% were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5% before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5% subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.

  16. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn′s disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn′s disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS, was used to register Crohn′s disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients′ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn′s disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn′s disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  17. Clinical characteristics of patients with atrial fibrillation at a tertiary care hospital in the central region of Saudi Arabia

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    Salih A Bin Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on the clinical presentation, etiology, and laboratory features of acute and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied records of 720 patients with AF seen in outpatients and inpatients departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2008. Results: Documented acute and chronic AF was present in 157 (21.8% and 563 (78.1% patients, respectively. Palpitations, dizziness and syncope were the most frequent symptoms in acute AF, while dyspnea and palpitations were the most common symptoms in the chronic type. Acute respiratory problems and acute myocardial infarction were significantly more common in acute AF, while congestive heart failure and acute respiratory problems (chest infection, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary embolism were significantly more common in chronic AF. The most common causes of both types of AF were diabetes mellitus (DM in 68.8%, hypertension (HTN in 59.3%, chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease in 31.8%, valvular heart disease in 23.6%, and ischemic heart disease (IHD in 23.1%. In 9 (1.3% patients, no cause was detected. The echocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, valve lesions, and depressed left ventricular function were significantly more common in chronic AF (P<0.01. Conclusions : Nowadays, DM, HTN, and IHD are becoming the most common predisposing factors for AF in the central region of Saudi Arabia and require prevention and control

  18. What variables can influence clinical reasoning?

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    Vahid Ashoorion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is one of the most important competencies that a physician should achieve. Many medical schools and licensing bodies try to predict it based on some general measures such as critical thinking, personality, and emotional intelligence. This study aimed at providing a model to design the relationship between the constructs. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine medical students participated in this study. A battery test devised that consist four parts: Clinical reasoning measures, personality NEO inventory, Bar-On EQ inventory, and California critical thinking questionnaire. All participants completed the tests. Correlation and multiple regression analysis consumed for data analysis. Results: There is low to moderate correlations between clinical reasoning and other variables. Emotional intelligence is the only variable that contributes clinical reasoning construct (r=0.17-0.34 (R 2 chnage = 0.46, P Value = 0.000. Conclusion: Although, clinical reasoning can be considered as a kind of thinking, no significant correlation detected between it and other constructs. Emotional intelligence (and its subscales is the only variable that can be used for clinical reasoning prediction.

  19. Eliciting students′ perceptions of integrated clinical dental education in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

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    Mahmoud Al-Dajani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In the integrated curriculum, our study highlights the importance of clinical training not only in making dental students competent but also in increasing their confidence in performing clinical procedures.

  20. Awareness and Perceptions of Clinical Trials in Cancer Patients and Their Families in Saudi Arabia.

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    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Hassan, Anees; Eldin, Ahmed Mohi; Soudy, Hussein; Hussain, Fazal

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of medical articles being published from the Middle East, clinical research is still lagging behind compared to other regions. Enrolling participants into clinical trials presents an important challenge. We wanted to explore the perception, knowledge, and willingness of cancer patients to participate in oncology clinical trials and to recommend strategies to overcome these challenges. A 31-item questionnaire was administered to cancer patients and their family members in an outpatient clinic. Two hundred four patients and family members were enrolled between December 2011 and February 2013. Fifty-eight percent of the participants were aware of clinical trials. Some misconceptions included the following: 22% believed that no clinical trials were conducted in the Arab world, 19% believed that clinical trials in the Arab world were not under any regulatory authority supervision, and 15% believed that local clinical trials are conducted on subjects without their consent. One third of patients assumed that clinical trials are executed on animals instead of humans, and greater than 40% believed that clinical trials are performed for new medications only. Finally, 61% of the survey participants who were aware of clinical trials expressed their willingness to participate in trials. This large cohort survey demonstrated that a relatively significant number of Saudi cancer patients and their families are aware of clinical trials and a similarly high number of participants are willing to participate in clinical trials. This leads us to believe that patients' awareness and perception of clinical trials are not a significant limiting factor in clinical trial recruitment in our region.

  1. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.

  2. Clinical profile of bronchiolitis in infants younger than 90 days in Saudi Arabia

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    Syed Amir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile at presentation, disease course and outcome of bronchiolitis in <3-month-old infants who presented to our Pediatric Emergency Department (PED during one disease season. Settings: Retrospective chart review during one bronchiolitis season, from November 1, 2011 to April 20, 2012. Subjects: All <90-day-old infants presenting with clinical bronchiolitis presenting to Urban PED of a tertiary care university hospital during one bronchiolitis season. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review based on computer records of all emergency department visits of infants less than 90 days with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis, covering the period between November 1, 2011 and April 30, 2012. Results: Out of the total of 1895 infants <90 days of age, 141 had a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis and 35 needed admission to hospital. Blood for culture was obtained from 47 infants, urine for culture was obtained from 46 infants and cerebrospinal fluid for culture was obtained from eight infants. One case of bacteremia was documented, but this was found to be a contaminant. No cases of meningitis occurred among these infants. However, one infant had a positive urine culture consistent with infection (Escherichia coli . Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be conclude that the risk of bacteremia or meningitis among infants <90 days of age with fever and bronchiolitis is low. The

  3. Clinical description of human bocavirus viremia in children with LRTI, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

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    Dalal K Bubshait

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human bocavirus (HBoV is a major etiology of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI in young children. We tested 149 patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University with diagnosis of LRTI. Viremia caused by the different studied viruses was detected in 31.5% of the total cases by Real-time Polymerase chain reaction. We report five patients who were positive for HBoV in serum samples. Clinical presentation ranged from mild to severe disease as one of them required admission to intensive care unit. Wheezing was a striking feature in most of our patients, but fever was not a consistent finding.

  4. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  5. Characterising NO2, Its Temporal Variability and Association with Meteorology A Case Study in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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    Turki M. Habeebullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is one of the most harmful pollutants in terms of its adverse effects on human health and natural environment. This paper intends to characterise NO2 in Makkah, aiming to analyse its temporal variations and association with meteorological parameters. NO2 data from two monitoring stations: (1 the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME; and Masfalah monitoring stations were used in this paper. Long term daily data (1996 - 2013 used for determining historical trends of NO2 were collected at the PME site, whereas hourly data for 2012 were collected at both PME and Masfalah sites. NO2 levels were compared with WHO and Saudi National air quality standards, the former standards were violated in every single year, whereas the latter were exceeded only in 1999. Hourly NO2 concentrations seem to be at acceptable levels and have not violated the air quality standards. Long term temporal trends determined by TheilSen function showed decreasing trend in both NO (-0.15 μg3/year and NO2 (-0.22 μg3/year concentrations, which is probably an indicator of improvement in exhaust emissions from road traffic and other emission sources, most probably due to stringent emission policies by the government of Saudi Arabia. The ratios of NO2/NO have increased and show positive trend (0.04 μg3/year, however the trend is not significant. Temporal variations of NO2 are analysed during various hours of the day and days of the week. Considerable lower levels of NO2 were observed in the afternoon, which can be linked with high levels of solar radiation and temperature that accelerate photochemical dissociation of NO2 into NO and atomic oxygen. Furthermore, the effect of temperature, wind speed and direction on NO2 is analysed, which highlighted the importance of meteorological parameters in controlling the levels of NO2.

  6. Mycetoma at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: correlation of histopathological and clinical findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shagufta; Tahir; Mufti; Hessa; Aljhdali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the histopathological and clinical correlation of mycetoma among patients attending King Abdulaziz University Hospital between 1998-2013.Methods: The data of all histopathologically diagnosed mycetomas in the period between January 1998 and January 2013 were collected through a computerized database search of the anatomic pathology archives at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. The collected data were analysed. Identification of species were performed for five patients using 16 S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer 2.Results: There were 19 patients with mycetoma with an average age of 44.26 years and male: female ratio of 4:1. Actinomycetoma were 63.15% and eumycetoma were 36.84%. All patients presented with the classic lesions; presenting as painless subcutaneous mass, sinuses and discharge containing grains. The swellings were of slow evolution, with preferential foot localization. Species specification performed for samples from five patients with active lesions revealed species of Actinomyces israelii and Madurella mycetomatis in respective cases.Conclusions: Actinomycetoma is more common than eumycetoma in this region. The fact that one of the patients with eumycetoma was a Saudi national raises the possibility of an indigenous species similar to Maduraella mycetomatis to be further explored for characteristics and pathogenesis. The disease has to be prioritized again and more robust and quick molecular diagnostic tools should be made available in order to save patients form disfiguring amputations.

  7. Is there a need for a formulary of clinically interchangeable medicines to guide generic substitution in Saudi Arabia?

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    Alrasheedy, Alian A; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Aljadhey, Hisham; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Al-Tamimi, Saleh Karamah

    2013-06-01

    The escalating healthcare expenditure is a major challenge to sustainability of the healthcare systems. To confront the escalating health expenditure in general and medicines expenditure in particular, many countries promoted the use of generic medicines. To promote generic medicines, many countries have adopted a generic substitution (GS) policy and generic prescribing. To effectively implement the GS policy, it is evident in the literature that it is essential to have an evidence-based guide on therapeutic equivalence and formulary of interchangeable medicines to guide responsible GS. In Saudi Arabia, GS is permissive and pharmacists are given the right to perform GS. While the prescriber's approval is not a requirement, patient consent is required when performing GS. Although there are some general drug references, such as the Saudi National Formulary (SNF) and list of registered medicines in the Saudi market, but there is currently no information available to healthcare professionals that documents the therapeutic and bioequivalence between medicines. Thus, it is essential to have a formulary of interchangeable medicines to guide appropriate GS or at least to include such vital information regarding therapeutic equivalence and brand interchangeability as part of the SNF. That, in turn, will not only make healthcare professionals more confident when providing GS, but will also enable the avoidance of situations where GS is inappropriate.

  8. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

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    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  9. Clinical variability in ataxia-telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Ebba; Krüger, Stefanie; Hauser, Ann-Kathrin; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Guven, Gamze; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan; Biskup, Saskia; Gasser, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by progressive childhood-onset cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis and telangiectasias of the conjunctivae. Further symptoms may be immunodeficiency and frequent infections, and an increased risk of malignancy. As well as this classic manifestation, several other non-classic forms exist, including milder or incomplete A-T phenotypes caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATM gene. Recently, ATM mutations have been found in 13 Canadian Mennonites with early-onset, isolated, predominantly cervical dystonia, in a French family with generalized dystonia and in an Indian family with dopa-responsive cervical dystonia. In this article, we will describe a Turkish family with three affected sibs. Their phenotypes range from pure cervical dystonia associated with hand tremor to truncal and more generalized dystonic postures. Exome sequencing has revealed the potentially pathogenic compound heterozygous variants p.V2716A and p.G301VfsX19 in the ATM gene. The variants segregated perfectly with the phenotypes within the family. Both mutations detected in ATM have been shown to be pathogenic, and the α-fetoprotein, a marker of ataxia telangiectasia, was found to be increased. This report supports recent literature showing that ATM mutations are not exclusively associated with A-T but may also cause a more, even intra-familial variable phenotype in particular in association with dystonia.

  10. Variability of clinical features in attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in the clinical presentation of migraine, both among patients, and between attacks in an individual patient. We examined clinical features of migraine with aura in a large group of patients enrolled in a clinical trial, and compared retrospective...... migraine attack characteristics reported upon enrollment in the trial with those recorded prospectively in the trial. METHODS: Patients with migraine (n = 267) with typical visual aura in more than 30% of their attacks were enrolled from 16 centers for a clinical trial. Upon enrollment, patients provided...... a detailed retrospective description of the clinical features of their attacks of migraine. During the trial, clinical symptoms in migraine attacks starting with aura were recorded prospectively in 861 attacks. RESULTS: Retrospectively reported visual aura symptoms were variable and often overlapping...

  11. [Measurement of blood pressure variability and the clinical value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kékes, Ede; Kiss, István

    2014-10-19

    Authors have collected and analyzed literature data on blood pressure variability. They present the methods of blood pressure variability measurement, clinical value and relationships with target organ damages and risk of presence of cardiovascular events. They collect data about the prognostic value of blood pressure variability and the effects of different antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability. They underline that in addition to reduction of blood pressure to target value, it is essential to influence blood pressure fluctuation and decrease blood pressure variability, because blood pressure fluctuation presents a major threat for the hypertensive subjects. Data from national studies are also presented. They welcome that measurement of blood pressure variability has been included in international guidelines.

  12. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

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    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  13. Symbolic dynamics marker of heart rate variability combined with clinical variables enhance obstructive sleep apnea screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-García, A. G.; Saavedra-Santana, P.; Juliá-Serdá, G.; Navarro-Mesa, J. L.; Navarro-Esteva, J.; Álvarez-López, X.; Gapelyuk, A.; Penzel, T.; Wessel, N.

    2014-06-01

    Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p neck circumference (p < 10-3), score on a questionnaire scale intended to quantify daytime sleepiness (p < 10-3), and intensity of snoring (p < 10-3). The validation of this model demonstrated an increase in classification performance when a variable based on non-linear dynamics of HRV (p < 0.01) was used additionally to the other variables. For diagnostic rule based only on clinical and physical variables, the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.907 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.848, 0.967), (sensitivity 87.10% and specificity 80%). For the model including the average of a symbolic dynamic variable, the area under the ROC curve was increased to 0.941 (95% = 0.897, 0.985), (sensitivity 88.71% and specificity 82.86%). In conclusion, symbolic dynamics, coupled with significant clinical and physical variables can help to prioritize polysomnographies in patients with a high probability of apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique.

  14. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Raquel; Malki, Karim; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Henigsberg, Neven; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Souery, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; Dobson, Richard; Aitchison, Katherine J; Farmer, Anne; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder. A combination of demographic and clinical variables, with strong contributions from symptoms of depressed mood, reduced interest, decreased activity, indecisiveness, pessimism and anxiety significantly predicted treatment outcomes, explaining 5-10% of variance in symptom improvement with escitalopram. Similar combinations of variables predicted remission with area under the curve 0.72, explaining approximately 15% of variance (pseudo R(2)) in who achieves remission, with strong contributions from body mass index, appetite, interest-activity symptom dimension and anxious-somatizing depression subtype. Escitalopram-specific outcome prediction was more accurate than generic outcome prediction, and reached effect sizes that were near or above a previously established benchmark for clinical significance. Outcome prediction on the nortriptyline arm did not significantly differ from chance. These results suggest that easily obtained demographic and clinical variables can predict therapeutic response to escitalopram with clinically meaningful accuracy, suggesting a potential for individualized prescription of this antidepressant drug.

  15. Burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among hospitalized patients in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O; Matar, Madonna J; Moghnieh, Rima; Alothman, Adel F; Alenazi, Thamer H; Farahat, Fayssal; Corman, Shelby; Solem, Caitlyn T; Raghubir, Nirvana; Macahilig, Cynthia; Haider, Seema; Stephens, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities), treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials), hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay), and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality). Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results Chart-level data were collected for 93 patients with MRSA pneumonia, 50 in Saudi Arabia and 43 in Lebanon. The average age of the patients was 56 years, and 60% were male. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (39%), congestive heart failure (30%), coronary artery disease (29%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28%). Patients most frequently had positive cultures from pulmonary (87%) and blood (27%) samples. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid, and only one-third of the isolates tested were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Beta-lactams (inactive therapy for MRSA) were prescribed 21% of the time across all lines of therapy, with 42% of patients receiving first-line beta-lactams. Fifteen percent of patients did not receive any antibiotics that were considered to be MRSA active. The mean hospital length of stay was 32 days, and in-hospital mortality was 30%. Conclusion The treatment for MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon may be suboptimal with inactive therapy prescribed a substantial proportion

  16. Clinical polymorphism and variability in education of autistic children

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    Morozov S.A.Morozova T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders are considered a highly heterogeneous group by clinical signs, which makes it impossible to develop a common method of correctional and educational development for them. In this article, results of an analysis of clinical, psychological and pedagogic polymorphism in autism spectrum disorders are shown, emphasized are its main components and basic consequences necessary for organizing education. Results are viewed in the context of the principle of variability in education. A dual structure of variability in education of autistic children has been discovered. Shortly reviewed are some topical problems of correctional education process for autism spectrum disorders

  17. Prognostic Validity of Clinical and Psychometric Variables in Psychogeriatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appell, Julian; Kazarian, Shahe S.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated prognostic validity of clinical and psychometric variables in psychogeriatric inpatients. Divided elderly patients into three outcome groups: nondischarged (n=29), discharged-readmitted (n=38), and discharged-nonreadmitted (n=67). Discriminant analysis of data yielded two predictive functions, which appeared to represent physical status…

  18. Lead - a preanalytical/analytical variable in clinical chemistry

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    Rašić-Mišić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is one of the most studied clinically important metals due its high toxicity and a high number of workers exposed to it. The interest toward Pb is elevated by the fact that children are especially susceptible to lead poisoning. Research regarding lead poisoning requires a complex, multi-disciplinary (clinical medical and clinical chemical approach. Monitoring human exposure to lead (intake, i.e. poisoning may be achieved by quantification of Pb in tissues and body fluids. For that reason, a number of accurate and reliable analytical methods for the determination of Pb (analytical/preanalytical variable were developed. An objective of this review paper is to provide key information necessary for proper interpretation of results of lead related clinical/laboratory tests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061

  19. Evaluation of resistance of commonly used antibiotics on clinical case of Staphylococcus capitis from Assir region, Saudi Arabia

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    Nazar M Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus capitis is a coagulase-negative species (CoNS of Staphylococcus. It causes antimicrobial resistance for nosocomial infections as well as for community-acquired infections. This case report involves a 51-year-old, married Saudi patient. He got admitted to the male medical ward of Aseer Central Hospital, with severe chest infection. Clinical examination, X-ray, and laboratory investigations were performed which involved bactech, culture media, antibiotic sensitivity test using disk diffusion [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC] and molecular [polymerase chain reaction (PCR] for detection of CoNS of Staphylococcus species and detection of the mecA gene. Laboratory data were recorded in special formats and analyzed by statistical computer program (SPSS. Results showed the resistance of isolated S. capitis to many commonly used antibiotics.

  20. Linear and Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability Indexes in Clinical Practice

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    Buccelletti Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms have intrinsic control systems that act in response to internal and external stimuli maintaining homeostasis. Human heart rate is not regular and varies in time and such variability, also known as heart rate variability (HRV, is not random. HRV depends upon organism's physiologic and/or pathologic state. Physicians are always interested in predicting patient's risk of developing major and life-threatening complications. Understanding biological signals behavior helps to characterize patient's state and might represent a step toward a better care. The main advantage of signals such as HRV indexes is that it can be calculated in real time in noninvasive manner, while all current biomarkers used in clinical practice are discrete and imply blood sample analysis. In this paper HRV linear and nonlinear indexes are reviewed and data from real patients are provided to show how these indexes might be used in clinical practice.

  1. Low heart rate variability in patients with clinical burnout.

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    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Sjörs, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress and chronic psychosocial stress reduce heart rate variability (HRV). It is likely that individuals suffering from burnout have reduced HRV, as a consequence of the long-term stress exposure. This study investigated HRV in 54 patients with clinical burnout (40 women and 14 men) and in 55 individuals reporting low burnout scores (healthy; 24 women and 31 men) and 52 individuals reporting high burnout scores (non-clinical burnout; 33 women and 19 men). The participants underwent a 300s ECG recording in the supine position. Standard deviation of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive normal interval differences (RMSSD) were derived from time domain HRV analysis. Frequency domain HRV measures; total power (TP), low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), and LF/HF ratio were calculated. All HRV measures, except LF/HF ratio, were lower in the clinical burnout patients compared to both the non-clinical burnout group and the healthy group. The difference was larger between the patients and the healthy group than between the patients and the non-clinical burnout group. HRV did not differ significantly between the non-clinical burnout group and the healthy group. Low HRV in burnout patients may constitute one of the links to associated adverse health, since low HRV reflects low parasympathetic activity - and accordingly low anabolic/regenerative activity.

  2. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

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    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  3. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

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    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  4. Balance 1 year after TKA: correlation with clinical variables.

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    Bascuas, Iria; Tejero, Marta; Monleón, Sandra; Boza, Roser; Muniesa, Josep Maria; Belmonte, Roser

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis results in changes that affect balance. It has been reported that osteoarthritis worsens proprioception and increases the risk of falling. The objective of this study was to assess changes in balance among patients with knee osteoarthritis at 1 year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery and its relationship with clinical variables. This prospective, observational study evaluated 44 patients before and 1 year after TKA. Variables analyzed included age, body mass index, pain, range of motion for both knees, bilateral quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, gait velocity, and Knee Society score. Balance and posture control were assessed using the following computerized posturography tests: the weight bearing test, modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) test, and sit-to-stand test. Pre- and postoperative differences were analyzed using Wilcoxon and chi-square tests, and effect size was measured using standardized response mean. Correlations were assessed by the Spearman test. One year after TKA, some improvement in balance tests was observed. Significant differences were observed in the mCTSIB test: foam surface with open eyes (P≤.001), foam surface with closed eyes (P≤.001), and composite value (P≤.001). Effect size was moderate to high. Age showed significant correlation with mCTSIB composite value changes (-0.369; P=.037). No significant correlations were found between posturographic tests and other analyzed variables. Balance measured by computerized posturography improved 1 year after TKA. Significant changes were observed between open and closed eyes using a foam surface for the mCTSIB test. A mild negative correlation was found between age and posturographic changes.

  5. Latent class instrumental variables: a clinical and biostatistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S; Lindeman, Karen S

    2016-01-15

    In some two-arm randomized trials, some participants receive the treatment assigned to the other arm as a result of technical problems, refusal of a treatment invitation, or a choice of treatment in an encouragement design. In some before-and-after studies, the availability of a new treatment changes from one time period to this next. Under assumptions that are often reasonable, the latent class instrumental variable (IV) method estimates the effect of treatment received in the aforementioned scenarios involving all-or-none compliance and all-or-none availability. Key aspects are four initial latent classes (sometimes called principal strata) based on treatment received if in each randomization group or time period, the exclusion restriction assumption (in which randomization group or time period is an instrumental variable), the monotonicity assumption (which drops an implausible latent class from the analysis), and the estimated effect of receiving treatment in one latent class (sometimes called efficacy, the local average treatment effect, or the complier average causal effect). Since its independent formulations in the biostatistics and econometrics literatures, the latent class IV method (which has no well-established name) has gained increasing popularity. We review the latent class IV method from a clinical and biostatistical perspective, focusing on underlying assumptions, methodological extensions, and applications in our fields of obstetrics and cancer research.

  6. Clinical Characteristics and Genetic Variability of Human Rhinovirus in Mexico

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    Hilda Montero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI in young children and infants worldwide and has a high impact on morbidity and mortality in this population. Initially, HRV was classified into two species: HRV-A and HRV-B. Recently, a species called HRV-C and possibly another species, HRV-D, were identified. In Mexico, there is little information about the role of HRV as a cause of ARI, and the presence and importance of species such as HRV-C are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and genetic variability of HRV in Mexican children. Genetic characterization was carried out by phylogenetic analysis of the 5′-nontranslated region (5′-NTR of the HRV genome. The results show that the newly identified HRV-C is circulating in Mexican children more frequently than HRV-B but not as frequently as HRV-A, which was the most frequent species. Most of the cases of the three species of HRV were in children under 2 years of age, and all species were associated with very mild and moderate ARI.

  7. Clinical and Immunological Features of Common Variable Immunodeficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Jun Lin; Yu-Chuan Wang; Xin-Min Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency syndromes.The purpose of this article was to broaden our knowledge about CVID for better diagnosis and treatment.Methods:Clinical and immunological features of 40 Chinese patients with CVID were analyzed retrospectively.Results:The median age at onset was 11-year-old (range 4-51 years).The median age at diagnosis was 14.5-year-old (range 5-66 years).The average time of delay in diagnosis was 5.3 years (range 1-41 years).The most common main complaint was fever due to infections (35 cases,87.5%).Pneumonia (28 cases,70%) was the most common type of infections.Bronchiectasis was present in 6 patients (15%).Autoimmune disease was detected in 6 cases of CVID,and malignancy in 2 cases.The median total serum levels of IgG,IgA,and IgM at diagnosis were 1.07 g/L,0.07 g/L,and 0.28 g/L,respectively.The percentages ofCD3/CD19+ B-cells were 1%-3.14%.Conclusions:Infection is the most frequent presentation of CVID.Patients with unexplainable infections should receive further examination including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and lymphocyte subset analysis.Regular and sufficient substitution with Ig is recommended.

  8. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  9. The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Lim Byun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were the clinical variables: leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, positive urine nitrite, positive urine culture, and fever duration both before and after treatment. We evaluated the relationships between clinical variables and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG results. Results : VCUG was performed in 148 patients; of them, 37 (25.0% had VUR: 18 (12.2% had low-grade (I-II VUR, and 19 (10.5% had high-grade (III-V VUR. Of the 95 patients who underwent DMSA scanning, 29 (30.5% had cortical defects, of which 21 (63.6% had VUR: 10 (30.3%, low-grade (I-II VUR; and 11 (33.3%, high-grade VUR. Of the 57 patients who were normal on DMSA scan, 8 (14.0% had low-grade VUR and 6 (10.5% had high-grade VUR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DMSA scan in predicting high-grade VUR were 64.7%, 69.9%, 33.3%, and 89.5%, respectively. Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and prolonged fever (?#243;6 hours after treatment were significantly correlated with the cortical defects on DMSA scans and high-grade VUR. Conclusion : Clinical signs, including prolonged fever after treatment, elevated CRP, and leukocytosis, are positive predictors of acute pyelonephritis and high-grade VUR.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  11. Aging in Saudi Arabia

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    Nancy J. Karlin PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  12. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

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    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  13. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Eastern Saudi Arabia cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Hashim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Eastern Saudi Arabia. Results: A total of 1040 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 489, insulin detemir (n = 360, insulin aspart (n = 37, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 96 and other insulin combinations (n = 57. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 10.0% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.2% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.7%, insulin users: −1.7%. No major hypoglycaemic episodes were observed at 24 weeks. SADR was reported in 0.6% of insulin users. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  14. Episiotomy and its relationship to various clinical variables that influence its performance

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Ballesteros-Meseguer; César Carrillo-García; Mariano Meseguer-de-Pedro; Manuel Canteras-Jordana; Mª Emilia Martínez-Roche

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand the episiotomy rate and its relationship with various clinical variables. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytic study of 12,093 births in a tertiary hospital. Variables: Parity, gestational age, start of labor, use of epidural analgesia, oxytocin usage, position during fetal explusion, weight of neonate, and completion of birth. The analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: the global percentage of episiotomies was 50%. The clinical variables that p...

  15. Chronic Hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia: Three Years Local Experience in a University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Hisham O; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Qattan, Faten; Fallatah, Hind I.; Al Rumani, Maha

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a global infection. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of CHC is declining due to the implementation of a blood screening program. However, CHC still remains a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives This is a retrospective study of CHC patients at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods Out of a total of 291 CHC patients from the hepatology clinic at King Abdul Aziz University h...

  16. Clinical variability and molecular heterogeneity in prostate cancer

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    Jonathan Shoag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease, with some men having indolent disease that can safely be observed, while others have aggressive, lethal disease. Over the past decade, researchers have begun to unravel some of the genomic heterogeneity that contributes to these varying clinical phenotypes. Distinct molecular sub-classes of prostate cancer have been identified, and the uniqueness of these sub-classes has been leveraged to predict clinical outcomes, design novel biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis, and develop novel therapeutics. Recent work has also elucidated the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of prostate cancer, helping us understand disease pathogenesis, response to therapy, and progression. New genomic techniques have provided us with a window into the remarkable clinical and genomic heterogeneity of prostate cancer, and this new perspective will increasingly impact patient care.

  17. Variable Clinical Phenotypes of α-Thalassemia Syndromes

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    Sylvia Titi Singer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations of the α genes are common worldwide. In Asia and particularly Southeast Asia, they can result in clinically significant types of α-thalassemia, namely hemoglobin (Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. The latter is generally a fatal intrauterine condition, while Hb H disease results in clinical complications that are frequently overlooked. The high prevalence of the carrier state and the burden of these diseases (and other α-thalassemia variants call for more attention for improved screening methods and better care.

  18. [Orofacial clinical manifestations in adult patients with variable common immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-García, Aurora Alejandra; Moreno-Alba, Miguel Ángel; Elizalde-Monroy, Martín; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda; Romero-Flores, Jovita; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; López-Pérez, Patricia; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficienci primaria más común en adultos. Su prevalencia se estima en 1 por cada 25,000 a 75,000 recién nacidos vivos; existen variaciones por grupos étnicos, se estima en 50 a 70% en pacientes de raza caucásica. Las lesiones de la cavidad oral raramente se describen en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, en niños con esta enfermedad existen informes de lesiones principalmente de origen infeccioso. Objetivo: describir las lesiones orofaciales (cavidad oral, macizo facial y cuello) en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio transversal, prospectivo, efectuado en todos los adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable adscritos a la Clínica de inmunodeficiencias primarias, del Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, que fueron examinados por un cirujano maxilofacial; se realizó el reporte de hallazgos en lista de cotejo y, posteriormente, el análisis descriptivo de las lesiones. Resultados: se incluyeron 26 pacientes, 16 mujeres y 10 hombres, con edad promedio de 38.6 años. En 18 de 26 pacientes estudiados se observaron lesiones orales, con siete lesiones diferentes y predominio en el sexo femenino 2:1. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron: hiperplasia de glándulas salivales menores (19/26), petequias (12/26) y úlceras herpetiformes (7/26). En la cara y el cuello se observaron cuatro lesiones distintas, las adenopatías lesiones de origen infeccioso y probablemente autoinmunitario que afectan la cavidad oral, la cara y el cuello.

  19. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  20. Joubert syndrome: large clinical variability and a unique neuroimaging aspect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Emilia Katiane Embirucu; Lima, Marcilia Martyn; Kok, Fernando; Parizotto, Juliana [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Clinical Hospital. Dept. of Child Neurology; Maia Junior, Otacilio de Oliveira [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Clinical Hospital. Dept. of Child Ophthalmology

    2010-04-15

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypotonia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (e.g. pigmentary retinopathy, oculomotor apraxia and nystagmus), renal cysts and hepatic fibrosis. Respiratory abnormalities, as apnoea and hyperpnoea, may be present, as well as mental retardation. At least seven JS loci have been determined and five genes identified. Herein, we report five children, belonging to independent families, with JS: they shared the same typical MRI abnormality, known as molar tooth sign, but had an otherwise quite variable phenotype, regarding mostly their cognitive performance, visual abilities and extra-neurological compromise. (author)

  1. Impulsive Behavior and Associated Clinical Variables in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Abosch, Aviva; Gupte, Akshay; Eberly, Lynn E.; Tuite, Paul J.; Nance, Martha; Grant, Jon E.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative brain disorder accompanied by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of motor and non-motor symptoms. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based analysis of impulsive behavior in our PD clinic population to assess prevalence and associated characteristics. We found a higher prevalence of impulsive behavior (29.7%) than previously reported, and found multiple, concurrent impulsive behaviors in 26% of subjects reporting impulsive be...

  2. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Iniesta, R.; Malki, K.; Maier, W; Rietschel, M.; Mors, O; Hauser, J; Henigsberg, N.; Dernovsek, M. Z.; Souery, D.; Stahl, D.; Dobson, R.; Aitchison, K. J.; Farmer, A; Lewis, C.M.; McGuffin, P.

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remissio...

  3. Stereotypies in autism: a video demonstration of their clinical variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eGoldman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In autism, stereotypies are frequent and disabling, and whether they correspond to a hyperkinetic movement disorder, a homeostatic response aiming at sensory modulation,or a regulator of arousal remains to be established.So far,it has been challenging to distinguish among these different possibilities,not only because of lack of objective and quantitative means to assess stereotypies,but in our opinion also because of the underappreciated diversity of their clinical presentations.Herein, we illustrate the broad spectrum of stereotypies and demonstrate the usefulness of video-assisted clinical observations of children with autism.The clips presented were extracted from play sessions of 129 children with autism disorder.We conclude that compared to widely used questionnaires and interviews,systematic video observations provide a unique means to classify and score precisely the clinical features of stereotypies.We believe this approach will prove useful to both clinicians and researchers as it offers the level of detail from retrievable images necessary to begin to assess effects of age and treatments on stereotypies, and to embark on the type of investigations required to unravel the physiological basis of motor behaviors in autism.

  4. Impulsive Behavior and Associated Clinical Variables in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosch, Aviva; Gupte, Akshay; Eberly, Lynn E.; Tuite, Paul J.; Nance, Martha; Grant, Jon E.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative brain disorder accompanied by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of motor and non-motor symptoms. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based analysis of impulsive behavior in our PD clinic population to assess prevalence and associated characteristics. We found a higher prevalence of impulsive behavior (29.7%) than previously reported, and found multiple, concurrent impulsive behaviors in 26% of subjects reporting impulsive behavior. Our findings contribute to the growing awareness of impulsive behavior in PD, and support the need for longitudinal studies to assess changes in impulsive behaviors in Parkinson's patients. PMID:21300194

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED WITH 2009 H1N1 INFLUENZA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN SAUDI ARABIA

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    Adnan Agha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus emerged and spread globally in the spring of 2009.  We describe the clinical features of the patients who were hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza July 2009 to June 2010 in a tertiary care hospital in Khamis Mushyt, Saudi Arabia.  We analyzed the clinical and laboratory variables in order to determine predictors of poor outcome Methods We performed a prospective study in all patients who were hospitalized for at least 48 hours  and with a positive test for 2009 H1N1 virus through RT-PCR(real time polymerase chain reaction.  Their epidemiological, clinical, biochemical characteristics were collected and the hospital course of the patients with eventual outcome (discharge or death was observed. We applied a logistic regression analysis to determine the best predictor of death.

  6. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

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    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  7. VARIABILITY OF ORIGIN OF OBTURATOR ARTERY AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

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    Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obturator artery is a branch of anterior division of internal iliac artery. It normally runs anteroinferiorly on the lateral wall of pelvis to the upper part of the obturator foramen and leaves the pelvis by passing through the obturator canal. On its course, the artery is accompanied by the obturator nerve and vein. It supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh. A severe and potentially lethal complication in pelvic injuries is arterial bleeding commonly involving the branches of the internal iliac artery, namely the lateral sacral, iliolumbar, obturator, vesical and inferior gluteal arteries. A sound knowledge of retro-pubic pelvic vascular anatomy is pivotal for successful performance of endoscopic procedures such as total extra-peritoneal inguinal hernioplasty or laparoscopic herniorraphy. The context and purpose of the study: This study is an attempt to analyse the origin, course, distribution of obturator artery in pelvis and their clinical implication. Result: out of 60 formalin fixed pelvic halves 36.6% of the specimens, (26.67% in males and 10% in females the origin of obturator artery was found to be normal from anterior division of internal iliac artery. About 63.63% from various other sources. Conclusion: This knowledge of variation in the origin of obturator artery is important while doing pelvic and groin surgeries requiring appropriate ligation. Such aberrant origins may be a significant source for persistent bleeding in the setting of acute trauma. Knowledge regarding the variations of obturator artery is useful during surgeries of fracture and direct or indirect inguinal, femoral and obturator hernias.

  8. Building prognostic models for breast cancer patients using clinical variables and hundreds of gene expression signatures

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    Liu Yufeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple breast cancer gene expression profiles have been developed that appear to provide similar abilities to predict outcome and may outperform clinical-pathologic criteria; however, the extent to which seemingly disparate profiles provide additive prognostic information is not known, nor do we know whether prognostic profiles perform equally across clinically defined breast cancer subtypes. We evaluated whether combining the prognostic powers of standard breast cancer clinical variables with a large set of gene expression signatures could improve on our ability to predict patient outcomes. Methods Using clinical-pathological variables and a collection of 323 gene expression "modules", including 115 previously published signatures, we build multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using a dataset of 550 node-negative systemically untreated breast cancer patients. Models predictive of pathological complete response (pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were also built using this approach. Results We identified statistically significant prognostic models for relapse-free survival (RFS at 7 years for the entire population, and for the subgroups of patients with ER-positive, or Luminal tumors. Furthermore, we found that combined models that included both clinical and genomic parameters improved prognostication compared with models with either clinical or genomic variables alone. Finally, we were able to build statistically significant combined models for pathological complete response (pCR predictions for the entire population. Conclusions Integration of gene expression signatures and clinical-pathological factors is an improved method over either variable type alone. Highly prognostic models could be created when using all patients, and for the subset of patients with lymph node-negative and ER-positive breast cancers. Other variables beyond gene expression and clinical-pathological variables, like gene mutation status or DNA

  9. Distal arthrogryposis with variable clinical expression caused by TNNI2 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulić, Vida; Miyake, Noriko; Janković, Sunčana; Petrović, Davor; Šimunović, Marko; Đapić, Tomislav; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-01-01

    Distal arthrogryposis (DA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder with multiple joint contractures. We describe a female DA patient with hand and foot deformities, and right-sided torticollis. Using exome sequencing, we identified a novel TNNI2 mutation (c.485>A, p.Arg162Lys) in the patient and her father. The father has no typical DA but hip dysplasia. This may explain the clinical features of DA2B in this family, but with variable clinical expression. PMID:27790376

  10. Awareness, practices, and barriers regarding smoking cessation treatment among physicians in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jradi, Hoda

    2017-01-01

    Smoking cessation counseling and therapy provided by physicians play an important role in helping smokers quit. Awareness and practices of the clinical practice guidelines for tobacco dependence (in particular the 5A's: Ask, Assist, Assess, Advise, and Arrange) among physicians and perceived barriers for their implementation is needed to improve care for individuals who smoke/use tobacco products in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted among 124 general and family practitioners in primary health care clinics belonging to 2 major medical centers in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were reported for all survey variables. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of physicians' use of the 5A's for smoking cessation counseling and therapy. Among the 216 contacted physicians, 124 responded (57.4%). The majority (63.7%) were males, between the ages of 40 and 49 years (52.4%), practicing full-time (95.2%), and had not received smoking cessation training during medical school education or residency training (68.6%). Approximately 85.5% reported some experience with the guidelines (heard, read, or used). Asking (71.8%) and advising (87.9%) were the most implemented for smoking cessation, while assisting (15.3%) and arranging for follow-up (17.7%) were the least implemented. Most (96.0%) did not prescribe pharmacotherapy and 53.2% reported documenting the patient's smoking status. Reported barriers were mostly lack of time (72.6%) and lack of training (66.9%). Awareness of the guidelines, physician's smoking status, perceived competence in ability to provide smoking cessation counseling and therapy, reporting the ineffectiveness of smoking cessation therapy as a barrier, and the perceived benefit of reducing patient's physical symptoms were independently statistically significant predictors of the implementation of the 5A's for smoking cessation therapy. This preliminary study showed that smoking cessation

  11. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

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    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  12. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  13. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

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    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  14. Internight sleep variability: its clinical significance and responsiveness to treatment in primary and comorbid insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortuño, María M; Edinger, Jack D

    2012-10-01

    Although sleep diary and actigraphy data are usually collected daily for 1 or 2 weeks, traditional analytical approaches aggregate these data into mean values. Internight variability of sleep often accompanies insomnia. However, few studies have explored the relevance of this 'construct' in the context of diagnosis, clinical impact, treatment effects and/or whether having 'variable sleep' carries any prognostic significance. We explored these questions by conducting secondary analyses of data from a randomized clinical trial. The sample included primary (PI: n = 40) and comorbid insomnia (CMI: n = 41) sufferers receiving four biweekly sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or sleep hygiene education. Using the within-subject standard deviations of diary- and actigraphy-derived measures collected for 2-week periods [sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE)], we found that CMI sufferers displayed more variable self-reported SOLs and SEs than PI sufferers. However, higher variability in diary and actigraphy-derived measures was related to poorer sleep quality only within the PI group, as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Within both groups, the variability of diary-derived measures was reduced after CBT, but the variability of actigraphy-derived measures remained unchanged. Interestingly, the variability of actigraphy measures at baseline was correlated with PSQI scores at 6-month follow-up. Higher SOL variability was associated with worse treatment outcomes within the PI group, whereas higher WASO variability was correlated with better treatment outcomes within the CMI group. Sleep variability differences across insomnia diagnoses, along with their distinctive correlates, suggest that mechanisms underlying the sleep disruption/complaint and treatment response in both patient groups are distinct. Further studies are warranted to support variability as a useful metric in

  15. Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

  16. Associations of benzodiazepine craving with other clinical variables in a population of general practice patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to (1) describe the characteristics of patients reporting craving for benzodiazepines (BZs) and (2) to search for associations between BZ craving and other clinical variables in a population of general practice (GP) patients who have made an attempt to discontin

  17. Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.

    1993-01-01

    Drug-induced improvement of depression may be mediated by changes in sleep physiology. The aim of this study was to relate changes in sleep polygraphic variables to clinical state during treatment with citalopram, a highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. Sixteen patients took part. The study wa

  18. Associations of benzodiazepine craving with other clinical variables in a population of general practice patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Voshaar, R.C. Oude; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, van A.J.L.M.; Lisdonk, van de E.H.; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to (1) describe the characteristics of patients reporting craving for benzodiazepines (BZs) and (2) to search for associations between BZ craving and other clinical variables in a population of general practice (GP) patients who have made an attempt to discontin

  19. Undergraduate Nurse Variables that Predict Academic Achievement and Clinical Competence in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ian; Hall, Margaret; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for undergraduate nursing students. Sixteen latent variables were considered including the students' background, gender, type of first language, age, their previous successes with their undergraduate nursing studies and status given for…

  20. [Phenotypic variability in 47, XXX patients: Clinical report of four new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Ernesto; Márquez, Marisa; Solari, Andrea; Ziembar, María I; Laudicina, Alejandro

    2010-08-01

    The 47, XXX karyotype has a frequency of 1 in 1000 female newborns. However, this karyotype is not usually suspected at birth or childhood. These patients are usually diagnosed during adulthood when they develop premature ovarian failure or infertility, because the early phenotype doesn t have any specific features. The study describes four cases and the clinical variability of the 47, XXX karyotype.

  1. Changes in Heart Rate Variability after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Clinical Importance of These Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakusic, Nenad; Mahovic, Darija; Kruzliak, Peter; Cerkez Habek, Jasna; Novak, Miroslav; Cerovec, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability is a physiological feature indicating the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart rate. Association of the reduced heart rate variability due to myocardial infarction and the increased postinfarction mortality was first described more than thirty years ago. Many studies have unequivocally demonstrated that coronary artery bypass grafting surgery generally leads to significant reduction in heart rate variability, which is even more pronounced than after myocardial infarction. Pathophysiologically, however, the mechanisms of heart rate variability reduction associated with acute myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting are different. Generally, heart rate variability gradually recovers to the preoperative values within six months of the procedure. Unlike the reduced heart rate variability in patients having sustained myocardial infarction, a finding of reduced heart rate variability after coronary artery bypass surgery is not considered relevant in predicting mortality. Current knowledge about changes in heart rate variability in coronary patients and clinical relevance of such a finding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are presented.

  2. Mapping the epidemiology and trends of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Bright; Al-Hajoj, Sahal

    2015-12-01

    An extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) infection rate of 30% in Saudi Arabia remains above the global rate. A variable rate of infection in each province has been reported and the involvement of most organs has been cited. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce and the factors behind the increased rate of EPTB are perplexing. This review endeavors to shed light into the epidemiology of EPTB, various types of infections sites, geographical differences in the infection rate, known risk factors, and challenges in the diagnosis and management of EPTB in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Arabia: from craters to stone circles

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The Arabia Shield has a volcanic nature inside. A region of the Western Saudi Arabia is in fact covered with vast fields of lava known as harraat. These lands are spotted by many stone circles and other quite interesting archaeological remains of the Neolithic period, such as the "desert kites", the hunters used to guide the game across the harrah in some corrals. With Google Maps, we can observe both sceneries, the volcanic nature of the land and a portrait of Arabia during the Neolithic times.

  4. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  5. Pre-Vocational Training in Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses prevocational education in Saudi Arabia: separate schools for boys and girls, primary school curriculum, factors contributing to academic failure and dropout rates, prevocational training centers, educational facilities, program restructuring, and curriculum revitalization. (CT)

  6. Step-length variability in minimally disabled women with multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Melanie; Knox, Katherine; Nickel, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gait is one of the most frequently impaired bodily functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Determining abnormal parameters of gait in early MS could influence MS treatment and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased step-length variability could be detected in minimally disabled patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) using a sensored walkway gait analysis system. Nine participants with MS/CIS and nine age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for this study. MS/CIS participants underwent a neurologic examination, and all participants completed a screening interview. Each participant completed three walks at a self-selected pace and three walks at a brisk pace across the GAITRite walkway (MAP/CIR Inc, Havertown, PA). Mean values for step-length variability, step length, and velocity were calculated for each participant's self-selected and brisk trials. Independent t tests were used to compare MS/CIS participants with controls, and effect sizes were calculated. Step-length variability in the left leg at the self-selected pace was found to be greater in participants with MS/CIS than in controls, although no significant differences were found in velocity or step length. Step-length variability measurement shows promise in detecting subtle gait dysfunction. Larger, prospective studies exploring step-length variability may determine its clinical viability for detecting subtle gait dysfunction and could lead to improved prognostication of disability progression in MS.

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical variables used in Huntington disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Sonia; Shim, Yaein; Lau, Margaret; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2013-12-01

    Treatment effect in Huntington disease (HD) clinical trials has relied on primary outcome measures such as total motor score or functional rating scales. However, these measures have limited sensitivity, particularly in pre- to early stages of the disease. We performed a systematic review of HD clinical studies to identify endpoints that correlate with disease severity. Using standard HD keywords and terms, we identified 749 published studies from 1993 to 2011 based on the availability of demographic, biochemical, and clinical measures. The average and variability of each measure was abstracted and stratified according to pre-far, pre-close, early, mild, moderate, and severe HD stages. A fixed-effect meta-analysis on selected variables was conducted at various disease stages. A total of 1,801 different clinical variables and treatment outcomes were identified. Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) Motor, UHDRS Independence, and Trail B showed a trend toward separation between HD stages. Other measures, such as UHDRS Apathy, Verbal Fluency, and Symbol Digit, could only distinguish between pre- and early stages of disease and later stages, whereas other measures showed little correlation with increasing HD stages. Using cross-sectional data from published HD clinical trials, we have identified potential endpoints that could be used to track HD disease progression and treatment effect. Longitudinal studies, such as TRACK-HD, are critical for assessing the value of potential markers of disease progression for use in future HD therapeutic trials. A list of variables, references used in this meta-analysis, and database is available at http://www.cmmt.ubc.ca/research/investigators/leavitt/publications.

  8. President Li Xiaolin Visits Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of Prince Alwaleed,chairman of Kingdom Holding Company of Saudi Arabia,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin led a delegation to visit Saudi Arabia from Feb 16 to 20.During the visit,Ms.Li met with the prince,visited Kingdom Hospital and Kingdom School and held working talks with Alwaleed Philanthropies.During the meeting with Prince Alwaleed,Ms.Li mentioned that Chi-

  9. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of m...

  10. Observed inter-camera variability of clinically relevant performance characteristics for Siemens Symbia gamma cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Erwin, William D; Wendt, Richard E

    2006-11-28

    We conducted an evaluation of the intercamera (i.e., between cameras) variability in clinically relevant performance characteristics for Symbia gamma cameras (Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA) based on measurements made using nine separate systems. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was determined by comparing it to the intracamera (i.e., within a single camera) variability. Measurements of performance characteristics were based on the standards of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and reports 6, 9, 22, and 52 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. All measurements were performed using 99mTc (except 57Co used for extrinsic resolution) and low-energy, high-resolution collimation. Of the nine cameras, four have crystals 3/8 in. thick and five have crystals 5/8 in. thick. We evaluated intrinsic energy resolution, intrinsic and extrinsic spatial resolution, intrinsic integral and differential flood uniformity over the useful field-of-view, count rate at 20% count loss, planar sensitivity, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) resolution, and SPECT integral uniformity. The intracamera variability was estimated by repeated measurements of the performance characteristics on a single system. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was evaluated using the two-tailed F distribution. The planar sensitivity of the gamma cameras tested was found be variable at the 99.8% confidence level for both the 3/8-in. and 5/8-in. crystal systems. The integral uniformity and energy resolution were found to be variable only for the 5/8-in. crystal systems at the 98% and 90% confidence level, respectively. All other performance characteristics tested exhibited no significant variability between camera systems. The measured variability reported here could perhaps be used to define nominal performance values of Symbia gamma cameras for planar and SPECT imaging.

  11. Ability of clinicopathologic variables and clinical examination findings to predict race elimination in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, C Langdon; Meier, Chloe A; Fellers, Greg K; Magdesian, K Gary

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare results of point-of-care laboratory testing with standard veterinary clinical examination findings at a single time point during endurance competition to identify horses at risk for elimination. ANIMALS 101 endurance horses participating in the 2013 Western States 160-km (100-mile) endurance ride. PROCEDURES At the 58-km checkpoint, blood samples were collected from all horses. Samples were analyzed for pH, Pco2, base excess, anion gap, PCV, and whole blood concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, total carbon dioxide, BUN, glucose, and bicarbonate. Corrected electrolyte and PCV values were calculated on the basis of plasma total protein concentration. Immediately following the blood sample collection, each horse underwent a clinical examination. In addition to standard examination variables, an adjusted heart rate was calculated on the basis of the variable interval between entry into the checkpoint and heart rate recording. A combination of stepwise logistic regression, classification and regression tree analysis, and generalized additive models was used to identify variables that were associated with overall elimination or each of 3 other elimination categories (metabolic elimination, lameness elimination, and elimination for other reasons). RESULTS Corrected whole blood potassium concentration and adjusted heart rate were predictive for overall elimination. Breed, plasma total protein concentration, and attitude were predictive for elimination due to metabolic causes. Whole blood chloride concentration and corrected PCV were predictive for elimination due to lameness. Corrected PCV was predictive for elimination due to other causes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for horses in endurance competition, a combination of breed and clinical examination and laboratory variables provided the best prediction of overall elimination.

  12. Clinical, hematologic and molecular variability of sickle cell-β thalassemia in western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Malay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell-β thalassemia (HbS-β thalassemia is a sickling disorder of varying severity, which results from compound heterozygosity for sickle cell trait and β thalassemia trait. The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic factors responsible for the clinical variability of HbS-β thalassemia patients from western India. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one HbS-β thalassemia cases with variable clinical manifestations were investigated. The α and β globin gene clusters were studied by molecular analysis. Results: Thirteen patients showed milder clinical presentation as against eight patients who had severe clinical manifestations. Four β thalassemia mutations were identified: IVS 1-5 (G→C, codon 15 (G→A, codon 30 (G→C and codon 8/9 (+G. α thalassemia and XmnI polymorphism in homozygous condition (+/+ were found to be common among the milder cases. The βS chromosomes were linked to the typical Arab-Indian haplotype (#31. Framework (FW linkage studies showed that four β thalassemia mutations were associated with different β globin gene frameworks. Linkage of codon 15 (G→A mutation to FW2 is being observed for the first time. Conclusion: The phenotypic expression of HbS-β thalassemia is not uniformly mild and α thalassemia and XmnI polymorphism in homozygous condition (+/+ are additional genetic factors modulating the severity of the disease in the Indian subcontinent.

  13. Factor analysis of the interrelationships between clinical variables in horses with colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoefner, M B; Ersbøll, A K; Jensen, A L; Hesselholt, M

    2001-02-16

    A prospective survey of horses with colic referred to the Large Animal Hospital at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Copenhagen, Denmark, was undertaken between August 1994 and December 1997. The interrelationships between 17 clinical variables were analysed using factor analysis. Factor analysis uncovers the structure of the variability in data and therefore detects multicollinearity. A total of 528 horses were admitted in the study period. Of these, 16 were excluded from the analysis as a result of miscellaneous conditions. Only 205 horses had observations for all 17 variables. Because no major change occurred in the main diagnostic categories, this population was considered as a representative subset. Factor analysis confirmed the clinical impression of correlation between variables, but the multicollinearity turned out not to be strong. Four factors were extracted, and these accounted for 51% of the total variance. The retained factors were interpreted by integrating previously reported clinical research. The first factor, which was interpreted as endotoxaemia, had high loadings on capillary refill time, mucous-membrane colour, degree of pain, heart rate, packed-cell volume and abdominal sounds. In the second factor, cecal decompression, admission month and gastric reflux had the predominant influence, and this factor was explained as cecal tympany. The third factor was simply interpreted as age because it had high loadings on gender, age and temperature. In the fourth factor, the interpretation was not straightforward, although breed had the greatest influence in the formation of this factor. Subsequently, the extracted factors were used in a logistic-regression analysis to determine their association with outcome (survival/death). The two factors interpreted as endotoxaemia and age were related to the outcome.

  14. Variability of clinical CT perfusion measurements in patients with carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Aquilla S. [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Neurosurgery, Madison, WI (United States); Grayev, Allison; Turski, Patrick; Pulfer, Kari; Haughton, Victor [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Rowley, Howard A. [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Neurosurgery, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Neurology, Madison, WI (United States); Field, Aaron S. [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Mukherjee, Rajat [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-11-15

    CT perfusion imaging (pCT) may be used to detect and monitor hemodynamic abnormalities due to cerebrovascular disease. The magnitude of variability in clinical measurements has been insufficiently evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the long-term variability of clinical pCT measurements in patients with cerebrovascular disease. pCT parameters were calculated for the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to a carotid stenosis before and after stent treatment of stenosis in 33 consecutive patients. Mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) calculated from pCT data from both a small and large region of interest (ROI) using both manual and automated methods were compared before and after stent treatment. Differences between the first and second measurement were tested for statistical significance with at-test. Variability was calculated as the standard deviation of the differences divided by the mean of the pre- and post-stent treatment values. To adjust for proportional bias, the Bland-Altman analysis was applied. The differences between the two measurements of MTT, CBF, and CBV averaged 2.5 to 7.7% when a manual method was used and was higher with automatic methods (p > 0.07). The variability of the values was 18% for MTT, 19% for CBV, and 25% for CBF with the large ROI and the manual method of calculation. The magnitude was larger when the small ROI and automatic methods were employed. Longitudinal measurements of MTT, CBV, or CBF by pCT may vary by 20-25%. To detect changes in treatment-related changes in perfusion, pCT studies must be designed to achieve statistical significance based on this variability. (orig.)

  15. Episiotomy and its relationship to various clinical variables that influence its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Meseguer, Carmen; Carrillo-García, César; Meseguer-de-Pedro, Mariano; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel; Martínez-Roche, Mª Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand the episiotomy rate and its relationship with various clinical variables. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytic study of 12,093 births in a tertiary hospital. Variables: Parity, gestational age, start of labor, use of epidural analgesia, oxytocin usage, position during fetal explusion, weight of neonate, and completion of birth. The analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: the global percentage of episiotomies was 50%. The clinical variables that presented a significant association were primiparity (RR=2.98), gestational age >41 weeks (RR=1.2), augmented or induced labor (RR=1.33), epidural analgesia use (RR=1,95), oxytocin use (RR=1.58), lithotomy position during fetal expulsion (RR=6.4), and instrumentation (RR=1.84). Furthermore, maternal age ≥35 years (RR=0.85) and neonatal weight <2500 g (RR=0.8) were associated with a lower incidence of episiotomy. Conclusions: episiotomy is dependent on obstetric interventions performed during labor. If we wish to reduce the episiotomy rate, it will be necessary to bear in mind these risk factors when establishing policies for reducing this procedure. PMID:27224064

  16. Episiotomy and its relationship to various clinical variables that influence its performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ballesteros-Meseguer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the episiotomy rate and its relationship with various clinical variables. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytic study of 12,093 births in a tertiary hospital. Variables: Parity, gestational age, start of labor, use of epidural analgesia, oxytocin usage, position during fetal explusion, weight of neonate, and completion of birth. The analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: the global percentage of episiotomies was 50%. The clinical variables that presented a significant association were primiparity (RR=2.98, gestational age >41 weeks (RR=1.2, augmented or induced labor (RR=1.33, epidural analgesia use (RR=1,95, oxytocin use (RR=1.58, lithotomy position during fetal expulsion (RR=6.4, and instrumentation (RR=1.84. Furthermore, maternal age ≥35 years (RR=0.85 and neonatal weight <2500 g (RR=0.8 were associated with a lower incidence of episiotomy. Conclusions: episiotomy is dependent on obstetric interventions performed during labor. If we wish to reduce the episiotomy rate, it will be necessary to bear in mind these risk factors when establishing policies for reducing this procedure.

  17. Preoperative cardiac variables of diastolic dysfunction and clinical outcomes in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Ajay; Lynch, Joseph P; Saggar, Rajan; Ross, David; Belperio, John A; Weigt, Stephen; Ardehali, Abbas; Grogan, Tristan; Yang, Eric H; Aboulhosn, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Background. Orthotopic lung transplantation is now widely performed in patients with advanced lung disease. Patients with moderate or severe ventricular systolic dysfunction are typically excluded from lung transplantation; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the prognostic significance of abnormal left ventricular diastolic function and elevated pretransplant pulmonary pressures. Methods. We reviewed the characteristics of 111 patients who underwent bilateral and unilateral lung transplants from 200 to 2009 in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative markers of diastolic function, including invasively measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and echocardiographic variables of diastolic dysfunction including mitral A > E and A' > E'. Results. Out of 111 patients, 62 were male (56%) and average age was 54.0 ± 10.5 years. Traditional echocardiographic Doppler variables of abnormal diastolic function, including A' > E' and A > E, did not predict adverse events (P = 0.49). Mildly elevated pretransplant PCWP (16-20 mmHg) and moderately/severely elevated PCWP (>20 mmHg) were not associated with adverse clinical events after transplant (P = 0.30). Additionally, all clinical endpoints did not show any statistical significance between the two groups. Conclusions. Pre-lung transplant invasive and echocardiographic findings of elevated pulmonary pressures and abnormal left ventricular diastolic function are not predictive of adverse posttransplant clinical events.

  18. Clinical variables associated with leprosy reactions and persistence of physical impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Teles de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leprosy is a chronic disease that affects skin and peripheral nerves. Disease complications include reactional episodes and physical impairment. One World Health Organization (WHO goal of leprosy programs is to decrease the number of grade 2 impairment diagnoses by 2015. This study aims to evaluate clinical factors associated with the occurrence of leprosy reactions and physical impairment in leprosy patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of data from medical records of patients followed in two important centers for the treatment of leprosy in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, from 2005 to 2011. We used the chi-square test to analyze associations between the following categorical variables: gender, age, operational classification, clinical forms, leprosy reactions, corticosteroid treatment, and physical impairment at the diagnosis and after cure. Clinical variables associated with multibacillary leprosy and/or reactional episodes and the presence of any grade of physical impairment after cure were evaluated using the logistic regression model. Results We found that men were more affected by multibacillary forms, reactional episodes, and grade 2 physical impairment at diagnosis. Leprosy reactions were detected in a total of 40% of patients and all were treated with corticosteroids. However, physical impairment was observed in 29.8% of the patients analyzed at the end of the treatment and our multivariate analysis associated a low dose and short period of corticosteroid treatment with persistence of physical impairments. Conclusions Physical impairment should receive an increased attention before and after treatment, and adequate treatment should be emphasized.

  19. Preoperative Cardiac Variables of Diastolic Dysfunction and Clinical Outcomes in Lung Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Yadlapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orthotopic lung transplantation is now widely performed in patients with advanced lung disease. Patients with moderate or severe ventricular systolic dysfunction are typically excluded from lung transplantation; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the prognostic significance of abnormal left ventricular diastolic function and elevated pretransplant pulmonary pressures. Methods. We reviewed the characteristics of 111 patients who underwent bilateral and unilateral lung transplants from 200 to 2009 in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative markers of diastolic function, including invasively measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP and echocardiographic variables of diastolic dysfunction including mitral A>E and A′>E′. Results. Out of 111 patients, 62 were male (56% and average age was 54.0 ± 10.5 years. Traditional echocardiographic Doppler variables of abnormal diastolic function, including A′>E′ and A>E, did not predict adverse events (P=0.49. Mildly elevated pretransplant PCWP (16–20 mmHg and moderately/severely elevated PCWP (>20 mmHg were not associated with adverse clinical events after transplant (P=0.30. Additionally, all clinical endpoints did not show any statistical significance between the two groups. Conclusions. Pre-lung transplant invasive and echocardiographic findings of elevated pulmonary pressures and abnormal left ventricular diastolic function are not predictive of adverse posttransplant clinical events.

  20. Questionnaire-based analysis of infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia in regards to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaan, Ali A; Alhani, Hatem M; Bazzi, Ali M; Al-Ahmed, Shamsah H

    2017-02-16

    Effective implementation of infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities depends on training, awareness and compliance of healthcare workers. In Saudi Arabia recent significant hospital outbreaks, including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have resulted from lack of, or breakdown in, infection prevention and control procedures. This study was designed to assess attitudes to, and awareness of, infection prevention and control policies and guidelines among healthcare workers of different professions and institution types in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was administered to 607 healthcare workers including physicians (n=133), nurses (n=162), laboratory staff (n=233) and other staff (n=79) in government hospitals, private hospitals and poly clinics. Results were compared using Chi square analysis according to profession type, institution type, age group and nationality (Saudi or non-Saudi) to assess variability. Responses suggested that there are relatively high levels of uncertainty among healthcare workers across a range of infection prevention and control issues, including institution-specific issues, surveillance and reporting standards, and readiness and competence to implement policies and respond to outbreaks. There was evidence to suggest that staff in private hospitals and nurses were more confident than other staff types. Carelessness of healthcare workers was the top-cited factor contributing to causes of outbreaks (65.07% of total group), and hospital infrastructure and design was the top-cited factor contributing to spread of infection in the hospital (54.20%), followed closely by lack and shortage of staff (53.71%) and no infection control training program (51.73%). An electronic surveillance system was considered the most effective by staff (81.22%). We have identified areas of concern among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia on infection prevention and control which vary between institutions and among different

  1. Anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence, differential diagnosis and association with clinical and laboratory variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrade Alves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES:Anemia is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to: 1 determine the prevalence of anemia among patients with inflammatory bowel disease; 2 investigate whether routine laboratory markers are useful for diagnosing anemia; and 3 evaluate whether any association exists between anemia and clinical/laboratory variables.DESIGN AND SETTING:Cross-sectional at a federal university.METHODS:44 outpatients with Crohn's disease and 55 with ulcerative colitis were evaluated. Clinical variables (disease activity index, location of disease and pharmacological treatment and laboratory variables (blood count, iron laboratory, vitamin B12 and folic acid were investigated.RESULTS:Anemia and/or iron laboratory disorders were present in 75% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 78.2% with ulcerative colitis. Anemia was observed in 20.5% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 23.6% with ulcerative colitis. Iron-deficiency anemia was highly prevalent in patients with Crohn's disease (69.6% and ulcerative colitis (76.7%. Anemia of chronic disease in combination with iron deficiency anemia was present in 3% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 7% of the patients with ulcerative colitis. There was no association between anemia and disease location. In ulcerative colitis, anemia was associated with the disease activity index.CONCLUSIONS:Most patients present iron laboratory disorders, with or without anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency. The differential diagnosis between the two most prevalent types of anemia was made based on clinical data and routine laboratory tests. In ulcerative colitis, anemia was associated with the disease activity index.

  2. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  3. Seasonal variability in clinical care of COPD outpatients: results from the Andalusian COPD audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Campos JL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jose Luis López-Campos,1,2 Maria Abad Arranz,1 Carmen Calero-Acuña,1,2 Fernando Romero-Valero,3 Ruth Ayerbe-García,4 Antonio Hidalgo-Molina,3 Ricardo I Aguilar-Pérez-Grovas,4 Francisco García-Gil,5 Francisco Casas-Maldonado,6 Laura Caballero-Ballesteros,5 María Sánchez-Palop,6 Dolores Pérez-Tejero,7 Alejandro Segado Soriano,7 Jose Calvo-Bonachera,8 Bárbara Hernández-Sierra,8 Adolfo Doménech,9 Macarena Arroyo-Varela,9 Francisco González-Vargas,10 Juan J Cruz-Rueda10 1Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, 2CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, 3Sección de Neumología, Hospital Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, 4Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez, Huelva, 5Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, 6Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Granada, 7Sección de Neumología, Hospital Infanta Margarita, Cabra, Córdoba, 8Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería, 9Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Málaga, 10Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain Objectives: Clinical practice in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD can be influenced by weather variability throughout the year. To explore the hypothesis of seasonal variability in clinical practice, the present study analyzes the results of the 2013–2014 Andalusian COPD audit with regard to changes in clinical practice according to the different seasons.Methods: The Andalusian COPD audit was a pilot clinical project conducted from October 2013 to September 2014 in outpatient respiratory clinics of hospitals in Andalusia, Spain (8 provinces with more than 8 million inhabitants with retrospective data gathering. For the present analysis

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Metapneumovirus in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majority of the strains belonged to subgroup B, while all strains of subgroup A were members of genotype A2. In 2008, only subgroup B was recognized, whereas in 2009 both subgroups were identified to be cocirculating at similar rates. The full-length attachment (G) gene and a partial sequence of the fusion (F) gene of positive samples were sequenced. The G gene showed a high degree of genetic diversity and exhibited a variable number of positively selected sites in different lineages. In contrast, the F gene demonstrated an extensive genetic stability with a higher tendency toward purifying selection. This is the first report on HMPV genotype circulation in Saudi Arabia; however, the exact circulation kinetics requires further retrospective and prospective study.

  5. Premedication for neonatal intubation: Current practice in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mosalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strong evidence of the benefits of rapid sequence intubation in neonates, it is still infrequently utilized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU, contributing to avoidable pain and secondary procedure-related physiological disturbances. Objectives: The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the practice of premedication and regimens commonly used before elective endotracheal intubation in NICUs in Saudi Arabia. The secondary aim was to explore neonatal physicians′ attitudes regarding this intervention in institutions across Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based, structured questionnaire was distributed by the Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, to neonatal physicians and consultants of 10 NICUs across the country by E-mail. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics were conducted on the variables extracted. Results: 85% responded to the survey. Although 70% believed it was essential to routinely use premedication for all elective intubations, only 41% implemented this strategy. 60% cited fear of potential side effects for avoiding premedication and 40% indicated that the procedure could be executed more rapidly without drug therapy. Treatment regimens varied widely among respondents. Conclusion: Rates of premedication use prior to non-emergent neonatal intubation are suboptimal. Flawed information and lack of unified unit policies hampered effective implementation. Evidence-based guidelines may influence country-wide adoption of this practice.

  6. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Koch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 162 clinicians at 15 substance abuse treatment clinics in Michigan. Measures: Environmental scanning was measured by frequency of use of the Internet, journals, seminars or conferences, and people at other treatment clinics for new substance abuse treatment information. Clinicians were asked for their perceptions of their clinic’s openness to new treatment techniques and support for acquiring new information, access to and satisfaction with information sources at work, as well as if they feel it is their job to keep up to date with current treatment research. Additional measures included whether they intended to quit their jobs and whether they were emotionally drained from work. Findings: We found positive associations between environmental scanning and perceived clinic support for acquiring new information, perceived clinic openness to new treatment techniques, access to e-mail and Internet at work, and satisfaction with resources. Turnover intention and being emotionally drained were negatively associated with environmental scanning. Conclusion. : Individual and organizational level variables were found to be associated with higher levels of environmental scanning activity. Although the causal directions of these associations are not known, the findings suggest ways to increase environmental scanning among clinicians.

  7. Risk Matrix for Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Time performance of a project is usually a particularly important consideration for the construction parties. Often, the most troublesome construction disputes involve delay and failure to complete the work in the specified time frame. Many variables have an impact upon construction delay in Saudi Arabia. This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. Thirty five delay causes were identified through literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period between design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity and rework.

  8. SEQUENCE VARIABILITY OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS UL144 OPEN READING FRAME IN LOW-PASSAGE CLINICAL ISOLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong He; Yao-hua Ji; Qiang Ruan; Chang Xia; Lan-qing Liu; Sheng-min Lü; Ying Lu; Ying Qi; Yan-ping Ma; Qing Liu

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL144 sequence variability and clinical disease.Methods HCMV UL144 open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by PCR assay in 72 lowpassage isolates [65 congenitally infective children and 7 healthy children who were HCMV-DNA positive by quantitative PCR (qPCR)]. All positive PCR products were analyzed by heteroduplex mobility assay and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (HMA-SSCP) and 32 of them were sequenced.Resuits Fifty-five patient isolates and five healthy children isolates were HCMV-UL144 positive by PCR. Sequencing and HMA-SSCP analysis showed that significant strain-specific variability was present in the UL144 ORF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequences could be separated into 3 major genotypes. Comparing between UL144 sequences and the corresponding symptoms showed that genotype 2 did not exist in megacolon isolates. And genotype 1 and 3 were the major types among microcephaly and jaundice isolates respectively.Conclusions HCMV-UL144 existed in most of low passage isolates and sequences were hypervariable. The UL144ORF and its predicted product with the high level of sequence variability in different kinds of isolates suggest that UL144ORF might play a role in HCMV infectivity and subsequent diseases.

  9. Clinical Variables Associated with Hydration Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Miller, Leslie; Silliman, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at increased risk for poor hydration. Dysphagia management practices may directly impact hydration status. This study examined clinical factors that might impact hydration status in acute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. A retrospective chart review was completed on 67 ischemic stroke patients who participated in a prior study of nutrition and hydration status during acute care. Prior results indicated that patients with dysphagia demonstrated elevated BUN/Cr compared to non-dysphagia cases during acute care and that BUN/Cr increased selectively in dysphagic patients. This chart review evaluated clinical variables potentially impacting hydration status: diuretics, parenteral fluids, tube feeding, oral diet, and nonoral (NPO) status. Exposure to any variable and number of days of exposure to each variable were examined. Dysphagia cases demonstrated significantly more NPO days, tube fed days, and parenteral fluid days, but not oral fed days, or days on diuretics. BUN/Cr values at discharge were not associated with NPO days, parenteral fluid days, oral fed days, or days on diuretics. Patients on modified solid diets had significantly higher mean BUN/Cr values at discharge (27.12 vs. 17.23) as did tube fed patients (28.94 vs. 18.66). No difference was noted between these subgroups at baseline (regular diet vs. modified solids diets). Any modification of solid diets (31.11 vs. 17.23) or thickened liquids (28.50 vs. 17.81) resulted in significantly elevated BUN/Cr values at discharge. Liquid or diet modifications prescribed for acute stroke patients with dysphagia may impair hydration status in these patients.

  10. HIGH VARIABILITY OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS UL150 OPEN READING FRAME IN LOW-PASSAGED CLINICAL ISOLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the polymorphism of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL150 open reading frame(ORF) in low-passaged clinical isolates, and to study the relationship between the polymorphism and different pathogenesis of congenital HCMV infection.Methods PCR was performed to amplify the entire HCMV UL150 ORF region of 29 clinical isolates, which hadbeen proven containing detectable HCMV-DNA using fluorescence quantitative PCR. PCR amplifcation products weresequenced directly, and the data were analyzed.Results Totally 25 among 29 isolates were amplified, and 18 isolates were sequenced successfully. HCMVUL150 ORF sequences derived from congenitally infected infants were high variability. The UL150 ORF in all 18 clinical isolates shifted backward by 8 nucleotides leading to frame-shift, and contained a single nucleotide deletion at nucleotide position 226 compared with that of Toledo strain. The nucleotide diversity was 0. 1% to 6. 8% and the amino acid diversity was 0. 2% to 19. 2% related to Toledo strain. However, the nucleotide diversity was 0. 1% to 6.4% and amino acid diversity was 0. 2% to 8.3% by compared with Merlin strain. Compared with Toledo, 4 new cysteine residues and 13 additional posttranslational modification sites were observed in UL150 putative proteins of clinical isolates. Moreover, the UL150 putative protein contained an additional transmembrane helix at position of 4-17 amino acid related to Toledo.Conclusion HCMV UL150 ORF and deduced amino acid sequences of clinical strains are hypervariability. No obvious linkage between the polymorphism and different pathogenesis of congenital HCMV infection is found.

  11. A Reciprocal Model of Psychographic Attributes Related to Their Learning among Preparatory Year of Undergraduate Students in West Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Feras

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the level of psychographic attributes among the preparatory year students enrolled at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The study sample consists of 209 students chosen with the help of random sampling and questionnaire survey was employed for data collection. Based on the findings, the entire study variables, which are…

  12. Variability amongst radiographers in the categorization of clinical acceptability for digital trauma radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Robin; Toomey, Rachel; Smits, Dirk; Mol, Harrie; Verhelle, Filip; Butler, Marie-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Radiographers evaluate anatomical structures to judge clinical acceptability of a radiograph. Whether a radiograph is deemed acceptable for diagnosis or not depends on the individual decision of the radiographer. Individual decisions cause variation in the accepted image quality. To minimise these variations definitions of acceptability, such as in RadLex, were developed. On which criteria radiographers attribute a RadLex categories to radiographs is unknown. Insight into these criteria helps to further optimise definitions and reduce variability in acceptance between radiographers. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the correlation between the RadLex classification and the evaluation of anatomical structures, using a Visual Grading Analysis (VGA) Methods: Four radiographers evaluated the visibility of five anatomical structures of 25 lateral cervical spine radiographs on a secondary class display with a VGA. They judged clinical acceptability of each radiograph using RadLex. Relations between VGAS and RadLex category were analysed with Kendall's Tau correlation and Nagelkerke pseudo-R². Results: The overall VGA score (VGAS) and the RadLex score correlate (rτ= 0.62, pConclusion: RadLex scores and VGAS correlate positively, strongly and significantly. The predictive value of bony structures may support the use of these in the judgement of clinical acceptability. Considerable inter-observer variations in the VGAS within a certain RadLex category, suggest that observers use of observer specific cut-off values.

  13. Pediatric pulmonary services in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society. Results: Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%. The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years′ experience (44.8% and were North American training programs graduates (69%. The majority of the respondents (51% were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma′a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85% lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year. Conclusion: Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.

  14. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  15. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  16. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  17. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  18. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  19. Clinical variability in hereditary optic neuropathies: Two novel mutations in two patients with dominant optic atrophy and Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Dominant optic atrophy (DOA) and Wolfram syndrome share a great deal of clinical variability, including an association with hearing loss and the presence of optic atrophy at similar ages. The objective of this paper was to discuss the phenotypic variability of these syndromes with respect to the presentation of two clinical cases. We present two patients, each with either DOA or Wolfram syndrome, and contribute to the research literature through our findings of two novel mutations. The overlapping of several clinical characteristics in hereditary optic neuropathies can complicate the differential diagnosis. Future studies are needed to better determine the genotype-phenotype correlation for these diseases.

  20. Variability of Creatinine Measurements in Clinical Laboratories: Results from the CRIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Marshall; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Feldman, Harold I.; Weir, Matthew; Landis, J.R.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Estimating equations using serum creatinine (SCr) are often used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Such creatinine (Cr)-based formulae may produce biased estimates of GFR when using Cr measurements that have not been calibrated to reference laboratories. In this paper, we sought to examine the degree of this variation in Cr assays in several laboratories associated with academic medical centers affiliated with the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study; to consider how best to correct for this variation, and to quantify the impact of such corrections on eligibility for participation in CRIC. Variability of Cr is of particular concern in the conduct of CRIC, a large multicenter study of subjects with chronic renal disease, because eligibility for the study depends on Cr-based assessment of GFR. Methods A library of 5 large volume plasma specimens from apheresis patients was assembled, representing levels of plasma Cr from 0.8 to 2.4 mg/dl. Samples from this library were used for measurement of Cr at each of the 14 CRIC laboratories repetitively over time. We used graphical displays and linear regression methods to examine the variability in Cr, and used linear regression to develop calibration equations. We also examined the impact of the various calibration equations on the proportion of subjects screened as potential participants who were actually eligible for the study. Results There was substantial variability in Cr assays across laboratories and over time. We developed calibration equations for each laboratory; these equations varied substantially among laboratories and somewhat over time in some laboratories. The laboratory site contributed the most to variability (51% of the variance unexplained by the specimen) and variation with time accounted for another 15%. In some laboratories, calibration equations resulted in differences in eligibility for CRIC of as much as 20%. Conclusions The substantial variability in SCr assays

  1. Myocardial Architecture and Patient Variability in Clinical Patterns of Atrial Fibrillation

    CERN Document Server

    Manani, Kishan A; Peters, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of four to five and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF. We use a simple model of activation wavefront propagation on an anisotropic structure, mimicking heart muscle tissue, to show how variation in AF behaviour arises naturally from microstructural differences between individuals. We show that the stochastic nature of progressive transversal uncoupling of muscle strands (e.g., due to fibrosis or gap junctional remodelling), as occurs with age, results in variability in AF episode onset time, frequency, duration, burden ...

  2. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  3. Myocardial architecture and patient variability in clinical patterns of atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manani, Kishan A.; Christensen, Kim; Peters, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4–5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF. We use a simple model of activation wave-front propagation on an anisotropic structure, mimicking heart muscle tissue, to show how variation in AF behavior arises naturally from microstructural differences between individuals. We show that the stochastic nature of progressive transversal uncoupling of muscle strands (e.g., due to fibrosis or gap junctional remodeling), as occurs with age, results in variability in AF episode onset time, frequency, duration, burden, and progression between individuals. This is consistent with clinical observations. The uncoupling of muscle strands can cause critical architectural patterns in the myocardium. These critical patterns anchor microreentrant wave fronts and thereby trigger AF. It is the number of local critical patterns of uncoupling as opposed to global uncoupling that determines AF progression. This insight may eventually lead to patient-specific therapy when it becomes possible to observe the cellular structure of a patient’s heart.

  4. Myocardial architecture and patient variability in clinical patterns of atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manani, Kishan A.; Christensen, Kim; Peters, Nicholas S.

    2016-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF. We use a simple model of activation wave-front propagation on an anisotropic structure, mimicking heart muscle tissue, to show how variation in AF behavior arises naturally from microstructural differences between individuals. We show that the stochastic nature of progressive transversal uncoupling of muscle strands (e.g., due to fibrosis or gap junctional remodeling), as occurs with age, results in variability in AF episode onset time, frequency, duration, burden, and progression between individuals. This is consistent with clinical observations. The uncoupling of muscle strands can cause critical architectural patterns in the myocardium. These critical patterns anchor microreentrant wave fronts and thereby trigger AF. It is the number of local critical patterns of uncoupling as opposed to global uncoupling that determines AF progression. This insight may eventually lead to patient-specific therapy when it becomes possible to observe the cellular structure of a patient's heart.

  5. Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED WITH 2009 H1N1 INFLUENZA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Agha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background

    Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus emerged and spread globally in the spring of 2009.  We describe the clinical features of the patients who were hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza July 2009 to June 2010 in a tertiary care hospital in Khamis Mushyt, Saudi Arabia.  We analyzed the clinical and laboratory variables in order to determine predictors of poor outcome

    Methods

    We performed a prospective study in all patients who were hospitalized for at least 48 hours  and with a positive test for 2009 H1N1 virus through RT-PCR(real time polymerase chain reaction.  Their epidemiological, clinical, biochemical characteristics were collected and the hospital course of the patients with eventual outcome (discharge or death was observed. We applied a logistic regression analysis to determine the best predictor of death.

  7. Thermochemoradiotherapy for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer. Analysis of clinical results and background variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, Hideyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo; Nagashima, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Hajime; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Sohma, Yoh; Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Imai, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Masaki [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Dentistry

    2001-03-01

    Eighteen patients with 25 unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers (squamous cell carcinomas) received thermochemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy. The total radiation dose ranged from 50 to 82 Gy (mean, 65.6 Gy). Patients received thermochemotherapy twice a week, for a total number of 8.8 sessions, on average. The temperature in the tumor, as a result of the hyperthermia, was over 42 deg C in 185 (84.5%) of the 219 treatments. Three kinds of heating systems were used: a 13.56-MHz radiofrequency system, a 2450-MHz microwave system, and a radiofrequency interstitial system. The total amount of administered CDDP ranged from 40 to 300 mg (mean, 110 mg), combined with PEP and/or 5FU. Background factors (tumor factors and treatment factors) were investigated in detail, and the clinical results (tumor response and the 5-year cumulative focal control rate) were evaluated. The relationship between these two results was then analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. The clinical results of patients with a WHO histological classification of grade 3 were poor compared with patients with a classification of grade 1 or 2. The difference between these two results was significant when analyzed using univariate statistics, but not significant when analyzed using multivariate statistics. The clinical results of patients with primary lesions surrounded by bony tissues were slightly poor compared with those of patients whose lesions were surrounded by soft tissues, but the difference between these two results was not significant. Successful treatment of refractory recurrent tumors, large tumor masses, and diffuse invasive carcinomas was not affected by the treatment factors (heating systems, heating sessions, radiation dose, and CDDP dose and drug combination). These results suggest that refractory recurrence, proximity to bony tissues, tumor size, and histological malignancy might not be prognostic variables for thermochemoradiotherapy strategy

  8. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Cuoco, Valentina; Quartini, Adele; Urso, Stefania; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adjustment disorder (AD) is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing) often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD. Methods A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy), was performed. Results The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females), aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%), a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%), was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%), family problems (23.70%), and/or somatic disease (22.60%) with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records. Conclusion Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results suggest that AD may have a distinct profile in demographic and clinical terms. Increased scientific attention is hoped, particularly focused on addressing a better definition of diagnostic criteria, whose correctness and accuracy are critical, especially in situations with medicolegal implications. PMID:27099504

  9. Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Aujan S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ≥18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction

  10. Satisfaction of trainees of Saudi Diploma Family Medicine, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; AlDawood, Kassim M; AlKhudeer, Basima K; AlSaqqaf, Abdullah A

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to assess trainees' satisfaction with the process and assessment aspects of the Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine (SDFM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2015 among trainees undertaking the SDFM. A questionnaire was distributed to all trainees in four examination centres in Saudi Arabia, under the supervision and guidance of the investigators (four members of the scientific committee of SDFM). There was a total of 97 participants in this study, the majority of whom were Saudis. More than 85% were satisfied with most elements of training including; an adequate number and variety of patients and cases, allocating time for training, giving regular written evaluation. Satisfaction with mentoring and giving constructive feedback scored less well and trainees were less satisfied with some hospital clinical rotations, which requires further exploration.

  11. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

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    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

  12. Hemodynamic variables and clinical features correlated with serum uric acid in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Serum uric acid (UA), the final product of purine degradation, has been proposed to be a marker for the severity and a possible predictor of mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The objectives of this study were to elucidate whether serum UA level correlates with the clinical features and the hemodynamic variables in Chinese patients with PAH and to compare the difference of the correlates in patients associated with different etiologies. Methods Serum UA was assessed in 228 patients with three types of PAH (idiopathic PAH (IPAH), congenital heart disease related PAH (CHD-PAH) and connective tissue disease related PAH (CTD-PAH)) together with other clinical features. After the individualized treatment for at least 6 months, the UA levels and clinical features were re-evaluated in 88 patients. Results Serum UA was significantly elevated in patients with PAH compared with age-matched control subjects ((350.40±108.73) μmol/L vs (266.91±81.38) μmol/L), P<0.001). Serum UA negatively correlated with cardiac output and mixed venous saturation (SvO) in all three types of PAH (all P<0.05), positively correlated with the size of right ventricle in IPAH (P=0.002) and CTD-PAH (P=0.013) patients and with pulmonary vascular resistance just in CTD-PAH patients (P=0.001). Serum UA significantly decreased from (365.80±120.46) μmol/L to (333.67±117.56) μmol/L in 88 patients (P=0.006) with vasodilator therapy for at least 6 months, accompanied with a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance from (15.13±6.96) Woods unit to (12.00±5.04) Woods unit (P=0.001) and an increase in cardiac output from (2.63±0.98) L/min to (3.08±1.04) L/min (P=0.005). Conclusions Serum UA increases in proportion to the clinical severity of all the three types of PAH, especially the CTD-PAH had a stronger correlations compared with IPAH and CHD-PAH. The serum UA levels also could partly reflect the response to the treatment in patients with PAH.

  13. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

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    Swaid AI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ali I Swaid,1 Abdelkhalig H Elhilu,2 Mohamed S Mahfouz3 1Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85 enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results: Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively. Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32, while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39. Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively. The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%, while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion: It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Jazan University, internship program, gynecology and

  14. Developing a Test Battery to assess Determinants of Marital Relationship Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

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    Nadia Al Tamimi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.

  15. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

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    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Tumors of the eye in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, A; Cavender, J C

    1991-11-01

    The geographic incidence of tumors usually uncovers the influence that environment, race and culture exert upon the prevalence of cancer. Therefore this study of tumors of the eye is presented as a baseline for Saudi Arabia between the years 1982G and 1989G. The most common malignant tumors, in decreasing order of frequency, are retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, and malignant melanoma. The most common benign tumors, in the same order, are nevi, epithelial cysts, hemangiomas and dermoid cysts. There are, in Saudi Arabia, certain unique features for retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Furthermore, these conditions have distinctive incidence rates when compared with cancer incidence in Western countries.

  17. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

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    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of X-linked retinoschisis: Clinical, electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neriyanuri, Srividya; Dhandayuthapani, Sudha; Arunachalam, Jayamuruga Pandian; Raman, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study the phenotypic characteristics of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and report the clinical, electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) variables in Indian eyes. Design: A retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 21 patients with retinoschisis who were genetically confirmed to have RS1 mutation were reviewed. The phenotype characterization included the age of onset, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, fundus findings, OCT, and ERG. Statistical Analysis Used: Data from both the eyes were used for analysis. A P < 0.05 was set as statistical significance. Data were not normally distributed (P < 0.05, Shapiro wilk); hence, nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: All were males whose mean age of presentation was 9 years. Visual acuity was moderately impaired (median 0.6 logMAR, interquartile range: 0.47, 1) in these eyes with a hyperopic refractive error of median +1.75 Ds (interquartile range: +0.50 Ds, +4.25 Ds). About 54.7% of the eyes had both foveal and peripheral schisis, isolated foveal schisis was seen in 28.5% of the eyes, and schisis with retinal detachment was seen in 16.6% of the eyes. The inner nuclear layer was found to be commonly involved in the schisis, followed by outer nuclear and plexiform layers as evident on OCT. On ERG, a- and b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced in eyes with foveal and peripheral schisis when compared to the eyes with only foveal schisis (P < 0.05). Conclusions: XLRS has phenotypic heterogeneity as evident on OCT, ERG, and clinical findings. PMID:27609164

  19. Biochemical and Clinical Variables of Normal Parathyroid and Hyperparathyroid Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

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    Syed Abdul Kader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In chronic kidney disease (CKD intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH level is often increased before clinical hyperphosphatemia occurs. Despite its importance very few studies evaluated parathyroid status in CKD. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate level of parathormone in diabetic CKD patients at a tertiary level hospital and assessing its relationship with different parameters like hemoglobin, calcium etc. and comparing biochemical and clinical variables between normal parathyroid and hyperparathyroid groups. Materials and Methods: It was a hospital based cross-sectional study involving purposively selected chronic kidney disease patients attending nephrology and endocrinology outdoor and indoor services of BIRDEM hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Study was conducted during the period of April to October 2010. All the subjects were divided into two groups based on serum parathormone level and different parameters were compared between groups. Results: The mean duration of chronic kidney disease was significantly higher in hyperparathyroid group than that in the normal group (<0.001. Retinopathy and hypertension were more common in hyperparathyroid group than that in patients with normal serum parathormone (p<0.001 and p=0.012. Neuropathy was solely present in hyperparathyroid group (p<0.001. Mean fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine and serum phosphate were significantly higher in the hyperparathyroid group compared to normal group (p<0.001 in all cases while the mean serum calcium and haemoglobin were lower in hyperparathyroid group than those in the normal group (p<0.001 in both cases. Serum creatinine and serum parathormone bears a significantly linear relationship (r=0.986, p<0.001, while serum parathormone and serum calcium bears a significantly negative relationship (r=−0.892 and p<0.001. Conclusion: Earlier intervention on the basis of iPTH in addition to other biochemical parameters of chronic kidney disease is

  20. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Ali I; Elhilu, Abdelkhalig H; Mahfouz, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Background Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85) enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively). Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32), while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39). Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively). The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%), while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:28203115

  1. Clinical variability in neurohepatic syndrome due to combined mitochondrial DNA depletion and Gaucher disease

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    Julie Harvengt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old girl born to consanguineous parents presented with unexplained liver failure, leading to transplantation at 19 months. Subsequent partial splenectomy for persistent cytopenia showed the presence of foamy cells, and Gaucher disease was confirmed by homozygosity for the p.Leu483Pro mutation in the GBA gene. She was treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. Clinical follow-up showed mild developmental delay, strabismus, nystagmus and oculomotor apraxia. Biochemical studies revealed multiple respiratory chain deficiencies and a mosaic pattern of deficient complex IV immunostaining in liver and fibroblast. Molecular analysis identified a mtDNA depletion syndrome due to the homozygous p.Pro98Leu mutation in MPV17. A younger sister unaffected by mtDNA depletion, presented with pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. ERT for Gaucher disease resulted in visceral normalization without any neurological symptom. A third sister, affected by both conditions, had marked developmental delay, strabismus and ophthalmoplegia but no liver cirrhosis. In conclusion, intrafamilal variability occurs in MPV17-related disease. The combined pathological effect of Gaucher and mitochondrial diseases can negatively impact neurological and liver functions and influence the outcome in consanguineous families. The immunocytochemical staining of OXPHOS protein in tissues and cultured cells is a powerful tool revealing mosaic pattern of deficiency pointing to mtDNA-related mitochondrial disorders.

  2. Behaviour of Clinical, Anthropometric and Laboratory Variables in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Madelaine Hernández Tamayo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing patients with metabolic syndrome is important because of the high prevalence and risk they present. Objective: to determine the behaviour of some clinical, anthropometric and laboratory variables in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. The sample included 161 patients selected at random in different research stages from a universe including all the patients who attended six different consultations in Urbano Noris municipality, Holguín, from September 2008 to June 2009. Diagnosis was performed according to the ATP-III. Variance analysis and Fisher's exact test in SPSS (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 103: 63.97% presented values over average weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and glucose. Their HDL levels were lower. A significant association between metabolic syndrome and CRP, microalbuminuria, alterations in blood sugar levels and hypertension was proved. Conclusions: The importance of characterizing the metabolic syndrome for future interventions was determined.

  3. Relative power of clinical, exercise test, and angiographic variables in predicting clinical outcome after myocardial infarction: the Newham and Tower Hamlets study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belder, M A; Pumphrey, C W; Skehan, J D; Rimington, H; al Wakeel, B; Evans, S J; Rothman, M; Mills, P G

    1988-11-01

    The interrelations of clinical, exercise test, and angiographic variables and their relative values in predicting specific clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction have not been fully established. Of 302 consecutive stable survivors of infarction, 262 performed a predischarge submaximal exercise test. In the first year after infarction patients with a "positive" exercise test were 13 times more likely to die, 2.8 times more likely to have an ischaemic event, and 2.3 times more likely to develop left ventricular failure than patients with negative tests. Patients with positive exercise tests underwent cardiac catheterization. Features of the history, 12 lead electrocardiogram, in-hospital clinical course, exercise test, and left ventricular and coronary angiograms that predicted these clinical end points were identified by univariate analysis. Then multivariable analysis was used to assess the relative powers of all variables in predicting end points. Certain features of the exercise test remained independent predictors of future ischaemic events and the development of overt left ventricular failure, but clinical and angiographic variables were more powerful predictors of mortality. Because the exercise test is also used to select patients for angiography, however, the results of this study strongly support the use of early submaximal exercise testing after infarction.

  4. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  5. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... interested in participating in the ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia must complete and submit an application... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission...

  6. Clinical variables impacting on the estimation of utilities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miravitlles M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles,1,2 Alicia Huerta,3 Manuel Valle,4 Patricia García-Sidro,5 Carles Forné,6 Carlos Crespo,6,7 José Luis López-Campos2,8 1Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 2CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES; 3Market Access Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain; 4Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain; 5Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario de la Plana, Vila-real, Castellón, Spain; 6Health Economics and Outcome Strategies Department, Oblikue Consulting, Barcelona, Spain; 7Statistics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 8Unidad Médico Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain Purpose: Health utilities are widely used in health economics as a measurement of an individual’s preference and show the value placed on different health states over a specific period. Thus, health utilities are used as a measure of the benefits of health interventions in terms of quality-adjusted life years. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical variables significantly associated with health utilities for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. Patients and methods: This was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013. Patients were aged ≥40 years, with spirometrically confirmed COPD. Utility values were derived from the preference-based generic questionnaire EQ-5D-3L applying weighted Spanish societal preferences. Demographic and clinical variables associated with utilities were assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression models. Results: Three hundred and forty-six patients were included, of whom 85.5% were male. The mean age was 67.9 (standard deviation [SD] =9.7 years and the mean forced

  7. Characteristics of pregnant Women admitted with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in a referral maternity hospital at Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia

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    Inass Taha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date there has been no study done in Saudi Arabia to identify the risk factors for poor outcome of H1N1 infection in pregnancy. Objectives: we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological data, clinical course, treatment modalities, and maternal and fetal outcomes of 33 pregnant women diagnosed with H1N1 Influenza A in a referral maternity and children hospital at Al- Madinah Saudi Arabia on the period from June 2009 till February 2010.Methods: This retrospective cohort study reported 33 pregnant women (9.1% primigravida aged 27.7±5.6 years who were laboratory-confirmed cases diagnosed with H1N1 Influenza A in a referral maternity and children hospital at Al- Madinah Saudi Arabia on the period from June 2009 till February 2010. Their mean gestation age was 23.5±10.9 weeks with history of bronchial asthma in 45.5%.Results: The mean duration between symptoms’ onset and hospital presentation was 5.0±2.2 days with late presentation in 10 cases (30,3%. Large number of cases presented with fever more than 39 (24 (72.7%, sore-throat (24 (72.7% and cough (29 (87.9% while 19 patients presented with dyspnea (57.6%. Pregnant patients with H1N1 received Tamiflu (oseltamivir from 2 to 7 days with a mean of 4.7±1.3 days. They stayed at hospital for variable periods from 2 to 28 days with a mean of 7.9±6.6 days (Table 4. Most patients (31(93.9% received antibiotics. Maternal poor outcome included hypoxia in 6 patients (18.2%, ICU admission for 2-3 days with mechanical ventilation in 4(12.1%. The main fetal poor outcome was intrauterine fetal death in 2 (6.1% babies .Conclusion:The main presentation of H1N1 among pregnant women was typical influenza-like illness. Considerable percentage of patients presented late (30.3%. The duration of hospital admission is variable up to 28 days. Bronchial asthma was prevalent (45.5% among pregnant women with H1N1 infection. The main poor outcomes were maternal respiratory failure (18.2% and intrauterine fetal

  8. Incorporation of expert variability into breast cancer treatment recommendation in designing clinical protocol guided fuzzy rule system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ying; John, Robert I; Ellis, Ian O

    2012-06-01

    It has been often demonstrated that clinicians exhibit both inter-expert and intra-expert variability when making difficult decisions. In contrast, the vast majority of computerized models that aim to provide automated support for such decisions do not explicitly recognize or replicate this variability. Furthermore, the perfect consistency of computerized models is often presented as a de facto benefit. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to incorporate variability within a fuzzy inference system using non-stationary fuzzy sets in order to replicate human variability. We apply our approach to a decision problem concerning the recommendation of post-operative breast cancer treatment; specifically, whether or not to administer chemotherapy based on assessment of five clinical variables: NPI (the Nottingham Prognostic Index), estrogen receptor status, vascular invasion, age and lymph node status. In doing so, we explore whether such explicit modeling of variability provides any performance advantage over a more conventional fuzzy approach, when tested on a set of 1310 unselected cases collected over a fourteen year period at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK. The experimental results show that the standard fuzzy inference system (that does not model variability) achieves overall agreement to clinical practice around 84.6% (95% CI: 84.1-84.9%), while the non-stationary fuzzy model can significantly increase performance to around 88.1% (95% CI: 88.0-88.2%), p<0.001. We conclude that non-stationary fuzzy models provide a valuable new approach that may be applied to clinical decision support systems in any application domain.

  9. Clinical Factors Underlying the Inter-individual Variability of the Resting Motor Threshold in Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Tanigawa, Noriko; Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Zimmer, Claus; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-01-01

    Correctly determining individual's resting motor threshold (rMT) is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS), which is especially true for preoperative motor mapping in brain tumor patients. However, systematic data analysis on clinical factors underlying inter-individual rMT variability in neurosurgical motor mapping is sparse. The present study examined 14 preselected clinical factors that may underlie inter-individual rMT variability by performing multiple regression analysis (backward, followed by forward model comparisons) on the nTMS motor mapping data of 100 brain tumor patients. Data were collected from preoperative motor mapping of abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle representations among these patients. While edema and age at exam in the ADM model only jointly reduced the unexplained variance significantly, the other factors kept in the ADM model (gender, antiepileptic drug intake, and motor deficit) and each of the factors kept in the APB and FCR models independently significantly reduced the unexplained variance. Hence, several clinical parameters contribute to inter-individual rMT variability and should be taken into account during initial and follow-up motor mappings. Thus, the present study adds basic evidence on inter-individual rMT variability, whereby some of the parameters are specific to brain tumor patients.

  10. Validation of the Oral Hygiene Habits Scale: Relationships with sociodemographic variables in the general and clinical population of Monterrey, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several socioeconomic factors are associated with poor oral hygiene habits. A version of the Oral Hygiene Habits Scale (OHHS was developed in Mexico to measure these factors; however, its relationship with sociodemographic variables has not been studied. The verification of these relationships could contribute to the validation of the scale. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between oral hygiene habits and sociodemographic variables of sex, age, schooling, self-defined socioeconomic stratum, occupation and marital status in the general and clinical population of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: A general population sample (GPS of 256 participants and a clinical sample (CPS of 240 participants were studied. The OHHS consisted of an eight-item Likert scale of 4 points ranging from 0 to 4. A descriptive correlational study was performed with a cross-sectional design. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Cramer's V coefficient, and multivariate aligned rank test. Results: In GPS and CPS groups, OHHS was related to sex, schooling, socioeconomic stratum, occupation and marital status, but not to age. There were no significant interactions between the samples (GPS and CPS and sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant relationship between oral hygiene habits and some sociodemographic variables in the general and clinical population. This relationship supports the validity of the OHHS.

  11. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: Are we off the hook?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Abdo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV, and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country′s healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease′s clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.

  12. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: are we off the hook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Ayman A; Sanai, Faisal M; Al-Faleh, Faleh Z

    2012-01-01

    Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country's healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease's clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.

  13. [The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Klebnikoff, S

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.

  14. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... and the presence of silent or sinusoidal pattern (87-94% on an arbitrary 0-100% scale), and low regarding the assessment of variability and type of deceleration (50-72%). The degree of agreement in interpreting heart rate patterns was 59% (on an arbitrary 0-100% scale). Senior residents generally interpreted...

  15. Correlation Between UpToDate Searches and Reported Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome During Outbreaks in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, Anna R; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Terrence; Warner, Amy J; Bonis, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  UpToDate is an online clinical decision support resource that is used extensively by clinicians around the world. Digital surveillance techniques have shown promise to aid with the detection and monitoring of infectious disease outbreaks. We sought to determine whether UpToDate searches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) could be used to detect and monitor MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Methods.  We analyzed daily searches related to MERS in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 3 outbreaks in these cities in 2014 and 2015 and compared them with reported cases during the same periods. We also compared UpToDate MERS searches in the affected cities to those in a composite of 4 negative control cities for the 2 outbreaks in 2014. Results.  UpToDate MERS searches during all 3 MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia showed a correlation to reported cases. In addition, UpToDate MERS search volume in Jeddah and Riyadh during the outbreak periods in 2014 was significantly higher than the concurrent search volume in the 4 negative control cities. In contrast, during the baseline periods, there was no difference between UpToDate searches for MERS in the affected cities compared with the negative control cities. Conclusions.  UpToDate search activity seems to be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of MERS in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress 1 and 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large group of women (20–30 %) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological...... distress in this patient group. Methods Women with breast cancer (n = 833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3 years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non...

  17. Further records of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnert, Volker; Sharaf, Mostafa; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2014-02-11

    Five species of pseudoscorpions are recorded from the southwestern mountains of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pseudochthonius arabicus Mahnert n. sp. is described as new to science; this genus was previously known only from sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America and represents the first record of the family Chthoniidae from the Arabian Peninsula. Paratemnoides ellingseni (Beier, 1932), a widespread species in tropical Africa, and Withius piger (Simon, 1878) are added to the faunal list of Saudi Arabia. Minniza monticola Mahnert, 1991 and Rhacochelifer sonyae Mahnert, 1991 are apparently endemic to the southwestern mountains of Saudi Arabia.

  18. Factors leading to refractory asthma in patients from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moamary, Amal M.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Al Moamary, Mohamed S.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristic of patient with refractory asthma (RA) from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This paper prospectively studied in a university hospital factors leading to RA in a cohort of patients who have inadequately controlled asthma or with frequent exacerbations despite optimum controller therapy. It also studied patients with asthma that requires extended periods of oral steroids to control. RESULTS: The mean age was 45.1 years (±9.1) where 74 patients were enrolled in this study with the age group (37–48 years) is having the highest percentage (64.8%). Female patients represented 62.2%. The two major comorbid conditions were allergic rhinitis (54.1%) and gastroesophageal reflux (33.8%). The vast majority (72 patients) had at least one trigger factor for asthma (97.3%). The asthma control test showed that 86.4% had an uncontrolled status. Spirometry showed mild disease in 9.5%, moderate in 47.3%, and severe in 43.2%. Eosinophilia was seen in only 16.2%. Immunoglobulin E level between 70 and 700 μg/L was found in 58.1% of patients. CONCLUSION: RA has certain clinical characteristics and associated comorbid conditions as well as precipitating factors that facilitate the identifications of these cases. PMID:28197221

  19. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunt, Fabian van de [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pearl, Michael L.; Lee, Eric K.; Peng, Lauren; Didomenico, Paul [Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  20. Variability of the clinical phenotype in an Italian family with dementia associated with an intronic deletion in the GRN gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Gabriella; Rossi, Giacomina; Giaccone, Giorgio; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Piccoli, Elena; Zanini, Sergio; Geatti, Onelio; Toso, Vito; Grisoli, Marina; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) were recently identified as an important cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More than 60 pathogenic mutations have been reported up to now and prominent phenotypic variability within and among affected kindreds has been described. We have studied an Italian family with clinical evidence of dementia, and here we report detailed clinical records, imaging, sequential neurological examinations, cognitive assessments, and genetic analysis of three affected members of the same generation. Genetic analysis revealed the presence of the null mutation IVS6 + 5_8delGTGA in GRN, leading to haploinsufficiency, as documented by mRNA analysis. The mutation is associated with wide variation of the clinical phenotype, ranging from FTD to Alzheimer's disease and to a rapidly-progressive dementia. In summary, the patients of this kindred showed highly variable clinical features that do not have a close correspondence with the pattern of the cerebral atrophy. Our data extend the phenotypic spectrum and the complexity of neurodegenerative diseases linked to GRN mutations.

  1. Prediction of municipal water production in touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.

  2. EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, Sultan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

  3. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... universities. Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's... practices in Saudi Arabia to security; Pre-scheduled meetings with potential partners, distributors,...

  4. Predicting Calcium Values for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Patients in Intensive Care Unit Using Clinical Variables and Fuzzy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Khalili-Zadeh-Mahani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing unnecessary laboratory tests is an essential issue in the Intensive Care Unit. One solution for this issue is to predict the value of a laboratory test to specify the necessity of ordering the tests. The aim of this paper was to propose a clinical decision support system for predicting laboratory tests values. Calcium laboratory tests of three categories of patients, including upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and unspecified hemorrhage of gastrointestinal tract, have been selected as the case studies for this research. Method: In this research, the data have been collected from MIMIC-II database. For predicting calcium laboratory values, a Fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno model is used and the input variables of the model are heart rate and previous value of calcium laboratory test. Results: The results showed that the values of calcium laboratory test for the understudy patients were predictable with an acceptable accuracy. In average, the mean absolute errors of the system for the three categories of the patients are 0.27, 0.29, and 0.28, respectively. Conclusion: In this research, using fuzzy modeling and two variables of heart rate and previous calcium laboratory values, a clinical decision support system was proposed for predicting laboratory values of three categories of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Using these two clinical values as input variables, the obtained results were acceptable and showed the capability of the proposed system in predicting calcium laboratory values. For achieving better results, the impact of more input variables should be studied. Since, the proposed system predicts the laboratory values instead of just predicting the necessity of the laboratory tests; it was more generalized than previous studies. So, the proposed method let the specialists make the decision depending on the condition of each patient.

  5. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  6. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  7. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory, and The Enhanced External Counterpulsation Unit, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, 6Division of Cardiology, 7Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Aim: We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background: Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results: Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The

  8. Flexible designs for phase II comparative clinical trials involving two response variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersimis, S; Sachlas, A; Papaioannou, T

    2015-01-30

    The aim of phase II clinical trials is to determine whether an experimental treatment is sufficiently promising and safe to justify further testing. The need for reduced sample size arises naturally in phase II clinical trials owing to both technical and ethical reasons, motivating a significant part of research in the field during recent years, while another significant part of the research effort is aimed at more complex therapeutic schemes that demand the consideration of multiple endpoints to make decisions. In this paper, our attention is restricted to phase II clinical trials in which two treatments are compared with respect to two dependent dichotomous responses proposing some flexible designs. These designs permit the researcher to terminate the clinical trial when high rates of favorable or unfavorable outcomes are observed early enough requiring in this way a small number of patients. From the mathematical point of view, the proposed designs are defined on bivariate sequences of multi-state trials, and the corresponding stopping rules are based on various distributions related to the waiting time until a certain number of events appear in these sequences. The exact distributions of interest, under a unified framework, are studied using the Markov chain embedding technique, which appears to be very useful in clinical trials for the sample size determination. Tables of expected sample size and power are presented. The numerical illustration showed a very good performance for these new designs.

  9. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  10. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms, two new cases from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed G. Turkmani; Abdulaziz H. Al-Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms (AWP) is a rare dermatologic disease. It was first described four decades ago as a potential test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) by detecting “skin wrinkling” in response to water immersion. We are reporting two cases of AWP diagnosed at Derma Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first case was a 9-year old girl and the second case was a 17-year adolescent male. The second case was associated with palmer hyperhidrosis. Both patients denied any medication use. Additiona...

  11. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  12. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  13. Neurobiological and clinical variables associated with alcohol abuse in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Flores-Mateos, Isabel S; Franco-Zambrano, Andrés; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Beato-Fernández, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed at analysing the reciprocal relationships of several clinical and neurobiological items in order to predict alcohol misuse in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Seventy BN patients and 70 healthy controls were assessed for depression, impulsivity, borderline personality traits and self-defeating behaviours using specific scales; serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxiindolacetic acid were also assessed. The study confirmed the implications of these clinical factors for alcohol misuse in BN patients, but the results suggested that depressive symptoms and hypercortisolism could lie behind these relationships.

  14. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  15. HEALTH AWARENESS AMONG FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Wadi B; Albaiz, Alyaa S; Albejaidi, Fahd M; Alenazi, Fatimah Z

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the level of health awareness (HA) among students attending three undergraduate programs in the Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (SA). A modified self-reported survey was utilized to measure HA demonstrating four domains: Nutrition (NU), Personal Health (PH), Physical Exercise (PE), and Body Build (BB). The questionnaire was distributed to 302 female students attending the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015 BS degree in Radiology Sciences (RS), Clinical Laboratory (CL), and Health Education (HE) departments. Bloom's taxonomy was utilized to describe the three cognitive levels. Synthesizing, creating, and evaluating were grouped to represent high level indicators; applying cognitive skills only revealed an intermediate level; while memorizing and listing demonstrated low levels. In a 5-point Likert scale, the overall mean (M) of HA among CAMS students was 3.82 with the highest among students attending HE (M = 3.89). The domain of PH ranked first with a high average (M = 4.30). There were significant differences (α = 0.05), in the level of HA in PH and BB domains, among students in terms of program specialty only, but no such significant differences were found for other characteristics. The study recommended incorporating health promotion concepts within teaching curricula and conducting health and education campaigns by health education institutions.

  16. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Marcus W. Dickson; Elizabeth Agius; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administ...

  17. Logic Learning Machine and standard supervised methods for Hodgkin's lymphoma prognosis using gene expression data and clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Stefano; Manneschi, Chiara; Verda, Damiano; Ferrari, Enrico; Muselli, Marco

    2016-06-27

    This study evaluates the performance of a set of machine learning techniques in predicting the prognosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma using clinical factors and gene expression data. Analysed samples from 130 Hodgkin's lymphoma patients included a small set of clinical variables and more than 54,000 gene features. Machine learning classifiers included three black-box algorithms (k-nearest neighbour, Artificial Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine) and two methods based on intelligible rules (Decision Tree and the innovative Logic Learning Machine method). Support Vector Machine clearly outperformed any of the other methods. Among the two rule-based algorithms, Logic Learning Machine performed better and identified a set of simple intelligible rules based on a combination of clinical variables and gene expressions. Decision Tree identified a non-coding gene (XIST) involved in the early phases of X chromosome inactivation that was overexpressed in females and in non-relapsed patients. XIST expression might be responsible for the better prognosis of female Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

  18. Clinical and molecular variability in childhood periodic fever with hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J; Houten, SM; Waterham, HR; Rijkers, GT; Duran, M; Kuijpers, TW; van Luijk, W; Poll-The, BT; Kuis, W

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. The hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) was found recently to be caused by a deficiency of mevalonate kinase (MK). The aim of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between the clinical expression of HIDS and the extent of MK deficiency. Methods

  19. Student Fatigue as a Variable Affecting Performance in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, Paul J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In August and September of 1989, 76 fourth year students at the University of Arizona College of Medicine took the objective structured clinical examinations. Analyses were conducted looking at the relationship of sequence to see whether scores showed a decrease in the afternoon. No significant effect of examinee fatigue was seen. (MLW)

  20. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tite Minga Mikobi

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia.The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA were selected as a control group.The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001. The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001. The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 * between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *, and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *. A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease.

  1. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikobi, Tite Minga; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Mvumbi Lelo, Georges; Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean Jacques; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; Mbuyi Mwamba, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA) were selected as a control group. Results The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 *) between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *), and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *). A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease. PMID:25946088

  2. The Impact of Clinical and Cognitive Variables on Social Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Patient versus Examiner Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life.

  3. Measurement variability and sincerity of effort: clinical utility of isokinetic strength coefficient of variation scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, T B; Kramer, J F; Speechley, M; Chesworth, B M; MacDermid, J

    1998-06-01

    Although the use of measures of strength variability as a means of judging sincerity of effort is becoming common practice, the accuracy of doing so has been questioned. Coefficient of variation (CV) cut-off points, indicating the upper limit of variability for repeated maximal efforts, are routinely used to identify workers providing submaximal efforts during various strength tests. However, the stability of the CV itself has not been considered when comparing an individual's observed CV score to these cut-off points. The purpose of the present study was to examine the day-to-day variability of the CV calculated from maximal isokinetic knee extension efforts, and to describe how this measurement error affects the accuracy of the CV as a distinguishing criterion between maximal and submaximal efforts. Thirty-one healthy males (mean age 25 +/- 4.5 years) completed three maximal and three submaximal isokinetic knee extension efforts on two separate occasions. Although submaximal CVs were significantly greater than maximal CVs (15.6 versus 3.7%; p < 0.01), there was considerable overlap between submaximal and maximal CV frequency distributions. More importantly, an individual observed CV could vary +/- 3.1% as a result of day-to-day variation or measurement error. This range in possible CV scores should be considered when comparing an individual's score to proposed cut-off points. Since individual CVs vary considerably from day-to-day, and since precise cut-off values distinguishing between maximal and submaximal conditions cannot be identified, CV scores must be interpreted cautiously, and the potential errors in relying extensively on this approach to identifying insincere efforts should be recognised.

  4. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  5. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... as pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline...

  6. Using instrumental variables to disentangle treatment and placebo effects in blinded and unblinded randomized clinical trials influenced by unmeasured confounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibub Neto, Elias

    2016-11-01

    Clinical trials traditionally employ blinding as a design mechanism to reduce the influence of placebo effects. In practice, however, it can be difficult or impossible to blind study participants and unblinded trials are common in medical research. Here we show how instrumental variables can be used to quantify and disentangle treatment and placebo effects in randomized clinical trials comparing control and active treatments in the presence of confounders. The key idea is to use randomization to separately manipulate treatment assignment and psychological encouragement conversations/interactions that increase the participants’ desire for improved symptoms. The proposed approach is able to improve the estimation of treatment effects in blinded studies and, most importantly, opens the doors to account for placebo effects in unblinded trials.

  7. Projects Delay Factors of Saudi Arabia Construction Industry Using PLS-SEM Path Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RahmanIsmail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of PLS-SEM Path Model of delay factors of Saudi Arabia construction industry focussing on Mecca City. The model was developed and assessed using SmartPLS v3.0 software and it consists of 37 factors/manifests in 7 groups/independent variables and one dependent variable which is delay of the construction projects. The model was rigorously assessed at measurement and structural components and the outcomes found that the model has achieved the required threshold values. At structural level of the model, among the seven groups, the client and consultant group has the highest impact on construction delay with path coefficient β-value of 0.452 and the project management and contract administration group is having the least impact to the construction delay with β-value of 0.016. The overall model has moderate explaining power ability with R2 value of 0.197 for Saudi Arabia construction industry representation. This model will able to assist practitioners in Mecca city to pay more attention in risk analysis for potential construction delay.

  8. A longitudinal study on emotional adjustment of sarcoma patients: the determinant role of demographic, clinical and coping variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, T; Pereira, M; Simões, M R; Canavarro, M C

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined change on emotional distress of sarcoma patients from the diagnostic to treatment phases, the distinct trajectories of adjustment and the influence of demographic, clinical and coping variables on anxiety and depression. Thirty-six sarcoma patients completed questionnaires on emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and coping strategies (Brief Cope) at time of diagnosis, and again during treatment. No significant change in emotional distress levels was found from diagnostic to treatment phase, with mean anxiety and depression scores remaining below the clinical range. Over time, 52.8% and 66.7% of patients maintained non-clinical anxious and depressive symptoms respectively, and 25% and 11.1% remained with clinical anxiety and depression. Living with partner, less use of humour and more denial were associated with high emotional distress at time of diagnosis and during treatments, and high levels of distress at baseline were predictive of poorer emotional adjustment during treatments. Although sarcoma patients, in general, seem to exhibit good psychological adjustment, there is a significant minority that requires mental health services in order to help decrease their emotional distress following the diagnosis, and prevent psychological difficulties during treatments. Our findings are an important contribution to understanding the psychological adjustment of patients with a specific and rare type of cancer.

  9. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined.

  10. Genetic variability of pain perception and treatment--clinical pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn

    2011-06-01

    Evidence of a genetic control of pain has led to efforts to exploit genotyping information from pain patients for the development of analgesics and for the selection of pharmacological approaches to pain. Research on translating the genetic bases of familial insensitivity to pain has contributed to the discovery of crucial molecular pathways of pain and to the identification of new analgesic targets (e.g., the Na(v)1.7 sodium channel, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptors, nerve growth factor). Moreover, human genetic variants leading to enhanced or reduced function of specific molecular pathways are employed as substitutes for the lack of modulator molecules usable in humans, enabling nociceptive or anti-nociceptive pathways in humans to be studied before drug development. Translational approaches have also been used to verify the importance of experimentally discovered pain pathways in humans, such as GTP cyclohydrolase 1 and the potassium channel K(v)9.1. In addition to these uses of genetics as a research tool, an individualized pharmacological therapy based on the patient's genotype has been attempted. In terms of analgesics in clinical use, such an approach is at the present time only marginally available. For future analgesic targeting, for example, Na(v)1.7 or TRPA1, the genotype may be the target of a selective cure for syndromes caused by increased-function mutations in the coding genes. The consideration of human genetics in drug studies may accelerate analgesic drug development while reducing cost because the clinical success may be partly anticipated by including information of functional genetic variants that mimic the action of future analgesics. These developments show that genotyping information obtained from studies on pain patients plays a role in the clinical pharmacology of pain.

  11. Tau PET patterns mirror clinical and neuroanatomical variability in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Schonhaut, Daniel R; Schöll, Michael; Lockhart, Samuel N; Ayakta, Nagehan; Baker, Suzanne L; O'Neil, James P; Janabi, Mustafa; Lazaris, Andreas; Cantwell, Averill; Vogel, Jacob; Santos, Miguel; Miller, Zachary A; Bettcher, Brianne M; Vossel, Keith A; Kramer, Joel H; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-05-01

    SEE SARAZIN ET AL DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW041 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: The advent of the positron emission tomography tracer (18)F-AV1451 provides the unique opportunity to visualize the regional distribution of tau pathology in the living human brain. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tau pathology is closely linked to symptomatology and patterns of glucose hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease, in contrast to the more diffuse distribution of amyloid-β pathology. We included 20 patients meeting criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, presenting with a variety of clinical phenotypes, and 15 amyloid-β-negative cognitively normal individuals, who underwent (18)F-AV1451 (tau), (11)C-PiB (amyloid-β) and (18)F-FDG (glucose metabolism) positron emission tomography, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and neuropsychological testing. Voxel-wise contrasts against controls (at P Alzheimer's disease', n = 7) specifically targeted the clinically affected posterior brain regions, while (11)C-PiB bound diffusely throughout the neocortex. Patients with an amnestic-predominant presentation (n = 5) showed highest (18)F-AV1451 retention in medial temporal and lateral temporoparietal regions. Patients with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia ('language variant of Alzheimer's disease', n = 5) demonstrated asymmetric left greater than right hemisphere (18)F-AV1451 uptake in three of five patients. Across 30 FreeSurfer-defined regions of interest in 16 Alzheimer's disease patients with all three positron emission tomography scans available, there was a strong negative association between (18)F-AV1451 and (18)F-FDG uptake (Pearson's r = -0.49 ± 0.07, P right temporoparietal cortex). In conclusion, tau imaging-contrary to amyloid-β imaging-shows a strong regional association with clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease. Although preliminary, these results are

  12. Clinical Research in Vulnerable Populations: Variability and Focus of Institutional Review Boards' Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kästner

    Full Text Available Children and patients with cognitive deficits may find it difficult to understand the implication of research. In the European Union (EU, clinical studies outside the EU directives concerning medicinal products or medical devices, i.e., "miscellaneous clinical studies", have no legally mandated timelines for institutional review boards' (IRB decisions.To evaluate the review process of IRBs for two different "miscellaneous" multicenter clinical research protocols involving vulnerable subjects (children and adult stroke patients.Descriptive and comparative statistics. Protocol 1 is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional screening study of a symptomatic pediatric population at risk for Fabry disease involving genetic testing (NCT02152189. Protocol 2 is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint post-market study to evaluate the effectiveness of stent retrievers (NCT02135926. After having obtained positive initial IRB votes at the main study site, both protocols were subsequently submitted to the remaining IRBs.Protocol 1 was submitted to 19 IRBs. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to-final vote was 34 (IQR 10-65; range 0 to 130 days. Two IRBs accepted the coordinating center's IRB votes without re-evaluation. Changes to the informed consent documents were asked by 7/19 IRBs, amendments to the protocol by 2. Protocol 2 was submitted to 16 IRBs. Fifteen decisions were made. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to final vote was 59 (IQR 10 to 65; range 0 to 128 days, which was not statistically significantly different compared with protocol 1 (Wilcoxon test. Two IRBs accepted a previous IRB decision and did not conduct an independent review. Eight/16 IRBs required changes to the informed consent documents; two IRBs recommended an amendment of the protocol.Both clinical research protocols involving vulnerable populations were well accepted. IRB workflows and decision times varied substantially

  13. [Variability in the autonomous communities of the clinical recommendations in the service portfolios in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-García, Félix; Hernández-Rubio, María de los Santos Ichaso; Quintana, Ana Isabel Fernández; Latorre, Mercedes Alfaro

    2011-10-01

    The quality guidelines established in Primary Care Service Portfolios of Autonomous Communities were analysed. It was observed that there were similarities in the number and content of the controls in children over 2 years-old, time intervals of cardiovascular risk and breast cancer mammography screening. Variability was observed in the number of controls (from 2 to 8) recommended for infants less than 2 years old, in the time intervals of monitoring parameters of patients with risk factors (for example, glycosylated haemoglobin in the diabetic every 2, 6, or 12 months), in the time intervals in cervical cytology (every 3 or 5 years) and in the age periods of performing the cytology (from 15, 20, 25, or 30 years up to 55 or 60 years) or mammography (from 45 or 50 years up to 60 or 65 years).

  14. Phenotypic variability in gap junction syndromic skin disorders: experience from KID and Clouston syndromes' clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Niepokój, Katarzyna; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Giza, Aleksandra; Mordasewicz-Goliszewska, Maria; Bal, Jerzy; Obersztyn, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    Connexins belong to the family of gap junction proteins which enable direct cell-to-cell communication by forming channels in adjacent cells. Mutations in connexin genes cause a variety of human diseases and, in a few cases, result in skin disorders. There are significant differences in the clinical picture of two rare autosomal dominant syndromes: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Clouston syndrome), which are caused by GJB2 and GJB6 mutations, respectively. This is despite the fact that, in both cases, malfunctioning of the same family proteins and some overlapping clinical features (nail dystrophy, hair loss, and palmoplantar keratoderma) is observed. KID syndrome is characterized by progressive vascularizing keratitis, ichthyosiform erythrokeratoderma, and neurosensory hearing loss, whereas Clouston syndrome is characterized by nail dystrophy, hypotrichosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma. The present paper presents a Polish patient with sporadic KID syndrome caused by the mutation of p.Asp50Asn in GJB2. The patient encountered difficulties in obtaining a correct diagnosis. The other case presented is that of a family with Clouston syndrome (caused by p.Gly11Arg mutation in GJB6), who are the first reported patients of Polish origin suffering from this disorder. Phenotype diversity among patients with the same genotypes reported to date is also summarized. The conclusion is that proper diagnosis of these syndromes is still challenging and should always be followed by molecular verification.

  15. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant RE, which is in contrast to other studies where myopia was more common. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues. PMID:27679531

  16. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining in breast carcinoma and its relationship to clinical and pathological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S; Jain, R; Rusia, U; Gupta, R L

    1997-01-01

    Tumour proliferative activity of 74 breast lesions was assessed by determining mitotic index and immunostaining for proliferative cell nuclear antigen using Peroxidase antiperoxidase method. The indices were correlated with histomorphology and clinical stage of the disease. Positively stained nuclei and mitotic figures were counted per 1000 cells to calculate Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and mitotic index respectively. Sixty four cases stained positive for PCNA. The index ranged between 0 to 98. PCNA index was significantly low in benign lesions as compared to malignant lesions (p < 0.0002). There was a linear correlation between the mitotic index and PCNA index. PCNA index also showed significant correlation with tumour size and histologic grade; however, it had no correlation with axillary lymph node status.

  17. Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  19. Differences in childbirth satisfaction in relation with sociodemographic and clinical variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Carmona Monge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A lot research has focused on the study of women satisfaction with delivery. Different events are related to childbirth satisfaction, unplanned cesarean deliveries, instrumental vaginal deliveries, pain and lack of control during labor can generate a negative delivery experience. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between mode of delivery and childbirth satisfaction. The final sample was composed of 106 women in early postpartum, which voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. A total of 34,9% were instrumental deliveries, and 17% were cesarean sections. The Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale was used to measure women’ satisfaction. A significant difference was found in the baby scale between the groups of eutocic and non-eutocic delivery (p = ,045. A significant difference was found in the baby scale (p < ,001 and the partner scale (p = ,006 between the groups of vaginal and cesarean section delivery. Mode of delivery can be a variable that affects the childbirth experience, influencing the overall experience in a negative way, thus conditioning women’ mode of delivery in future pregnancies.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LYMPH NODE INVOLVEMENT IN BLADDER CANCER PATIENTS BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirylenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological lymph node involvement (рN+ in bladder cancer patients.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. Mono- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for pN+ prediction on preoperative data. Coefficients from logistic regression equation were used to construct the nomogram. Nomogram accuracy was evaluated with concordance index and construction of the calibration plot. Internal validation by bootstrap method with 200 variants of dataset was performed.Results: We developed nomogram, that includes: clinical stage сТ, tumor grade, tumor macroscopic appearance, and creatinine level. Bootstrap-corrected prognostic accuracy of nomogram was 71,6%, that was 9,4% better than clinical stage accuracy.Conclusion: utilization of developed nomogram can significantly improve pathologic tumor stage prediction accuracy that may be used to select patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LYMPH NODE INVOLVEMENT IN BLADDER CANCER PATIENTS BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirylenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological lymph node involvement (рN+ in bladder cancer patients.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. Mono- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for pN+ prediction on preoperative data. Coefficients from logistic regression equation were used to construct the nomogram. Nomogram accuracy was evaluated with concordance index and construction of the calibration plot. Internal validation by bootstrap method with 200 variants of dataset was performed.Results: We developed nomogram, that includes: clinical stage сТ, tumor grade, tumor macroscopic appearance, and creatinine level. Bootstrap-corrected prognostic accuracy of nomogram was 71,6%, that was 9,4% better than clinical stage accuracy.Conclusion: utilization of developed nomogram can significantly improve pathologic tumor stage prediction accuracy that may be used to select patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in adenocarcinoma lung in a North Indian population: Prevalence and relation with different clinical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasana, Basharat Ahmad; Dar, Waseem Raja; Aziz, Sheikh Aijaz; Lone, Abdul Rashid; Sofi, Najeeb Ullah; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Latief, Muzamil; Arshad, Faheem; Hussain, Moomin; Hussain, Mir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is taking over squamous cell lung cancer as the predominant histological subtype. Several cytotoxic drugs are available for the treatment of lung cancer, but side effects limit their use. Recently, targeted therapies for cancers have come into clinical practice. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in adenocarcinoma lung in a North Indian population and its relation with different clinical variables. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 patients who met inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. Relevant history, clinical examination and investigations were done. EGFR mutation was done in all patients. Results: A total of twenty patients tested positive for EGFR mutation. EGFR was more frequently detected in female patients (53.8%), while as only 19.4% of the male patients expressed EGFR mutation, which was statistically very significant (P = 0.007). EGFR mutation was more frequently detected in nonsmokers (52%) as compared to smokers (21.9%) which also was statistically significant (P value of 0.018). EGFR mutation was more common in Stage III and IV adenocarcinomas (48%) as compared to Stage I and II (21.4%) which was statistically significant (P value 0.034). Conclusion: EGFR mutation should be routinely done in all patients of adenocarcinoma lung particularly non-smoker females with Stage III and IV disease. PMID:27688613

  3. CREATION OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LOCAL EXTENT OF THE BLADDER CANCER BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

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    L. V. Mirylenka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological local extent of the bladder cancer рТ3-рТ4 (рТ3+.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. For prediction of pT3+ on preoperative data were used mono- and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Coefficients from logistic regression equalization were used to construct nomogram. Nomogram accuracy was evaluated with concordance index (с-index and by building the calibration plot. Internal validation by bootstrap method with 200 variants of dataset was performed.Results: We developed nomogram, that include: clinical stage сТ, tumor grade, tumor macroscopic appearance, presence of upper tract dilatation, prostatic urethra and/or prostatic lobe(s involvement, 3 or more bladder walls involvement, ESR and creatinine level. Bootstrapcorrected prognostic accuracy of nomogram was 81,4%, that 12,6% better than clinical stage accuracy.Conclusion: developed nomogram can significantly improve pathologic tumor stage prediction accuracy that may be used to select patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. CREATION OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LOCAL EXTENT OF THE BLADDER CANCER BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

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    L. V. Mirylenka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological local extent of the bladder cancer рТ3-рТ4 (рТ3+.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. For prediction of pT3+ on preoperative data were used mono- and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Coefficients from logistic regression equalization were used to construct nomogram. Nomogram accuracy was evaluated with concordance index (с-index and by building the calibration plot. Internal validation by bootstrap method with 200 variants of dataset was performed.Results: We developed nomogram, that include: clinical stage сТ, tumor grade, tumor macroscopic appearance, presence of upper tract dilatation, prostatic urethra and/or prostatic lobe(s involvement, 3 or more bladder walls involvement, ESR and creatinine level. Bootstrapcorrected prognostic accuracy of nomogram was 81,4%, that 12,6% better than clinical stage accuracy.Conclusion: developed nomogram can significantly improve pathologic tumor stage prediction accuracy that may be used to select patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  5. Mean Platelet Volume and Arterial Stiffness – Clinical Relationship and Common Genetic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova-Noeva, Marina; Arnold, Natalie; Hermanns, M. Iris; Prochaska, Jürgen H.; Schulz, Andreas; Spronk, Henri M.; Binder, Harald; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Beutel, Manfred; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Lotz, Johannes; Münzel, Thomas; Lackner, Karl J.; ten Cate, Hugo; Wild, Philipp S.

    2017-01-01

    Vessel wall stiffening is an important clinical parameter, but it is unknown whether platelets, key elements in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis, are associated with arterial stiffness. The present studies sought to determine whether mean platelet volume (MPV), a potential marker of platelet activation, is linked to vascular elasticity as assessed by the augmentation index (AIx), in 15,010 individuals from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Multivariable analysis showed that MPV in both males (β 0.776; 95thCI [0.250;1.16]; p = 0.0024) and females (β 0.881[0.328;1.43]; p = 0.0018) is strongly associated with AIx. Individuals with MPV and AIx above the sex-specific medians had worse survival. Association analysis between MPV-related genetic variants and arterial stiffness identified four genetic variants in males and one in females related with AIx. Cox regression analysis for mortality identified one of these joint genetic variants close to ring finger protein 145 gene (RNF145, rs10076782) linked with increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.02; 95thCI [1.35;3.02]; p = 0.00061). Thus, these population-based data demonstrate a close relation between platelet volume as a potential marker of platelet activation and arterial stiffness in both sexes. Further research is warranted to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying larger platelets‘ role in arterial stiffening including the role of shared common genetics. PMID:28059166

  6. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  7. Patient's medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia: Are we doing well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  9. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  10. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  11. Clinical and hormonal variables related to bone mass loss in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Soto, María Luisa; González-Jiménez, Amalia; Chamorro-Fernández, Marta; Leyva-Martínez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the prognostic factors of low bone mass in anorexia nervosa (AN) and development of effective therapeutic strategies is critical. In order to determine which clinical, biochemical, and/or hormonal parameters could be related to bone mineral density (BMD), 47 female AN patients were classified according to the WHO osteoporosis criteria at lumbar spine (LS). This was a cross-sectional study of 16 AN women with osteoporosis criteria and 31without. Control group was 25 healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. We assessed BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the LS and body composition. We measured serum fasting cortisol, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, sex hormone-binding globulin, albumin and retinol binding protein levels. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 34% and osteopenia 19% at the LS. The AN group with osteoporosis had lower IGF-1 and estradiol levels (both p<0.001), lower serum leptin (p<0.02), and higher cortisolemia (p<0.03) levels compared with AN group without osteoporosis. The BMD and T-score at LS was inversely related to the duration of amenorrhea (p<0.02) and directly related to body mass index (BMI, p<0.002), total fat mass (p<0.03), serum IGF-1 (p<0.01), and estradiol levels (p<0.001) in AN patients. We conclude that AN women with a significant BMD loss have a high risk of developing osteoporosis. A low BMD is a consequence of hormonal alterations which include hypoestrogenism, hypoleptinemia, hypercortisolism, and decreases in IGF-1 levels, as well as a low BMI and fat mass.

  12. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  13. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2017-04-06

    Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.

  14. SECONDARY SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: THE RESULTS OF A MIXED METHODS APPROACH

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    AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  15. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human parainfluenza virus type 3 isolated from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Alshaman, Mohamed S; Amer, Haitham M

    2012-08-01

    Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3) is a leading cause of respiratory disease in children worldwide. Previous sequence analyses of the entire virus genome, among different HPIV-3 strains, demonstrated that HN is the most variable gene. There is a dearth of data on HPIV-3 strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. In this report, HPIV-3 was screened in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory disease during two successive seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) using nested RT-PCR. Out of 73 samples collected during 2007/08, seven (9.59%) were positive; while 3 out of 107 samples collected during 2008/09 (2.8%) were positive. Virus isolation in cell culture was successful using HEp2, but not Vero cells. The identity of the isolated viruses was confirmed using immunofluorescence and neutralization assays. To elucidate the genetic characteristics and phylogeny of Saudi HPIV-3 strains, the complete HN gene sequence of two selected Saudi strains was analyzed in comparison to 20 strains isolated by others from different countries worldwide. Both strains showed the highest degree of sequence homology with Indian strains, followed by Chinese and most Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains fell into a distinct Asian lineage. This study is the first in Saudi Arabia to recover HPIV-3 isolates of confirmed identity, and to generate sequence data that may help in understanding virus diversity and evolution.

  16. An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia

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    Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL VARIABLES IN COPD AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Mayank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity of illness and steroid medication. It is found that psychopathology in bronchial asthma patients are more than those of healthy controls but there is no significant difference. The psychopathology is significantly related to relate to age, marital status, occupational status, and smoking. Duration severity of illness and steroid medication.

  18. Feasibility of using Clinical Element Models (CEM to standardize phenotype variables in the database of genotypes and phenotypes (dbGaP.

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    Ko-Wei Lin

    Full Text Available The database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP contains various types of data generated from genome-wide association studies (GWAS. These data can be used to facilitate novel scientific discoveries and to reduce cost and time for exploratory research. However, idiosyncrasies and inconsistencies in phenotype variable names are a major barrier to reusing these data. We addressed these challenges in standardizing phenotype variables by formalizing their descriptions using Clinical Element Models (CEM. Designed to represent clinical data, CEMs were highly expressive and thus were able to represent a majority (77.5% of the 215 phenotype variable descriptions. However, their high expressivity also made it difficult to directly apply them to research data such as phenotype variables in dbGaP. Our study suggested that simplification of the template models makes it more straightforward to formally represent the key semantics of phenotype variables.

  19. Feasibility of using Clinical Element Models (CEM) to standardize phenotype variables in the database of genotypes and phenotypes (dbGaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ko-Wei; Tharp, Melissa; Conway, Mike; Hsieh, Alexander; Ross, Mindy; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Hyeon-Eui

    2013-01-01

    The database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) contains various types of data generated from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These data can be used to facilitate novel scientific discoveries and to reduce cost and time for exploratory research. However, idiosyncrasies and inconsistencies in phenotype variable names are a major barrier to reusing these data. We addressed these challenges in standardizing phenotype variables by formalizing their descriptions using Clinical Element Models (CEM). Designed to represent clinical data, CEMs were highly expressive and thus were able to represent a majority (77.5%) of the 215 phenotype variable descriptions. However, their high expressivity also made it difficult to directly apply them to research data such as phenotype variables in dbGaP. Our study suggested that simplification of the template models makes it more straightforward to formally represent the key semantics of phenotype variables.

  20. Clinico-epidemiologicalfeatures of dengue fever in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.

  1. Why did Arabia separate from Africa ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.; Daniel, J. M.; Jolivet, L.

    2003-04-01

    We have performed 3-D scaled lithospheric experiments to investigate the role of the gravitational force exerted by subduction slab on the deformation of the subducting plate itself. Experiments have been constructed using a dense silicone putty plate, to simulate a thin viscous lithosphere, floated in glucose syrup, simulating the upper mantle. We show different plate configuration: (i) subduction of a uniform oceanic plate, (ii) subduction of oceanic-continental plate system, and (iii) subduction of a more complex oceanic-continental system simulating the asymmetric Africa-Eurasia system at the beginning of the Tertiary. Each model has been performed including or not the presence of circular weak zone inside the subducting plate simulating the near-surface weakening effect of a plume activity. Our results show that a subducting plate can deform in its interior only if the velocity field generated by the slab varies laterally along the subduction zone, i.e. by the asymmetrical entrance of continental material at trench. The result of this study can be used to analyze the formation of the Arabian plate. We found that intraplate stresses, similar to the one that generated the Africa-Arabia break-up, can be related to the Neogene evolution of the northern convergent margin of the African plate where a lateral change from collision (Mediterranean and Bitlis) to active subduction (Makran) has been described. Second, intraplate stress and strain localization are favored by the presence of a weakness zone, such as the one generated by the Afar plume, producing a pattern of extensional deformation belts resembling to the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system.

  2. Limited genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparium isolates using nested PCR in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omima; M.Eida; Amany; M.Eida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Jazan Area of Saudi Arabia measured with highly polymorphic genetic marker, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 2(MSP 2).Methods: Blood samples were collected from 128 clinically suspected patients attending both Jazan and Sabia hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both hospitals reflected urban and rural settings respectively. Analysis of central polymorphic region of MSP 2(3D7 and FC27 allelic families) was performed using nested PCR for malaria patients.Results: For MSP 2 allelic families of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 cases(53.3%) carried FC27 type and 14 cases(46.7%) carried 3D7 type, whereas no malaria cases harbored both allelic types. The present study showed that in urban area, 80% of FC27 fragments were 500 bp while in rural area it was 45.5%(P = 0.08). The FC27 400 bp allele was more prevalent in patients from rural than those from the urban area(P = 0.08). The most prevalent infecting 3D7 allele was the 3D7 300 bp in both areas. In the present study, there were no multiple infections.Conclusions: The limited genetic diversity which was observed in Jazan(considered as an endemic area) may be attributed to the small sample size or sustained malaria control program.

  3. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  4. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

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    Sharifa A. Alsibiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM, rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6% were immune (IgG positive; the remaining 866 (8.4% were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years and the oldest age group (40–49 years (P=0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7. Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6% but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection.

  5. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  6. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Intakhab Alam

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…

  7. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  8. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  9. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  10. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  11. Educational R&D in Saudi Arabia: An Ethnomethodological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Paul

    Educational development in Saudi Arabia is closely related to Moslem religious belief. A review of the socio/cultural behavior based upon Saudi religious belief can provide insight to educators on how to make educational and research activities in developing nations more relevant to people with a non-Western frame of reference. Among muslims,…

  12. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  13. Strategic Importance of Saudi Arabia - Neither A Friend Nor Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    civilizations to include Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, Rome , Byzantium, India, China, and Persia to mention just a few.2 The Koran, or book of faith for... catapulted the United States’ relationship with Saudi Arabia into the limelight. Many Americans around the country, to include influential members

  14. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  15. Mineral deposits in western Saudi Arabia; a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Greenwood, William R.; Worl, Ronald G.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral deposits in Saudi Arabia include a variety of deposits which were formed in many geologic environments. These include magmatic and late magmatic deposits in igneous masses, contact metamorphic deposits along the margins of igneous bodies, and stratiform sulfide deposits and veins. Notable deposits of sedimentary origin include deposits of iron oxides and phosphate.

  16. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  17. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population.

  18. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse them

  19. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Khan, A Sattar; Al Otaibi, F Huzam

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to collect data related to the clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, in one of the tertiary-care centers, King Fahd Hospital Al-Hasa, and to compare it with other regions of Saudi Arabia. Forty-six patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1997 criteria (ACR) were collected over a period from January 2004 to December 2008. The results showed an average age of onset of 26.17 (±9.17). The most common clinical features were nonspecific constitutional symptoms (fever, fatigue and malaise) seen in 44 patients (95.7%). Musculoskeletal features seen were mostly arthralgias (91.3%) and arthritis (76.1%). Nephritis was seen in 58.7% and hypertension in 52.2%. Mucocutaneous involvement included oral ulcers (71.7%), hair loss (65.2%), butterfly rashes (67.4%), photosensitivity (47.8%) and discoid lupus (13%). Neurologic manifestations showed psychosis in 17.4%, depression in 15.2% and headache in 28.3%. The most common hematologic presentation was leukopenia (58.7%) followed by hemolytic anemia and anemia of chronic disease (47.8%). Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 44 (95.7%), anti-dsDNA in 38 (42.6%), anti-Ro SSA and La SSB in 38 (82.6%). Anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were positive in eight (17.4%). Low complement levels (C3 and C4) were seen in 41 (89.1%) of the patients with active disease. The drugs used in treatment were NSAIDs (100%), antimalarials (97.8%), steroids (100%), intermittent cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs (71.7%). We found that the age of onset and sex distributions were different from other areas of Saudi Arabia, while clinical manifestations were the same as in other areas. The prognosis of lupus was good overall despite the multi-organ involvement. However, further studies based on larger number of patients are needed.

  1. A new definition of pharmaceutical quality: assembly of a risk simulation platform to investigate the impact of manufacturing/product variability on clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Cogdill, Robert P; D'Amico, Frank; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2010-12-01

    The absence of a unanimous, industry-specific definition of quality is, to a certain degree, impeding the progress of ongoing efforts to "modernize" the pharmaceutical industry. This work was predicated on requests by Dr. Woodcock (FDA) to re-define pharmaceutical quality in terms of risk by linking production characteristics to clinical attributes. A risk simulation platform that integrates population statistics, drug delivery system characteristics, dosing guidelines, patient compliance estimates, production metrics, and pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and in vitro-in vivo correlation models to investigate the impact of manufacturing variability on clinical performance of a model extended-release theophylline solid oral dosage system was developed. Manufacturing was characterized by inter- and intra-batch content uniformity and dissolution variability metrics, while clinical performance was described by a probabilistic pharmacodynamic model that expressed the probability of inefficacy and toxicity as a function of plasma concentrations. Least-squares regression revealed that both patient compliance variables, percent of doses taken and dosing time variability, significantly impacted efficacy and toxicity. Additionally, intra-batch content uniformity variability elicited a significant change in risk scores for the two adverse events and, therefore, was identified as a critical quality attribute. The proposed methodology demonstrates that pharmaceutical quality can be recast to explicitly reflect clinical performance.

  2. Identification of clinical and simple laboratory variables predicting responsible gastrointestinal lesions in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Serefhanoglu, Yahya Buyukasik, Hakan Emmungil, Nilgun Sayinalp, Ibrahim Celalettin Haznedaroglu, Hakan Goker, Salih Aksu, Osman Ilhami Ozcebe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is a frequent disorder. Also, it may be a sign of underlying serious diseases. Iron deficiency points to an occult or frank bleeding lesion when occurred in men or postmenopausal women. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of endoscopy in patients with IDA and to define predictive factors of gastrointestinal (GI lesions causing IDA. Ninety-one patients (77 women, 14 men; mean age: 43 years who were decided to have esophago-duodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy for iron deficiency anemia were interviewed and responded to a questionnaire that included clinical and biochemical variables. The endoscopic findings were recorded as GI lesions causing IDA or not causing IDA. Endoscopy revealed a source of IDA in 18.6 % of cases. The risk factors for finding GI lesions causing IDA were as follows: male gender (p= 0.004, advanced age (> 50 years (p= 0.010, weight loss (over 20% of total body weight lost in last 6 month (p= 0.020, chronic diarrhea (p= 0.006, change of bowel habits (p= 0.043, epigastric tenderness (p= 0.037, raised carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level (normal range: 0-7 ng/mL (p= 0.039, < 10 gr/dl hemoglobin (Hb level (p=0.054. None of these risk factors had been present in 21 (23% women younger than 51 years. In this group, no patient had any GI lesion likely to cause IDA (negative predictive value= 100%. In multivariate analysis, advanced age (p=0.017, male gender (p< 0.01 and weight lost (p=0.012 found that associated with GI lesions in all patients. It may be an appropriate clinical approach to consider these risk factors when deciding for gastrointestinal endoscopic evaluation in iron deficiency anemia.

  3. Lung ultrasound in systemic sclerosis: correlation with high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests and clinical variables of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Lucci, Silvio; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Quarta, Silvia; Barbano, Biagio; Giovannetti, Antonello; Amoroso, Antonio; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard to diagnose ILD, recently lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged in SSc patients as a new promising technique for the ILD evaluation, noninvasive and radiation-free. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between LUS, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests findings and clinical variables of the disease. Thirty-nine patients (33 women and 6 men; mean age 51 ± 15.2 years) underwent clinical examination, HRCT, pulmonary function tests and LUS for detection of B-lines. A positive correlation exists between the number of B-lines and the HRCT score (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001), conversely a negative correlation exists between the number of B-lines and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.63, p < 0.0001). The number of B-lines increases along with the progression of the capillaroscopic damage. A statistically significant difference in the number of B-lines was found between patients with and without digital ulcers [42 (3-84) vs 16 (4-55)]. We found that the number of B-lines increased with the progression of both HRCT score and digital vascular damage. LUS may therefore, be a useful tool to determine the best timing for HRCT execution, thus, preventing for many patients a continuous and useless exposure to ionizing radiation.

  4. Influence of age, gender, and prodromal symptoms on sudden death in a tertiary care hospital, eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssien Kamal Nofal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden death (SD remains an important worldwide public health problem. The incidence of SD and causes vary in different societies, and these differences are influenced also by demographic and clinical factors such as age, gender and prodromal symptoms and signs. This six-year study describes the influence of these factors on SD. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of SD in all age groups undertaken in King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU, Eastern Saudi Arabia. All cases of death (1273 total, 1050 expected death and 223 cases of sudden unexpected death that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005 were investigated and subsequently analyzed on demographic and clinical parameters of the deceased patients. The statistical analysis was performed as appropriate to illustrate any possible association between different demographic variables and SD. Results: There were 223 cases of SD (17.5% out of 1273 total deaths in KFHU in the 6-year study period. There was a definite influence of age on the incidence of sudden death (SD as it increased clearly at the two ends of the age spectrum, 32.2% of the cases were infants (from birth to 12 months, and 31.4% were elderly (> 60 year-old. However, among infantile age group, the highest frequency of SD (22.2% of the cases was among the neonates. There was also a significant trend of gender influence on the incidence of SD which was higher in men than women (56% vs. 42%. The influence of prodromal symptoms and signs on SD was variable. Dyspnea and cough as major symptoms of cardiovascular and respiratory disease were the most frequent presenting symptoms in 32.3% of the cases, followed by fever as a sign of infections in 11.7%, premature infants in 10.8%, circulatory collapse in 9.4%, and angina in 7.6% of the cases. Conclusion: The current study indicated a definite influence of age, gender and prodromal symptoms on the incidence of SD. The highest incidence

  5. The Pattern of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Single Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Al-Hemairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results. Total patients were 82, males were 31 (37.8%, and mean age of JIA onset was 7.1 ± 3.6 yr. Mean follow-up duration was 2.67±1.6 yr. Systemic onset JIA (SoJIA was the commonest (36.5%, followed by polyarticular in 29.2% and oligoarticular in 28%. Large and small joints are involved in 76 (92% and 30 (36.6%, respectively. Main extra-articular feature was fever in 34 (41.4%. Uveitis was diagnosed in 7 (8.5% and in 5 (21.7% of oligoarticular JIA. Anemia was found in 49 (59.7%, high ESR in 45 (54.8%, and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in 33 (40.2%. Positive ANA was found in 30 (36.5% mainly in oligoarticular subtype as 12 (52% patients (out of 23 had this positive test. 9 patients (10.9% required NSAIDs only, 6 patients (7.3% required NSAIDs and intra-articular steroids only, and 19 (23% required NSAIDs, methotrexate, steroids, and biologics. Conclusion. SoJIA is the most common JIA subtype in our study. A population based rather than a single center study will give more details about JIA characteristics in Saudi Arabia

  6. MR spectroscopy of cerebral white matter in type 2 diabetes; no association with clinical variables and cognitive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehuis, Audrey; Meer, Femke van der; Mali, Willem; Luijten, Peter [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E01.332), PO Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pleizier, Marc; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, Jaap [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with cognitive decline, but the pathogenesis of this important complication remains unclear. We investigated whether abnormalities in neuronal metabolism or membrane integrity in normal appearing cerebral white matter are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with DM2. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1.5 T), aimed at N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cr), was performed in the cerebral white matter (centrum semiovale) of 72 patients with DM2 and 40 control subjects. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Patients with DM2 performed worse with respect to global neuropsychological functioning than controls (p < 0.05), in particular on memory and information processing speed. We observed no differences in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratio's between patients with DM2 and controls. Cognitive performance in patients with DM2 was not correlated with any of these brain metabolites, neither were the clinical variables. We conclude that disturbances in neuronal viability and cellular membrane status assessed by NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho ratios cannot explain cognitive decline in patients with DM2. (orig.)

  7. Variable tellurite resistance profiles of clinically-relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) influence their recovery from foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerangart, Stéphane; Douëllou, Thomas; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar; Sergentet-Thévenot, Delphine; Cournoyer, Benoit; Loukiadis, Estelle

    2016-10-01

    Tellurite (Tel)-amended selective media and resistance (Tel-R) are widely used for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from foodstuffs. Tel-R of 81 O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from animal, food and human was thus investigated. Variations of STEC tellurite minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been observed and suggest a multifactorial and variable tellurite resistome between strains. Some clinically-relevant STEC were found highly susceptible and could not be recovered using a tellurite-based detection scheme. The ter operon was highly prevalent among highly Tel-R STEC but was not always detected among intermediately-resistant strains. Many STEC serogroup strains were found to harbor sublines showing a gradient of MIC values. These Tel-R sublines showed statistically significant log negative correlations with increasing tellurite concentration. Whatever the tellurite concentration, the highest number of resistant sublines was observed for STEC belonging to the O26 serogroup. Variations in the number of these Tel-R sublines could explain the poor recovery of some STEC serogroups on tellurite-amended media especially from food products with low levels of contamination. Comparison of tellurite MIC values and distribution of virulence-related genes showed Tel-R and virulence to be related.

  8. Clinical outcome and vertical transmission variability among canine Neospora caninum isolates in a pregnant mouse model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarupe, Andrea; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Schares, Gereon; Unzaga, Juan Manuel; Venturini, María Cecilia; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2014-03-01

    We compared the clinical outcome and vertical transmission of six canine Neospora caninum isolates using a pregnant BALB/c model. Four of the isolates were obtained from oocysts of naturally infected dogs (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger6 and Nc-6Arg) and two were from diseased dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv). The dams were inoculated with 2×106 tachyzoites of each isolate at day 7 of pregnancy. Morbidity, mortality and the antibody responses were evaluated in both the dams and the offspring, as was parasite transmission to the progeny. The mortality rates varied from 100% in Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv-infected pups to 19% or less for those infected with the isolates from oocysts. The vertical transmission rates varied from 9 to 53% for N. caninum from oocysts, compared with 100% for the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. All dams showed specific IgG responses against tachyzoite and rNc-GRA7 antigens, confirming Neospora infection. The highest IgG levels were detected in mice inoculated with the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. These results demonstrate marked differences in virulence between the N. caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and neurologically affected dogs. This variability could help us to explain the differences in the outcome of the infection in definitive and intermediate hosts.

  9. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  10. Aneurysmal sizing after endovascular repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm: interobserver variability of various measurement protocols and its clinical relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Hicham T.; Sapoval, Marc R.; Mousseaux, Elie; Gaux, Jean-Claude [Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris (France); Paul, Jean-Francois [Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris (France); Department of Radiology, Centre Chirugical Marie Lannelongue, 92350, Le Plessis-Robinson (France); De Maertelaer, Viviane [Statistical Unit, Interdisciplinary Research in Human Biology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Brussels, 1070, Brussels (Belgium)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the variability of various measurement protocols for measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and the clinical relevance of variability. Three radiologists performed computed tomographic angiography measurements of both the aorta and the largest portion of the aneurysm on selected axial slices. Then measurements of the largest portion of the aneurysm were performed on unselected axial slices, sagittal and coronal reformatted. Finally, aortic volume was calculated. Measurements and volume calculation were performed before and after endovascular repair and assessed: Part 1: interobserver variability for maximum anteroposterior (MAP) and maximum transverse (MTR) diameters on selected slices; part 2: interobserver variability for unselected slices considering MAP and MTR; part 3: interobserver variability considering maximum diameter in any direction (MAD); part 4: interobserver variability for sagittal (SAG) and coronal (COR) free curved multiplanar reformation (MPR); and part 5: volume calculations. We then determined which technique of measurement was the most clinically relevant for detecting changes in aneurysm size or aortic volume. Parts 1 and 2: interobserver variability was 4.1 mm for both MAP and MTR; part 3: interobserver variability was 7 mm for MAD; part 4: interobserver variability was 5.5 mm (COR) and 4.9 mm (SAG); part 5: interobserver variability for volume was 5.5 ml. A combination of MAP and MTR was the most useful for detecting aortic modification. Volume calculation was needed in only a few cases. We recommend avoiding MAD and MPR measurements and suggest instead measuring both maximum anteroposterior and maximum transverse diameters. If aneurysm size remains stable after endovascular repair, aneurysm volume should be measured. (orig.)

  11. High prevalence of the PER-1 gene among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, M M; Abu Alsoud, N M; Elrobh, M S; Al Johani, S M; Balkhy, H H

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia and their resistance genetic mechanisms are yet to be identified. We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, particularly the PER-1 gene, among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2006 and 2014. Fresh subcultured samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each isolate and further used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, sequence-based typing (SBT) of PER-1 and OXA-51-like gene, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of positive isolates. Randomly selected clinical isolates (n = 100) were subjected to MLST. A total of 503 isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR) using the MIC. Isolates were further PCR tested for bla -TEM and bla -PER-1 resistance genes (n = 503). The genotyping results showed that 68/503 (14 %) isolates were positive to bla TEM. The genotyping results of PER-1-like genes showed that 384/503 (76.3 %) were positive among MDR Acinetobacter isolates. Based on SBT, the majority of these isolates were clustered into three main groups including isolates harboring PER-1: AB11 (bla -PER-1), isolate AB16 (bla -PER-1), and, finally, the plasmid pAB154 (bla -PER-7). Remarkably, many isolates were concealing the PER-1 gene and harboring the TEM resistance genes as well. MLST results for selected isolates (n = 100) identified four main sequence types (STs: 2, 19, 20, and 25) and four novel isolates (ST 486-489). We report 76.3 % prevalence of the PER-1 resistance gene among Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Further work is needed to explore the clinical risks and patient outcome with such resistance related to healthcare-associated infections and investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that confer the MDR

  12. Genetic diversity in the G protein gene of group A human respiratory syncytial viruses circulating in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a frequent cause of hospitalization and mortality in children worldwide. The molecular epidemiology and circulation pattern of HRSV in Saudi Arabia is mostly uncharted. In the current study, the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships of HRSV type A strains circulating in Riyadh Province were explored. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory symptoms during the winter-spring seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Among 175 samples analyzed, 39 (22.3 %) were positive for HRSV by one-step RT-PCR (59 % type A and 41 % type B). Propagation of positive samples in HEp-2 cells permitted the recovery of the first Saudi HRSV isolates. Genetic variability among Saudi HRSV-A strains was evaluated by sequence analysis of the complete attachment (G) protein gene. The nucleotide sequence was compared to representatives of the previously identified HRSV-A genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains examined in this study were very closely related at both the nucleotide and amino acid level, and all of them are clustered in the GA2 genotype (and mostly belonged to the NA-1 subtype). A total of 23 mutation sites, 14 of which resulted in an amino acid change, were recorded only in Saudi strains. This is the first report on genetic diversity of HRSV-A strains in Saudi Arabia. Further analysis of strains on a geographical and temporal basis is needed to fully understand HRSV-A circulation patterns in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Prevalence and histopathological characteristics of corneal stromal dystrophies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alzuhairy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This pathological study suggested that MCD was the most common corneal stromal dystrophy that required keratoplasty in Saudi Arabia. Patient with MCD and GCD presented at a significantly younger age than LCD. The clinical diagnosis of MCD is not achieved in all cases likely due to a more severe phenotype in the Saudi population or the presence of corneal scarring that is associated with previous trachoma, which obscures the classical appearance of LCD. We believe that PKP is first-line surgical treatment, especially for MCD because it involves all corneal layers. However, deep stromal involvement and changes in Descemet′s membrane in MCD should be considered when selecting the surgical procedure.

  14. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms, two new cases from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Turkmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms (AWP is a rare dermatologic disease. It was first described four decades ago as a potential test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF by detecting “skin wrinkling” in response to water immersion. We are reporting two cases of AWP diagnosed at Derma Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first case was a 9-year old girl and the second case was a 17-year adolescent male. The second case was associated with palmer hyperhidrosis. Both patients denied any medication use. Additionally, signs and symptoms suggesting CF were lacking. Local dermatologists should be aware of rare conditions such as AWP and lack of previous reports from the region may indicate under-reporting rather than lack of cases.

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder in school-aged children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M J

    2010-09-01

    The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study collected data from both teachers and parents for 708 primary school pupils attending grades 1-3 (7-9 years old), using DSM-IV criteria of ADHD. The result showed that the overall rate of ADHD was 2.7%, and in particular, the rate of attention types, 2.0%; hyperactive/impulsivity type, 1.4% and combined type, 0.7%. Teachers reported ADHD in a higher frequency than parents. However, applying a combination of reports from teachers and parents, screening of ADHD is likely to be more accurate. These findings highlight the importance of detecting ADHD in pupils at an early age and to develop a specific set of psychological clinical interventions for helping them.

  16. Correlation of delta high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with delta clinical variables in early systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euathrongchit, Juntima; Wattanawittawas, Pittaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014. All patients underwent HRCT at study entry and every 12 months thereafter. Thirty-one SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) within 12 weeks of their corresponding HRCT at baseline and last visit were identified. The extent of ground glass (GG), lung fibrosis (Fib), bronchiectasis (B), and honeycombing (HC) was scored, and then aggregated to produce a total (t) HRCT score. Results Mean ± SD age and disease duration from non-Raynaud’s phenomenon (NRP) to undergo HRCT at baseline were 52.2±8.8 years and 11.7±7.1 months, respectively. Seventeen (54.8%) patients were female and 20 (64.5%) were classified as dcSSc. The mean ± SD interval between the two HRCT tests was 16.0±7.2 months. The Δ HRCT scores [total fibrosis scores (t-Fib), total bronchiectasis scores (t-B), and total HRCT score (t-HRCT) scores] and Δ mRSS, but not Δ %pFVC, showed significant change over the observation period. We found significant correlation of Δ total honeycombing scores (t-HC) with Δ ESR (r=−0.44, P<0.05), and Δ t-Fib with Δ %SpO2 (r=−0.38, P<0.05). However, no significant correlation of any Δ HRCT scores with Δ %pFVC and Δ mRSS were observed. Conclusions In this study, the changes in the HRCT scores were greater than %pFVC; this, along with their correlations with the changes in ESR and %SpO2, suggest that HRCT

  17. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Results Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). Conclusions A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words:Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27957258

  18. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Christoph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studies focusing on the locomotor system. Yet current sleep assessment tools are either too long or too specific for general use. Methods Based on a literature review and subsequent patient-based rating of items, an expert panel designed a four-item questionnaire about sleep. Construct validation of the questionnaire in a random sample of the German-speaking Swiss population was performed in 2003. Reliability, correlation, and tests for internal consistency and validity were analyzed. Results Overall, 16,634 (70% out of 23,763 eligible individuals participated in the study. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 indicates good internal consistency. Results show a moderate to good correlation between sleep disturbances and health perception, and between sleep disturbances and overall pain. Conclusions The Sleep Standard Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ-Sleep is a reliable and short tool with confirmed construct validity for sleep assessment in population-based observational studies. It is easy to administer and therefore suitable for postal surveys of the general population. Criterion validity remains to be determined.

  19. Clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus in Guangzhou area most possibly from the environmental infection showed variable susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Feng-lin; SUN Zhao-gang; LI Chuan-you; LIU Zhi-hui; CAI Lin; ZHOU Cheng; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) can cause a variety of human infections,involving the lung,skin and soft tissues,and is generally believed to be acquired from environmental sources.The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of M.abscessus isolates as the basis for strategies to improve control and management of infection.Methods Seventy M.abscessus isolates from patients attending the Guangzhou Thoracic Hospital were identified from 2003 to 2005 by biochemical tests,gas chromatography,polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction analysis (PRA) of heat shock protein gene hsp65,and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA.Susceptibilities to six antibiotics were determined by micro-broth dilution.Isolates were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.Results Most isolates (63/70; 90%) were susceptible to amikacin but rates of susceptibility to other antibiotics varied from moderate,clarithromycin (60%) and imipenem (43%),to low for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (3%),and 87% of isolates had intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin.RAPD analysis showed that the 70 clinical isolates displayed 69 unique RAPD patterns.Conclusions The high genetic diversity of isolates suggests that they are not transmitted from person to person but,presumably,are acquired independently from environmental sources.M.abscessus isolates displayed variable levels of susceptibility to all antibiotics tested,other than amikacin,indicating a need for routine susceptibility testing to guide treatment.

  20. Post occupancy evaluation of primary schools in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Sana; Woodcock, Andree

    2012-01-01

    The physical school environment has been shown to be important in helping children fulfill their academic potential and in providing appropriate working conditions for staff. However, few tools have been developed that enable multi stakeholder consultation which takes into account the opinions of young students. In Saudi Arabia there has been widespread investment in schools, but few guidelines have been provided to assist design or continuous evaluation. A Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method was developed and used to evaluate three international primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The methods identified weaknesses in the three schools and differences in responses from the three groups consulted (children, teachers and parents). Conclusions drawn from the study are that greater efforts need to be made to draw together research about how school facilities can support teaching and learning, increase effectiveness and levels of satisfaction. POE, when used in conjunction with checklists could be used as a means of driving up standards of educational facilities.

  1. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

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    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  2. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

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    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  4. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...

  5. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Adminis...

  6. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  7. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Saudi Arabia needs to continue to take steps to exercise oversight of fundraising activities in the Kingdom and Saudi charitable activities abroad...a personal minute to Attorney General in December 2006, Prime Minister Blair wrote “it is in my judgment very clear that the continuation of the SFO...nationwide fundraising campaign under the auspices of the Saudi Committee to Support the Palestinian People in response to Israel’s military

  9. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    position—from one of repeated surpluses to one of actual and projected deficits—rooted in drastic reductions in global market prices for crude oil. Oil... market , its vast wealth, and its global investment posture. Saudi Military Campaigns and Policy in Yemen Saudi Arabia has long exercised a strong role...America, and Saudi officials have appeared committed to preserving and expanding the kingdom’s share of global oil markets , with apparently mixed

  10. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.

    1995-05-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  12. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  13. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors.

  14. Adherence of primary health care physicians to hypertension management guidelines in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia

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    Khalid S Al-Gelban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been significant progress in the management of hypertension, rates for control of this chronic disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has been shown to be very low. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge of primary health care (PHC physicians and the extent of their adherence to the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines concerning care of hypertensive patients. The assessment was made in the Aseer region of KSA using a modified version of the World Health Organization "Physician Inquiry Questionnaire." Only 5.6% of the participants measured blood pressure (BP with the patient in sitting and other postures. Variable sphygmomanometer cuff sizes for different patients were used by 56.5% of the participants, while 74.8% correctly recorded the diastolic BP at Koratkoff sound, phase- 5. Among non- diabetics, the correct diagnosis of systolic and diastolic hypertension was reported by 76.7% and 81.4% respectively, of the PHC physicians. Among diabetics, the correct diagnosis of systolic and diastolic hypertension was reported by 36% and 17.1% of the PHC physicians, respectively. Most physicians inquired about cardiovascular risk factors. Several important items of patients′ clinical examination were not completely covered by physicians, e.g., fundus examination (75.2%. PHC physicians missed a few investigations and laboratory tests, e.g., ECG (87.9%, serum creatinine (88.2% and lipid profile (89.8%. Less than one- fifth of the physicians correctly chose the thiazide diuretics as the preferred initial anti- hypertensive agent (19.9%. Almost two- thirds of the physicians (65.2% emphasized the importance of BP self- measurement, 89.8% encouraged patients to use a reminder system while 96.3% motivated patients for BP control. Measures for lifestyle modification included weight reduction (98.8%, sodium restriction (97.5%, physical exercise (96.3% and behavioral improvement (87.6%. Our study suggests that continuing

  15. Recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia; Saikin no Saudi Arabia no sekiyu tanko to kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, N. [Arabian Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia. At present Saudi Arabia yielding crude oil of 8 million BPD is the biggest oil yield and export country in the world. The estimated amount of oil deposits of nearly 2.6 hundred billion bbl accounts for nearly 25% of that over the world. Oil exploration was started by American enterprise in 1933, and a promising oil deposit was first confirmed in carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arabian stratum in 1938. The survey area of oil exploration gradually expanded up to all of eastern provinces and Arabian Bay. Ghawar oil field largest in the world and Safaniya oil field largest in the world as marine oil field were found in 1948 and 1951, respectively. Oil exploration in Central Arabia started in 1988 after nearly 50 years from oil exploration in eastern provinces, and low-sulfur/super-light oil was found in Paleozoic sand rock stratum. Up to this day light oil was confirmed at 15 sites in these areas, and further oil exploration is now in promotion. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Analysis of hemoglobin electrophoresis results and physicians investigative practices in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Riaz Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Riyadh and central province falls in a moderate prevalent zone of hemoglobinopathies in Saudi Arabia. However, it has been observed that the physicians working in Saudi Arabia invariably advise all cases of anemia for hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE. The present work was carried out to study the yield of the HE in Riyadh and the investigative practices of the physicians advising HE. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in the hospitals of King Saud University from 2009 to 2011 in order to assess the yield of HE in referred cases of clinical anemia. Materials and Methods: A total of 1073 cases divided in two groups of males and females had undergone complete blood count and red blood cell morphology. Cellulose acetate HE was performed and all the positive results were reconfirmed on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results were analyzed for the type of hemoglobinopathies. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was used. Results: A total of 405 males and 668 females blood samples were included in the present study. 116 (28.5% males and 167 (25% females showed an abnormal pattern on HE. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait was higher in females while sickle cell trait was predominantly seen in males. Red cell indices were reduced considerably in thalassemias, but were unaffected in sickle cell disorders, except those which had concurrent alpha trait. The total yield of HE was 26.6% which was much less than expected. Conclusion: The physicians are advised to rule out iron deficiency and other common causes of anemia before investigating the cases for hemoglobinopathies, which employs time consuming and expensive tests of HE and HPLC.

  17. Current trends of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology in Saudi Arabia and associated demographical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Al-Habobe, Farah; Shoukri, Mohammed M; Mulder, Arnout; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-06-01

    Data are scarce on demographical factors related to the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia. A study was conducted on 902 clinical isolates to explore current trends in the phylogeography and associated demographical factors of tuberculosis by using spoligotyping and 24 loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. Young male patients (aged 16-29 and 30-44) were predominant in this cohort. The phylogenetic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates was found high, as almost all known genetic lineages were identified. Delhi/CAS (26.4%), EAI (13.7%) and Haarlem (11.3%) were the most common lineages observed, particularly among the low age groups (16-29 and 30-44 years), whereas elderly patients (>60 years) showed a predominance in the lineages S, Ghana, TUR and Uganda-I. A statistically significant association was observed between gender of the patients and lineages of EAI (p value 0.026) and LAM (p value 0.005). Overall, molecular strain cluster rate was 34.4% with an elevated rate among patients aged below 15 years (43.1%), while cases among the elderly (>60 years) showed the lowest degree of clustering (12.5%). The largest level of clustering was noticed among cases caused by strains of the lineages Haarlem (59.8%), Beijing (55.8%) and LAM (42.8%). The current population structure of M. tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia is highly diverse with significant associations to demography, transmission dynamics and origin of the patients. The difference in genotype distributions among low and high aged patients reflects the ongoing change in the strain population structure in the country.

  18. Emergence of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci at a Teaching Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Fawzia E; Bukhari, Elham E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a major and emerging hospital-acquired pathogen associated with high mortality, particularly among the critically ill and Intensive Care Units (ICUs) patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and demographic and clinical characteristics of VRE among patients admitted to a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A study was conducted during the period from September 2014 to November 2015 at King Khalid University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, including in-patients with VRE infection. Data were collected using laboratory results and the medical records of admitted patients and were analyzed using SPSS version 19.0 statistical software. Results: In a one-year period, 231 enterococci were isolated from blood, urine, exudates, sputum, stool, and body fluid. There were 191 (82.7%) vancomycin-sensitive enterococci (VSE) and 40 (17.3%) isolates were VRE. The Enterococcus species included E. faecalis 168 (72.7%), E. faecium, 53 (22.8%) E. gallinarum 5 (2.2%), and E. avium 5 (2.2%). VRE were more significant from blood specimens (P < 0.0001) while VSE were significantly more predominant from urine specimens (P < 0.0001). VRE were more commonly isolated from patients in ICUs and oncology unit (P = 0.0151 and P < 0.001, respectively) while VSE were more predominant in the medical and surgical areas (P = 0.0178 and P = 0.0178, respectively). Conclusions: This study highlights the high prevalence of VRE in the hospital and the association of enterococcal infections with high-risk areas and oncology units, which warrant more studies looking for better management of these infections. PMID:28139519

  19. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects.

  20. Diversity of Molecular Mechanisms Conferring Carbapenem Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Al-Agamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC > 256 mg/L. Fifteen isolates had MIC values ≥64 mg/L for any of the carbapenems examined. Vietnamese extended-spectrum β-lactamase (VEB-1 (n=16/34 and oxacillinase (OXA-10 (n=14/34 were the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase and penicillinase, respectively. Verona imipenemase (VIM-1, VIM-2, VIM-4, VIM-11, and VIM-28 and imipenemase (IMP-7 variants were found in metallo-β-lactamase producers. A decrease in outer membrane porin gene (oprD expression was seen in nine isolates, and an increase in efflux pump gene (MexAB expression was detected in five isolates. Six serotypes (O:1, O:4, O:7, O:10, O:11, and O:15 were found among the 34 isolates. The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates, followed by O:15 (nine isolates. PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates revealed 14 different pulsotypes. Conclusions. These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia.

  1. The pattern of medical errors and litigation against doctors in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal S AlJarallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse events are frequent in clinical practice, but only a few studies in Saudi Arabia have addressed them. The current study was designed to review the lawsuits against healthcare professionals by analyzing records of the cases dealt with by the Medico-legal Committees (MLC in various provinces in Saudi Arabia, in order to determine the pattern of medical errors and litigations in the country. Materials and Methods: A pre-designed data sheet was used to collect data from the records of the Medical Violation Committee (MVC and the Medical Jurisprudence Committee (MJC. The data sheets consisted of information on details of the cases, details on where the error had occurred, and details of the errors. Results: The review of records revealed 642 cases, most of which were from hospitals run by the Ministry of Health (MOH. The operating room was where most of the errors (20.4% had occurred, followed by the emergency room (18.1%. Surgery was at the top of the specialties (25.1%. Most of the deaths occurred in surgery and obstetrics (about 25% for each, followed by other medical specialties (17%. About half of the lawsuit cases studied (46.5% involved patients belonging to a relatively young age group (20-50 years. Conclusion: Most of the medical error litigations involved surgeons and obstetricians especially in MOH hospitals. The process of litigations and documentation need to be improved, and access to the records for research and education need to be made easier. In addition, there is a need for more prospective field studies.

  2. 75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive...

  3. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of...

  4. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the accompanying Memorandum...

  5. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all

  6. Treatment modalities in a dental fear clinic and the relation with general psychopathology and oral health variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.

    1999-01-01

    To assess differences among highly anxious dental patients assigned to different treatment modes (ie behavioural management (BM), nitrous oxide sedation (NOS), intravenous sedation (IVS)). Patients were compared with regard to psychological and dental variables before treatment (eg number of decayed

  7. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  8. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  9. Magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) for the evaluation of autologous chondrocyte transplantation: Determination of interobserver variability and correlation to clinical outcome after 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mandl, Irena [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haller, Joerg [Department of Radiology, Hanusch Hospital, Heinrich-Collin-Strasse, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    In an observational study, the validity and reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) in the knee joint was determined. Two years after implantation, high-resolution MRI was used to analyze the repair tissue with nine pertinent variables. A complete filling of the defect was found in 61.5%, and a complete integration of the border zone to the adjacent cartilage in 76.9%. An intact subchondral lamina was present in 84.6% and an intact subchondral bone was present in 61.5%. Isointense signal intensities of the repair tissue compared to the adjacent native cartilage were seen in 92.3%. To evaluate interobserver variability, a reliability analysis with the determination of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. An 'almost perfect' agreement, with an ICC value >0.81, was calculated in 8 of 9 variables. The clinical outcome after 2 years showed the visual analog score (VAS) at 2.62 (S.D. {+-}0.65). The values for the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) subgroups were 68.29 ({+-}23.90) for pain, 62.09 ({+-}14.62) for symptoms, 75.45 ({+-}21.91) for ADL function, 52.69 ({+-}28.77) for sport and 70.19 ({+-}22.41) for knee-related quality of life. The clinical scores were correlated with the MRI variables. A statistically significant correlation was found for the variables 'filling of the defect,' 'structure of the repair tissue,' 'changes in the subchondral bone,' and 'signal intensities of the repair issue'. High resolution MRI and well-defined MRI variables are a reliable, reproducible and accurate tool for assessing cartilage repair tissue.

  10. Variable clinical spectrum of the myocilin Gln368X mutation in a Dutch family with primary open angle glaucoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewind, B.F.T.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical phenotype in a family with primary open angle glaucoma harboring a p.Gln368X mutation in MYOC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified a proband with primary open angle glaucoma and the p.Gln368X MYOC mutation. She and her six siblings were examined clinically, includi

  11. Outcome prediction in mild traumatic brain injury : age and clinical variables are stronger predictors than CT abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Bram; Beems, Tjemme; Stulemeijer, Maja; van Vugt, Arie B; van der Vliet, Ton M; Borm, George F; Vos, Pieter E

    2010-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common heterogeneous neurological disorder with a wide range of possible clinical outcomes. Accurate prediction of outcome is desirable for optimal treatment. This study aimed both to identify the demographic, clinical, and computed tomographic (CT) characteri

  12. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2014-07-28

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions. 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  14. The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Ameera; Barriball, Louise; While, Alison

    2013-09-01

    The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.

  15. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  16. Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

  17. Online sources of health statistics in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers looking for health statistics on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) may face difficulty. This is partly due to the lack of awareness of potential sources where such statistics can be found. The purpose of this paper is to review various online sources of health statistics on KSA, and to highlight their content, coverage, and presentation of health statistics. Five bibliographic databases where local research can be found are described. National registries available are summarized. Governmental agencies, as well as societies and centers where the bulk of health statistics is produced are also described. Finally, some potential international sources that can be used for the purpose of comparison are presented.

  18. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.

  19. Between‐Batch Pharmacokinetic Variability Inflates Type I Error Rate in Conventional Bioequivalence Trials: A Randomized Advair Diskus Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, KJ; Mielke, J; Benet, LZ; Jones, B

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated pharmacokinetic differences among manufacturing batches of a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)‐approved dry powder inhalation product (Advair Diskus 100/50) large enough to establish between‐batch bio‐inequivalence. Here, we provide independent confirmation of pharmacokinetic bio‐inequivalence among Advair Diskus 100/50 batches, and quantify residual and between‐batch variance component magnitudes. These variance estimates are used to consider the type I error rate of the FDA's current two‐way crossover design recommendation. When between‐batch pharmacokinetic variability is substantial, the conventional two‐way crossover design cannot accomplish the objectives of FDA's statistical bioequivalence test (i.e., cannot accurately estimate the test/reference ratio and associated confidence interval). The two‐way crossover, which ignores between‐batch pharmacokinetic variability, yields an artificially narrow confidence interval on the product comparison. The unavoidable consequence is type I error rate inflation, to ∼25%, when between‐batch pharmacokinetic variability is nonzero. This risk of a false bioequivalence conclusion is substantially higher than asserted by regulators as acceptable consumer risk (5%). PMID:27727445

  20. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR INTERNET ACCESS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Jameel Bardesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.

  2. Detection of Toxic Metalsin Lipsticks Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia Mohamed Ahmed Al-Qahtani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Since the dawn of civilization cosmetics have constituted a part of routine body care not only by the upper strata of society but also by middle and low class people. Heavy metals contamination in cosmetic products is becoming an important health problem in both worldwide and locally at the level of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA.The aim of this study was tostudy.Quantitatively estimated heavy metals “lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic” using graphite.Methods: total of 21 popular brands used lipstick products sold in Riyadh market samples from 3 different types of lipsticks frequently used among females in Saudi Arabia was digested. The digested samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic using graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:the mercury concentration was high followed by arsenic and cadmium, finally lead. The results indicate that the toxic heavy metals in all the samples were below the US FDA and SFDA permissible limits for cosmetic products with the exception the mercury content in some lipstick samples was higher than SFDA. There was no significant difference among the lipsticks in price categories.Conclusion: Continuous use and possible unintended ingestion of these toxic heavy metals, though in low levels in the cosmetics, may pose potential health risk due to their bioaccumulation in body organs.

  3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  4. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world.

  5. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  6. Variables associated with health-related quality of life in a Brazilian sample of patients from a tertiary outpatient clinic for depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schwab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL assessment tools have been broadly used in the medical context. These tools are used to measure the subjective impact of the disease on patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variables associated with HRQOL in a Brazilian sample of patients followed up in a tertiary outpatient clinic for depression and anxiety disorders. Method: Cross-sectional study. Independent variables were those included in a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS scores. Dependent variables were those included in the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF and the scores for its subdomains (overall quality of life and general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to find the variables independently associated with each outcome. Results: Seventy-five adult patients were evaluated. After multiple linear regression analysis, the HADS scores were associated with all outcomes, except social relationships (p = 0.08. Female gender was associated with poor total scores, as well as psychological health and environment. Unemployment was associated with poor physical health. Conclusion: Identifying the factors associated with HRQOL and recognizing that depression and anxiety are major factors are essential to improve the care of patients.

  7. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  8. The challenge and importance of standardizing pre-analytical variables in surgical pathology specimens for clinical care and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D G; Boyce, B F

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of targeted cancer therapies into clinical practice, in which patients are selected for novel treatments based on results of companion molecular testing of their tumor specimens, has created significant new challenges for the surgical pathology laboratory. These include standardization of tissue handling and sample preparation with accurate documentation to ensure optimal quality of clinical samples to reduce the risk of errors in molecular biology tests. The assay of tumor tissues for biomarkers that can provide predictive data for prognosis or treatment should enable selection of the most appropriate therapies (Yaziji et al. 2008, Hicks and Kulkarni 2008). Major advances have been made in the ability to profile clinical samples for research at the DNA, RNA and protein levels. To translate this new information into the clinical setting, however, the quality of the starting material, in this case the tumor tissue, determines the accuracy and reliability of companion diagnostic assay results and therefore optimal therapeutic strategies. Inaccurate results owing to compromised tissue quality can lead to false positive or false negative results with therapeutic consequences that can harm patients and affect their eventual outcome.

  9. Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition on self-reported health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health researchers ideally integrate social, environmental, and clinical measures to identify predictors of poor health. Chemicals measured in human tissues are often evaluated in relation to intangible or rare health outcomes, or are studied one chemical at a time. Using ...

  10. The impact of clinical and demographic variables on cognitive performance in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in rural South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; DeSantis, Stacia M; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Wagner, Mark T; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Inconsistencies in reports on methamphetamine (METH) associated cognitive dysfunction may be attributed, at least in part, to the diversity of study sample features (eg, clinical and demographic characteristics). The current study assessed cognitive function in a METH-dependent population from rural South Carolina, and the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on performance. Seventy-one male (28.2%) and female (71.8%) METH-dependent subjects were administered a battery of neurocognitive tests including the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Shipley Institute of Living Scale, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Grooved Pegboard Test, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Demographic and clinical characteristics (eg, gender, frequency of METH use) were examined as predictors of performance. Subjects scored significantly lower than expected on one test of attention and one of fine motor function, but performed adequately on all other tests. There were no predictors of performance on attention; however, more frequent METH use was associated with better performance for males and worse for females on fine motor skills. The METH-dependent individuals in this population exhibit very limited cognitive impairment. The marked differences in education, Intellectual Quotient (IQ), and gender in our sample when compared to the published literature may contribute to these findings. Characterization of the impact of clinical and/or demographic features on cognitive deficits could be important in guiding the development of treatment interventions.

  11. Serological and molecular diagnosis of human brucellosis in Najran, Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Alqahtani, Jobran Miree

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human brucellosis in Najran, southwestern Saudi Arabia, and to assess the performances of ELISA and PCR as diagnostic tools for brucellosis with respect to conventional methods. The study included 340 patients with clinical characteristics of brucellosis. Blood samples from cases and controls were subjected to culture, standard tube agglutination test (SAT), ELISA for IgM and IgG, and brucella PCR. The diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed in 54 (15.9%) of the 340 provisionally diagnosed brucellosis patients. Blood culture identified only 14 (25.9%) cases. The SAT was positive for 50 (92.6%) cases, whereas ELISA IgM, IgG and PCR were found positive in 46, 52 and 38 cases respectively. The sensitivities of ELISA IgM and IgG were 85.2% and 96.3% respectively and the specificity was 100% for each. For PCR, the sensitivity and specificity were 70.4% and 100% respectively. In conclusion, ELISA offers a significant advantage over conventional serological methods in the diagnosis of brucellosis in endemic areas. The PCR test results can be particularly important in patients with clinical signs and symptoms, and negative serological results, allowing the early and rapid confirmation of the brucellosis.

  12. Psycho-social Features of Chronic Dialysis Patients in Saudi Arabia: Experience of one Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Homrany Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of chronic dialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients include restoration of the highest achievable state of personal physical health and preservation as well as restoration and development of the highest level of psychological and social functions. We conducted this study to evaluate factors influencing the process of adaptation such as religious faith, economic status and extended family-tribal system. It was hoped that studying these factors might provide further dimension to our understanding of the psychopathology of ESRD patients, and to help offer new ideas to improve the quality of their lives. A sample comprising 54 patients with ESRD was studied in Abha hemodialysis centre in Southern Saudi Arabia. The socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data were collected. The psychiatric status of the patients was evaluated using a structured "The Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale" (CPRS clinical interview. The result indicated that the major co-morbidity (in 60% of these patients was a depressive illness due to renal failure diagnosable according to DSM-IV criteria. Our study suggests the need for specific anti-depressant treatment in order to ameliorate many distressing symptoms, which may affect the quality of these patients′ life. Concomitant social problems of poverty, absence of spouse and illiteracy, dictate a more prompt attitude in initiating support systems and attention to providing leisure activities.

  13. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... and tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  14. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  15. Variability of bio-clinical parameters in Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus: a nonhuman primate AIDS model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques (Ch RhMs infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV have been used for many years to evaluate the efficacy of AIDS vaccines and therapeutics, the bio-clinical variability of such a nonhuman primate AIDS model was so far not established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By randomizing 150 (78 male and 72 female Ch RhMs with diverse MHC class I alleles into 3 groups (50 animals per group challenged with intrarectal (i.r. SIVmac239, intravenous (i.v. SIVmac239, or i.v. SIVmac251, we evaluated variability in bio-clinical endpoints for 118 weeks. All SIV-challenged Ch RhMs became seropositive for SIV during 1-2 weeks. Plasma viral load (VL peaked at weeks 1-2 and then declined to set-point levels as from week 5. The set-point VL was 30 fold higher in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. This difference in plasma VL increased overtime (>100 fold as from week 68. The rates of progression to AIDS or death were more rapid in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. No significant difference in bio-clinical endpoints was observed in animals challenged with i.r. or i.v. SIVmac239. The variability (standard deviation in peak/set-point VL was nearly one-half lower in animals infected with SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v. than in those infected with SIVmac251 (i.v., allowing that the same treatment-related difference can be detected with one-half fewer animals using SIVmac239 than using SIVmac251. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide solid estimates of variability in bio-clinical endpoints needed when designing studies using the Ch RhM SIV model and contribute to the improving quality and standardization of preclinical studies.

  16. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA from clinical samples: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Pailhoriès

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection for which diagnosis is difficult. It has appeared as a global emerging infectious disease over recent years. Genotype determination often requires a Leptospira strain obtained by culture, which is a long and fastidious technique. A method based on multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to determine the genotype of Leptospira interrogans, performed directly on blood or urine samples, is proposed. This method was applied to a fatal case of leptospirosis for which the geographical origin of infection was unknown. This technique will allow a genotype to be obtained for L. interrogans, even when cultures remain negative.

  17. A Retrospective Study of Causes of Low Vision in Saud Arabia, A Case of Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z Alotaibi, Abdullah

    2015-10-20

    Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation.

  18. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  19. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    peninsular India through fluvial discharge. Since formation of palygorskite calls for an arid and hot climate and saline conditions, occurrence of this clay mineral in the sediments of the study area documents aeolian sediment contribution from Arabia...

  20. Emergency department musculoskeletal radiological requests abuse and patients attitude toward radiological exposure in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Montaser*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: People in Saudi Arabia expose to huge amount of radiological hazardous with a common believe that radiology is essential for diagnosis all musculoskeletal injuries. Wealthy medical system does not always lead to competent practice.

  1. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Nasr H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) resulted in the recognition of four vegetation groups representing wheat crop, orchards in winter season, orchards in summer season and watermelon crop. These results suggested the importance of both crop and season for the formation of weed community. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that these groups are clearly distinguished by the first two DCA axes. The species richness was higher in both olive and date palm orchards than in wheat and watermelon crops. This pattern of species richness could be related to farm management practices and habitat micro-heterogeneity. Soil electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture showed significant correlations with species richness and the cover values of some dominant species, suggesting the significant role of soil characteristics in weed community structure and diversity.

  2. Group B strains of human respiratory syncytial virus in Saudi Arabia: molecular and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M

    2014-04-01

    The genetic variability and circulation pattern of human respiratory syncytial virus group B (HRSV-B) strains, identified in Riyadh during the winters of 2008 and 2009, were evaluated by partial sequencing of the attachment (G) protein gene. The second hypervariable region (HVR-2) of G gene was amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to representatives of different HRSV-B genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Saudi strains belonged to the genotype BA, which is characterized by 60-nucleotide duplication at HVR-2. Only strains of 2008 were clustered with subgroup BA-IV, while those isolated at 2009 were clustered among the most recent subgroups (particularly BA-X and CB-B). Amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated 18 amino acid substitutions in Saudi HRSV-B strains; among which five are specific for individual strains. Furthermore, two potential N-glycosylation sites at residues 230 and 296 were identified for all Saudi strains, and an additional site at amino acid 273 was found only in Riyadh 28/2008 strain. O-glycosylation was predicted in 42-43 sites, where the majority (no = 38) are highly conserved among Saudi strains. The average ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous mutations (ω) implied stabilizing selection pressure on G protein, with evidences of positive selection on certain Saudi strains. This report provides preliminary data on the circulation pattern and molecular characteristics of HRSV-B strains circulating in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  4. STUDIES ON AEDES AEGYPTI RESISTANCE TO SOME INSECTICIDES IN THE JAZAN DISTRICT, SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheikh, Adel A; Mohammed, W S; Noureldin, E M; Daffalla, O M; Shrwani, Y A; Hobani, K J; Alsheikh, F A; Alzahrani, M H; Binsaeed, A A

    2016-04-01

    The present study provided information on the susceptibility status of the adult and larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Bioassay tests were performed on adults and larvae by using WHO recommended concentrations and test kits. Adults of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to test papers impregnated with Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), Cyfluthrin (0.15%), Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), Fenitrothion (1%), Bendiocarb (0.1%) and DDT (4%) insecticides. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found to be susceptible only to Cyfluthrin; (mortality rate was 100%), whereas variable resistances were observed from the rest of the other insecticides tested (mortality rates ranged between 93.6 and 17%). Larvae were subjected to different concentrations of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene (IGRs) and Temephos (Organophosphate). Adult emergence inhibition (IE₅₀ & IE₉₅) values for the IGRs and the (LC₅₀ & LC₉₅) for Temephos were determined by log-probit regression analysis. Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant to Temephos (LC₅₀ 61.8-LC₉₅ 35600.1 mg/l) and showed high susceptibility to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron (IE₅₀ 0.49-IE₉₅ 10.9 mg/l) and (IE₅₀ 0.86 and IE₉₅ 93.8 mg/l), respectively. Larvae were more susceptible to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron by 1.8 folds.

  5. Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Al Momani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011 from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42- items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization.Results: On a four-point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree. The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81, the information about the laboratory results (2.76 and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72. A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01, and the types of department (0.004.Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients' perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care.

  6. Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Momani, M; Al Korashy, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients’ expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42-items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization. Results: On a four–point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree). The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81), the information about the laboratory results (2.76) and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72). A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01), and the types of department (0.004). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients’ perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care. PMID:23113223

  7. Sources and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Fine Particles in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebare, S. R.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Zeb, J.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution research in Saudi Arabia and the whole of Middle East is at its inception, making air pollution in the region a significant problem. This study presents the first detailed data on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations of Black Carbon (BC), ions, and trace metals at Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, and assesses their sources. Results showed several characteristic aspects of air pollution at Rabigh. Daily levels of PM2.5 and BC showed significant temporal variability ranging from 12.2 - 75.9 µg/m3 and 0.39 - 1.31 µg/m3, respectively. More than 90% of the time, the daily PM2.5 exceeded the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 µg/m3. Sulfate, NO3-, and NH4+ dominated the identifiable components. Trace metals with significantly higher concentrations included Si, S, Ca, Al, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, K, and Ti, with average concentrations of 3.1, 2.2, 1.6, 1.2, 1.1, 0.7, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.1 µg/m3, respectively. Based on the Air Quality Index (AQI), there were 44% days of moderate air quality, 33% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, and 23% days of unhealthy air quality throughout the study period. Two categories of aerosol trace metal sources were defined: anthropogenic (S, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Cd, Sb, and Pb) and naturally derived elements (Si, Al, and Fe). The extent of anthropogenic contribution was estimated by the degree of enrichment of these elements compared to the crustal composition. Soil resuspension and/or mobilization is an important source of "natural" elements, while "anthropogenic" elements originate primarily from fossil fuel combustion and industries. Ni and V correlated strongly pointing to combustion of heavy fuel oil as the likely source. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to obtain information about possible sources. Our study highlights the need for stringent laws on PM2.5 emission control to protect human health and the environment.

  8. Influence of clinical and laboratory variables on faecal antigen ELISA results in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2015-06-01

    False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR.

  9. QT interval variability in body surface ECG : measurement, physiological basis, and clinical value: position statement and consensus guidance endorsed by the European Heart Rhythm Association jointly with the ESC Working Group on Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Mathias; Porta, Alberto; Vos, Marc A; Malik, Marek; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Laguna, Pablo; Piccirillo, Gianfranco; Smith, Godfrey L; Tereshchenko, Larisa G; Volders, Paul G A

    2016-01-01

    This consensus guideline discusses the electrocardiographic phenomenon of beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) on surface electrocardiograms. The text covers measurement principles, physiological basis, and clinical value of QTV. Technical considerations include QT interval measurement and the

  10. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  11. Success Factors Contributing to eGovernment Adoption in Saudi Arabia: G2C approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abunadi, Ibrahim; Sanzogni, Louis; Sandhu, Kuldeep; Woods, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is predetermined to implement eGovernment and provide world-class government services to citizens by 2010. However, this initiative will be meaningless if the people did not adopt these electronic services. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine success factors that will facilitate the adoption of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia. The results of the literature review have been deployed into surveys with Saudi eGovernment users. The discussion of the analysis from results...

  12. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take c...

  13. Motivation for domestic tourism : a case study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogari, Naima Bakor

    2002-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P

  15. The effect of manipulating root mean square window length and overlap on reliability, inter-individual variability, statistical significance and clinical relevance of electromyograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Burden, Adrian; Lewis, Sandra Elizabeth; Willcox, Emma

    2014-12-01

    Numerous ways exist to process raw electromyograms (EMGs). However, the effect of altering processing methods on peak and mean EMG has seldom been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using different root mean square (RMS) window lengths and overlaps on the amplitude, reliability and inter-individual variability of gluteus maximus EMGs recorded during the clam exercise, and on the statistical significance and clinical relevance of amplitude differences between two exercise conditions. Mean and peak RMS of 10 repetitions from 17 participants were obtained using processing window lengths of 0.01, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 1 s, with no overlap and overlaps of 25, 50 and 75% of window length. The effect of manipulating window length on reliability and inter-individual variability was greater for peak EMG (coefficient of variation [CV] mean EMG (CV mean EMG was affected by manipulation of window length. Statistical significance of peak EMG was more sensitive to changes in window length, with lower p-values generally being recorded for the 1 s window. As use of different window lengths has a greater effect on variability and statistical significance of the peak EMG, then clinicians should use the mean EMG. They should also be aware that use of different numbers of exercise repetitions and participants can have a greater effect on EMG parameters than length of processing window.

  16. Interlaboratory variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M C; Pfaller, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Chryssanthou, E; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Dannaoui, E; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gaustad, P; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Meis, J F; Moore, C B; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; Pukinskas, S R B S; St-Germain, G; Szeszs, M W; Turnidge, J

    2013-12-01

    Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 μg/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source, stock solution solvent, powder storage time length and temperature, and MIC determination testing parameters) were examined as a potential cause of such unprecedented variability, a single specific cause was not identified. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the use of the CLSI species-specific caspofungin CBPs could lead to reporting an excessive number of wild-type (WT) isolates (e.g., C. glabrata and C. krusei) as either non-WT or resistant isolates. Until this problem is resolved, routine testing or reporting of CLSI caspofungin MICs for Candida is not recommended; micafungin or anidulafungin data could be used instead.

  17. Analysis of Evapotranspiration Variability and Trends in the Arabian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad El-Nesr; Abdulrahman Alazba; Majed Abu-Zreig

    2010-01-01

    Abstract:  Problem statement: Climate variability is receiving much attention recently because it has significant effects on water resources and therefore on the livelihood of society especially in water scarce countries such the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Approach: The aim of this study was to explore changes in the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) using data from 27 weather stations through years 1980-2008 and to identify trend directions in the ETo as an indicator to climate var...

  18. FDG PET/CT response in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Reader variability and association with clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Ji; O, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Hyukjin; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Gyeongsin; Choi, Byung Ock; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-09-01

    F-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is essential for monitoring response to treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and qualitative interpretation is commonly applied in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the interobserver agreements of qualitative PET/CT response in patients with DLBCL and the predictive value of PET/CT results for clinical outcome.PET/CT images were obtained for patients with DLBCL 3 times: at baseline, after 3 cycles of first-line chemotherapy (interim), and after completion of chemotherapy. Two nuclear medicine physicians (with 3 and 8 years of experience with PET/CT) retrospectively assessed response to chemotherapy blinded to the clinical outcome using International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria and Deauville 5-point score. The associations between PET/CT results and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Cox regression analysis.A total of 112 PET/CT images were included from 59 patients with DLBCL (36 male, 23 female; mean age 53 ± 14 years). Using the IHP criteria, interobserver agreement was substantial (Cohen κ = 0.76) with absolute agreement consistency of 89%. Using the Deauville score, interobserver agreement was moderate (Cohen weighted κ = 0.54) and absolute consistency was 62%. The most common cause of disagreements was discordant interpretation of residual tumor uptake. With median follow-up period of 60 months, estimated 5-year PFS and OS were 81% and 92%, respectively. Neither interim nor posttreatment PET/CT results by both readers were significantly associated with PFS. Interim PET/CT result by the more experienced reader using Deauville score was a significant factor for OS (P = 0.019).Moderate-to-substantial interobserver agreement was observed for response assessments according to qualitative PET/CT criteria, and interim PET/CT result could predict OS in patients with DLBCL. Further

  19. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  20. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  1. The clinical significance of detection to heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

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    Jiang-rong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the change of heart rate deceleration capacity ( DC and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and its relationship with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods: DC, LVEF, time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were measured in 66 patients with CHF and 34 healthy adults (control group by using 24h Holter recordings and Echocardiography. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals( SDNN, squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals ( RMSSD,low frequency power( LFn and high frequency power( HFn and the changes of LVEF were compared between  the two groups,the relationship between DC,LVEF and HRV were studied in patients with CHF. Results: The median value of DC in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than that in control group( 3.1 ± 2.4 ms vs 7.2 ± 1.3 ms,P <0.01.Incidence of abnormal DC in the CHF group was 57.5%,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01.The HRV index, including SDNN、RMSSD、LFn、HFn, in the CHF group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P < 0.01. Significant positive correlation between HRV index and LVEF were confirmed (P < 0.01. Conclusions: DC and HRV index are lower in patients with CHF and have a good correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  2. Genetic variability of the serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica protein gene in clinical isolates from the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBakri, Ali; Samie, Amidou; Ezzedine, Sinda; Odeh, Ra'ed Abu

    2014-06-01

    The genetic diversity of 20 Entamoeba histolytica isolates from asymptomatic individuals from the UAE was investigated by analyzing polymorphism in the serine-rich E. histolytica gene (SREHP) by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on DNA extracted directly from stool samples. The SREHP gene was successfully amplified in 15 out of 20 E. histolytica-positive samples. Four out of the remaining five isolates did not amplify for the SREHP gene. Despite successful amplification of the SREHP gene in the fifth isolate, AluI digestion of the amplified PCR product revealed no bands. As a result, all five samples were excluded from the study. Twelve different profiles were obtained from the 15 successfully amplified isolates. Thus, demonstrating extensive genetic variability and reinforcing the argument that E. histolytica has an extremely polymorphic genetic structure. Despite the sample size limitation, a finding in the study was the occurrence of one profile common to one Indian isolate while another profile common to one Pakistani isolate; indicating the possibility of clonal infection. Furthermore, we found one isolate from a Bangladeshi expatriate identical to 2 asymptomatic Bangladeshi isolates reported in an earlier study. No clear association between the different genotypes and the study population demographics was noted. The results also indicated the possibility of strains clustering by region.

  3. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  4. C.N.S. tumors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A W

    1992-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the total captured cases (1,568 cases of malignant tumors at all sites). The population of the Eastern Province is estimated to be 1.37 million, the Saudis forming 80% of the total population. Out of the 85 cases captured over two years, there were 64 cases diagnosed in indigenous Saudi population forming 75%. The remaining occurred in non-Saudi residents. The male/female ratio in Saudis was 1:1.1 with a slight predominance of the female, while the reverse is true in the non-Saudis (2:1). The total captured cases per annum is 43, making the incidence of primary CNS neoplasms in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 3.1/100,000 of all the population and 2.9/100,000 in Saudi nationals. Comparing this incidence to the international figure, it was clear that it is far less than the incidence reported from North America and Europe, particularly in the Caucasian population, but similar to incidences reported in the Chinese, black Americans, Romanians and Yugoslavians, but certainly less than the Ashkenazi or Safari Jews, and slightly higher than the incidence reported in Japan and Southeast Asia. Malignant brain tumors of various types dominated the primary CNS neoplasms reported over these two years forming 69% of the cases and 52% of the primary brain tumors.

  5. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  6. Centro de Conferencias, Hotel y Mezquita Riyadh - Arabia Saudita

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    Dannatt, Trevor

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.

    El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.

  7. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.

  8. High Sequence Variability of the ppE18 Gene of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains Potentially Impacts Effectivity of Vaccine Candidate M72/AS01E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Susanne; Ubben, Tanja; Niemann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective vaccine is urgently needed to fight tuberculosis (TB) which is still the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. One of the promising vaccine candidates M72/AS01E consists of two proteins subunits PepA and PPE18 coded by Rv0125 and Rv1196. However, preliminary data indicate a high level of sequence variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains that might have an impact on the vaccine efficacy. To further investigate this finding, we determined ppE18 sequence variability in a well-characterized reference collection of 71 MTBC strains from 23 phylogenetic lineages representing the global MTBC diversity. In total, 100 sequence variations consisting of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three insertions and one deletion were detected resulting in 141 variable positions distributed over the entire gene. The majority of SNPs detected were non-synonymous (n = 68 vs. n = 28 synonymous). Strains from animal adapted lineages, e.g., M. bovis, showed a significant higher diversity than the human pathogens such as M. tuberculosis Haarlem. SNP patterns specific for different lineages as well as for deeper branches in the phylogeny could be identified. The results of our study demonstrate a high variability of the ppE18 gene even in the N-terminal domains that is normally highly conserved in ppe genes. As the N-terminal region interacts with TLR2 receptor inducing a protective anti-inflammatory immune response, genetic heterogeneity has a potential impact on the vaccine efficiency, however, this has to be investigated in future studies.

  9. Epidemiological Pattern of Newly Diagnosed Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Taif, Saudi Arabia

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    Naglaa Mohamed Kamal Alanani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Type-1-diabetes mellitus (T1DM is the most commonly diagnosed type of DM in children and adolescents. We aim to identify the epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical features, and factors related to delayed diagnosis or mismanagement in children with newly diagnosed T1DM in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods. Ninety-nine newly diagnosed patients were included in the study along with 110 healthy controls. Patients were classified into 3 groups (I: >2 years, II: 2–>6 years, and III: 6–12 years. Both patients and controls were tested for C-peptide, TSH, and autoantibodies associated with DM and those attacking the thyroid gland. Results. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 79.8%. Delayed and missed diagnoses were recorded in 45.5%, with significant correlation to age and district of origin. Severity at presentation showed significant correlation with age and cow’s milk feeding. Group I, those with misdiagnosis or positive DM related autoantibodies, had more severe presentations. The correlation of C-peptide and TSH levels in patients and controls was significant for C-peptide and nonsignificant for TSH. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement are common and account for more severe presentation, especially in young children >2 years. Early introduction of cow’s milk appears to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM.

  10. Assessment of Pharmacy Information System Performance in Three Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahalli, Azza; El-Khafif, Sahar H; Yamani, Wid

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacy information system is one of the central pillars of a hospital information system. This research evaluated a pharmacy information system according to six aspects of the medication process in three hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. System administrators were interviewed to determine availability of functionalities. Then, system users within the hospital were targeted to evaluate their level of usage of these functionalities. The study was cross-sectional. Two structured surveys were designed. The overall response rate of hospital users was 31.7 percent. In all three hospitals studied, the electronic health record is hybrid, implementation has been completed and the system is running, and the systems have computerized provider order entry and clinical decision support. Also, the pharmacy information systems are integrated with the electronic health record, and computerized provider order entry and almost all prescribing and transcription functionalities are available; however, drug dispensing is a mostly manual process. However, the study hospitals do not use barcode-assisted medication administration systems to verify patient identity and electronically check dose administration, and none of them have computerized adverse drug event monitoring that uses the electronic health record. The numbers of users who used different functionalities most or all of the time was generally low. The highest frequency of utilization was for patient administration records (56.8 percent), and the lowest was for linkage of the pharmacy information system to pharmacy stock (9.1 percent). Encouraging users to use different functionalities was highly recommended.

  11. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

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    Magdy A. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years attending primary health care centers (PHCCs in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%, smoking in front of children (11.3%, overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%, noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3% and children (68%, children watching television (T.V more than 2 hours (50%, adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%, and late solid food introduction (65.3%. Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.

  12. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.

  13. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  14. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in long-distance travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Abdelaal, Mohamed A.; Alaklabi, Ali; Bakhsh, Ebtisam; Alomi, Yousef A.; Baik, Mohammad Al; Aldahan, Salah; Schünemann, Holger; Brozek, Jan; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Darzi, Andrea J.; Waziry, Reem; Akl, Elie A.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a preventable disease. Long distant travelers are prone to variable degree to develop VTE. However, the low risk of developing VTE among long-distance travelers and which travelers should receive VTE prophylaxis, and what prophylactic measures should be used led us to develop these guidelines. These clinical practice guidelines are the result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia involving an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society). The McMaster University Guideline working group provided the methodological support. The expert panel identified 5 common questions related to the thromboprophylaxis in long-distance travelers. The corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. PMID:28042639

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bronchiectasis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

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    Suzan Mansour Attar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Bronchiectasis is a pulmonary manifestation that often occurs in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Nevertheless, the prevalence of bronchiectasis in RA patients and predictors of its development/progression remain ill-defined. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of bronchiectasis in a group of RA patients and examine possible clinical or biochemical risk factors that might contribute to its development. Methods: This was an observational study analyzing 100 RA patients with no pulmonary symptoms selected from King Abdulaziz University Hospital in the Western region of Saudi Arabia from October 2013 to 2014. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information were collected for all patients. Diagnosis was based on the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR classification system, and disease activity was assessed using the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score Index with C-reactive protein; high-resolution computed tomography chest scans were performed. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was recorded and its association with different risk factors was examined using standard statistical methods. Results: All 100 patients fulfilled the ACR and EULAR classification criteria for RA diagnosis. Their mean age was 51.05 ± 13.5 years, disease duration was 6.19 ± 6.4 years and disease activity index was 4 ± 1.3 (moderate activity. A total of 35 (35% patients developed bronchiectasis. Notably, we observed significant positive associations of bronchiectasis with age, disease duration and male gender (P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P = 0.028, respectively. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bronchiectasis represents a common complication in moderately active RA patients within the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, several predictors of bronchiectasis development were identified, which can contribute to effective risk stratification in RA patients. Further prospective studies are

  16. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshak Emad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  17. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Obeidat Sadek A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  18. A novel Bayesian approach to quantify clinical variables and to determine their spectroscopic counterparts in 1H NMR metabonomic data

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    Kaski Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge in metabonomics is to uncover quantitative associations between multidimensional spectroscopic data and biochemical measures used for disease risk assessment and diagnostics. Here we focus on clinically relevant estimation of lipoprotein lipids by 1H NMR spectroscopy of serum. Results A Bayesian methodology, with a biochemical motivation, is presented for a real 1H NMR metabonomics data set of 75 serum samples. Lipoprotein lipid concentrations were independently obtained for these samples via ultracentrifugation and specific biochemical assays. The Bayesian models were constructed by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC and they showed remarkably good quantitative performance, the predictive R-values being 0.985 for the very low density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG, 0.787 for the intermediate, 0.943 for the low, and 0.933 for the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. The modelling produced a kernel-based reformulation of the data, the parameters of which coincided with the well-known biochemical characteristics of the 1H NMR spectra; particularly for VLDL-TG and HDL-C the Bayesian methodology was able to clearly identify the most characteristic resonances within the heavily overlapping information in the spectra. For IDL-C and LDL-C the resulting model kernels were more complex than those for VLDL-TG and HDL-C, probably reflecting the severe overlap of the IDL and LDL resonances in the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusion The systematic use of Bayesian MCMC analysis is computationally demanding. Nevertheless, the combination of high-quality quantification and the biochemical rationale of the resulting models is expected to be useful in the field of metabonomics.

  19. The effect of smoking on clinical and radiographic variables, and acute phase reactants in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Grigorios T; Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Kenanidis, Eustathios; Potoupnis, Michael; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Savvidis, Matthaios; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Sayegh, Fares E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between smoking and clinical, inflammatory and radiographic parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and six tumour necrosis factor inhibitor naïve patients with AS were included in the study. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and modified Stroke AS Spine Score (mSASSS) were assessed cross-sectionally for each patient. Smoking history was obtained, and smoking pack years were calculated. Current smokers had significantly higher BASDAI (p < 0.001) and a trend for higher BASFI (p = 0.059). Ever smokers had significantly higher BASFI (p = 0.035) and a trend for higher mSASSS (p = 0.063) compared to never smokers. Pack years (smoking intensity) were positively correlated with duration of inflammatory back pain (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), BASFI (r = 0.443, p < 0.001) and mSASSS (r = 0.683, p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analyses showed that current smoking was independently associated with a higher BASDAI score [regression coefficient (B) = 14.75, p < 0.001] and increasing pack years were independently associated with higher mSASSS (B = 0.26, p = 0.005). In patients with AS, current smoking was strongly and independently associated with higher disease activity, and cumulative smoking exposure with more radiographic spinal damage. In AS smokers, smoking cessation should be strongly recommended.

  20. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism does not affect clopidogrel response variability but is associated with clinical outcome after PCI.

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    Kyung Woo Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase (PON is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation. METHODS: A total of 1676 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled in the prospective CROSS-VERIFY cohort from June 2006 to June 2010. We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR, and analyzed lipid profiles. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 12 months. RESULTS: PON-1 genotyping data were available in 1336 patients. Since the Q-allele is associated with decreased PON-activity, we analyzed the outcome between patients with QQ/QR (815 patients, 61% and those with RR-genotype (521 patients, 39%. After adjustment for common cardiac risk factors, the QQ/QR-genotype was an independent predictor of the primary thrombotic endpoint with an 11-fold increased risk (HR 11.6, 95% CI: 1.55-87.0, but not repeat revascularization (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78-1.61. The QQ/QR-genotype was not associated with OPR (QQ/QR: 231±86 PRU vs. RR 236±82 PRU, p = 0.342 but higher small-dense LDL levels (1.20±0.12 mg/dL vs. 0.76±0.15 mg/dL, p = 0.027. The increased risk of thrombotic outcomes was more profound in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients compared with non-ACS patients. CONCLUSION: PON1 Q-allele is an independent predictor of worse cardiovascular outcome independent of platelet function and is associated with significantly higher levels of small dense LDL-C.

  1. Multi-decadal classification of synoptic weather types, observed trends and links to rainfall characteristics over Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-09-15

    An automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was employed to characterize daily circulation conditions in Saudi Arabia from 1960 to 2005. Daily gridded fields of sea level pressure (SLP) from both the NCEP/NCAR and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA40) were used as input data for this classification. The output catalog included 10 basic types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the region (i.e., cyclonic, anti-cyclonic, and directional). In general, our findings indicate that cyclonic (C) days represent the most frequent type among all days, with 69.2% of the annual count of days from 1960 to 2005, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also determined that airflows originating from the Indian Ocean (i.e., S, SE, and E) are more frequent than those from the Mediterranean and Red Seas (i.e., W, NW, and SW). The defined weather types were assessed for the presence of inter-annual and intra-annual trends using the Mann–Kendall tau statistic. The trend analysis suggests statistically significant changes in the frequencies of a majority of the weather types from 1960 to 2005. The relationship between the daily occurrence of rainfall and the frequency of individual weather types was also described using daily rainfall data from a network of 87 weather observatories. Results demonstrate that increasing frequencies of weather types connected to easterly inflows support higher precipitation amounts over the study domain. Characterizing the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in Saudi Arabia is important for understanding potential impacts related to climate variability and also for developing circulation-based downscaling methods.

  2. Book Review: Al-Seghayer, Khalid 2011, English Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Status, Issues, and Challenges, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Hala Print CO. 175 pages, ISBN 978-6030079254

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    Ghsoon Reda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this book, Khalid Al-Seghayer offers a thorough study of the history and status of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, highlighting deficiencies and suggesting remedies in an attempt to cure the current standards of English education, particularly in public schools which, in his own words, “have deteriorated perhaps beyond hope of recovery” (p. 95.

  3. A multi-decadal assessment of the performance of gauge- and model-based rainfall products over Saudi Arabia: Climatology, anomalies and trends

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2015-05-15

    Many arid and semi-arid regions have sparse precipitation observing networks, which limits the capacity for detailed hydrological modelling, water resources management and flood forecasting efforts. The objective of this work is to evaluate the utility of relatively high-spatial resolution rainfall products to reproduce observed multi-decadal rainfall characteristics such as climatologies, anomalies and trends over Saudi Arabia. Our study compares the statistical characteristics of rainfall from 53 observatories over the reference period 1965-2005, with rainfall data from six widely used gauge-based products, including APHRODITE, GPCC, PRINCETON, UDEL, CRU and PREC/L. In addition, the performance of three global climate models (GCMs), including CCSM4, EC-EARTH and MRI-I-CGCM3, integrated as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), was also evaluated. Results indicate that the gauge-based products were generally skillful in reproducing rainfall characteristics in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the gauge-based products were also able to capture the annual cycle, anomalies and climatologies of observed data, although significant inter-product variability was observed, depending on the assessment metric being used. In comparison, the GCM-based products generally exhibited poor performance, with larger biases and very weak correlations, particularly during the summertime. Importantly, all products generally failed to reproduce the observed long-term seasonal and annual trends in the region, particularly during the dry seasons (summer and autumn). Overall, this work suggests that selected gauge-based products with daily (APHRODITE and PRINCETON) and monthly (GPCC and CRU) resolutions show superior performance relative to other products, implying that they may be the most appropriate data source from which multi-decadal variations of rainfall can be investigated at the regional scale over Saudi Arabia. Discriminating these skillful products is

  4. Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

    2014-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43‧N; 46° 40‧E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

  5. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

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    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context. Keywords: Adaptability, English Teaching, Intercultural Sensitivity

  6. Breast cancer screening in Saudi Arabia: free but almost no takers.

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    Charbel El Bcheraoui

    Full Text Available Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs.The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health-care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. Female respondents were asked about knowledge and practices of self and clinical breast exams, as well as mammography.Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Among respondents, 1,135 were women aged 50 years or older and were included in this analysis. About 89% of women reported not having a clinical breast exam in the past year, and 92% reported never having a mammogram. Women living in Al Sharqia had the highest rate of mammography use. Women who were educated, those who had received a routine medical exam within the last two years, and those who were diagnosed with hypertension were more likely to have had a mammogram in the past two years.Our results show very low rates of breast cancer screening in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country with free health services. This calls for educational campaigns to improve breast cancer screening. Addressing the barriers for breast cancer screening is a public health imperative.

  7. Sedentarismo e variáveis clínico-metabólicas associadas à obesidade em adolescentes Inactivity and clinical and metabolic variables associated with adolescent obesity

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    Priscila Trapp Abbes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação da obesidade com variáveis metabólicas, variáveis clínicas e sedentarismo, em adolescentes pós-púberes de escolas públicas de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle com 128 adolescentes obesos (índice de massa corporal > percentil 95 e 151 adolescentes eutróficos (índice de massa corporal entre percentis 5 e 85. Foram realizados exame físico, avaliação bioquímica e de composição corporal. Foi aplicado questionário previamente testado, que gerou um escore de sedentarismo. Na análise estatística, foi realizada a análise de variância com testes de comparações múltiplas de Bonferroni e qui-quadrado (Pearson. O modelo logístico múltiplo foi utilizado para verificar as associações entre variáveis clínicas, variáveis metabólicas, escore de sedentarismo e estado nutricional. RESULTADOS Por meio da análise de variância, foi identificado um gradiente nos valores médios das variáveis metabólicas e clínicas com piora dessas variáveis em paralelo ao aumento do grau de sedentarismo, o que foi confirmado pelo teste qui-quadrado. Na análise bivariada de riscos para obesidade, os adolescentes obesos apresentaram maiores frequências de sedentarismo, de alterações nos níveis de lipoproteína de alta densidade e triglicérides, de hiperinsulinemia e homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistence alterado, e de pressão arterial alterada (pOBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of obesity with metabolic and clinical variables and inactivity in post-pubertal adolescents attending public schools in São Paulo City. METHODS: This was a case-control study with 128 obese adolescents (body mass indices >the 95th percentile, and 151 normal weight adolescents (body mass indices between the 5th and 85th percentiles. Physical examination and biochemical and body composition assessments were done. A pretested questionnaire was administered, generating an inactivity score. Analysis

  8. Critical Variables affecting clinical-grade production of the self-inactivating gamma-retroviral vector for the treatment of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loo, JCM; Swaney, WP; Grassman, E; Terwilliger, A; Higashimoto, T; Schambach, A; Hacein-Bey-Abina, S; Nordling, DL; Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Thrasher, AJ; Williams, DA; Reeves, L; Malik, P

    2014-01-01

    Patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) were successfully cured following gene therapy with a gamma-retroviral vector (gRV) expressing the common gamma chain of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL2RG). However, 5 of 20 patients developed leukemia from activation of cellular proto-oncogenes by viral enhancers in the long-terminal repeats (LTR) of the integrated vector. These events prompted the design of a gRV vector with self-inactivating (SIN) LTRs to enhance vector safety. Herein we report on the production of a clinical-grade SIN IL2RG gRV pseudotyped with the Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus envelope for a new gene therapy trial for SCID-X1, and highlight variables that were found to be critical for transfection-based large-scale SIN gRV production. Successful clinical production required careful selection of culture medium without pre-added glutamine, reduced exposure of packaging cells to cell-dissociation enzyme, and presence of cations in wash buffer. The clinical vector was high titer; transduced 68–70% normal human CD34 + cells, as determined by colony-forming unit assays and by xenotransplantation in immunodeficient NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J (nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID)) and NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NOD/SCID gamma (NSG))) mice; and resulted in the production of T cells in vitro from human SCID-X1 CD34 + cells. The vector was certified and released for the treatment of SCID-X1 in a multi-center international phase I/II trial. PMID:22551777

  9. Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition

  10. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.

  11. From Symptoms to Diagnosis: An Observational Study of the Journey of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Saudi Arabia

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    Waleed Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is often not diagnosed or treated quickly enough to alter outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the lag times from disease onset to first clinical consultation and diagnosis and to identify factors contributing to delayed diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This retrospective, multicenter study collected data on 250 patients, from six hospitals in Saudi Arabia, who met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA. Results: The patients mean age was 43.3±12.0 years (mean disease duration: 6.6±5.8 years. The majority were female (84.8% and presented with joint pain during RA onset (83.6%. On average, they consulted 4.3±2.5 physicians from the first symptoms to the final diagnosis. The mean time from onset to first physician visit (lag 1 was 6.2±5.5 months, whereas the mean time was 30.2±16.0 months between the initial visit and final RA diagnosis (lag 2. Only 3.2% of patients initially sought consultation from a rheumatologist, while 67.2%, 23.6%, and 6.0% first met with orthopedic surgeons, general practitioners, and non-rheumatologists, respectively. Non-rheumatologists offered diagnoses in 24.4% of cases while rheumatologists diagnosed 75.6%. The absence of early hand/wrist involvement and fatigue were associated with delayed RA diagnosis (long lag 2; p<0.010. Moreover, geographic distribution influenced RA diagnosis, with rural patients experiencing a greater delay than urban patients (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Failure of patients to be seen by rheumatologists at RA onset delayed diagnosis and treatment. Thus, RA diagnosis can be accelerated by encouraging early referral to rheumatologists.

  12. From Symptoms to Diagnosis: An Observational Study of the Journey of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Waleed; Noorwali, Abdulsalam; Janoudi, Nahid; Baamer, Maatouqa; Kebbi, Lina; Mansafi, Hanady; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Gohary, Shereen; Minguet, Joan; Almoallim, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often not diagnosed or treated quickly enough to alter outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the lag times from disease onset to first clinical consultation and diagnosis and to identify factors contributing to delayed diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. Methods This retrospective, multicenter study collected data on 250 patients, from six hospitals in Saudi Arabia, who met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA. Results The patients mean age was 43.3±12.0 years (mean disease duration: 6.6±5.8 years). The majority were female (84.8%) and presented with joint pain during RA onset (83.6%). On average, they consulted 4.3±2.5 physicians from the first symptoms to the final diagnosis. The mean time from onset to first physician visit (lag 1) was 6.2±5.5 months, whereas the mean time was 30.2±16.0 months between the initial visit and final RA diagnosis (lag 2). Only 3.2% of patients initially sought consultation from a rheumatologist, while 67.2%, 23.6%, and 6.0% first met with orthopedic surgeons, general practitioners, and non-rheumatologists, respectively. Non-rheumatologists offered diagnoses in 24.4% of cases while rheumatologists diagnosed 75.6%. The absence of early hand/wrist involvement and fatigue were associated with delayed RA diagnosis (long lag 2; p<0.010). Moreover, geographic distribution influenced RA diagnosis, with rural patients experiencing a greater delay than urban patients (p<0.0001). Conclusions Failure of patients to be seen by rheumatologists at RA onset delayed diagnosis and treatment. Thus, RA diagnosis can be accelerated by encouraging early referral to rheumatologists. PMID:26816566

  13. Deficiencies under plenty of sun: Vitamin D status among adults in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

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    Marwa Tuffaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  14. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  15. Emergence of new virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M; Al-Hammadi, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013. These strains clustered into two genetically distinct genogroups related to year of isolation (G2 and G3). All new Saudi Arabia viruses clustered with the European strains, while the old strains clustered with strains from China and America. Based on amino acids and nucleotide sequences, the Saudi Arabia strains (RHD/1/SA/2012, RHD/2/SA/2012, and RHD/3/SA /2013) had high identity with Mexico89, Ca11-ITA, and 00-13,FRA virus; on the other hand, there was a relatively high identity with Bahrain strain. The evolutionary relationship of Saudi RHDVs strains revealed significant nucleotides and amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region E, suggesting the emergence of new RHDVs circulating in Saudi Arabia rabbitries. These antigenic changes represented by the antigenic index might be a potential cause of vaccination failure and raises the need to review the vaccination strategies against RHD.

  16. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  17. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  18. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  19. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  20. A review of some statistics on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jassir, Mohammed; Moizuddin, Syed Khaja; Al-Bashir, Bushra

    2003-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. Saudi Arabia is a country where the legislation is derived from the Quran and Hadiths. The Holy Quran says that the mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two complete years.... The majority of mothers start breastfeeding their infants but soon introduce bottles. The single most common reason cited for the early introduction of bottle feeding is that the breast milk is insufficient. Because of this tendency, many mothers practice mixed feeding. The duration of breastfeeding varies but in general it is done beyond six months, and various factors affect the duration. Researchers have recently started using the WHO recommended key breastfeeding indicators. In a study these key indicators were found to be very low. The authors feel that there is a need to revise the media campaign for promoting breastfeeding utilizing the instructions and guidance from the Holy Quran and Hadiths.

  1. Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed A. Mahfouz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users. In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females (aOR = 3.081, 95% CI: 2.004–4.739. Similarly, parental history of tobacco use was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR = 1.540, 95% CI: 1.040–2.278. Among current users, 89.9% were interested in quitting and 66.1% tried before to quit. The prevalence of smoking among HCWs in the present study, besides being a public health problem, represents a potential barrier in involving this group as a first line for tobacco control. There is a need for a national intervention programme in the country in a tailored manner for HCWs to control tobacco use parallel to the running national program for public. These interventions should begin early in basic medical education and to be applied continually during one’s medical career.

  2. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  3. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

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    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  4. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  5. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  6. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

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    Adel M. Alhababy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.

  8. Causes of Contractors’ Failure in Industrial Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at identifying and assessing the main causes of contractors’ failure in industrial projects in Saudi Arabia. 24 causes were identified from the literature for assessment by owners, contractors and subcontractors. These causes were classified under five categories, namely managerial causes, financial causes, growth causes, environmental causes and uncontrollable causes. A survey of 36 participants was conducted. Data was collected from 15 owners, 11 contractors and 10 subcontractors. The results indicated that lack of experience in the business field, war, poor project management, poor cost estimation, unavailability of stationed project leader at site, neglect and type of the contract are the most severe causes behind contractor’s failure in construction projects. The rank correlation coefficient indicated that there is a high level of agreement among owners, contractors and subcontractors on the severity of the different failure causes. The research provides a severity of the ranking of the different causes of failure so that mitigation measures could be developed to avoid them or lessen their effects.

  9. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

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    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives of the current work were to 1 determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of male college students in KSA and 2 determine the relationship between the students' body weight status and composition and their eating habits. Methods A total of 357 male students aged 18-24 years were randomly chosen from College of Health Sciences at Rass, Qassim University, KSA for the present study. A Self-reported questionnaire about the students' eating habits was conducted, and their body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (BF%, and visceral fat level (VFL were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, and the Chi-square test was conducted for variables. Results The current data indicated that 21.8% of the students were overweight and 15.7% were obese. The total body fat exceeded its normal limits in 55.2% of the participants and VFL was high in 21.8% of them. The most common eating habits encountered were eating with family, having two meals per day including breakfast, together with frequent snacks and fried food consumption. Vegetables and fruits, except dates, were not frequently consumed by most students. Statistically, significant direct correlations were found among BMI, BF% and VFL (P Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for strategies and coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight, obesity and elevated body fat, and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.

  10. Customer Satisfaction and Brand Switching Intention: A Study of Mobile Services in Saudi Arabia

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    Mahmoud ABDEL HAMID SALEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate first, the relationship between the customer satisfaction and brand switching intention into the Saudi Arabian mobile-service market, and second, the association of service quality, customer service, service pricing, and value-added services with the customer satisfaction. Because of the difficulty of having a frame for the mobile-service customers from their providers, a convenience sample of 350 online respondents with the proper surveying techniques was used in data analysis and testing of the research hypotheses. The findings of the study confirm a significant negative relationship between customer satisfaction and brand switching intention. A 4% percent of the change in brand switching intention could be explained by the change in the customer satisfaction. Only three variables; customer service, service pricing, and service quality are critical determinants for mobile-service customer satisfaction. Customer service explained about 22%, whereas service pricing and service quality explained about 5% and 1% of the change in customer satisfaction respectively. The practical value of this study could be enabling the mobile-service providers in Saudi Arabia to well understand the determinants of the customer satisfaction and its negative relationship with brand switching intention. They may take these findings into account when setting marketing strategies to differentiate their brands to satisfy the customer needs and wants, to retain the existing customers and to attract new customers. These strategies have a positive effect on the company’s customer satisfaction that deter brand switching intention, hence increase the company’s competitiveness, market share and profitability.

  11. Mini Nutritional Assessment for Hospitalized Patients in King Khalid Hospital at Hail city in Saudi Arabia

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    Rafia Bano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA has been developed to assess malnutrition in elderly  and to filter those who might get benefited from early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of the present study was to examine the nutritional profile of old age hospitalized individuals through the use of the MNA in King Khalid Hospital at Hail city of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Demographic data was gathered through a questionnaire and a modified version of MNA, which was translated into Arabic and applied to 100 elderly females aged ≥ 45 years to assess their nutritional status . The MNA version modified by  Nestle and translated into Arabic was used to evaluate the patients for this study. The descriptive analysis of variables is shown as the average ± one standard deviation. Results: Mean age of the participants was 61.12±12.4 years ranging from 45 to 92 years. The mean body mass index of total population was found to be 26.9±5.2 ranging from 18.3 to 46.5 kg/m2. The assessment scores and total malnutrition score was found to be decreasing with increasing age, showing a significant inverse correlation (P<0.01. Furthermore, the difference in the screening scores according to the age was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Because of the high prevalence of elderly patients that were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, a more detailed evaluation of nutritional status, along with a regular follow up and dietary intervention to reverse the situation, of these patients is recommended.

  12. An overview of wetlands of Saudi Arabia: Values, threats, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaid, Sami; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Thomas, Jacob; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Schneider, Wolfgang; O'Connell, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The wetlands of Saudi Arabia are located in a water-stressed region that is highly vulnerable to climate and other global changes. Sebkhas, mudflats, mangroves, and wadis are the dominant wetlands in the arid regions of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. These unique wetlands are recognized as a sanctuary for biodiversity and for their economic services generated from mineral extraction, agriculture, and grazing. Despite their ecological values and societal services, the long-term permanence of Saudi Arabia's wetlands faces strong challenges resulting from human activities associated with sustained population growth, habitat degradation, and coastal development. This paper consolidates a literature review of Saudi Arabia's wetlands from local to global importance, highlights their biodiversity, and identifies threats and evolution of these vulnerable ecosystems in the arid Arabian Peninsula by focusing on the status of key freshwater taxa (Odonata, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and waterbirds) and documenting changes affecting important wetlands.

  13. Adoption of Mobile Banking in Saudi Arabia : An Emprical Evaluation Study

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    Ayman N. Alkhaldi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the adoption of mobile banking practices in Saudi Arabia. It focuses on the existence of sufficient infrastructure, and the possible challenges that m-banking services may face. Also, discovers the potential opportunities in the country. A sample of banks in Saudi Arabia was surveyed via questionnaire, with a particular focus on the staff in the related IT departments. The findings demonstrate that although m-banking is believed to be important, there is a general lack of awareness, and it is still not widely accepted by the public. M-banking services provided should be easier to use and offer more security to its users. Furthermore, findings reveal that cooperation among the concerned parties is currently not extensive. From this, the researcher recommends that governing regulations and policies should be properly identified and put in place, and proposes that banking decision-makers in Saudi Arabia should reevaluate their bank’s strategic plans.

  14. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  15. Species on the rocks: Systematics and biogeography of the rock-dwelling Ptyodactylus geckos (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) in North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Červenka, Jan; Crochet, Pierre-André; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Wilms, Thomas; Geniez, Philippe; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Brito, José C; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the diversity of species in the Palearctic and the processes that have generated it is still weak for large parts of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia. Reptiles are among their most remarkable representatives, with numerous groups well adapted to the diverse environments. The Ptyodactylus geckos are a strictly rock-dwelling genus with homogeneous morphology distributed across mountain formations and rocky plateaus from the western African ranges in Mauritania and the Maghreb to the eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, with an isolated species in southern Pakistan. Here, we use a broad sampling of 378 specimens, two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (c-mos, MC1R, ACM4, RAG2) markers in order to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus and place its diversification in a temporal framework. The results reveal high levels of intraspecific variability, indicative of undescribed diversity, and they do not support the monophyly of one species (P. ragazzii). Ptyodactylus species are allopatric across most of their range, which may relate to their high preference for the same type of structural habitat. The onset of their diversification is estimated to have occurred in the Late Oligocene, while that of several deep clades in the phylogeny took place during the Late Miocene, a period when an increase in aridification in North Africa and Arabia initiated.

  16. A retrospective observational study of functional outcomes, length of stay, and discharge disposition after an inpatient stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Mawajdeh, Hussam; Vennu, Vishal; Alhaidary, Hisham

    2016-08-01

    Functional outcomes, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition have become frequent outcome measures among stroke patients after rehabilitation programs. To examine the trends of changes in functional outcomes, LOS, and discharge disposition in stroke patients discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation facility.All patients (n = 432) were admitted to a tertiary inpatient rehabilitation hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with stroke diagnoses from November 2008 to December 2014. The functional independence measure (FIM) instrument used to assess the patient's functional status. The LOS was measured as the number of days the patients spent in the hospital from the day of admission to the day of discharge. The FIM efficiency was used to measure the patient's rehabilitation progress. All of the variables of the prospectively collected data were retrospectively analyzed.There were significant changes by years in the total FIM ranging from 23 to 29 (P stroke rehabilitation program between 2008 and 2014 even with a constant LOS. Discharge disposition has remained unstable over this period. To improve the efficiency of the stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia, there is a need to decrease the LOS and emphasize a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach.

  17. Seasonal changes in group size and composition of Arabian sand gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica Thomas, 1897 during a period of drought in central western Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Low CUNNINGHAM; Torsten WRONSKI

    2011-01-01

    Group size variations of the Arabian sand gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica were studied during a period of drought at the Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area in central western Saudi Arabia. Significant differences in median group sizes were observed between all seasons except summer. Single animals were observed mainly during summer while group sizes exceeding 10 individuals were observed mainly during winter. Solitary male and female groups were typically observed during winter and mixed groups mainly during the autumn rutting period. Most mixed groups were two to four times larger during winter than summer. The adult sex ratio (male: female) for all seasons combined was in parity and highest during autumn (1:1.23),probably as a result of prolonged drought conditions. The variability in group structure related to environmental conditions may be one factor permitting G s. Marica to adapt to hyper-arid habitats and climatic regimes in central western Saudi Arabia. The value of continuous monitoring of the gazelle population is emphasised for this drought prone region.

  18. Heart rate variability is a trait marker of major depressive disorder: evidence from the sertraline vs. electric current therapy to treat depression clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Kemp, Andrew H; Dantas, Eduardo M; Goulart, Alessandra C; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Boggio, Paulo S; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fregni, Felipe; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2013-10-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a cardiovascular predictor of mortality. Recent debate has focused on whether reductions in HRV in major depressive disorder (MDD) are a consequence of the disorder or a consequence of pharmacotherapy. Here we report on the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-pharmacological intervention, vs. sertraline to further investigate this issue. The employed design was a double-blind, randomized, factorial, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred and eighteen moderate-to-severe, medication-free, low-cardiovascular risk depressed patients were recruited for this study and allocated to either active/sham tDCS (10 consecutive sessions plus two extra sessions every other week) or placebo/sertraline (50 mg/d) for 6 wk. Patients were age and gender-matched to healthy controls from a concurrent cohort study [the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)]. The impact of disorder, treatment and clinical response on HRV (root mean square of successive differences and high frequency) was examined. Our findings confirmed that patients displayed decreased HRV relative to controls. Furthermore, HRV scores did not change following treatment with either a non-pharmacological (tDCS) or pharmacological (sertraline) intervention, nor did HRV increase with clinical response to treatment. Based on these findings, we discuss whether reduced HRV is a trait-marker for MDD, which may predispose patients to a host of conditions and disease even after response to treatment. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of depression pathophysiology and the relationship between MDD, cardiovascular disorders and mortality.

  19. Parasuicide and drug self-poisoning: analysis of the epidemiological and clinical variables of the patients admitted to the Poisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfré Sergio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological knowledge of parasuicides and drug self-poisoning is still limited by a lack of data. A number of preliminary studies, which require further analysis, evidenced that parasuicidal acts occur more often among females, that the peak rate is generally recorded between the ages of 15 and 34 years and psychotropic medications seems to be the most frequently used. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical variables of a sample of subjects admitted to the Posisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, following drug self-poisoning. Furthermore, this study is aimed to identify the risk factors associated to parasuicidal gestures, with special care for the used drugs, the presence of psychiatric or organic disorders, alcoholism and drug addiction. The study included the 201 patients attending the CAV in 1999 and 2000 who satisfied the criteria of self-poisoning attempts: 106 cases in 1999 and 95 in 2000. The sample had a prevalence of females (64%. The peak rates of parasuicides from drug self-poisoning were reached between 21 and 30 years among the females, and 31 and 40 years among the males. 81.6% of the patients used one or more psychoactive drugs, the most frequent being the benzodiazepines (58.7%, classic neuroleptics (16.9% and new-generation antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs, NARIs (12.9%. The prevalence of mood disorders was higher among females (64% vs 42%, whereas schizophrenia was more frequently diagnosed in males (22% vs 10%. 61% (33% had a history of previous attempted suicides. The presence of clinically relevant organic diseases was observed in 24.9% of the sample.

  20. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-11-27

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Pover-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

  2. Seismic hazard assessment of Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia: deterministic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Faisal; El-Hady, Sherif M.; Atef, Ali H.; Harbi, Hussein M.

    2016-10-01

    Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by utilizing deterministic approach to evaluate the maximum expected earthquake ground motions along the Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia. The analysis is accomplished by incorporating seismotectonic source model, determination of earthquake magnitude ( M max), set of appropriate ground motion predictive equations (GMPE), and logic tree sequence. The logic tree sequence is built up to assign weight to ground motion scaling relationships. Contour maps of ground acceleration are generated at different spectral periods. These maps show that the largest ground motion values are emerged in northern and southern regions of the western coastal province in Saudi Arabia in comparison with the central region.

  3. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-10-10

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. 

  4. An Investigation of Technical and Scale Efficiency of Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

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    Nasser Saad Al Kahtani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education sector in Saudi Arabia had a phenomenal growth over the last decade. This study sets out to empirically examine the technical and scale efficiency of government universities in Saudi Arabia. In general, the technical efficiency of Saudi public universities appears to be high. However, majority of public universities relative performance is a dismal when the scale efficiency is taken into consideration. Only two universities out of the total sample of twenty are on the frontier in comparison to five universities based on the VRS efficiency.

  5. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

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    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  6. Prevalence of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Yousef Homood Aldebasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 5176 children, aged 6 to 13 years (mean - 9.53 ± 1.88 years were evaluated. There were 2573 (49.71% males and 2603 (50.29% females. Distance visual acuity (V/A was tested monocularly using a logMAR chart with and without correction. Cycloplegic refraction was performed in children with reduced vision. To determine the etiology of amblyopia, children were enrolled if there was a difference in V/A of two or more lines between eyes or an absolute reduction in acuity 0.05. The prevalence of amblyopia was statistically significant higher in the older age group (10-13 year compared to younger age group (6 to 9 years (P < 0.05. Unilateral amblyopia (3.24% was more frequent than bilateral amblyopia (0.66%. The most frequent causes of amblyopia were refractive error (94.56%, of which anisometropic amblyopia was present in 77.72%, isoametropic amblyopia in 16.84% and strabismus in 5.44%. Conclusion: The prevalence of amblyopia in Qassim province, KSA, is 3.9% which is similar or higher than other published studies on amblyopia. Anisometropic refractive errors are the most common underlying cause for this population. We recommend implementation of visual screening programs for children with appropriate clinical and social settings for early detection and proper management of amblyopia.

  7. Origin and development of forensic medicine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madani, Osama Mohamed; Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Al Moghannam, Salah Ali; Moulana, Ashraf Abdul Raheem

    2012-06-01

    The medicolegal death investigation system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unique in the world. It is exclusively derived from Islamic judiciary based on Shari'ah law, which is the definitive Islamic law or doctrine. This law is applied on Saudi citizens as well as foreigners. This is different from other Islamic countries, which have a combination of Islamic and other judiciary systems.The forensic medicine centers in KSA are related administratively to the Ministry of Health (MOH) and its subdivisions in the different governorates. They are concerned with forensic medical examination and autopsy, as well as the clinical forensic medical examination of sexual assault cases, and those injured in civil and criminal cases. The assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology, forensic chemistry) are working independently under the funding of MOH, whereas the DNA laboratory and other departments of forensic sciences, for example, counterfeiting and forgery unit are related administratively to the Ministry of Interior represented by the Administration of Criminal Evidences. Efforts concerning crime scene investigations are shared with Administration of Criminal Evidences' crime scene investigators.Forensic medicine education in KSA developed in the past few years after the foundation of Saudi specialty certificate in forensic medicine. The certificate is a postgraduation qualification equivalent to a doctorate degree in forensic medicine and requires completion of a 4-year training program in both MOH- and Ministry of Interior-related departments, as well as passing annual evaluation and examination.This review is aimed at providing in the next decade the medicolegal centers with national forensic specialists throughout the kingdom and granting skillful headships for the next generations. Moreover, this review suggests more scientific associations with the academic universities in the various fields of forensic sciences through academic

  8. Effect of Adalimumab on Work Ability Assessed in Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Patients in Saudi Arabia (AWARDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Waleed; Janoudi, Nahid; Noorwali, Abdulsalam; Omran, Narges; Baamer, Matouqa; Assiry, El Hussain; Alrayes, Hanan; Alosaimi, Hanan; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Gohary, Shereen; Mignuet, Joan; Almoallim, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disabling disease that can jeopardize the ability of affected individuals to participate in paid work. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-month course of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist (adalimumab) on work ability, overall health, and fatigue in RA patients. Methods : Between October 2012 and February 2014, this prospective, observational study enrolled 63 consecutive patients with established adult RA at outpatient clinics in Makkah, Jeddah, Riyadh and Abha (Saudi Arabia). Patients received subcutaneous injections of adalimumab (40 mg every 2 weeks). Outcomes were measured at baseline and 6 months using the following tools: Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Visual Analog Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), and work disability self-assessment. Results : All outcomes showed improvements after 6 months of adalimumab therapy. Significant improvements from baseline were observed in absenteeism (64% ± 11.62 to 11.60% ± 11.17 [p<0.0001]), presenteeism (62.15% ± 20.11 to 34.92% ± 20.61 [p<0.0001]), overall work impairment (69.08% ± 18.86 to 40.73% ± 22.29 [p<0.0001]), overall activity impairment (68.46% ± 18.58 to 36.46% ± 20.79 [p<0.0001]), HAQ score (1.69 ± 0.57 to 0.81 ± 0.61 [p<0.0001]), and FSS score (47.08 ± 9.55 to 27.86 ± 13.43 [p<0.0001]). Conclusion : A 6-month course of adalimumab improved work ability, fatigue, and overall health assessments in patients with established RA. Our findings encourage randomized controlled trials investigating the cost-effectiveness and long-term effects of TNF inhibitors on work disability. PMID:26312105

  9. Using a latent variable approach to inform gender and racial/ethnic differences in cocaine dependence: a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G; Tai, Betty; Stitzer, Maxine L; Woody, George E

    2010-06-01

    This study applies a latent variable approach to examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in cocaine dependence, to determine the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or item-response bias to diagnostic questions of cocaine dependence, and to explore the effects of DIF on the predictor analysis of cocaine dependence. The analysis sample included 682 cocaine users enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Participants were recruited from 14 community-based substance abuse treatment programs associated with the CTN, including 6 methadone and 8 outpatient nonmethadone programs. Factor and multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) procedures evaluated the latent continuum of cocaine dependence and its correlates. MIMIC analysis showed that men exhibited lower odds of cocaine dependence than women (regression coefficient, beta = -0.34), controlling for the effects of DIF, years of cocaine use, addiction treatment history, comorbid drug dependence diagnoses, and treatment setting. There were no racial/ethnic differences in cocaine dependence; however, DIF by race/ethnicity was noted. Within the context of multiple community-based addiction treatment settings, women were more likely than men to exhibit cocaine dependence. Addiction treatment research needs to further evaluate gender-related differences in drug dependence in treatment entry and to investigate how these differences may affect study participation, retention, and treatment response to better serve this population.

  10. Sino-European Transcontinental Basic and Clinical High-Tech Acupuncture Studies—Part 2: Acute Stimulation Effects on Heart Rate and Its Variability in Patients with Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This second part of a series of Sino-European high-tech acupuncture studies describes the first clinical transcontinental teleacupuncture measurements in patients with insomnia. Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV measurements in 28 patients (mean age ± SD: 41.9 ± 14.6 years were performed under standardized conditions in Harbin, China, and the data analysis was performed in Graz, Austria. Similar to the first part of the series, the electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded by an HRV Medilog AR12 system during acupuncture of the Shenmen point (HT7 on the left hand. HR decreased significantly (P<0.001 during and after acupuncture stimulation of the HT7 acupuncture point. Total HRV increased significantly (P<0.05 immediately after acupuncture stimulation, but there was no long-lasting effect. The values of the low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF band increased significantly after the stimulation compared to baseline values; however, the LF/HF ratio showed no significant changes. Together with the results of previous studies, the present results can serve as a solid basis for further development of acupressure or acupuncture stimulation equipment for complementary use in treating insomnia.

  11. Behaviour of Clinical, Anthropometric and Laboratory Variables in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Comportamiento de variables clínicas, antropométricas y de laboratorio en pacientes con síndrome metabólico

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    Idania Peña Pérez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing patients with metabolic syndrome is important because of the high prevalence and risk they present. Objective: to determine the behaviour of some clinical, anthropometric and laboratory variables in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. The sample included 161 patients selected at random in different research stages from a universe including all the patients who attended six different consultations in Urbano Noris municipality, Holguín, from September 2008 to June 2009. Diagnosis was performed according to the ATP-III. Variance analysis and Fisher's exact test in SPSS (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 103: 63.97% presented values over average weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and glucose. Their HDL levels were lower. A significant association between metabolic syndrome and CRP, microalbuminuria, alterations in blood sugar levels and hypertension was proved. Conclusions: The importance of characterizing the metabolic syndrome for future interventions was determined.Fundamento: la detección de pacientes con síndrome metabólico es importante debido a la elevada prevalencia y riesgo que presentan. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de algunas variables clínicas, antropométricas y de laboratorio en pacientes con síndrome metabólico. Métodos: estudio descriptivo que incluyó 161 pacientes seleccionados por un muestreo polietápico aleatorio por conglomerados, de un universo comprendido por los pacientes atendidos desde septiembre del 2008 hasta junio del 2009 en seis consultorios de los municipios Urbano Noris y Holguín. El diagnóstico del síndrome se realizó de acuerdo al ATP-III. Se aplicó el análisis de varianza y

  12. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

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    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms

  13. Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Qassem

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

  14. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p<0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  15. Lifestyle of health sciences students at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

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    Fahad Alfhaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background We all want to live a long, happy and healthy life with an abundance of energy and vitality to perform well both mentally and physically. A healthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, enabling you better to cope with life stressors, as well as improving your quality of life. Aims The study was aimed to assess the lifestyle (eating habits and physical activity of health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. Methods This cross-sectional institutional based study was conducted from 25th November 2014-3 rd May 2015. A total of 450 students (370 males and 80 females aged between 18–28 years were randomly chosen. Self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection from the College of Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences and College of Dentistry. Results Majority of the students, 62.4 per cent, were physically inactive. Students from the College of Medicine, 40.4 per cent, were the most physically active. The most common reason that restrained the students from being active was time limitation. In addition to that, many of the participants, 29.6 per cent, have never had breakfast at home. Also, most of the participants, 42.7 per cent, were not satisfied with their eating habits. Almost one quarter of students were consuming soft drinks more than four times a day. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. There is an urgent need for arranging health education programs for promoting healthy and active living among health sciences students of Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia.

  16. A need for managed care in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, M H

    2000-04-01

    Is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia getting value for money invested in health? Quality care is being provided throughout health facilities in the Kingdom, however there is minimal control of utilization in all health sectors, consequently leading to abuse and over utilization, particularly in the public sector. Managed care programs have proven effective in reducing unnecessary inpatient and ancillary service utilization by reducing use of expensive procedures and unnecessary, highly specialized services, and shifting to less expensive care options. Health maintenance organizations are the best example of a managed health care model; tracking good performance and cost savings averaging between 20-40% compared to more traditional health plans. Key features of health maintenance organizations include serving a defined population voluntarily enrolled in the health plan; assumption of contractual responsibility and financial risk by plan to provide a range of services, and payment of a fixed periodic payment by the enrollee, independent of the actual use of services. The key characteristic that distinguishes health maintenance organizations from other delivery systems is prepayment for the care that is provided. Preferred Provider Organizations offer discounts for services received from a selected set of physicians and hospitals. Services received by enrollees are not fully reimbursed from this selected list of providers. Preferred Provider Organizations use health maintenance organizations administrative processes for controlling costs but do not include some of the intrinsic cost and quality controls of health maintenance organizations. Review of several studies indicate that patients enrolled in prepaid group practices (managed care organizations) were hospitalized 15-40% less often than those enrolled in fee-for-service health plans.

  17. Antiproliferative Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Withania Somnifera Leaves from Faifa Mountains, Southwest Saudi Arabia, against Several Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaifi, Mohammad Yahya; Saleh, Kamel Ahmed; El-Boushnak, Mohammed Atallah; Elbehairi, Serag Eldin I; Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Shati, Ali Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represent one of the most serious health problems and major causes of death around the world. Many anticancer drugs in clinical use today are natural products or derived from natural sources. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a small shrub widely distributed in many parts of the world including Saudi Arabia. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract of W. somnifera leaves collected from Faifa mountains, southwest Saudi Arabia against MCF-7, HCT116 and HepH2 cell lines were investigated. The extract showed a strong antiproliferative activity against all cell lines with IC50 values of 3.35, 2.19 and 1.89 μg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry results showed that the extract arrested the cell cycle at S phase, and the increase in the caspase 3 activity suggested that the extract could induce cell apoptosis by a caspase mediated pathway. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of W. somnifera leaves collected from Faifa mountains has comparable strong antiproliferative activities to samples collected from different locations.

  18. Case characteristics among Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak and non-outbreak cases in Saudi Arabia from 2012 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, F S; Majumder, M S; Brownstein, J S; Hawkins, J; Al-Abdely, H M; Alzahrani, A; Obaid, D A; Al-Ahdal, M N; BinSaeed, A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives As of 1 November 2015, the Saudi Ministry of Health had reported 1273 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS); among these cases, which included 9 outbreaks at several hospitals, 717 (56%) patients recovered, 14 (1%) remain hospitalised and 543 (43%) died. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological, demographic and clinical characteristics that distinguished cases of MERS contracted during outbreaks from those contracted sporadically (ie, non-outbreak) between 2012 and 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Design Data from the Saudi Ministry of Health of confirmed outbreak and non-outbreak cases of MERS coronavirus (CoV) infections from September 2012 through October 2015 were abstracted and analysed. Univariate and descriptive statistical analyses were conducted, and the time between disease onset and confirmation, onset and notification and onset and death were examined. Results A total of 1250 patients (aged 0–109 years; mean, 50.825 years) were reported infected with MERS-CoV. Approximately two-thirds of all MERS cases were diagnosed in men for outbreak and non-outbreak cases. Healthcare workers comprised 22% of all MERS cases for outbreak and non-outbreak cases. Nosocomial infections comprised one-third of all Saudi MERS cases; however, nosocomial infections occurred more frequently in outbreak than non-outbreak cases (pnosocomial infections have fuelled MERS outbreaks. Given that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a worldwide religious travel destination, localised outbreaks may have massive global implications and effective outbreak preventive measures are needed. PMID:28082362

  19. Modelling the association of dengue fever cases with temperature and relative humidity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia-A generalised linear model with break-point analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldy, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of environmental factors in the temporal distribution of dengue fever in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic factors such as relative humidity and temperature was investigated during 2006-2009 to determine whether there is any relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic parameters in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. A generalised linear model (GLM) with a break-point was used to determine how different levels of temperature and relative humidity affected the distribution of the number of cases of dengue fever. Break-point analysis was performed to modelled the effect before and after a break-point (change point) in the explanatory parameters under various scenarios. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and cross validation (CV) were used to assess the performance of the models. The results showed that maximum temperature and mean relative humidity are most probably the better predictors of the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. In this study three scenarios were modelled: no time lag, 1-week lag and 2-weeks lag. Among these scenarios, the 1-week lag model using mean relative humidity as an explanatory variable showed better performance. This study showed a clear relationship between the meteorological variables and the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. The results also demonstrated that meteorological variables can be successfully used to estimate the number of dengue fever cases for a given period of time. Break-point analysis provides further insight into the association between meteorological parameters and dengue fever cases by dividing the meteorological parameters into certain break-points.

  20. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S

    2016-09-01

    Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.

  1. Students' Struggle with First-Year University Mathematics Courses in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…

  2. Education Context and English Teaching and Learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…

  3. Salient Key Features of Actual English Instructional Practices in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the salient key features of the actual English instructional practices in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this work is to gain insights into the practices and pedagogic approaches to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching currently employed in this country. In particular, we identify the following central features…

  4. Climatology of the 500-hPa mediterranean storms associated with Saudi Arabia wet season precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).

  5. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  6. Prevalence of the Emotional (Emo) Subculture among University Students in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…

  7. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  8. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  9. Hanadirella: A new problematic arthropod(?) from the Lower Ordovician (Llanvirn) Tabuk Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The new genus Hanadirella - with the type species H. bramkampi - from the Lower Ordovician (Llanvirn) of central Saudi Arabia represents a segmented organism which appears to have an arthropod affinity. The problematic genus is oval hat-shaped, less than 1 mm in diameter. Its affinity and palaeoecol

  10. 75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub....

  11. Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

  12. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  13. Teacher Evaluation as a Tool for Professional Development: A Case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Badia Muntazir

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the use of teacher evaluation and appraisal process as a tool for professional development. A group of 30 teachers from seven different nationalities with diverse qualifications and teaching experiences participated in this case study at the English Language Institute (ELI) at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia.…

  14. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  15. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  16. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  17. Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi…

  18. Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational background. Three hundred…

  19. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  20. The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

  1. Qasimia gen. nov., an early Marattia-like fern from the Permian of Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, C.R.; Wagner, R.H.; El-Khayal, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The marattialean fern Qasimia schyfsmae (Lemoigne) gen. et comb. nov. is described from the Late Permian plant bed at Unayzah in central Saudi Arabia. Although no organic matter is preserved, impregnation of the compressions by iron minerals at an early stage of diagenesis has partly mineralised the

  2. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... tubular goods from India and Turkey and LTFV imports of certain oil country tubular goods from India... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  3. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategies. Nevertheless, water resources in Saudi Arabia are under stress and groundwater levels are depleted rapidly due to heavy abstraction that may exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases due to high evaporation rates. The excess use of irrigational water leads to severe soil salinity problems. Applications of remote sensing technique in agricultural practices became widely distinctive and cover multidisciplinary principal interests on both local and regional levels. The most important remote sensing applications in agricultural practices are vegetation indices which are related to vegetation and water especially in an arid environment. Soil salinity mapping in an arid ecosystem using remote sensing data is a demanding task. Several soil salinity indices were implemented and evaluated to detect soil salinity effectively and quantitatively. Thematic maps of soil salinity were satisfactorily produced and assessed.

  4. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  5. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  6. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  7. The Impact of Bilingualism on the Creative Capabilities of Kindergarten Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…

  8. Assessment of Respiratory Complications Associated with End Stage Renal Disease in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosayfir Mohammed Abdulrahman S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD is increasing in different parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, particularly Hail Region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the respiratory complications that associated with ESRD.

  9. Biogenic silica microfossils in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation, Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, J.F.L.; Franks, S.G.; Cremer, H.; Abbink, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic silica particles (BSPs) have been discovered in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. The BSPs are extracted from sediments that are generally barren of macro- or microfossils. BSPs have been found in the Basal Khuff Clastics (BKC), and the Unayzah A, B

  10. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashael K. Alshaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  11. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  12. Kumaravadivelu's Framework as a Basis for Improving English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Afnan Masaoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues with EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia, including the reliance on traditional teaching methodologies and banning use of first languages in classrooms. As a result, these traditional teaching practices produce less proficient learners who have limited knowledge about proper linguistic use. In order to overcome these…

  13. Energy expenditure and water flux of Ruppell's foxes in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, J.B.; Lenain, D; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B.I.; Seddon, P

    2002-01-01

    Scattered populations of Ruppell's foxes (Vulpes rueppelli) occur across the deserts of northern Africa and Arabia. Little is known about the biology of these canids, especially the physiological mechanisms that contribute to their ability to live in such harsh environments. For individuals from Sau

  14. The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

  15. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  16. Precambrian crustal structure in Africa and Arabia : Evidence lacking for secular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tugume, Fred; Nyblade, Andrew; Julia, Jordi; Meijde, van der Mark

    2013-01-01

    We review the thickness and shear wave velocity structure of Precambrian crust in Africa and Arabia, where over 90% of the landmass is comprised of Archean and Proterozoic terranes, and examine the data for evidence of secular variation. The data come from many published 1D shear wave velocity profi

  17. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in the... later than February 7, 2011. The U.S. Department of Commerce will review all applications...

  18. Clinical and Patient-Related Variables Associated with Initiating GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Primary Care in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Qiao

    Full Text Available To investigate real-world clinical and patient-related variables associated with initiating GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA treatment relative to initiation of other glucose-lowering therapies in type 2 diabetes (T2D patients of primary care in Germany.Data for 938 T2D patients who started therapy with a GLP-1RA within 823 practices of primary care throughout Germany were retrospectively analyzed (Disease Analyser: 01/2011-03/2014. 5,197 T2D patients who initiated other non-GLP-1RA antidiabetic therapies were selected as controls. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with GLP-1RA initiation in primary care.Mean age (SD of GLP-1RA users was 57.8 (11.8 years (males: 55.5% and the average BMI was 36.1 (6.7 kg/m2. 22.8% were in diabetologist care and 12.0% had private health insurance. In multivariate regression, choice of GLP-1RA therapy instead of a different glucose-lowering drug class was associated with obesity (odds ratio: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.34-2.10, private health insurance (2.42; 1.89-3.09, younger age (0.94; 0.93-0.95 per year, male sex (0.85; 0.73-0.99, diabetologist care (2.11; 1.73-2.57, and geographic practice location (East vs. West-Germany; 1.25; 1.05-1.49. Among co-medication, angiotensin II antagonists (increased and non-steroidal antirheumatic agents (decreased were related to GLP-1RA prescriptions (both p<0.001.Consistent with German guidelines, GLP-1RA is mainly prescribed preferentially in T2D patients who are obese. GLP-1RA drugs were more frequently used than other options in privately health insured patients and in patients seeing a diabetologist.

  19. Effect of dyspnea and clinical variables on the quality of life and functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hale Karapolat; Sibel Eyigor; Alev Atasever; Mehdi Zoghi; Sanem Nalbantgil; Berrin Durmaz

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and congestive heart failure(CHF)are two chronic diseases that affect negatively the functional condition and quality of life of patients.We assessed the effect of symptoms and clinical variables on the functional capacity and quality of life in COPD and CHF patients.Methods The study included 42 COPD and 39 CHF patients.In both patient groups,dyspnea was assessed using Borg scale;functional capacity by shuttle-walk and cardiopulmonary exercise test and quailty of life by short fOrm-36 (SF36).Results No statistically significant difference was found in neither of the two disease groups regarding the dyspnea score,shuttle-walk test and the maiority of subgroup scores of SF36 (P>0.05).A statistically significant difference was obsewed in peak VO2 in favor of COPD group(P<0.05).No significant relationship was established between dyspnea score and forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1)in COPD patients,and left ventricular ejection fraction(L.VEF)in CHF patients (P>0.05).A significant negative correlation was obsewed between dyspnea score and functional capacity tests in both disease groups(P<0.05).On the other hand,no relationship was found between L-VEF and FEV1 and quailty of life and functional capacity (P>0.05),Conclusions It was revealed that symptoms have an impact on functional capacity and quality of life in both disease groups,however,objective indicators of disease severity do not show a similar relationship.Therefore,in addition to the objective data related to the disease,we recommend that symptoms should also be taken into consideration to assess cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program and during following-up.

  20. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  1. Hydrogeology of Al-Lith Sabkha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtan, Abdullah A.; Shehata, William M.

    2003-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, coastal sabkhas cover extensive areas along the coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf in addition to the continental sabkhas scattered in many places inland. Al-Lith sabkha is one of the typical coastal sabkhas located along the Red Sea coast. Sabkhas, in general, pose a number of geotechnical problems and need to be carefully investigated before being urbanized. A generalized geologic section in Al-Lith sabkha indicates a salty crust at the surface followed by yellowish brown silt and silty sand, olive gray silt and sandy silt and bottomed by coralline reefal limestone. Within this succession, there are several isolated lenticular bodies of sandy silt, silty sand and shelly silty sand. The clay minerals constituting the fine-grained portion of the soil are, in decreasing order, kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite in addition to minor chlorite. The depth to groundwater in 17 observation wells ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 m with a maximum fluctuation of 0.60 m between summer and winter. The permeability of the top silt layer was found to be very low with an average of 5.4×10 -4 m/day. A pumping test was performed in a deep well penetrating the coralline limestone. The measured permeability is 1.1×10 2 m/day and the estimated storage coefficient is 4×10 -5. Soil water evaporation was measured using a lysimeter constructed with undisturbed soil samples having different depths to the water level. The rate of evaporation ranges from 2.8 to 27.8 ml/day decreasing with an increase in depth to the water level. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their major anions and cations. Salt concentrations show a general increase toward the sea except for the calcium and carbonates that show a landward increase. The groundwater could be classified as a Cl+SO 4 brine. The salinity of the groundwater was determined at different depths in the pumping well and was found to be low in the top 4 m. It sharply increases until it reaches a value approximately 10 times

  2. Estimation of dust thickness in Arabia Terra region on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, C.; Mangold, N.; Masson, P.; Ansan, V.

    2003-04-01

    The almost totality of Mars planet surface is recovered by aeolian dust deposit whose thickness varies according to regions. Mariner and Viking imagery highlighted this aeolian dust deposit with the presence of smooth geomorphologic surface characteristic of dust recovering, with the apparition of dust wind streaks to leeward area of numerous relief, and with seasonal changes in surface albedo after dust storms (Greeley, 1992). These observations have been recently confirmed by the high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter (Malin et al., 1998 ; Edgett and Malin, 2000). At present time no method exists to estimate aeolian dust thickness at global scale. Only the geographic distribution of the first top centimeters have been realized with the help of thermal inertia cartography from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data (Jakosky et al., 2000). The aeolian dust deposits recover first the small impact craters and consequently disturb their distribution at the planet surface. Variations between distributions curves locally measured and Hartmann's Isochrons (Hartmann and Neukum, 2001) for a Martian lands not affected by surface phenomenon, give the diameter of the biggest crater obliterated by the surface process. This diameter allows us to estimate the minimal aeolian dust thickness using geometrical proprieties of impact crater between diameter (D) and the rim height (H) (Garvin et al., 2002) : H=0.07D0.52 (for D<7km). Indeed the rim height is a good approximation of minimal dust thickness needed to completely erase the impact crater from the surface if one suppose that there's no evidence of aeolian erosion. The first objective of this study is to determine the distribution variations of the small impact craters to estimate locally the different thickness of aeolian dust. The second objective is to realize a global cartography of the aeolian dust thickness. We study the region of Arabia Terra to apply this method because this

  3. Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

    In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

  4. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  5. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Khormi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%, covering a total area of 121 km², were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%, covering 133 km², were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%, covering 180 km², were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%, covering 726 km², were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  6. Comparison of the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidities in hepatitis C patients and hepatitis B patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser R AlHuthail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Hepatitis C is a major health concern world-wide and is frequently associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. The most common genotype in Saudi Arabia differs from genotypes prevalent elsewhere and thus we aimed to determine if psychiatric disturbances occur in Saudi patients infected with hepatitis C and whether these symptoms extend to those infected with hepatitis B. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients using the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 and The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaires. Tinnitus patients served as control subjects. The Chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared using the Student′s t-test or the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for skewed data, and correlations were evaluated by calculating Spearman′s rho. The odds ratio was used to determine the association between variables and the likelihood of being a psychiatric case. Results: Hepatitis C patients were twice as likely to be labeled as a psychiatric case compared with hepatitis B patients ( P = 0.01. Age and gender were not predictive factors though there was a non-significant tendency toward a higher prevalence of psychiatric cases among females. Hepatitis C patients also scored lower than hepatitis B patients in 3 domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, indicating a greater reduction in quality of life (QoL. Conclusion: We demonstrate an increased incidence of psychiatric symptoms in Saudi Arabian hepatitis C patients compared to hepatitis B patients and controls. This highlights the importance of collaboration between hepatologists and psychiatrists in order to improve the QoL in this patient group.

  7. Alterations in Blood Coagulation and Viscosity Among Young Male Cigarette Smokers of Al-Jouf Region in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarshad, Hassan A; Hassan, Fathelrahman M

    2016-05-01

    Hemorheology, a measure of rheological properties of blood, is often correlated with cerebral blood flow and cardiac output; an increased blood viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Previous studies have reported a large variation in hemorheological properties of blood among smokers. This prompted us to conduct coagulation experiments to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on hematological parameters, like cell counts, and coagulation parameters among young males in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. The hematological and coagulation parameters were used to relate the changes in viscosity and coagulation to smoking. A total of 321 male participants (126 nonsmokers and 195 smokers) were enrolled into the study as randomized sample. Complete blood count was measured by hematology analyzer, and coagulation tests were performed by coagulation analyzer. Thettest analysis was performed to compare the relationships of variables between the 2 groups. The results confirmed that smoking alters some hematology parameters leading to significant deterioration in blood flow properties. Smoking also increased the hematocrit (HCT), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and plasma viscosity (PV) but decreased the international normalized ratio (INR). The decrease in INR was found to be associated with the increase in WBV, PV, and HCT. Further investigations are necessary to assess the reversibility of such changes in cessation of smoking or other elements of influence.

  8. Molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic aspergilli-contaminated poultry and animal feedstuff samples from the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUSSUF A. GHERBAWY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aflatoxigenic abilities of 64 and 17 isolates of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolated from poultry and animal feedstuff samples collected from the western region of Saudi Arabia werestudied. Thirty-three (51.6% and 13 (76.5% isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, were aflatoxigenic. The ranges of aflatoxins in A. flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were 4.4-110 and 143.6-271.3 ppm (μg/g, respectively. A. parasiticus isolates generally produced a greater amount of aflatoxins than A. flavus. A. flavus isolates from poultry, cattle, and camel and cattle feeds produced aflatoxin amounts in the range 5.7-110, 4.4-19.0, and 7.0-28.5 ppm, respectively.From poultry feedstuff samples, A. parasiticus produced aflatoxins in the range 212.5-232.4 ppm.Some aflatoxin biosynthesis genes (aflR, omt-1, ver-1, and nor-1 were detected with variable frequencies in all A. flavus and A. parasiticus isolates. The genetic diversity among 64 isolates of A.flavus using internal transcribed spacer sequence results and the amplification of some aflatoxin biosynthesis genes revealed that the investigated isolates showed high heterogeneity.

  9. Agreement between the DAS28-CRP assessed with 3 and 4 variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents in the daily clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2013-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score-28-C-reactive Protein 4 [DAS28-CRP(4)] composite measure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on 4 variables: tender and swollen joint counts, CRP, and patient global assessment. DAS28-CRP(3) includes only 3 variables, because patient global assessment has been omitted...

  10. Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah G.; Salameh, Iyad; Abdirizak, Fatima; Alhakeem, Raafat; Algarni, Homoud; El Nil, Osman A.; Mohammed, Mutaz; Assiri, Abdullah M.; Alabdely, Hail M.; Watson, John T.; Gerber, Susan I.

    2017-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015–February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission. PMID:28322710

  11. Water Quality and Planktonic Communities in Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Fathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al- Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. The aim of this research was to study the water characteristics and the planktonic organisms inhibiting Al-Khadoud spring and its irrigational channels for a period of 1 year. Approach: A regular visit was monitoring the spring over a period of 1 year (June 2007 to may 2008. Physico-chemical characteristics of spring water were determined. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of Plankton (Phytoplankton or zooplankton were also investigated. Results: All the water quality variables measured showed considerable seasonal variation. The data of this study showed that there were marked seasonal differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the phytoplankton communities in Al-Khadoud spring and its irrigation canal. The changes in total algal counts throughout the investigation coincided closely with in Chlorophyceae abundance. Thirty six species were identified allover the period of the investigation. Out of these, 9 species belong to Chlorophyceae, 17 belong to Bacillariophyceae, 7 to Cyanophyceae and 3 to Euglenophyceae. Cyclotella meneghiniana Kützing, Nitzschia closterium Ehernberg, Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Surirella ovalis Breb, Actinastrum sp., Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck, Scenedesmus quadriquda Breb, Oscillatoria sp. and Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle were observed in a high rank of occurrence. The phytoplankton crop showed a remarkable increase as compared with the previous records. The data showed that the zooplanktonic fauna identified in this aquatic body is a typical of the permanent freshwater and brackish water. Eleven species were recorded, 5 belonged to Cladoceran, 4 belonged to Rotifera and 2 belonged to Chironomid. Zooplankton

  12. A financial feasibility model of gasification and anaerobic digestion waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Laith A; Omer, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Saudi Arabia is increasingly growing at a fast rate, as it hurtles towards ever increasing urban development coupled with rapid developments and expanding population. Saudi Arabia's energy demands are also rising at a faster rate. Therefore, the importance of an integrated waste management system in Saudi Arabia is increasingly rising and introducing Waste to Energy (WTE) facilities is becoming an absolute necessity. This paper analyzes the current situation of MSW management in Saudi Arabia and proposes a financial model to assess the viability of WTE investments in Saudi Arabia in order to address its waste management challenges and meet its forecasted energy demands. The research develops a financial model to investigate the financial viability of WTE plants utilizing gasification and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) conversion technologies. The financial model provides a cost estimate of establishing both gasification and anaerobic digestion WTE plants in Saudi Arabia through a set of financial indicators, i.e. net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), modified internal rate of return (MIRR), profitability index (PI), payback period, discounted payback period, Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and Levelized Cost of Waste (LCOW). Finally, the analysis of the financial model reveals the main affecting factors of the gasification plants investment decision, namely: facility generation capacity, generated electricity revenue, and the capacity factor. Similarly, the paper also identifies facility waste capacity and the capacity factor as the main affecting factors on the AD plants' investment decision.

  13. Clinical characteristics of common variable immunodeficiency disease%普通变异型免疫缺陷病临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林连君; 宋一楠; 王禹川; 张晓琳; 周国鹏; 宋以信

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical characteristics of common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) and enhance the awareness of this disease so as to reduce the missing diagnosis or delayed diagnosis .METHODS The clinical data of 5 patients with confirmed CVID who were treated in the Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed ,including the clinical laboratory examinations and treatment .RESULTS Of the 5 patients with confirmed CVID ,the median age of onset of the disease was 5 years old ,the conformed median age was 15 years old ,and the median age from the onset to the confirmation was 6 .5 years .The fever was the major symptom for the first diagnosis ,including 5 cases of pneumonia ,2 cases of sinusitis ,2 cases of gastrointestinal tract infec-tions ,1 case of acute otitis media ,1 case of keratitis ,1 case of viral meningitis ,and 2 cases of bronchiectasis .The median level of serum IgG was 2 .2 g/L ,the serum IgA less than 0 .1 g/L ,the serum IgM 0 .1 g/L ;the level of CD3 - /CD19 +B cell was decreased by 1 .0% to 3 .1% ,and the CD3 + T cell ranged between 86 .0% and 91 .4% .All the patients received the intravenous gamma globulin treatment and anti-inflammatory therapy ,and the clinical symptoms were improved .CONCLUSION The recurrent infection is the salient manifestation of the patients with CVID ,the respiratory system and digestive system are the common infection sites .It is of significant value for the diagnosis to detect the level of serum immunoglobulin and analyze the lymphocytes subsets .%目的:探讨普通变异型免疫缺陷病(CVID)的临床特点,增加临床医师对该病的认识,以减少漏诊和延迟诊断的发生。方法回顾性分析北京大学第一医院2000年1月-2013年11月确诊的5例CVID患者的临床资料、实验室检查和治疗。结果确诊CVID患者5例,起病中位年龄为5岁,确诊中位年龄为15岁,发病到确诊的中位时间为6.5年;首次就诊的主要症

  14. The Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Adult Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia--A Community-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad M Bahijri

    Full Text Available Type 2 (T2DM is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes.A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420. Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes employing American Diabetes Association criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with T2DM.Age and sex standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 9.0% (95% CI 7.5-10.5; 9.4% (7.1-11.8 in men and 8.6% (6.6-10.6 in women. For DM it was 12.1% (10.7-13.5; 12.9% (10.7-13.5 in men and 11.4% (9.5-13.3 in women. The prevalence based on World Population as standard was 18.3% for DM and 11.9% for prediabetes. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes increased with age. Of people aged ≥50 years 46% of men and 44% of women had DM. Prediabetes and DM were associated with various measures of adiposity. DM was also associated with and family history of dyslipidemia in women, cardiovascular disease in men, and with hypertension, dyslipidemia and family history of diabetes in both sexes.Age was the strongest predictor of DM and prediabetes followed by obesity. Of people aged 50 years or over almost half had DM and another 10-15% had prediabetes leaving only a small proportion of people in this age group with normoglycemia. Since we did not use an oral glucose tolerance test the true prevalence of DM and prediabetes is thus likely to be even higher than reported here. These results demonstrate the urgent need to develop primary prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Studies on BVD involving establishment of sentinel calves and assessment of herd immunity in a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Elzein, Eltayb; Alkhalyifa, Mofeed

    2012-03-01

    Little information is published, so far, regarding bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Its aim was to explore the BVD situation in a large dairy farm, which has been experiencing reproduction problems suggestive of BVD virus infection, albeit the practice of routine vaccination. The study took two pathways; the first involved establishment of a cohort of sentinel calves so as: (a) to note the BVD virus activity in the farm by following the time lapse and pattern for waning of the maternally derived antibodies and detection of any subsequent seroconversion and (b) to look for any clinical signs suggestive of BVD virus infection in these calves. The second pathway was to assess the level of herd immunity in the different age groups of lactating cows and maiden heifers. The obtained results were discussed, and control strategies were outlined.

  16. The impact of critical total quality management practices on hospital performance in the ministry of health hospitals in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraki, Mohammad Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) offers a method for solving quality and patient safety problems and bringing significant improvement to hospital performance. However, only few studies have been conducted in this area in developing countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. This research is carried out in an attempt to address this gap, exploring the impact of applying TQM practices on hospital performance in the Saudi Ministry of Health hospitals. The study has included 4 hospitals in Tabuk Region, namely, King Khaled Hospital, King Fahad Hospital, Maternity and Children Hospital, and Hagel General Hospital. The data collection was done by the researcher when 400 questionnaires were distributed using a convenient sampling technique to access the required data. The response rate was 67.25% of the total questionnaires distributed. The TQM practices used in the study were as follows: leadership, employee management, information analysis, training, customer focus, continuous improvement, process management, and supplier management. The findings of the research show a significant positive correlation between the 8 practices of TQM and hospital performance with a correlation coefficient r value of 0.9 (P = .0001). The study also reveals that Saudi hospitals are facing difficulties in engaging the clinical staff in their quality initiative. Moreover, our findings show that accredited hospitals have significantly applied TQM practices more than unaccredited hospitals.

  17. Estimating the Severity and Subclinical Burden of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Salje, Henrik; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Ferguson, Neil M; Cauchemez, Simon; Rodriquez-Barraquer, Isabel; Hakeem, Rafat; Jombart, Thibaut; Aguas, Ricardo; Al-Barrak, Ali; Cummings, Derek A T

    2016-04-01

    Not all persons infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) develop severe symptoms, which likely leads to an underestimation of the number of people infected and an overestimation of the severity. To estimate the number of MERS-CoV infections that have occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we applied a statistical model to a line list describing 721 MERS-CoV infections detected between June 7, 2012, and July 25, 2014. We estimated that 1,528 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1,327, 1,883) MERS-CoV infections occurred in this interval, which is 2.1 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.6) times the number reported. The probability of developing symptoms ranged from 11% (95% CI: 4, 25) in persons under 10 years of age to 88% (95% CI: 72, 97) in those 70 years of age or older. An estimated 22% (95% CI: 18, 25) of those infected with MERS-CoV died. MERS-CoV is deadly, but this work shows that its clinical severity differs markedly between groups and that many cases likely go undiagnosed.

  18. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnot Ubaldo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a concepts about pregnancy and health care, b experience with health services and health providers, and c opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

  19. Double diabetes in Saudi Arabia: A new entity or an underestimated condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Rim; Alzaid, Aus; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Mujammami, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rania Ahmad; Zitouni, Monther; Sobki, Samia Hasan; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of double diabetes (DD) among young people in Saudi Arabia. METHODS This was a retrospective descriptive chart review study including 312 young newly diagnosed diabetic patients (aged 12-20 years), whom were admitted over a five year period (January 2009 to December 2013). Family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (first degree), physical body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, history of auto-immune disease and laboratory information for glycosylated hemoglobin, basal C peptide level and diabetes autoantibody response (anti-GAD, anti-IA2 and anti-ICA) were collected from medical report. A mean follow-up of 3 years for these patients was performed. RESULTS Patients were categorized into 4 groups, based on the autoantibody response (Ab+ or Ab-) and C-peptide secretion (β+ for fasting level 0.4-2.1 ng/mL and β- if < 0.4 ng/mL). Group1 (type 1a): Ab+ β- (21%), group 2 (type 1b): Ab- β- (9%), group 3 (DD): Ab+ β+ (31%) and group 4 (classic type 2 DM): Ab- β+ (39%). The mean age of the DD patients in our study was 15.1 ± 6.4 years. A total of 41% of the study population presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and 61% of the study population presented with positive family history of DM. The mean BMI was 26.8 kg/m2 with 64% of overweight or obese patients. Ninety two percent of the patients were started on insulin at the time of diagnosis. During a mean follow-up of 3 years, only 32% of the patients with DD required insulin and 78% were on metformin alone or with insulin. CONCLUSION Our findings enable us to arrive at the conclusion that almost one-third of the young Saudi diabetic patients reveal atypical forms of DM (double diabetes) expressing features resulting from both T1D and T2D. PMID:28031780

  20. Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5

  1. Bayesian noise-reduction in Arabia/Somalia and Nubia/Arabia finite rotations since ˜20 Ma: Implications for Nubia/Somalia relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Hawkins, Rhys; Sambridge, Malcolm

    2014-04-01

    of Nubia/Somalia relative motion since the Early Neogene is of particular importance in the Earth Sciences, because it (i) impacts on inferences on African dynamic topography; and (ii) allows us to link plate kinematics within the Indian realm with those within the Atlantic basin. The contemporary Nubia/Somalia motion is well known from geodetic observations. Precise estimates of the past-3.2-Myr average motion are also available from paleo-magnetic observations. However, little is known of the Nubia/Somalia motion prior to ˜3.2 Ma, chiefly because the Southwest Indian Ridge spread slowly, posing a challenge to precisely identify magnetic lineations. This also makes the few observations available particularly prone to noise. Here we reconstruct Nubia/Somalia relative motions since ˜20 Ma from the alternative plate-circuit Nubia-Arabia-Somalia. We resort to trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian Inference, which has proved effective in reducing finite-rotation noise, to unravel the Arabia/Somalia and Arabia/Nubia motions. We combine the resulting kinematics to reconstruct the Nubia/Somalia relative motion since ˜20 Ma. We verify the validity of the approach by comparing our reconstruction with the available record for the past ˜3.2 Myr, obtained through Antarctica. Results indicate that prior to ˜11 Ma the total motion between Nubia and Somalia was faster than today. Furthermore, it featured a significant strike-slip component along the Nubia/Somalia boundary. It is only since ˜11 Ma that Nubia diverges away from Somalia at slower rates, comparable to the present-day one. Kinematic changes of some 20% might have occurred in the period leading to the present-day, but plate-motion steadiness is also warranted within the uncertainties.

  2. Clinical course and variability of non-Rasmussen, nonstroke motor and sensory epilepsia partialis continua: a European survey and analysis of 65 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mameniskiene, Ruta; Bast, Thomas; Bentes, Carla

    2011-01-01

    To gain new insights into the clinical presentation, causes, treatment and prognosis of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC), and to develop hypotheses to be tested in a prospective investigation.......To gain new insights into the clinical presentation, causes, treatment and prognosis of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC), and to develop hypotheses to be tested in a prospective investigation....

  3. EXTREME VARIABILITY OF CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AMONG SIBS IN A MELAS FAMILY CORRELATED WITH HETEROPLASMY FOR THE MITOCHONDRIAL A3243G MUTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, D; DEWIJS, [No Value; RUITENBEEK, W; BEGEER, J; SMIT, P; BENTLAGE, H; VANOOST, B

    1994-01-01

    In a family with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes with extremely varying clinical expression, we have identified the A3243G heteroplasmic point mutation in mitochondrial DNA. The degree of severity of the clinical symptoms in the various family member

  4. CAPD in Dammam Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Five-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youmbissi Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%. Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Natural and human-induced sinkhole hazards in Saudi Arabia: distribution, investigation, causes and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; Al-Harbi, Hasan M.; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zabramwi, Yasser A.; Bulkhi, Ali B.; Zahrani, Saeed A.; Bahamil, Alaa M.; Zahrani, Ahmed J.; Otaibi, Zaam A.; El-Haddad, Bosy A.

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 60 % of the 2,150,000 km2 area of Saudi Arabia is underlain by soluble sediments (carbonate and evaporite rock formations, salt diapirs, sabkha deposits). Despite its hyper-arid climate, a wide variety of recent sinkholes have been reported in numerous areas, involving significant property losses. Human activities, most notably groundwater extraction, have induced unstable conditions on pre-existing cavities. This work provides an overview of the sinkhole hazard in Saudi Arabia, a scarcely explored topic. It identifies the main karst formations and the distribution of the most problematic sinkhole areas, illustrated through several case studies covering the wide spectrum of subsidence mechanisms. Some of the main investigation methods are presented through selected examples, including remote sensing, trenching and geophysics. Based on the available data, the main causal factors are identified and further actions that should be undertaken to better assess and manage the risk are discussed.

  6. Health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Badrya H; Xiao, Lily D

    2017-03-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Public perceptions and attitudes to biological risks: Saudi Arabia and regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Saud Ali; Rezgui, Yacine; Li, Haijiang

    2016-10-01

    Saudi Arabia has experienced frequent occurrences of biological disasters due to a wide range of generator factors, including natural disasters and epidemics. A national survey (n=1,164) was conducted across 13 regions of Saudi Arabia to examine public perceptions to the risk of a biological disaster. The primary results reveal: (a) a degree of knowledge about biological threats such as SARS and H5N1 flu, despite the lack of individual experience with disasters; (b) age, gender, education and faith are positively related to the perception of biological risk; and (c) a number of important community resilience factors exist, including faith, education and willingness. This study concludes that the development of adapted resilience strategies in disaster management can be achieved through public education and training involving cooperation with official organisations and religious authorities in the country to increase public awareness, knowledge and skills in mitigating biological threats.

  8. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  9. Main Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Paleozoic in Central Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic.However,the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic.This paper reviews the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Paleozoic.The Lower Silurian Qusaiba hot shale is the principal source rock for the hydrocarbons discovered in the Ordovician to Permian reservoirs.Of them,the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah and Upper Ordovician Sarah Formations have the best exploration potential.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Unayzah Formation are migration pathways and reservoir petrophysics.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sarah Formation are reservoir petrophysics and the development of structural traps.

  10. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions.

  11. Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Baki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.

  12. The Role of Organizational Design in Enhancing Employee Motivation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Dasseh, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reveals that the centralized, bureaucratic and rigid authority lines are the main features in the Saudi work environment. Researchers have studied several HRM topics in Saudi Arabia such as leadership, regulations and the impact of culture on employees. However, there seems to be a lack of attention to topics related to motivation, empowerment and organizational design. This paper aimed to explore the factors that motivate employees, investigate the relationship between orga...

  13. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  14. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphologica...

  15. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  16. The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-04-15

    Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health.

  17. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  18. End-stage renal disease in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia: An epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama El Minshawy; Tawfik Ghabrah; Eman El Bassuoni

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk fac-tors of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. We studied 460 renal replacement therapy patients through a review of medical records and patient interviews and obtained patient demographics, family history, risk factors for ESRD, environmental exposure to toxins, work conditions, social history and causes of death. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million ...

  19. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Intercultural Awareness and the Iowa Air National Guard Elf One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Report 82-2, USAF Academy, CO: Offliceof Instruction for Geography, July 1982. ,ii military units with the culture and language as well as with Ssocial ...Egyptian aircraft attacked oil prices in the aftermath of the 1973 Taif, which ended a brief border war several southern Saudi towns. Media - war, thereby...While on duty, members will be quartered at the International Hotel in A] Juvayl, Saudi Arabia. "We consider it a distinct honor to * •be the first Air

  20. Metadata in Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : An Applied Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain A.Hady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.