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Sample records for arabia clinical variables

  1. Cerebral venous thrombosis in Saudi Arabia. Clinical variables, response to treatment, and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVTR) clinical presentations, risk factors, and response to treatment in Saudi Arabia. Retrospective analysis of the King Farad Medical City, Riyadh, acute stroke database from April 2005 through February 2008 revealed 22 patients with CVTR. Hyper coagulable work-up and neuroimaging were performed. Sixteen patients were female (72.7%), and the median age was 35 years. Clinical presentations included: headache (77.3%), seizures (54.5%), focal neurological signs (54.5%), and decreased level of consciousness (50%). Over two-thirds (n=11; 69%) of female patients had a history of oral contraceptive use, which was the most common risk factor. Protein S deficiency (n=3), anti phospholipid antibody syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n=1), rhinocerebral mucormycosis (n=1), leukemia (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1), sepsis (n=1), and unknown (n=6) were causes. Affected areas included superior sagittal (n=13), transverse (n=16), sigmoid (n=14), straight (n=6), and cavernous sinus (n=1); internal cerebral vein (n=2); vein of Galen (n=3); cortical veins (n=10); and internal jugular vein (n=12). Two patients had quadriparesis, and 2 patients died. The remainder (n=18, 81.8%) improved. Bilateral hemorrhagic presentation or venous infarction, deep venous system thrombosis, and underlying malignancy had less favorable results. Presentations in our series were similar to those in other reports, although altered consciousness and seizures were more common. Cortical vein involvement was also higher than commonly reported. Oral contraceptive use was a primary risk factor in female patients. Outcomes were favorable in 81.8% of patients. (author)

  2. Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Mohamed E; Mohammed M. Assiry; Joseph, Martin R.; Haimour, Waleed O.; Abdelrahim, Ihab M.; Al-Abed, Fatin; Fadul, Abdalla N.; Ahmed M. Al-Hakami

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 201...

  3. Epidemiology, Clinical and complications profile of diabetes in Saudi Arabia: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is emerging as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia in parallel with the world wide diabetes pandemic, which is having a particular impact on upon the Middle East and the third world. This pandemic has accompanied the adoption of a modern life style and the abandonment of a traditional lifestyle, with a resultant increase in rates of obesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. The indigenous Saudi population seems to have a special genetic predisposition to develop type 2 diabetes, which is further amplified by a rise in obesity rates, a high rate of consanguinity and the presence of other variables of the insulin resistance syndrome. We highlight the epidemiology, clinical and complication profile of diabetes in Saudi people. Diabetes is well studied in Saudi Arabia: however, there seems to be little research in the area of education and health acre delivery. This is of paramount importance to offset the perceived impact on health care delivery services, to lessen chronic diabetes complications and to reduce the expected morbidity and mortality from diabetes. (author)

  4. JOB BURNOUT AS A FUNCTION OF DEMOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES: WHAT DO SAUDI ARABIA BANKING EMPLOYEES REFLECT?

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Nasser Saad Al-Kahtani

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been postulates that the productivity of an organization depends on lower level of employees’ burnout and stress at workplace. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of certain demographical variables such as position in the current job, age, experience and marital status on job burnout among banking employees in Saudi Arabia. Keeping the objectives of the present study four null hypotheses was formulated. The sample consisted of 274 employees work...

  5. Use of dental clinics and oral hygiene practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Kravitz, Hannah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Memish, Ziad A.; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a large household survey in 2013 to determine the current status of oral health practices and use of oral health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods The Saudi Health Information Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals ≥ 15 years of age. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure the association between having been to a dental clinic during the last year, and sex, age, marital status, education, time...

  6. Clinical and genetic features of anoctaminopathy in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlega, Saeed; Monies, Dorothy M.; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Murad, Hatem N.; Alhindi, Hindi N.; Meyer, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Characterization of the phenotypic, pathological, radiological, and genetic findings in 2 Saudi Arabian families with anoctaminopathies, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L). Methods: Over a 2-year period from December 2010 to January 2013, the clinical presentations were analyzed and all genes responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) were screened in families seen at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Riyad...

  7. A clinical study of mentally retarded children with fragile X syndrome inSaudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)

  8. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, clinical, and survival data from two tertiary care hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sherbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is rare and can be challenging to diagnose. Limited data is available from the Middle Eastern region, especially Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a retrospective study that looked at all the patients diagnosed with IPF between 2007 and 2012 at two tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia. We collected the demographical, clinical, laboratory and radiological data from the patients′ medical records. Medications administered and 1 year survival was also assessed. Results : Between 2007and 2012, 134 IPF patients were identified. Their baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD included: age 64 ± 13 years, body mass index 29 ± 8 kg/m 2 , FEV 1 56 ± 15 percent of predicted, FVC 53 ± 13 percent of predicted, FEV 1 /FVC 0.81 ± 0.09, total lung capacity 75 ± 13 percent of predicted, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide 57 ± 15 percent of predicted, on home oxygen at presentation 71 (53%, mean ejection fraction 0.50 ± 0.07, mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (via echocardiogram 40 + 22 mmHg, presentation mean S pO2 92 ± 7%, presentation 6-min walk distance 338 ± 64 m and lowest S pO2 during 6-min walk test 88 ± 5%. Patients were predominantly female (56%, and 42% of patients had diabetes and were active smokers. The IPF patients′ frequency of hospital admission (n = 99 was 2.4 ± 1.7 per year and duration of hospital stay (n = 99 was 17.4 ± 23.8 days. Overall 1 year survival in all IPF patients was good, 93% (124 patients remained alive after 1 year. Conclusions : In Saudi Arabia, IPF patients tended to be slightly older and the disease progression was somewhat slower than reported IPF cohorts in other populations. They had frequent hospital admissions and a long hospital length of stay. The influence of genetics and co-morbid diseases on the incidence and outcome of IPF should be explored further.

  9. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Waleed I Albaker; Ahmed Badar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculate...

  10. Occurrence and distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with the climatic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Askar, Abdulaziz A; Ghoneem, Khalid M; Rashad, Younes M; Abdulkhair, Waleed M; Hafez, Elsayed E; Shabana, Yasser M; Baka, Zakaria A

    2014-01-01

    One hundred samples of tomato seeds were collected in 2011 and 2012 from tomato-cultivated fields in Saudi Arabia and screened for their seed-borne mycoflora. A total of 30 genera and 57 species of fungi were recovered from the collected seed samples using agar plate and deep-freezing blotter methods. The two methods differed as regards the frequency of recovered seed-borne fungi. Seven fungi among those recovered from tomato seeds, which are known as plant pathogens, were tested for their pathogenicity and transmission on tomato seedlings. The recovery rate of these pathogens gradually decreased from root up to the upper stem, and did not reach to the stem apex. The distribution of tomato seed-borne fungi was also investigated throughout Saudi Arabia. In this concern, Al-Madena governorate recorded the highest incidence of fungal flora associated with tomato seeds. The impact of meteorological variables on the distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora was explored using the ordination technique (canonical correspondence analysis). Among all climatic factors, relative humidity was the most influential variable in this regard. Our findings may provide a valuable contribution to our understanding of future global disease change and may be used also to predict disease occurrence and fungal transfer to new uninfected areas. PMID:24964218

  11. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Ali M. Somily; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate gro...

  12. Patient's awareness of their medical conditions in multi-specialtyoutpatient clinics in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess the patient's awareness of their medicalconditions, identify the factors affecting their awareness and assesspatient's satisfaction with their doctor's explanations of medicalconditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2005 in theoutpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.The statistical package for Social Science was used for analysis. Fivehundred and one patients were included in the study. The mean age was45.6+-16.8. Fifty-five percent were female and 29% were highly educated. Mostof the patients (64.1%) knew their diagnoses. This was significantlyassociated with educational level; chronicity of the disease and theawareness of other issues related to their illness such as complications andname of their medications (p>0.05). Few patients (20%) knew complications oftheir diseases. Seventy percent of the patients were satisfied with theirdoctor's explanation of their disease. Knowing the diagnosis (p=0.001) andthe disease complications (p=0.014) were associated significantly withpatient's satisfaction. These figures are less than what they should be.Physicians must be advised of the importance of proper patient education. Inaddition, the lack of proper education by physicians demonstrated in thisstudy should be compensated for by an increase in non-physician basededucation tools. (author)

  13. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from outpatient clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the recovered strains phenotypically, by conventional methods and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) gene (which serves as an internal control) and mecA gene. Secondly, introduce multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type 4. Thirty-seven strains of S. aureus collected in 2007 from outpatient clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were tested in the College of Pharmacy phenotypically by conventional methods and genotypically by PCR for direct detection of S. aureus 16S rRNA and mecA genes. All the 37 strains, were tested also by multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, PVL, and (SCCmec) type 4. Polymerase chain reaction detected all the 37 bacteriologically positive S. aureus (100%) and the mecA gene in all strains phenotypically resistant to methicillin (100%), at the same time it detected the mecA gene in 2 strains phenotypically sensitive to methicillin. Only 3 strains (8.1%) recovered from skin and soft tissue infections were positive for PVL and SCCmec type 4. The PCR assay can be used for rapid detection of S. aureus and mecA gene. At the same time the multiplex PCR assay explained in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable test for direct detection of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (author)

  14. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Alsunni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12, moderate (13-24 and high (25-36 scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56% subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%, while 122 (61% had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%, 124 (62% were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56% were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5% before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5% subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.

  15. What variables can influence clinical reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ashoorion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is one of the most important competencies that a physician should achieve. Many medical schools and licensing bodies try to predict it based on some general measures such as critical thinking, personality, and emotional intelligence. This study aimed at providing a model to design the relationship between the constructs. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine medical students participated in this study. A battery test devised that consist four parts: Clinical reasoning measures, personality NEO inventory, Bar-On EQ inventory, and California critical thinking questionnaire. All participants completed the tests. Correlation and multiple regression analysis consumed for data analysis. Results: There is low to moderate correlations between clinical reasoning and other variables. Emotional intelligence is the only variable that contributes clinical reasoning construct (r=0.17-0.34 (R 2 chnage = 0.46, P Value = 0.000. Conclusion: Although, clinical reasoning can be considered as a kind of thinking, no significant correlation detected between it and other constructs. Emotional intelligence (and its subscales is the only variable that can be used for clinical reasoning prediction.

  16. Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten male patients with parkinsonism secondary to Parkinson's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy had clinical neurological, speech, and acoustical speech evaluations. In addition, seven of the patients were evaluated by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Extensive variability of speech features, both clinical and acoustical, were found and seemed to be independent of the severity of any parkinsonian sign, CT, or FDG PET. In addition, little relationship existed between the variability across each measured speech feature. What appeared to be important for the appearance of abnormal acoustic measures was the degree of overall severity of the dysarthria. These observations suggest that a better understanding of hypokinetic dysarthria may result from more extensive examination of the variability between patients. Emphasizing a specific feature such as rapid speaking rate in characterizing hypokinetic dysarthria focuses on a single and inconstant finding in a complex speech pattern

  17. Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)

  18. Eliciting students′ perceptions of integrated clinical dental education in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

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    Mahmoud Al-Dajani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In the integrated curriculum, our study highlights the importance of clinical training not only in making dental students competent but also in increasing their confidence in performing clinical procedures.

  19. In vitro ciprofloxacin resistance patterns of gram positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few decades the ever-increasing level of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has been a cause of worldwide concern. Fluoroquinolones, particularly ciprofloxacin has been used indiscriminately for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. The increased use of ciprofloxacin has led to a progressive loss of bacterial susceptibility to this antibiotic. Therefore it is necessary to have update knowledge of resistance pattern of bacteria to this antibiotic so that alternate appropriate antibiotics can be used for ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial infections. Objective: To evaluate the trends of ciprofloxacin resistance pattern in commonly isolated gram positive bacteria over time in a Saudi Arabian teaching hospital. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out for ciprofloxacin susceptibility patterns of 5534 isolates of gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratories at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 to August 2005. Results: Increase in ciprofloxacin resistance rates with some fluctuations, among these isolates, were observed. For Staphylococcus aureus, it varied from 4.62, 1.83, 7.01 and 3.98%, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 97.92, 97.75, 87.01 and 88.26%, Streptococcus pyogenes 5.35, 4.47, 14.44 and 3.53% during the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively. Cirprofloxacin resistance during the years 2002, 2004 and 2005 for other isolates was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 30.23, 23.02 and 26.47%; enterococcus group D, 43.05, 20.68 and 57.03% and non-enterococcus group D, 62.96, 76.92 and 87.50% respectively. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin resistance in gram positive bacterial clinical isolates particularly Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enterococcus group D, and non-enterococcus group D, has greatly increased and ciprofloxacin no more remains

  20. Occurrence and distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with the climatic variables

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Askar, Abdulaziz A; Khalid M. Ghoneem; Rashad, Younes M; Abdulkhair, Waleed M.; Hafez, Elsayed E; Shabana, Yasser M.; Baka, Zakaria A

    2014-01-01

    One hundred samples of tomato seeds were collected in 2011 and 2012 from tomato-cultivated fields in Saudi Arabia and screened for their seed-borne mycoflora. A total of 30 genera and 57 species of fungi were recovered from the collected seed samples using agar plate and deep-freezing blotter methods. The two methods differed as regards the frequency of recovered seed-borne fungi. Seven fungi among those recovered from tomato seeds, which are known as plant pathogens, were tested for their pa...

  1. Clinical profile of bronchiolitis in infants younger than 90 days in Saudi Arabia

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    Syed Amir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile at presentation, disease course and outcome of bronchiolitis in <3-month-old infants who presented to our Pediatric Emergency Department (PED during one disease season. Settings: Retrospective chart review during one bronchiolitis season, from November 1, 2011 to April 20, 2012. Subjects: All <90-day-old infants presenting with clinical bronchiolitis presenting to Urban PED of a tertiary care university hospital during one bronchiolitis season. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review based on computer records of all emergency department visits of infants less than 90 days with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis, covering the period between November 1, 2011 and April 30, 2012. Results: Out of the total of 1895 infants <90 days of age, 141 had a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis and 35 needed admission to hospital. Blood for culture was obtained from 47 infants, urine for culture was obtained from 46 infants and cerebrospinal fluid for culture was obtained from eight infants. One case of bacteremia was documented, but this was found to be a contaminant. No cases of meningitis occurred among these infants. However, one infant had a positive urine culture consistent with infection (Escherichia coli . Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be conclude that the risk of bacteremia or meningitis among infants <90 days of age with fever and bronchiolitis is low. The

  2. The etiology and symptoms of endodontic cases treated in a university clinic in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endodontic patients treated at a University Dental Clinic over a two year period were studied. A total of 281 patients seen in a beginning endodontic course were analyzed to determine (1) the etiology of the pulpal disease presenting and (2) the signs and symptoms of pulpal disease. Results indicated that caries was the most prevalent reason for endodontic treatment. Most cases (40.6%) were asymptomatic. Lower molars were the most commonly affected and there was no significant difference in endodontic treatment distribution between males and females in the patient population studied. (author)

  3. Appointments failure among female patients at a dental school clinic in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarakati, Sahar F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the factors and reasons responsible for failed appointments among female patients attending a dental school clinic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the College of Dentistry in Riyadh city on 200 patients who failed to keep their appointments at least one time. The data were collected using a structured, pretested questionnaire through a telephone interview method from January through May 2007. The selected sample was in the age group of fourteen years and older. The response rate was 86 percent. The results illustrated that most of the patients who broke their appointments were married, housewives, above forty years in age, and of low to middle socioeconomic status. It was found that the most common reasons for failed appointments were fasting in the Holy Month of Ramadan (79.1 percent) followed by transportation difficulty (76.2 percent), inconvenient appointment time (65.1 percent), and dissatisfaction of communication with booking area (54.1 percent). PMID:19734254

  4. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

  5. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal...

  6. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  7. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlDughaither A; AlMutairy H; AlAteeq M

    2015-01-01

    Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their ...

  8. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

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    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  9. Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Sub-clinical infection in sheep imported from free zones of Georgia during Hajj season 2009 in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    S. M. Ali

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD sub-clinically infected animals, are always a threat to susceptible herds. During Hajj season 2009 (1431 Hijri the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA imported about 204,583 sheep from FMD free areas from Republic of Georgia through Jeddah Islamic seaport. The animals were clinically free from FMD and authorized as not been previously vaccinated. However, but during the routine laboratory examination of serum samples using FMD-3ABC ELISA some sheep consignments exhibited positivness for FMD anti-bodies. The liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPBE was performed as a confirmatory test which revealed antibodies against FMD serotype O, the suggesting that animals may be susceptible to FMD infection from any endemic countries passed through during overseas transportation. This study will contribute towards the development of an appropriate strategy for FMD control, including the choice of countries of the animal importation, as well as assist to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of FMD. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 399-403

  10. Variability of clinical features in attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in the clinical presentation of migraine, both among patients, and between attacks in an individual patient. We examined clinical features of migraine with aura in a large group of patients enrolled in a clinical trial, and compared retrospective...... detailed retrospective description of the clinical features of their attacks of migraine. During the trial, clinical symptoms in migraine attacks starting with aura were recorded prospectively in 861 attacks. RESULTS: Retrospectively reported visual aura symptoms were variable and often overlapping; the...... recalling or speaking words. A significant percentage of patients also reported a change in olfaction. There were several inconsistencies between the features of prospectively recorded and retrospectively reported attacks. Headache, nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia were all less common in prospectively...

  11. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Raquel; Malki, Karim; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Henigsberg, Neven; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Souery, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; Dobson, Richard; Aitchison, Katherine J; Farmer, Anne; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder. A combination of demographic and clinical variables, with strong contributions from symptoms of depressed mood, reduced interest, decreased activity, indecisiveness, pessimism and anxiety significantly predicted treatment outcomes, explaining 5-10% of variance in symptom improvement with escitalopram. Similar combinations of variables predicted remission with area under the curve 0.72, explaining approximately 15% of variance (pseudo R(2)) in who achieves remission, with strong contributions from body mass index, appetite, interest-activity symptom dimension and anxious-somatizing depression subtype. Escitalopram-specific outcome prediction was more accurate than generic outcome prediction, and reached effect sizes that were near or above a previously established benchmark for clinical significance. Outcome prediction on the nortriptyline arm did not significantly differ from chance. These results suggest that easily obtained demographic and clinical variables can predict therapeutic response to escitalopram with clinically meaningful accuracy, suggesting a potential for individualized prescription of this antidepressant drug. PMID:27089522

  12. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaben, Faten N.; Sehlo, Mohammad G.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index forms, and answered questions on demographic and cancer characteristics. Results: Anxiety symptoms indicating “possible” anxiety disorder were present in 10.4% and “probable” anxiety disorder in 14.6% (25% total). No significant relationship was found between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety symptoms (B=-0.04, standard error=0.05, t=-0.81, p=0.42). Anxiety was primarily driven by low education, poor socioeconomic status, and young age. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent among married women with BC seen in a university-based clinic in the KSA. Further research is needed to determine whether a diagnosis of BC adversely affects marital relationship, and whether this is the cause for anxiety in these women. PMID:26446326

  13. Clinical Application of Heart Rate Variability after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeikkiVeliHuikuri

    2012-02-01

    Heart rate (HR variability has been extensively studied in patients surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The majority of studies have shown that patients with reduced or abnormal HR variability/turbulence have an increased risk of mortality within few years after an AMI. Various measures of HR dynamics, such as time-domain, spectral, and non-linear measures of HR variability, as well as HR turbulence, have been used in risk stratification of post-AMI patients. The prognostic power of various measures, except of those reflecting rapid R-R interval oscillations, has been almost identical, albeit some non-linear HR variability measures, such as short-term fractal scaling exponent, and HR turbulence, have provided somewhat better prognostic information than the others. Abnormal HR variability predicts both sudden and non-sudden cardiac death after AMI. Because of remodeling of the arrhythmia substrate after AMI, early measurement of HR variability to identify those at high risk should likely be repeated later in order to assess the risk of fatal arrhythmia events. Future randomized trials using HR variability/turbulence as one of the pre-defined inclusion criteria will show whether routine measurement of HR variability/turbulence will become a routine clinical tool for risk stratification of post-AMI patients.

  14. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  15. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  16. Lead - a preanalytical/analytical variable in clinical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić-Mišić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is one of the most studied clinically important metals due its high toxicity and a high number of workers exposed to it. The interest toward Pb is elevated by the fact that children are especially susceptible to lead poisoning. Research regarding lead poisoning requires a complex, multi-disciplinary (clinical medical and clinical chemical approach. Monitoring human exposure to lead (intake, i.e. poisoning may be achieved by quantification of Pb in tissues and body fluids. For that reason, a number of accurate and reliable analytical methods for the determination of Pb (analytical/preanalytical variable were developed. An objective of this review paper is to provide key information necessary for proper interpretation of results of lead related clinical/laboratory tests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061

  17. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  18. Evaluation of resistance of commonly used antibiotics on clinical case of Staphylococcus capitis from Assir region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar M Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus capitis is a coagulase-negative species (CoNS of Staphylococcus. It causes antimicrobial resistance for nosocomial infections as well as for community-acquired infections. This case report involves a 51-year-old, married Saudi patient. He got admitted to the male medical ward of Aseer Central Hospital, with severe chest infection. Clinical examination, X-ray, and laboratory investigations were performed which involved bactech, culture media, antibiotic sensitivity test using disk diffusion [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC] and molecular [polymerase chain reaction (PCR] for detection of CoNS of Staphylococcus species and detection of the mecA gene. Laboratory data were recorded in special formats and analyzed by statistical computer program (SPSS. Results showed the resistance of isolated S. capitis to many commonly used antibiotics.

  19. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zaben, Faten N.; Sehlo, Mohammad G.; Harold G. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index f...

  20. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  1. Clinical Characteristics and Genetic Variability of Human Rhinovirus in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Montero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI in young children and infants worldwide and has a high impact on morbidity and mortality in this population. Initially, HRV was classified into two species: HRV-A and HRV-B. Recently, a species called HRV-C and possibly another species, HRV-D, were identified. In Mexico, there is little information about the role of HRV as a cause of ARI, and the presence and importance of species such as HRV-C are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and genetic variability of HRV in Mexican children. Genetic characterization was carried out by phylogenetic analysis of the 5′-nontranslated region (5′-NTR of the HRV genome. The results show that the newly identified HRV-C is circulating in Mexican children more frequently than HRV-B but not as frequently as HRV-A, which was the most frequent species. Most of the cases of the three species of HRV were in children under 2 years of age, and all species were associated with very mild and moderate ARI.

  2. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  3. The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Lim Byun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were the clinical variables: leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, positive urine nitrite, positive urine culture, and fever duration both before and after treatment. We evaluated the relationships between clinical variables and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG results. Results : VCUG was performed in 148 patients; of them, 37 (25.0% had VUR: 18 (12.2% had low-grade (I-II VUR, and 19 (10.5% had high-grade (III-V VUR. Of the 95 patients who underwent DMSA scanning, 29 (30.5% had cortical defects, of which 21 (63.6% had VUR: 10 (30.3%, low-grade (I-II VUR; and 11 (33.3%, high-grade VUR. Of the 57 patients who were normal on DMSA scan, 8 (14.0% had low-grade VUR and 6 (10.5% had high-grade VUR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DMSA scan in predicting high-grade VUR were 64.7%, 69.9%, 33.3%, and 89.5%, respectively. Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and prolonged fever (?#243;6 hours after treatment were significantly correlated with the cortical defects on DMSA scans and high-grade VUR. Conclusion : Clinical signs, including prolonged fever after treatment, elevated CRP, and leukocytosis, are positive predictors of acute pyelonephritis and high-grade VUR.

  4. Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)

  5. Criminal Behavior as a Function of Clinical and Actuarial Variables in a Sexual Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    1988-01-01

    Investigated ability of clinical and actuarial variables to predict criminal behavior of 342 sexual offenders previously studied in 1987. Results suggested linear combination of actuarial variables was significantly predictive of sexual reoffenses against adults and of nonsexual reoffending. Clinical judgment was not significantly predictive of…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  7. EEC syndrome sans clefting: Variable clinical presentations in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakkar Sejal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft palate/lip syndrome (EEC is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome with varied presentation and is actually a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome leading to intra- and interfamilial differences in severity because of its variable expression and reduced penetrance. The cardinal features include ectrodactyly, sparse, wiry, hypopigmented hair, peg-shaped teeth with defective enamel and cleft palate/lip. A family comprising father, daughter and son presented to us with split hand-split foot deformity (ectrodactyly, epiphora, hair changes and deafness with variable involvement in each family member.

  8. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  9. Variable Clinical Phenotypes of α-Thalassemia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Titi Singer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations of the α genes are common worldwide. In Asia and particularly Southeast Asia, they can result in clinically significant types of α-thalassemia, namely hemoglobin (Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. The latter is generally a fatal intrauterine condition, while Hb H disease results in clinical complications that are frequently overlooked. The high prevalence of the carrier state and the burden of these diseases (and other α-thalassemia variants call for more attention for improved screening methods and better care.

  10. EEC syndrome sans clefting: Variable clinical presentations in a family

    OpenAIRE

    Thakkar Sejal; Marfatia Yogesh

    2007-01-01

    Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft palate/lip syndrome (EEC) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome with varied presentation and is actually a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome leading to intra- and interfamilial differences in severity because of its variable expression and reduced penetrance. The cardinal features include ectrodactyly, sparse, wiry, hypopigmented hair, peg-shaped teeth with defective enamel and cleft palate/lip. A family comprising father, daughter and son prese...

  11. Variability of chromatic sensitivity: fundamental studies and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, M. L. R.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation involved a number of related studies with the principal aim of assessing the variability in chromatic sensitivity in "normal" trichromats and colour deficient observers. An important outcome was the development of a new method for accurate and efficient measurement of chromatic sensitivity and the establishment of reliable statistical limits that describe the distribution of redgreen(RG) and yellow-blue (YB) chromatic sensitivity in normal trichromats. Chromatic sensitivity...

  12. Stereotypies in autism: a video demonstration of their clinical variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Goldman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In autism, stereotypies are frequent and disabling, and whether they correspond to a hyperkinetic movement disorder, a homeostatic response aiming at sensory modulation,or a regulator of arousal remains to be established.So far,it has been challenging to distinguish among these different possibilities,not only because of lack of objective and quantitative means to assess stereotypies,but in our opinion also because of the underappreciated diversity of their clinical presentations.Herein, we illustrate the broad spectrum of stereotypies and demonstrate the usefulness of video-assisted clinical observations of children with autism.The clips presented were extracted from play sessions of 129 children with autism disorder.We conclude that compared to widely used questionnaires and interviews,systematic video observations provide a unique means to classify and score precisely the clinical features of stereotypies.We believe this approach will prove useful to both clinicians and researchers as it offers the level of detail from retrievable images necessary to begin to assess effects of age and treatments on stereotypies, and to embark on the type of investigations required to unravel the physiological basis of motor behaviors in autism.

  13. Prognosis after Acute Myocardial Infarction as Predicted by C-reactive Protein and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Modica MD, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Raised concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP have been reported to be strongly related to an adverse long term prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. However, adjustments for clinical variables as well as interaction between variables have been incomplete. The aims of this study were to examine the predictive value of baseline concentrations of CRP for mortality after adjustment for important clinical variables and to compare the clinical usefulness of CRP with easily available clinical variables in the prediction of long term survival.Methods:Five hundred and thirty-one patients with AMI were included. A blood sample for CRP was obtained on admission. All patients were followed for a minimum of two years and death of any cause was recorded as the study end point.Results:In logistic regression analysis, the interaction term Age by Killip class > 1, the variable glomerular filtration rate as well as the interaction term Age by Atrial fibrillation were retained. The resulting model correctly predicted death or not in 81% of the patients. CRP did not contribute to the final model.Conclusions:CRP does not independently predict long-term mortality after an AMI after adjustments for clinical variables and interaction. CRP has no value beyond clinical variables in predicting death after AMI.

  14. Joubert syndrome: large clinical variability and a unique neuroimaging aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypotonia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (e.g. pigmentary retinopathy, oculomotor apraxia and nystagmus), renal cysts and hepatic fibrosis. Respiratory abnormalities, as apnoea and hyperpnoea, may be present, as well as mental retardation. At least seven JS loci have been determined and five genes identified. Herein, we report five children, belonging to independent families, with JS: they shared the same typical MRI abnormality, known as molar tooth sign, but had an otherwise quite variable phenotype, regarding mostly their cognitive performance, visual abilities and extra-neurological compromise. (author)

  15. Joubert syndrome: large clinical variability and a unique neuroimaging aspect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Emilia Katiane Embirucu; Lima, Marcilia Martyn; Kok, Fernando; Parizotto, Juliana [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Clinical Hospital. Dept. of Child Neurology; Maia Junior, Otacilio de Oliveira [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Clinical Hospital. Dept. of Child Ophthalmology

    2010-04-15

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypotonia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (e.g. pigmentary retinopathy, oculomotor apraxia and nystagmus), renal cysts and hepatic fibrosis. Respiratory abnormalities, as apnoea and hyperpnoea, may be present, as well as mental retardation. At least seven JS loci have been determined and five genes identified. Herein, we report five children, belonging to independent families, with JS: they shared the same typical MRI abnormality, known as molar tooth sign, but had an otherwise quite variable phenotype, regarding mostly their cognitive performance, visual abilities and extra-neurological compromise. (author)

  16. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y;

    1994-01-01

    is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...

  17. Contributions to variability of clinical measures for use as indicators of udder health status in a clinical protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional observational study with repeated observations was conducted on 16 Danish dairy farms to quantify the influence of observer, parity, time (stage in lactation and farm on variables routinely selected for inclusion in clinical protocols, thereby to enable a more valid comparison of udder health between different herds. During 12 months, participating herds were visited 5 times by project technicians, who examined 20 cows and scored the selected clinical variables. The estimates of effect on variables were derived from a random regression model procedure. Statistical analyses revealed that, although estimates for occurrence of several the variables, e.g. degree of oedema, varied significantly between observers, the effects on many of these estimates were similar in size. Almost all estimates for occurrences of variables were significantly affected either parity and lactation stage, or by both e.g. udder tissue consistency. Some variables, e.g. mange, had high estimates for the farm component, and others e.g. teat skin quality had a high individual component. Several of the variables, e.g. wounds on warts, had a high residual component indicating that a there still was a major part of the variation in data, which was unexplained. It was concluded that most of the variables were relevant for implementation in herd health management, but that adjustments need to be made to improve reliability.

  18. Clinical and Immunological Spectrum of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony David B. Webster

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed data from 150 patients initially classified as having CVID. About 10% had laboratory abnormalities suggesting known single gene disorders (eg: hyper-IgM syndrome, and in a few a genetic defect has been confirmed. We have attempted to sub-classify the remaining patients by analysis of their circulating lymphocytes. B lymphocyte markers have been used to estimate the numbers of circulating immature and class switched B cells; there is an association between the presence of high relative numbers of immature circulating B cells, splenomegaly and autoimmune disease. About 25% of CVID patients have a moderate CD4+ T lymphopenia, sometimes with a relative expansion of CD8+ T cells. About 30% of CVID patients have persistent relatively high levels of circulating CD8+ T cells binding immunogenic peptides from EBV or CMV. Many of these patients also have high relative numbers of circulating CD8+ perforin positive T cells, and there is evidence that these cells may be responsible for neutropenia or inflammatory bowel disease in some patients. The clinical spectrum of CVID is diverse, with some patients suffering from few infections, and over 50% have evidence of structural lung damage. About 25% of UK patients have chronic inflammation in various organs, particularly the lungs, liver and spleen, often with granulomatous changes. Steroids are used to treat many of the patients with chronic inflammatory complications, although trials are in progress with anti-TNF agents. The incidence of these inflammatory complications is different between countries, being rare in Sweden. Attempts to correlate clinical phenotypes with the laboratory abnormalities described above have been disappointing, suggesting that unknown genetic factors unrelated to the cause of the immunodeficiency determine the complications; attempts to identify some of these factors will be discussed. Finally a provisional scheme to sub classify CVID patients according to

  19. The relationships among heart rate variability, executive functions, and clinical variables in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Pallesen, Ståle; Hammar, Åsa; Hansen, Anita Lill; Thayer, Julian F; Tarvainen, Mika P; Nordhus, Inger Hilde

    2012-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in patients who suffer from panic disorder (PD). Reduced HRV is related to hypoactivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which negatively affects executive functioning. The present study assessed the relationships between vagally mediated HRV at baseline and measures of executive functioning in 36 patients with PD. Associations between these physiological and cognitive measures and panic-related variables were also investigated. HRV was measured using HF-power (ms(2)), and executive functions were assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Panic-related variables comprised panic frequency, panic-related distress, and duration of PD. Performance on the neuropsychological measures correlated significantly with HRV. Both panic-related distress and duration of PD were inversely related with measures of HRV and cognitive inhibition. The current findings support the purported relationship between HRV and executive functions involving the PFC. PMID:23069273

  20. Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

  1. Building prognostic models for breast cancer patients using clinical variables and hundreds of gene expression signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yufeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple breast cancer gene expression profiles have been developed that appear to provide similar abilities to predict outcome and may outperform clinical-pathologic criteria; however, the extent to which seemingly disparate profiles provide additive prognostic information is not known, nor do we know whether prognostic profiles perform equally across clinically defined breast cancer subtypes. We evaluated whether combining the prognostic powers of standard breast cancer clinical variables with a large set of gene expression signatures could improve on our ability to predict patient outcomes. Methods Using clinical-pathological variables and a collection of 323 gene expression "modules", including 115 previously published signatures, we build multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using a dataset of 550 node-negative systemically untreated breast cancer patients. Models predictive of pathological complete response (pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were also built using this approach. Results We identified statistically significant prognostic models for relapse-free survival (RFS at 7 years for the entire population, and for the subgroups of patients with ER-positive, or Luminal tumors. Furthermore, we found that combined models that included both clinical and genomic parameters improved prognostication compared with models with either clinical or genomic variables alone. Finally, we were able to build statistically significant combined models for pathological complete response (pCR predictions for the entire population. Conclusions Integration of gene expression signatures and clinical-pathological factors is an improved method over either variable type alone. Highly prognostic models could be created when using all patients, and for the subset of patients with lymph node-negative and ER-positive breast cancers. Other variables beyond gene expression and clinical-pathological variables, like gene mutation status or DNA

  2. VARIABILITY OF ORIGIN OF OBTURATOR ARTERY AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obturator artery is a branch of anterior division of internal iliac artery. It normally runs anteroinferiorly on the lateral wall of pelvis to the upper part of the obturator foramen and leaves the pelvis by passing through the obturator canal. On its course, the artery is accompanied by the obturator nerve and vein. It supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh. A severe and potentially lethal complication in pelvic injuries is arterial bleeding commonly involving the branches of the internal iliac artery, namely the lateral sacral, iliolumbar, obturator, vesical and inferior gluteal arteries. A sound knowledge of retro-pubic pelvic vascular anatomy is pivotal for successful performance of endoscopic procedures such as total extra-peritoneal inguinal hernioplasty or laparoscopic herniorraphy. The context and purpose of the study: This study is an attempt to analyse the origin, course, distribution of obturator artery in pelvis and their clinical implication. Result: out of 60 formalin fixed pelvic halves 36.6% of the specimens, (26.67% in males and 10% in females the origin of obturator artery was found to be normal from anterior division of internal iliac artery. About 63.63% from various other sources. Conclusion: This knowledge of variation in the origin of obturator artery is important while doing pelvic and groin surgeries requiring appropriate ligation. Such aberrant origins may be a significant source for persistent bleeding in the setting of acute trauma. Knowledge regarding the variations of obturator artery is useful during surgeries of fracture and direct or indirect inguinal, femoral and obturator hernias.

  3. Clinical Trials With Large Numbers of Variables: Important Advantages of Canonical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2016-01-01

    Canonical analysis assesses the combined effects of a set of predictor variables on a set of outcome variables, but it is little used in clinical trials despite the omnipresence of multiple variables. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of canonical analysis as compared with traditional multivariate methods using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). As an example, a simulated data file with 12 gene expression levels and 4 drug efficacy scores was used. The correlation coefficient between the 12 predictor and 4 outcome variables was 0.87 (P = 0.0001) meaning that 76% of the variability in the outcome variables was explained by the 12 covariates. Repeated testing after the removal of 5 unimportant predictor and 1 outcome variable produced virtually the same overall result. The MANCOVA identified identical unimportant variables, but it was unable to provide overall statistics. (1) Canonical analysis is remarkable, because it can handle many more variables than traditional multivariate methods such as MANCOVA can. (2) At the same time, it accounts for the relative importance of the separate variables, their interactions and differences in units. (3) Canonical analysis provides overall statistics of the effects of sets of variables, whereas traditional multivariate methods only provide the statistics of the separate variables. (4) Unlike other methods for combining the effects of multiple variables such as factor analysis/partial least squares, canonical analysis is scientifically entirely rigorous. (5) Limitations include that it is less flexible than factor analysis/partial least squares, because only 2 sets of variables are used and because multiple solutions instead of one is offered. We do hope that this article will stimulate clinical investigators to start using this remarkable method. PMID:23591025

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT MOTIVATION: PERCEPTION OF PRE-CLINICAL STUDENTS IN THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY, DAMMAM, SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bamosa, Abdullah O.; Ali, Basil A.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To study the relationship between student motivation for learning and 38 factors related to teaching, curriculum and administration. Method: A total of 231 male and female medical students in the first three pre-clinical years participated in the study by completing a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Factors that have been rated as strong promoters of motivation include: injecting relevant clinical information into lectures, encouraging student participation, revising previ...

  5. Duodenal Ulcer and Helicobacter pylori Infection at High Altitude: Experience from Southern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical presentation, endoscopic features and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients in southern Saudi Arabia, located 3150 m above sea level, and to compare results with those from low altitude regions of the Kingdom.METHODS: Prospective study of patients with proven DU referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Asir Central Hospital, Abha, southern Saudi Arabia over an 18-month period.RESULTS: Of 126 patients with proven DU, 72% were...

  6. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel RM

    2013-01-01

    Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sa...

  7. Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

  8. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  9. Impact of Analytical Variability on Clinical Interpretation of Multiplex Pneumococcal Serology Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Simmerman, Kelly; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Daly, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The response to pneumococcal vaccination can be used to assess a patient's humoral immune response to polysaccharide antigens. Multiplex assays measuring serotype-specific levels of pneumococcal antibodies are often used for this purpose, and clinical algorithms have been published to assist in the definition of an adequate immune response. We evaluated whether interlaboratory variability in multiplex pneumococcal serology assays would affect the clinical classification of the immune response...

  10. Clinical variables and implications of the personality on the outcome of bipolar illness: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Barquero, Nieves; García-López, Olga; Fernández-Argüelles, Pedro; Camacho-Laraña, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients is affected by comorbidity. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. This pilot study examined a series of 40 euthymic bipolar patients (DSM-IV criteria) (bipolar I disorder 31, bipolar II disorder 9) to assess the effect of clinical variables and the influence of comorbid personality on the clinical course of bipolar illness. Bipolar patients with a diagnosis of comorbid personality disorder (n = 30) were compar...

  11. Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Jumah K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder

  12. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand f...

  13. Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.

    1993-01-01

    Drug-induced improvement of depression may be mediated by changes in sleep physiology. The aim of this study was to relate changes in sleep polygraphic variables to clinical state during treatment with citalopram, a highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. Sixteen patients took part. The study wa

  14. Undergraduate Nurse Variables that Predict Academic Achievement and Clinical Competence in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ian; Hall, Margaret; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for undergraduate nursing students. Sixteen latent variables were considered including the students' background, gender, type of first language, age, their previous successes with their undergraduate nursing studies and status given for…

  15. Variability of Spirometry in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Results from Two Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Herpel, Laura B.; Kanner, Richard E.; Lee, Shing M.; Fessler, Henry E.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Connett, John E.; Wise, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to determine short-term intraindividual biologic and measurement variability in spirometry of patients with a wide range of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity, using datasets from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and the Lung Health Study (LHS). This may be applied to determine criteria that can be used to assess a clinically meaningful change in spirometry.

  16. Sources of variability in medical student evaluations on the internal medicine clinical rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Spielvogel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the sources of variability in evaluator ratings among third year medical students in the Internal Medicine clinical rotation. Also, to examine systematic effects and variability introduced by differences in the various student, evaluator, and evaluation settings. Methods: A multilevel model was used to estimate the amount of between-student, between-rater and rater-student interaction variability present in the students' clinical evaluations in a third year internal medicine clinical rotation. Within this model, linear regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on the students' numerical evaluation scores and the reliability of those scores. Results: A total of 2,747 evaluation surveys were collected from 389 evaluators on 373 students over 4.5 years. All surveys used a nine-point grading scale, and therefore all results are reported on this scale. The calculated between-rater, between-student and rater-student interaction variance components were 0.50, 0.27 and 0.62, respectively. African American/Black students had lower scores than Caucasian students by 0.58 points (t=-3.28; P=0.001. No gender effects were noted. Conclusions: These between-rater and between-student variance components imply that the evaluator plays a larger role in the students' scores than the students themselves. The residual rater-student interaction variance was larger and did not change by accounting for the measured demographic variables. This implies there is significant variability in each rater-student interaction that remains unexplained. This could contribute to unreliability in the system, requiring that students receive between 8 and 17 clinical evaluations to achieve 80reliability.

  17. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Factors that influence women's nutrition knowledge in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A A; Hassan, S A

    1994-01-01

    We studied knowledge of nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation in 150 pregnant Saudi women at three primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used an interview schedule to collect data regarding the women's knowledge and to determine the effects of certain independent variables on the knowledge scores. Green et al.'s (1980) PRECEDE model provided the theoretical framework for the study. Descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data. The majority of the women had poor nutrition knowledge scores, with no significant differences among the three centers. A positive relationship was found between knowledge score and educational level. Negative relationships were found between knowledge score and number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and number of living children. The findings have several implications for efforts to improve the health status of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8002417

  19. DIVIDEND POLICY IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dialdin Osman; Elsaudi Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    We examine dividend policy in a unique environment in Saudi Arabia, where (1) firms distribute almost 100% of their profits in dividends, (2) firms are highly levered mainly through bank loans, and (3) there are no income or capital gains taxes. Some common factors that affect dividend policy of both financial and non-financial firms, we found some factors that affect only non-financial firms. In particular, the common factors are profitability, size, and business risk. Government ownership, ...

  20. Sociodemografic profile and clinical variables of hypertension’s patients was traced assisted in clinical school of physiotherapy from UESB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josyanne Teixeira de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The High Blood Pressure (HBP is a chronic, multifactorial and systemic disease. It is estimated that about 15% to 20% of the Brazilian population may be hypertensive. We attempted to trace the sociodemographic profile and clinical variables of patients with hypertension cared at the Physiotherapy School Clinic (PSC from the Southwestern Bahia State University (UESB, to collaborate with a better understanding and care of patients with HBP. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 34 persons cared for in a Physiotherapy School Clinic from the Southwestern Bahia State University, evaluated betwe en September 2007 and February 2008. We used semi-structured interview. It was observed that 20 were female, 26 were older than 50 years, 32 had studied only till high school, 22 had as income until a minimum wage, 30 made use of the Public Health Service, but 14 were not part groups of Hypertension, 20 nonsmokers, 23 did not consume alcohol, 23 were not diabetic and 23 did not exercise 20 were overweight, 15 had stage 1 hypertension, 6 were not diet, 25 were taking antihypertensive drugs regularly. Drew up a more detailed profile of hypertensive patients cared in PSC / UESB and their variables, which agrees with several studies in the area. Therefore, it becomes easier to understand these patients and a more individualized approach that delivers better care physiotherapy.

  1. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia: the journey across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright

    2015-03-01

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest Arab country with a moderate annual burden of tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis (TB) is among several infectious diseases that have not been brought under control, despite the government's considerable efforts. This is clearly evidenced by the ongoing transmission of several imported and indigenous clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, the country faces the threat from rising proportions of extrapulmonary TB, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections, and drug resistance. Furthermore, the country falls behind the global targets set by World Health Organization for the success rate of TB treatment. The country needs more population-based research studies, centralized and easily accessible clinical data registries, and centralized research and diagnostic facilities. This review focused on the trends of mycobacterial infections and on future proposals to improve TB control measures in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25771458

  3. HIV-1 Genetic Variability in Cuba and Implications for Transmission and Clinical Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Madeline; Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor; Ruiz, Nancy; Romay, Dania; Silva, Eladio

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Serological and molecular HIV-1 studies in Cuba have shown very low prevalence of seropositivity, but an increasing genetic diversity attributable to introduction of many HIV-1 variants from different areas, exchange of such variants among HIV-positive people with several coinciding routes of infection and other epidemiologic risk factors in the seropositive population. The high HIV-1 genetic variability observed in Cuba has possible implications for transmission and clinical progression. OBJECTIVE Study genetic variability for the HIV-1 env, gag and pol structural genes in Cuba; determine the prevalence of B and non-B subtypes according to epidemiologic and behavioral variables and determine whether a relationship exists between genetic variability and transmissibility, and between genetic variability and clinical disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS Using two molecular assays (heteroduplex mobility assay and nucleic acid sequencing), structural genes were characterized in 590 people with HIV-1 (480 men and 110 women), accounting for 3.4% of seropositive individuals in Cuba as of December 31, 2013. Nonrandom sampling, proportional to HIV prevalence by province, was conducted. Relationships between molecular results and viral factors, host characteristics, and patients' clinical, epidemiologic and behavioral variables were studied for molecular epidemiology, transmission, and progression analyses. RESULTS Molecular analysis of the three HIV-1 structural genes classified 297 samples as subtype B (50.3%), 269 as non-B subtypes (45.6%) and 24 were not typeable. Subtype B prevailed overall and in men, mainly in those who have sex with men. Non-B subtypes were prevalent in women and heterosexual men, showing multiple circulating variants and recombinant forms. Sexual transmission was the predominant form of infection for all. B and non-B subtypes were encountered throughout Cuba. No association was found between subtypes and

  4. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  5. Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mahmoud Abdullah

    1986-01-01

    The history of higher education in Saudi Arabia is outlined, especially as it relates to Islamic religion and educational philosophy, and its rapid growth is chronicled. These aspects are examined: Saudi students studying abroad, foreign students in Saudi Arabia, women's education, the Ministry of Higher Education's role, and financing. (MSE)

  6. Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  7. Sequence variability of human cytomegalovirus UL143 in low-passage clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Rong; RUAN Qiang; QI Ying; MA Yan-ping; HUANG Yu-jing; SUN Zheng-rong; JI Yao-hua

    2006-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects a number of organs and tissues in vivo. The different symptoms and tissue tropisms of HCMV infection perhaps result from genetic polymorphism. A new region of DNA containing at least 19 open reading frames(ORFs) (denoted UL133 to 151) was found in the low-passage HCMV clinical strain, Toledo, and several other low-passage clinical isolates, but not present in the HCMV laboratory strain, AD169. One of these genes, UL143, was studied to explore the sequence variability of UL143 ORF in HCMV clinical isolates and examine the possible association between gene variability and the outcome of HCMV infection.Methods The UL143 gene of the strains obtained from suspected congenitally HCMV-infected infants was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced.Results Nineteen sequences of the strains were divided into 2 major groups, G1(n=16) and G2(n=3). All of the sequences had frame-shift mutation compared to Toledo. Nucleotide polymorphisms conferred substantial amino acid substitutions when compared with Toledo. All 16 UL143 putative proteins of the strains in G1 had a new myristylation site and loss of two PKC sites owing to missense mutations. No convincing relationships were observed between the presence of HCMV disease and the UL 143 sequence group.Conclusions HCMV-UL143 existed in low passage isolates. Sequence variability caused by frame-shift mutation was found in all HCMV clinical strains. No obvious linkage was observed between UL143 polymorphisms and the outcome of suspected congenital HCMV infection.

  8. Episiotomy and its relationship to various clinical variables that influence its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Meseguer, Carmen; Carrillo-García, César; Meseguer-de-Pedro, Mariano; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel; Martínez-Roche, Mª Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand the episiotomy rate and its relationship with various clinical variables. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytic study of 12,093 births in a tertiary hospital. Variables: Parity, gestational age, start of labor, use of epidural analgesia, oxytocin usage, position during fetal explusion, weight of neonate, and completion of birth. The analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: the global percentage of episiotomies was 50%. The clinical variables that presented a significant association were primiparity (RR=2.98), gestational age >41 weeks (RR=1.2), augmented or induced labor (RR=1.33), epidural analgesia use (RR=1,95), oxytocin use (RR=1.58), lithotomy position during fetal expulsion (RR=6.4), and instrumentation (RR=1.84). Furthermore, maternal age ≥35 years (RR=0.85) and neonatal weight <2500 g (RR=0.8) were associated with a lower incidence of episiotomy. Conclusions: episiotomy is dependent on obstetric interventions performed during labor. If we wish to reduce the episiotomy rate, it will be necessary to bear in mind these risk factors when establishing policies for reducing this procedure. PMID:27224064

  9. Preoperative Cardiac Variables of Diastolic Dysfunction and Clinical Outcomes in Lung Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Yadlapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orthotopic lung transplantation is now widely performed in patients with advanced lung disease. Patients with moderate or severe ventricular systolic dysfunction are typically excluded from lung transplantation; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the prognostic significance of abnormal left ventricular diastolic function and elevated pretransplant pulmonary pressures. Methods. We reviewed the characteristics of 111 patients who underwent bilateral and unilateral lung transplants from 200 to 2009 in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative markers of diastolic function, including invasively measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP and echocardiographic variables of diastolic dysfunction including mitral A>E and A′>E′. Results. Out of 111 patients, 62 were male (56% and average age was 54.0 ± 10.5 years. Traditional echocardiographic Doppler variables of abnormal diastolic function, including A′>E′ and A>E, did not predict adverse events (P=0.49. Mildly elevated pretransplant PCWP (16–20 mmHg and moderately/severely elevated PCWP (>20 mmHg were not associated with adverse clinical events after transplant (P=0.30. Additionally, all clinical endpoints did not show any statistical significance between the two groups. Conclusions. Pre-lung transplant invasive and echocardiographic findings of elevated pulmonary pressures and abnormal left ventricular diastolic function are not predictive of adverse posttransplant clinical events.

  10. IL8 gene as modifier of cystic fibrosis: unraveling the factors which influence clinical variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Larissa Lazzarini; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Salomão Junior, João Batista; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2016-08-01

    The severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with classes of mutations in the CFTR gene (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator), physical environment and modifier genes interaction. The IL8 gene (interleukin 8), according to its respective polymorphisms, influences inflammatory responses. This study analyzed IL8 gene polymorphisms (rs4073, rs2227306 and rs2227307), by means of PCR/RFLP, and their association with pulmonary function markers and clinical severity scores in 186 patients with CF, considering the CFTR genotype. There was an association between rs2227307 and precocity of the disease. The severity of lung disease was associated with the following markers: transcutaneous arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) (regardless of CFTR genotype, for the polymorphisms rs4073, rs2227306 and rs2227307); mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (regardless of CFTR genotype, for the polymorphisms rs2227306 and rs2227307). Pulmonary function markers (SaO2 and spirometric variables) and clinical severity scores were also associated with IL8 gene polymorphisms. This study identified the IL8 gene, represented by rs4073 and rs2227306 polymorphisms, and particularly the rs2227307 polymorphism, as potentiating factors for the degree of variability in the severity of CF, especially in pulmonary clinical manifestation correlated with increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:27209008

  11. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  12. Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajhoj, Hassan

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Prognostic clinical variables in childhood tuberculous meningitis: An experience from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, tuberculous meningitis (TBM is still a major cause of neurological disabilities and death. Aim: To identify the clinical variables which predict the outcome in childhood TBM. Setting: Tertiary teaching hospital. Design: Prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six clinical variables were analyzed in 123 consecutive children with TBM admitted between May 2000 and August 2003. The outcome was assessed in terms of survival or death. Survival meant that the patient was discharged from hospital having made a complete recovery, or with disability. Results: Twenty-five (20% children recovered completely, 70 (57% survived with disability, and 28 (23% died. Employing univariate analysis nine variables correlated with survival with disability outcome: presence of tonic motor posturing, cranial nerve palsy, focal neurological deficit, hypertonia, moderate to severe hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction on cranial CT, and requiring shunt surgery, and absence of extracranial tuberculosis and no antituberculous-related hepatotoxicity; two variables correlated with fatal outcome: presence of deep coma (Glasgow coma scale score < 6, and absence of extrapyramidal movements. When logistic regression was applied only the presence of hypertonia ( P = 0.012, d.f. = 1, OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.62 correlated with survival with disability outcome, and presence of deep coma (P = 0.030, d.f. = 1, OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.90 with fatal outcome. Conclusion: In children with TBM, the presence of hypertonia at admission is an independent predictor of neurological sequelae in survivors, and deep coma is an independent predictor of mortality.

  14. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    . These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Koch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 162 clinicians at 15 substance abuse treatment clinics in Michigan. Measures: Environmental scanning was measured by frequency of use of the Internet, journals, seminars or conferences, and people at other treatment clinics for new substance abuse treatment information. Clinicians were asked for their perceptions of their clinic’s openness to new treatment techniques and support for acquiring new information, access to and satisfaction with information sources at work, as well as if they feel it is their job to keep up to date with current treatment research. Additional measures included whether they intended to quit their jobs and whether they were emotionally drained from work. Findings: We found positive associations between environmental scanning and perceived clinic support for acquiring new information, perceived clinic openness to new treatment techniques, access to e-mail and Internet at work, and satisfaction with resources. Turnover intention and being emotionally drained were negatively associated with environmental scanning. Conclusion. : Individual and organizational level variables were found to be associated with higher levels of environmental scanning activity. Although the causal directions of these associations are not known, the findings suggest ways to increase environmental scanning among clinicians.

  16. Isotopic composition of Riyadh rainfall, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of δ18O and δD are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed δ18O and δD values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of δ-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory

  17. Index funds and diversification in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham Benjelloun; Abdulkader M.A. Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how best to diversify in Saudi Arabia's stock market. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis proceeds as follows: first, repeated sampling with replacement from a sample of 62 actual companies' monthly stock returns from January 2001 to June 2006 is used to simulate the performance of various portfolio sizes; second, a modified Statman diversification model is used to evaluate the performance of index funds in Saudi Arabia and thus ass...

  18. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING RICE CONSUMPTION IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Duwais, Abdul-Aziz M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has undergone rapid economic growth and development. This expansion stems from the increase in the Kingdom's production of petroleum--oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues. However, despite this growth, Saudi Arabia is one of the top foodstuff importers among developing countries. It has been estimated that the value of Saudi agriculture imports in 1981 increased about 33 percent to ...

  20. SEQUENCE VARIABILITY OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS UL144 OPEN READING FRAME IN LOW-PASSAGE CLINICAL ISOLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong He; Yao-hua Ji; Qiang Ruan; Chang Xia; Lan-qing Liu; Sheng-min Lü; Ying Lu; Ying Qi; Yan-ping Ma; Qing Liu

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL144 sequence variability and clinical disease.Methods HCMV UL144 open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by PCR assay in 72 lowpassage isolates [65 congenitally infective children and 7 healthy children who were HCMV-DNA positive by quantitative PCR (qPCR)]. All positive PCR products were analyzed by heteroduplex mobility assay and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (HMA-SSCP) and 32 of them were sequenced.Resuits Fifty-five patient isolates and five healthy children isolates were HCMV-UL144 positive by PCR. Sequencing and HMA-SSCP analysis showed that significant strain-specific variability was present in the UL144 ORF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequences could be separated into 3 major genotypes. Comparing between UL144 sequences and the corresponding symptoms showed that genotype 2 did not exist in megacolon isolates. And genotype 1 and 3 were the major types among microcephaly and jaundice isolates respectively.Conclusions HCMV-UL144 existed in most of low passage isolates and sequences were hypervariable. The UL144ORF and its predicted product with the high level of sequence variability in different kinds of isolates suggest that UL144ORF might play a role in HCMV infectivity and subsequent diseases.

  1. HIGH VARIABILITY OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS UL150 OPEN READING FRAME IN LOW-PASSAGED CLINICAL ISOLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the polymorphism of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL150 open reading frame(ORF) in low-passaged clinical isolates, and to study the relationship between the polymorphism and different pathogenesis of congenital HCMV infection.Methods PCR was performed to amplify the entire HCMV UL150 ORF region of 29 clinical isolates, which hadbeen proven containing detectable HCMV-DNA using fluorescence quantitative PCR. PCR amplifcation products weresequenced directly, and the data were analyzed.Results Totally 25 among 29 isolates were amplified, and 18 isolates were sequenced successfully. HCMVUL150 ORF sequences derived from congenitally infected infants were high variability. The UL150 ORF in all 18 clinical isolates shifted backward by 8 nucleotides leading to frame-shift, and contained a single nucleotide deletion at nucleotide position 226 compared with that of Toledo strain. The nucleotide diversity was 0. 1% to 6. 8% and the amino acid diversity was 0. 2% to 19. 2% related to Toledo strain. However, the nucleotide diversity was 0. 1% to 6.4% and amino acid diversity was 0. 2% to 8.3% by compared with Merlin strain. Compared with Toledo, 4 new cysteine residues and 13 additional posttranslational modification sites were observed in UL150 putative proteins of clinical isolates. Moreover, the UL150 putative protein contained an additional transmembrane helix at position of 4-17 amino acid related to Toledo.Conclusion HCMV UL150 ORF and deduced amino acid sequences of clinical strains are hypervariability. No obvious linkage between the polymorphism and different pathogenesis of congenital HCMV infection is found.

  2. Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies Supports the Pharmacokinetic Variability Hypothesis for Acquired Drug Resistance and Failure of Antituberculosis Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Srivastava, Shashikant; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory studies have questioned nonadherence as a cause of antituberculosis drug failure and propose that between-patient pharmacokinetic variability may be the cause. This meta-analysis provides clinical evidence that pharmacokinetic variability of isoniazid alone leads to worse microbiological failure, relapse, and acquired drug resistance.

  3. Variability amongst radiographers in the categorization of clinical acceptability for digital trauma radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Robin; Toomey, Rachel; Smits, Dirk; Mol, Harrie; Verhelle, Filip; Butler, Marie-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Radiographers evaluate anatomical structures to judge clinical acceptability of a radiograph. Whether a radiograph is deemed acceptable for diagnosis or not depends on the individual decision of the radiographer. Individual decisions cause variation in the accepted image quality. To minimise these variations definitions of acceptability, such as in RadLex, were developed. On which criteria radiographers attribute a RadLex categories to radiographs is unknown. Insight into these criteria helps to further optimise definitions and reduce variability in acceptance between radiographers. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the correlation between the RadLex classification and the evaluation of anatomical structures, using a Visual Grading Analysis (VGA) Methods: Four radiographers evaluated the visibility of five anatomical structures of 25 lateral cervical spine radiographs on a secondary class display with a VGA. They judged clinical acceptability of each radiograph using RadLex. Relations between VGAS and RadLex category were analysed with Kendall's Tau correlation and Nagelkerke pseudo-R². Results: The overall VGA score (VGAS) and the RadLex score correlate (rτ= 0.62, pConclusion: RadLex scores and VGAS correlate positively, strongly and significantly. The predictive value of bony structures may support the use of these in the judgement of clinical acceptability. Considerable inter-observer variations in the VGAS within a certain RadLex category, suggest that observers use of observer specific cut-off values.

  4. Variable clinical course in acute necrotizing encephalopathy and identification of a novel RANBP2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Katharina; Storch, Katja; Hahn, Gabriele; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Ramantani, Georgia; Jackson, Sandra; Neilson, Derek; von der Hagen, Maja; Hehr, Ute; Smitka, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare disease presenting with rapidly progressing encephalopathy. It usually occurs in otherwise healthy children after common viral infections. The hallmarks of ANE are the neuroradiological findings of multiple symmetric lesions in the thalami, midbrain, pons and brainstem. Most cases are sporadic and non recurrent. However, recurrent or familial forms of ANE due to mutations in RANBP2 gene have been reported. It has been suggested to give these cases the term ANE1. We report the clinical course in two male infants (P1, P2) with ANE1 and a variable clinical course and outcome. One patient is heterozygous for the most common RANBP2 missense mutation p.Thr585Met. In the other patient we observed a novel de novo missense mutation p.Trp681Cys in the RANBP2 gene causing recurrent ANE. Clinical and radiological features are presented and differential diagnoses are discussed. This report adds to the current knowledge of the phenotype in ANE, caused by mutations in RANBP2 gene. PMID:26923722

  5. Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

  6. Children with language problems in a speech and hearing clinic : Background variables and extent of language problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, A.L.; Knijff, W.A.; Post, W.J.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of a clinical population referred for language analysis in terms of background variables and extent of language problems. Design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: Children referred to a speech and hearing clinic because of assumed language problems were analyzed with sta

  7. Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated

  8. Myocardial Architecture and Patient Variability in Clinical Patterns of Atrial Fibrillation

    CERN Document Server

    Manani, Kishan A; Peters, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of four to five and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF. We use a simple model of activation wavefront propagation on an anisotropic structure, mimicking heart muscle tissue, to show how variation in AF behaviour arises naturally from microstructural differences between individuals. We show that the stochastic nature of progressive transversal uncoupling of muscle strands (e.g., due to fibrosis or gap junctional remodelling), as occurs with age, results in variability in AF episode onset time, frequency, duration, burden ...

  9. Atherosclerotic disease and risk factor modification in Saudi Arabia: a call to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Omran M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general internists, cardiologists and vascular surgeons in managing these patients in Saudi Arabia is not currently known. This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in patients with AD amongst physicians in Saudi Arabia in two clinical presentations; coronary artery disease (CAD and peripheral artery disease (PAD.Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 897 physicians at different hospitals in four provinces in Saudi Arabia.Results: The recommended targets of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, blood glucose, and blood pressure in patients with CAD and PAD were known as 40% and 36%; 70% and 66%; and 32% and 28% of physicians, respectively. The initiation of antiplatelet medications, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, statins, and nicotine replacement therapy for smokers in patients with CAD and PAD were recommended by 98% and 97%; 52% and 34%; 61% and 56%; and 50% and 43% of physicians, respectively. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold for initiating risk reduction therapy, whereas vascular surgeons had the highest threshold.Conclusion: The level of physician awareness of atherosclerosis risk reduction therapy across Saudi Arabia has revealed knowledge and action gaps. A call to action to implement effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy and increase public awareness is needed

  10. Thermochemoradiotherapy for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer. Analysis of clinical results and background variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, Hideyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo; Nagashima, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Hajime; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Sohma, Yoh; Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Imai, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Masaki [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Dentistry

    2001-03-01

    Eighteen patients with 25 unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers (squamous cell carcinomas) received thermochemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy. The total radiation dose ranged from 50 to 82 Gy (mean, 65.6 Gy). Patients received thermochemotherapy twice a week, for a total number of 8.8 sessions, on average. The temperature in the tumor, as a result of the hyperthermia, was over 42 deg C in 185 (84.5%) of the 219 treatments. Three kinds of heating systems were used: a 13.56-MHz radiofrequency system, a 2450-MHz microwave system, and a radiofrequency interstitial system. The total amount of administered CDDP ranged from 40 to 300 mg (mean, 110 mg), combined with PEP and/or 5FU. Background factors (tumor factors and treatment factors) were investigated in detail, and the clinical results (tumor response and the 5-year cumulative focal control rate) were evaluated. The relationship between these two results was then analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. The clinical results of patients with a WHO histological classification of grade 3 were poor compared with patients with a classification of grade 1 or 2. The difference between these two results was significant when analyzed using univariate statistics, but not significant when analyzed using multivariate statistics. The clinical results of patients with primary lesions surrounded by bony tissues were slightly poor compared with those of patients whose lesions were surrounded by soft tissues, but the difference between these two results was not significant. Successful treatment of refractory recurrent tumors, large tumor masses, and diffuse invasive carcinomas was not affected by the treatment factors (heating systems, heating sessions, radiation dose, and CDDP dose and drug combination). These results suggest that refractory recurrence, proximity to bony tissues, tumor size, and histological malignancy might not be prognostic variables for thermochemoradiotherapy strategy

  11. Understanding registered nurses’ and student nurses’ positive mentorship experiences in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) using appreciative inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Alharazi, Ruba

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work conducted for a structured doctorate consisting of four main components. The first element is a case study investigating the current practice of mentorship in a clinical setting in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The qualitative case study was conducted in a government nursing college and its associated government hospital. Data were collected through individual interviews (2) with nursing coordinators; semi-structured focus groups (8) with mentees (n=3), mentors and clinical ...

  12. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  13. Variability in clinical phenotypes of heterozygous and homozygous cases of Parkin-related Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Amanda J.; Sonja W. Scholz; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardwick, Angela; McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Parkin mutations are a common cause of early-onset Parkinson’s disease. To study the clinical features and treatment responses of patients with homozygous or heterozygous Parkin mutations, we performed a retrospective chart review in six early-onset parkinsonism patients with pathogenic Parkin mutations. The clinical phenotypes observed in this cohort, all drawn from different families, were variable. All patients had a slowly progressive form of parkinsonism that responded well to dopaminerg...

  14. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Anastasia,1 Chiara Colletti,1 Valentina Cuoco,1 Adele Quartini,1 Stefania Urso,2 Raffaella Rinaldi,2 Giuseppe Bersani1 1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Anatomical, Istological, Forensic and Locomotor System Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Introduction: Although adjustment disorder (AD is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD.Methods: A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy, was performed.Results: The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females, aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%, a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%, was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%, family problems (23.70%, and/or somatic disease (22.60% with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records.Conclusion: Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results

  15. Behaviour of Clinical, Anthropometric and Laboratory Variables in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Hernández Tamayo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing patients with metabolic syndrome is important because of the high prevalence and risk they present. Objective: to determine the behaviour of some clinical, anthropometric and laboratory variables in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. The sample included 161 patients selected at random in different research stages from a universe including all the patients who attended six different consultations in Urbano Noris municipality, Holguín, from September 2008 to June 2009. Diagnosis was performed according to the ATP-III. Variance analysis and Fisher's exact test in SPSS (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 103: 63.97% presented values over average weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and glucose. Their HDL levels were lower. A significant association between metabolic syndrome and CRP, microalbuminuria, alterations in blood sugar levels and hypertension was proved. Conclusions: The importance of characterizing the metabolic syndrome for future interventions was determined.

  16. Incorporation of expert variability into breast cancer treatment recommendation in designing clinical protocol guided fuzzy rule system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ying; John, Robert I; Ellis, Ian O

    2012-06-01

    It has been often demonstrated that clinicians exhibit both inter-expert and intra-expert variability when making difficult decisions. In contrast, the vast majority of computerized models that aim to provide automated support for such decisions do not explicitly recognize or replicate this variability. Furthermore, the perfect consistency of computerized models is often presented as a de facto benefit. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to incorporate variability within a fuzzy inference system using non-stationary fuzzy sets in order to replicate human variability. We apply our approach to a decision problem concerning the recommendation of post-operative breast cancer treatment; specifically, whether or not to administer chemotherapy based on assessment of five clinical variables: NPI (the Nottingham Prognostic Index), estrogen receptor status, vascular invasion, age and lymph node status. In doing so, we explore whether such explicit modeling of variability provides any performance advantage over a more conventional fuzzy approach, when tested on a set of 1310 unselected cases collected over a fourteen year period at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK. The experimental results show that the standard fuzzy inference system (that does not model variability) achieves overall agreement to clinical practice around 84.6% (95% CI: 84.1-84.9%), while the non-stationary fuzzy model can significantly increase performance to around 88.1% (95% CI: 88.0-88.2%), pdecision support systems in any application domain. PMID:22265814

  17. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy; Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E. A.; Syam Mohan; Sara Taha; Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Maged El-Setouhy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10) to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, r...

  18. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  19. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  20. Evaluating measurement models in clinical research: covariance structure analysis of latent variable models of self-conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, R H

    1991-02-01

    Indirect measures of psychological constructs are vital to clinical research. On occasion, however, the meaning of indirect measures of psychological constructs is obfuscated by statistical procedures that do not account for the complex relations between items and latent variables and among latent variables. Covariance structure analysis (CSA) is a statistical procedure for testing hypotheses about the relations among items that indirectly measure a psychological construct and relations among psychological constructs. This article introduces clinical researchers to the strengths and limitations of CSA as a statistical procedure for conceiving and testing structural hypotheses that are not tested adequately with other statistical procedures. The article is organized around two empirical examples that illustrate the use of CSA for evaluating measurement models with correlated error terms, higher-order factors, and measured and latent variables. PMID:2002144

  1. The Impact Of Innovation Marketing Orientation In Achieving The Competitive Advantage In Hotel Establishments In Saudi Arabia Case Study-Al Baha City-KSA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mahmoud Abdel Muhsen Irsheid Alafeef

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study was based on a sample taken from Saudi Arabia Hotels that operates their services in the city of Al-Baha and this study adopted five key variables including three variables describing the independent aspect and two variables describing the aspect where the independent variable was the Innovation Marketing Orientation infrastructure for innovation Impact of Innovation and Implementation of Innovation and the dependent variable was competitive advantage Responding amp Distin...

  2. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  3. Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

  4. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Obeidat Sadek A; Aldossary Oweida F; Marei Mohammed A; Onazi Atallah S; Almohaya Mohammed S; Almansor Mohammed A; Altannir Mohamad A; Bin Abdulhak Aref A; Obeidat Mustafa A; Riaz Muhammad S; Tleyjeh Imad M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacie...

  5. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortio...

  6. Crohn`s disease. Increasing trend in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Azzam, Nahlah A

    2013-11-01

    We attempted, through systematic review to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of Crohn's disease (CD) with special attention to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We selected articles that contained population-based, epidemiological, and clinical character studies of CD. We collected data concerned with the prevalence, demographic features, and the possible etiology of CD that might explain its emergence in KSA. The prevalence of CD in Western countries ranged between 11-43/100,000 with flawless evidence of CD prevalence emerging in previously low incidence areas like Asia. Prevalence in KSA has markedly increased over the last 3 decades. Combined ileal and colonic involvement was the most frequently affected site. Diet, smoking, drugs, and westernization of life are assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis. There is convincing evidence of CD emerging in Asia, including KSA. Westernization of lifestyle and smoking is probably the major contributing factors. Genetic studies are warranted. PMID:24252887

  7. The Parent Mealtime Action Scale revised (PMAS-R): Psychometric characteristics and associations with variables of clinical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen; Harclerode, Whitney; Williams, Keith E

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a revised and more psychometrically-examined version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS-R), then to examine how well the PMAS-R subscales explained variance for four variables relevant in clinical settings. Study participants included 238 parents of children referred to a hospital-based feeding program (72.3% male children; mean age = 72.2 months; 80 with autism spectrum disorder, 77 with other special needs, 81 with no special needs). Parents completed questionnaires to report child demographics and diet habits. Parents also used a five-point rating instead of the original three-point rating to report their usage of the 31 PMAS feeding practices. Using five-point ratings, the nine subscales of the PMAS-R demonstrated improved internal reliability and test-retest reliability compared to those published for the original PMAS. ANCOVA indicated that special needs status was the child demographic variable most associated with PMAS-R feeding practices. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that after controlling for child demographics, the nine PMAS-R subscales explained 26-49% of the variance for four variables of clinical interest (fruit and vegetable consumption, snack consumption, total food variety, and weight status). These variables of clinical interest were most often associated with "permissive" feeding practices including low Daily Fruit and Vegetable (FV) Availability, rarely using Insistence on Eating during meals, often using Many Food Choices, and often using Child-Selected Meals. The present study provides a more psychometrically-sound measure of child feeding practices, documents the association between "permissive feeding" and variables of clinical interest, and identifies specific parent practices included in "permissive feeding". PMID:27221356

  8. Bayesian Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK Approach for a Physiologically Realistic Characterization of Interindividual Variability in Clinically Relevant Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Interindividual variability in anatomical and physiological properties results in significant differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The consideration of such pharmacokinetic variability supports optimal drug efficacy and safety for each single individual, e.g. by identification of individual-specific dosings. One clear objective in clinical drug development is therefore a thorough characterization of the physiological sources of interindividual variability. In this work, we present a Bayesian population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK approach for the mechanistically and physiologically realistic identification of interindividual variability. The consideration of a generic and highly detailed mechanistic PBPK model structure enables the integration of large amounts of prior physiological knowledge, which is then updated with new experimental data in a Bayesian framework. A covariate model integrates known relationships of physiological parameters to age, gender and body height. We further provide a framework for estimation of the a posteriori parameter dependency structure at the population level. The approach is demonstrated considering a cohort of healthy individuals and theophylline as an application example. The variability and co-variability of physiological parameters are specified within the population; respectively. Significant correlations are identified between population parameters and are applied for individual- and population-specific visual predictive checks of the pharmacokinetic behavior, which leads to improved results compared to present population approaches. In the future, the integration of a generic PBPK model into an hierarchical approach allows for extrapolations to other populations or drugs, while the Bayesian paradigm allows for an iterative application of the approach and thereby a continuous updating of physiological knowledge with new data. This will facilitate decision making e.g. from preclinical to

  9. The epidemiology of Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaeli, Alaa; Bahkali, Salwa; Ali, Anna; Househ, Mowafa S; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. DF is an acute febrile illness caused by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are endemic in certain cities of Saudi Arabia, such as Jeddah and Makkah (Mecca). An online literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve DF studies conducted in Saudi Arabia. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of 10 articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional, and three observed a seroprevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9%, either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting the hospital for other reasons. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies indicated that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leukopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study concerning an educational program for DF demonstrated that a positive family history of DF, literate mothers, and age over 17 years were the predictors of a high DF knowledge score. However, the paucity of large epidemiological studies limits the generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon the expansion of DF to other cities in the Kingdom. Larger epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of DF in the Saudi population, as they are limited to seroprevalence among clinically suspected cases and hospital-based patients. PMID:26106040

  10. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel RM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  11. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPORT OF WHEAT IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Goosi, Adbullah I.

    1980-01-01

    The modern economy of Saudi Arabia depends primarily on oil exports. Oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues, it follows that the oil sector affects the economy rather than the economy affecting the oil sector. Saudi Arabia lacks natural resources for most of its essential goods and because of sudden high income, it has become necessary to introduce new strategies for producing necessary goods and services. Since Saudi Arabia depends mo...

  13. Highly variable clinical phenotype of carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 deficiency in one family: an effect of allelic variation in gene expression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaus, V; Vermeulen, T; Minassian, B;

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) causes hyperammonemia with a vast range of clinical severity from neonatal onset with early lethality to onset after age 40 with rare episodes of hyperammonemic confusion. The cause for this variability is not understood. We...... report two patients from one family with highly divergent clinical course, one presenting neonatally with a fatal form and the other at age 45 with benign diet-responsive disease. The patients are compound heterozygous for two mutations of the CPS1 gene, c.3558 + 1G > C and c.4101 + 2T > C...

  14. Developing a Test Battery to assess Determinants of Marital Relationship Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Al Tamimi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.

  15. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  17. Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)

  18. A Virtual Clinical Trial of FDG-PET Imaging of Breast Cancer: Effect of Variability on Response Assessment1

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Robert L.; Elston, Brian F.; Doot, Robert K.; Lewellen, Thomas K.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in using positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUVs) to assess tumor response to therapy. However, many error sources compromise the ability to detect SUV changes. We explore relationships between these errors and overall SUV variability. METHODS: We used simulations in a virtual clinical trial framework to study impacts of error sources from scanning and analysis effects on assessment of SUV changes. We varied tumor diameter, s...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL VARIABLES IN COPD AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank; Sameer; Manju; Rajinderpal; Kuldeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity ...

  20. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Röder Christoph; Bohler Dieter; Sprott Haiko; Aghayev Emin; Müller Urs

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studie...

  1. Clinical Variables Affecting The Pregnancy Rate of Intracervical Insemination Using Cryopreserved Donor Spermatozoa: A Retrospective Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Jun Chen; Li-Ping Wu; Hai-Lian Lan; Li Zhang; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether several clinical variables can affect the pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination (ICI) using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, age, years of infertility, cervicitis, urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, insemination number, uterus position, endometrial thickness and morphology, maximal follicle diameter, and the number of dominant follicles on the day of human chorionic gon...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LYMPH NODE INVOLVEMENT IN BLADDER CANCER PATIENTS BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Mirylenko; O. G. Sukonko; A. V. Pravorov; A. I. Rolevich; A. S. Mavrichev

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological lymph node involvement (рN+) in bladder cancer patients.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. Mono- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for pN+ prediction on preoperative data. Coefficients from logistic regression equation were used to construct the n...

  3. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunt, Fabian van de [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pearl, Michael L.; Lee, Eric K.; Peng, Lauren; Didomenico, Paul [Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  4. Clinical Malaria Transmission Trends and Its Association with Climatic Variables in Tubu Village, Botswana: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimbari, Moses John; Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi; Sartorius, Benn

    2016-01-01

    Good knowledge on the interactions between climatic variables and malaria can be very useful for predicting outbreaks and preparedness interventions. We investigated clinical malaria transmission patterns and its temporal relationship with climatic variables in Tubu village, Botswana. A 5-year retrospective time series data analysis was conducted to determine the transmission patterns of clinical malaria cases at Tubu Health Post and its relationship with rainfall, flood discharge, flood extent, mean minimum, maximum and average temperatures. Data was obtained from clinical records and respective institutions for the period July 2005 to June 2010, presented graphically and analysed using the Univariate ANOVA and Pearson cross-correlation coefficient tests. Peak malaria season occurred between October and May with the highest cumulative incidence of clinical malaria cases being recorded in February. Most of the cases were individuals aged >5 years. Associations between the incidence of clinical malaria cases and several factors were strong at lag periods of 1 month; rainfall (r = 0.417), mean minimum temperature (r = 0.537), mean average temperature (r = 0.493); and at lag period of 6 months for flood extent (r = 0.467) and zero month for flood discharge (r = 0.497). The effect of mean maximum temperature was strongest at 2-month lag period (r = 0.328). Although malaria transmission patterns varied from year to year the trends were similar to those observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Age group >5 years experienced the greatest burden of clinical malaria probably due to the effects of the national malaria elimination programme. Rainfall, flood discharge and extent, mean minimum and mean average temperatures showed some correlation with the incidence of clinical malaria cases. PMID:26983035

  5. Clinical Malaria Transmission Trends and Its Association with Climatic Variables in Tubu Village, Botswana: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirebvu, Elijah; Chimbari, Moses John; Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi; Sartorius, Benn

    2016-01-01

    Good knowledge on the interactions between climatic variables and malaria can be very useful for predicting outbreaks and preparedness interventions. We investigated clinical malaria transmission patterns and its temporal relationship with climatic variables in Tubu village, Botswana. A 5-year retrospective time series data analysis was conducted to determine the transmission patterns of clinical malaria cases at Tubu Health Post and its relationship with rainfall, flood discharge, flood extent, mean minimum, maximum and average temperatures. Data was obtained from clinical records and respective institutions for the period July 2005 to June 2010, presented graphically and analysed using the Univariate ANOVA and Pearson cross-correlation coefficient tests. Peak malaria season occurred between October and May with the highest cumulative incidence of clinical malaria cases being recorded in February. Most of the cases were individuals aged >5 years. Associations between the incidence of clinical malaria cases and several factors were strong at lag periods of 1 month; rainfall (r = 0.417), mean minimum temperature (r = 0.537), mean average temperature (r = 0.493); and at lag period of 6 months for flood extent (r = 0.467) and zero month for flood discharge (r = 0.497). The effect of mean maximum temperature was strongest at 2-month lag period (r = 0.328). Although malaria transmission patterns varied from year to year the trends were similar to those observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Age group >5 years experienced the greatest burden of clinical malaria probably due to the effects of the national malaria elimination programme. Rainfall, flood discharge and extent, mean minimum and mean average temperatures showed some correlation with the incidence of clinical malaria cases. PMID:26983035

  6. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  7. Regional Security Issues in Contemporary Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge

    2014-01-01

    In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understandi...

  8. ERP Implementation Success Factors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Malik F. Saleh; Muneer Abbad; Mohammed Al-Shehri

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature on successful implementation of ERP reveals that there are many case studies undertaken by researches, but very few have empirically examined the success factors of ERP implementation. While most of those empirical studies were undertaken in Western countries, very few had examined the implementations in Middle Eastern countries and none in Saudi Arabia. Factors and challenges of ERP implementation in developing countries differ from those of Western countries. Henc...

  9. Implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the Saudi desalination plants are of the multistage flash (MSF) type. These plants are often constructed as a dual purpose installation, producing power and water. MSF plants are considered to be energy intensive, where the energy cost is a major controlling parameter in the overall cost of desalination. Oil price fluctuations affect the cost of desalted water significantly. On the other hand, nuclear power offers price stability in the long term. Nuclear powered desalination provides long term availability of indigenous fuel, as well as long term fuel price stability. It has a minimum environmental impact if compared with other conventional desalination processes. The operational expenses of nuclear desalination are far lower than those of conventional plants. implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is essential where large water requirements exist. The CANDU PHWR is the appropriate type of nuclear reactor for Saudi Arabia. A hybrid reverse osmosis/MSF CANDU PHWR is the candidate system for applying dual purpose nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  10. Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

  11. Self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in a female university student population in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulqarnain, B J; Khan, N; Khattab, S

    1998-12-01

    The symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), reported by 705 female university students of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, are analysed. The population is representative of the educated class of Saudi Arabia. The most frequently reported symptoms were jaw feeling tired (34.5%), awareness of uncomfortable bite (31.3%), pain in front of the ear (22.4%) and discomfort upon wide opening (22.4%). The frequency of subjective reactions was, pain interferes with activity (42%), disturbed sleep (40.6%), taking of medication (27.8%) and pain being frustrating or depressing (26.8%). Some interesting relationships were found between the reported symptoms and marital status, residence and college of education. These findings are similar to those reported in a Bedouin community in Egypt, but lower than that in a Saudi Arabian population attending dental clinics, Saudi male dental students and high school students. PMID:9888230

  12. Orogenic plateau magmatism of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Kheirkhah, M.; van Hunen, J.; Davidson, J. P.; Meliksetian, Kh.; Emami, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatism is a common feature of high plateaux created during continental collision, but the causes remain enigmatic. Here we study Pliocene-Quaternary volcanics from the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, to determine the chemistry of these rocks and their relations to faulting and deeper lithospheric structure. The great majority of the centres lie within the overriding Eurasian plate in Iran, eastern Turkey and Armenia , implying that mantle fertilised by pre-collision subduction processes plays a significant role in magma generation. The composition of the Pliocene-Quaternary centres is extremely variable, ranging from OIB-like alkali basalts, to intermediate types resembling mature continental arc lavas, to potassic and even ultrapotassic lavas. These centres are erupted across a mosaic of pre-Cenozoic suture zones and heterogeneous lithospheric blocks. The chemical diversity implies a range of partial melting conditions operating on lithospheric and perhaps sub-lithospheric sources. Published data show a thick (>200 km) lithospheric keel beneath the Arabia-Eurasia suture, thinning to near normal thicknesses (~120 km) across much of central and northern Iran. Thin mantle lithosphere under eastern Turkey (max. ~30 km) may relate to the region's juvenile, accretionary lithosphere. These variable thicknesses are constraints on the cause of the melting in each area, and the degree of variation suggests that no one mechanism applies across the plateau. Various melting models have been suggested. Break-off of the subducted Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab is supported by tomographic data, which may have permitted melting related to adiabatic ascent of hot asthenosphere under areas where the lithosphere is thin. This seems a less plausible mechanism where the lithosphere is at normal or greater than normal thickness. The same problem applies to postulated lower lithosphere delamination. Isolated pull-aparts may account for the location of some centres, but are not

  13. On the spatial diffusion of fertility decline: the distance-to-clinic variable in a Chilean community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G

    1974-10-01

    Survey data collected in San Gregorio, Chile during 1967 were selected for an investigation of the importance of residence distance-from-clinic in the pattern of contraceptive acceptance. Data were obtained through interviews conducted with women of fertile age who resided in every 4th house in the community. 1163 household reports could be employed. This number included a total of 1612 women in their fertile years. The 1612 women could be divided into users of some means of contraception and non-users. Once the basic binary classification procedure has been applied, each available socioeconomic variable for users and non-users may then be compared to determine if a significant difference exists among the distribution of the variables for each group. The variables of abortions, recent births, and aspiration level were the most potent discriminators between users and non-users of birth control. The more conventional socioeconomic variables showed little discriminatory power. Distance was found to be a fairly powerful discriminator between the group of users and non-users. Several variables other than distance are correlated with birth control practice, but once the influence of the spatial variation of these correlates has been extracted, distance emerges as the single most powerful discriminator between users and non-users of contraceptive techniques. There thus appears to be a need to emphasize the distribution of contraceptive supply in order to reduce the distance which women must travel to obtain birth control information or devices. PMID:12309958

  14. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory, and The Enhanced External Counterpulsation Unit, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, 6Division of Cardiology, 7Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Aim: We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background: Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results: Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The

  15. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  16. Characteristics of pregnant Women admitted with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in a referral maternity hospital at Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Taha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date there has been no study done in Saudi Arabia to identify the risk factors for poor outcome of H1N1 infection in pregnancy. Objectives: we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological data, clinical course, treatment modalities, and maternal and fetal outcomes of 33 pregnant women diagnosed with H1N1 Influenza A in a referral maternity and children hospital at Al- Madinah Saudi Arabia on the period from June 2009 till February 2010.Methods: This retrospective cohort study reported 33 pregnant women (9.1% primigravida aged 27.7±5.6 years who were laboratory-confirmed cases diagnosed with H1N1 Influenza A in a referral maternity and children hospital at Al- Madinah Saudi Arabia on the period from June 2009 till February 2010. Their mean gestation age was 23.5±10.9 weeks with history of bronchial asthma in 45.5%.Results: The mean duration between symptoms’ onset and hospital presentation was 5.0±2.2 days with late presentation in 10 cases (30,3%. Large number of cases presented with fever more than 39 (24 (72.7%, sore-throat (24 (72.7% and cough (29 (87.9% while 19 patients presented with dyspnea (57.6%. Pregnant patients with H1N1 received Tamiflu (oseltamivir from 2 to 7 days with a mean of 4.7±1.3 days. They stayed at hospital for variable periods from 2 to 28 days with a mean of 7.9±6.6 days (Table 4. Most patients (31(93.9% received antibiotics. Maternal poor outcome included hypoxia in 6 patients (18.2%, ICU admission for 2-3 days with mechanical ventilation in 4(12.1%. The main fetal poor outcome was intrauterine fetal death in 2 (6.1% babies .Conclusion:The main presentation of H1N1 among pregnant women was typical influenza-like illness. Considerable percentage of patients presented late (30.3%. The duration of hospital admission is variable up to 28 days. Bronchial asthma was prevalent (45.5% among pregnant women with H1N1 infection. The main poor outcomes were maternal respiratory failure (18.2% and intrauterine fetal

  17. Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children in southwestern Saudi Arabia using multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ayed, Mohamed S.; Asaad, Ahmed M; Qureshi, Mohamed A.; Ameen, Mohammed S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate 15 respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) using multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and to analyze the clinical and epidemiological features of these viruses. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 135 children, ≤5 years of age who presented with ARTIs in Najran Maternity and Children Hospital, Najran, Saudi Arabia between October 2012 and July 2013 were included. The clinical and sociodemographi...

  18. Soccer injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M

    1987-01-01

    Soccer injuries which were seen at the King Fahd University Hospital over a period of 12 months were analyzed. The majority of the patients were under 20 years of age. Two-thirds of the injuries involved soft tissue, while those to the bone and joint comprised one-third. The lower extremity was involved in 59%. Sixteen percent of the injuries were considered severe enough to require inpatient treatment. We feel the high incidence of injuries can be reduced by better guidance and coaching at school and other training levels. At present, these patients are seen in the emergency room of our hospital and subsequently in the orthopaedic and fracture clinics. A specialized sports injury clinic staffed with medical and paramedical personnel with special interest in sports medicine would enable early and effective treatment returning athletes to play without undue delay. PMID:3674274

  19. Phenotypic variability of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA: clinical, molecular and biochemical delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariminejad Ariana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA (OMIM 225400 is a rare inheritable connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1; EC 1.14.11.4 due to mutations in PLOD1. Biochemically this results in underhydroxylation of collagen lysyl residues and, hence, an abnormal pattern of lysyl pyridinoline (LP and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP crosslinks excreted in the urine. Clinically the disorder is characterized by hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis at birth, joint hypermobility, and skin hyperelasticity and fragility. Severe hypotonia usually leads to delay in gross motor development, whereas cognitive development is reported to be normal. Methods We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular characterisation, as well as electron microscopy findings of skin, in 15 patients newly diagnosed with this rare type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Results Age at diagnosis ranged from 5 months to 27 years, with only 1/3 of the patients been diagnosed correctly in the first year of life. A similar disease frequency was found in females and males, however a broad disease severity spectrum (intra- and interfamilial, independent of molecular background or biochemical phenotype, was observed. Kyphoscoliosis, one of the main clinical features was not present at birth in 4 patients. Importantly we also noted the occurrence of vascular rupture antenatally and postnatally, as well as developmental delay in 5 patients. Conclusion In view of these findings we propose that EDS VIA is a highly variable clinical entity, presenting with a broad clinical spectrum, which may also be associated with cognitive delay and an increased risk for vascular events. Genotype/phenotype association studies and additional molecular investigations in more extended EDS VIA populations will be necessary to further elucidate the cause of the variability of the disease severity.

  20. Neurobiological and clinical variables associated with alcohol abuse in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Flores-Mateos, Isabel S; Franco-Zambrano, Andrés; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Beato-Fernández, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed at analysing the reciprocal relationships of several clinical and neurobiological items in order to predict alcohol misuse in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Seventy BN patients and 70 healthy controls were assessed for depression, impulsivity, borderline personality traits and self-defeating behaviours using specific scales; serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxiindolacetic acid were also assessed. The study confirmed the implications of these clinical factors for alcohol misuse in BN patients, but the results suggested that depressive symptoms and hypercortisolism could lie behind these relationships. PMID:25766414

  1. Incidence of temonera, sulphuhydryl variables and cefotaximase genes associated with β-lactamase producing escherichia coli in clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeh Nnana Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of the different types of Extended spectrum beta Lactamase producing Escherichia coli with the, Sulphurhydryl variable, Temonera and the Cefotaximase have been on the rise Aim: The study was to determine the prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase gene resistance across the clinical isolates of hospitalized patients. Materials and Method: Three hundred and fifty isolates of Escherichia coli were received from different clinical specimens. The susceptibility profile of the isolates against 10 different antibiotics was examined, the MICs (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for ceftazidime were also determined using micro-broth dilution assay. Isolates showing MIC ≥ 6 μg/ml for ceftazidime were screened for ESBL (PCTphenotypic confirmatory test and subjected to PCR (polymerase chain reaction to further. Results: By disk diffusion test, there was resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime were 180(51.4% and 120 (34.2% respectively. However, all strains were susceptible to imipenem. 250 isolates showed MICs≥ 6 μg/ml for ceftazidime of which 180 (72% were positive for extended spectrum beta lactamase. The prevalence of Sulphurhydryl variable, Temonera and the Cefotaximase among these isolates were 17.1%, 6.6% and 17%, respectively. Conclusion: For the identification of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing isolates it is recommended that clinical laboratories adopt simple test based on Cinical laboratory standard institute recommendation for confirming extended spectrum beta lactamase production in enterobacteriacea species.

  2. Variables influencing presenting symptoms of patients with eating disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-04-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) have been underdiagnosed in many clinical settings. This study investigates the influence of clinical characteristics on presenting symptoms of patients with EDs. Psychiatric outpatients, aged 18-45, were enrolled sequentially and received a two-phase survey for EDs in August 2010-January 2013. Their primary reasons for seeking psychiatric help were obtained at their first encounter with outpatient psychiatrists. Patients' clinical and demographic characteristics were compared according to presenting symptoms with or without eating/weight problems. Of 2140 patients, 348 (16.3%) were diagnosed with an ED (22.6% of women and 6.3% of men). The three most common reasons for seeking psychiatric help were eating/weight problems (46.0%), emotional problems (41.3%), and sleep disturbances (19.3%). The multivariate analyses suggest that when patients with EDs presented symptoms that were less related to eating/weight problems, they were significantly more likely to be those having diagnoses other than anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa and less severe degree of binge-eating. Further, patients with EDs who demonstrated more impulsive behaviors and poorer functioning were less likely to report their eating problems when visiting psychiatric clinics. Thus, ED should be assessed routinely in patients with complex psychopathology to facilitate comprehensive treatment. PMID:27086254

  3. Variable Origin of the Superior Laryngeal Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Soubhagya R. Nayak1*, Ashwin Krishnamurthy2, Latha V. Prabhu2, Bhagath Kumar Potu3, Ishwar B. Bagoji4, Jiji PJ2 and Ganesh Kumar Chettiar2

    2011-01-01

    The superior laryngeal artery (SLA) is the dominant arterial supply of the laryngeal muscles, mucosa and glands. The purpose of the present study was to document the variable origin of the SLA in the carotid triangle. Although the variation in the SLA origin and morphology is important during the partial laryngectomy and reconstruction surgery of the larynx, the description of the SLA in modern literature is vague. The anatomy of SLA was studied in 37 adult South Indian preserved cadavers age...

  4. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Dickson, Marcus W.; Elizabeth Agius; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administ...

  5. Variable Origin of the Superior Laryngeal Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya R. Nayak1*, Ashwin Krishnamurthy2, Latha V. Prabhu2, Bhagath Kumar Potu3, Ishwar B. Bagoji4, Jiji PJ2 and Ganesh Kumar Chettiar2

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The superior laryngeal artery (SLA is the dominant arterial supply of the laryngeal muscles, mucosa and glands. The purpose of the present study was to document the variable origin of the SLA in the carotid triangle. Although the variation in the SLA origin and morphology is important during the partial laryngectomy and reconstruction surgery of the larynx, the description of the SLA in modern literature is vague. The anatomy of SLA was studied in 37 adult South Indian preserved cadavers aged between 48 to 81 years. The antero-lateral region of the neck was exposed. After the visualization of laryngeal prominence, the strap muscles were resected and the SLA and the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ILN were exposed. The variable origin of SLA was observed. The origin of the SLA was variable and was classified in to four different groups. Type I: Subtype Ia, the SLA originates from the superior thyroid artery (STA (SLA with a transverse course [75.6%] and subtype Ib, the SLA originates from the STA (SLA with an initially ascending course [4%]; type II: the SLA originates from the lingual artery [5.4%]; type III: the SLA originates directly from the external carotid artery (ECA [12.1%]; type IV: the SLA originates from the linguo-facial trunk [2.7%]. In addition to above variations, in a single case the SLA was duplicated and in three instances the posterior glandular branch of the thyroid gland was arosed from the SLA.

  6. Spectral analysis of systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities in preterm infants: relationship with clinical risk index for babies (CRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency spectrum analysis of circulatory signals has been proposed as a potential method for clinical risk assessment of preterm infants by previous studies. In this study, we examined the relationships between various spectral measures derived from systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities and the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB II). Physiological data collected from 17 early low birth weight infants within 1–3 h after birth were analysed. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses were performed on heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measures such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobins (HbO2 and HHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI). In addition, indices related to cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and cerebral autoregulation were derived from the very low, low- and mid-frequency ranges (VLF, LF and MF). Moderate correlations with CRIB II were identified from mean arterial pressure (MAP) normalized MF power (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), LF MAP–HHb coherence (r = 0.64, P = 0.006), TOI VLF percentage power (r = 0.55, P = 0.023) and LF baroreflex gain (r = −0.61, P = 0.01 after logarithmic transformation), with the latter two parameters also highly correlated with gestational age (r = −0.75, P = 0.0005 and r = 0.70, P = 0.002, respectively). The relationships between CRIB II and various spectral measures of arterial baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation functions have provided further justification for these measures as possible markers of clinical risks and predictors of adverse outcome in preterm infants

  7. Molecular method for the characterization of Coxiella burnetii from clinical and environmental samples: variability of genotypes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jado Isabel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is a highly clonal microorganism which is difficult to culture, requiring BSL3 conditions for its propagation. This leads to a scarce availability of isolates worldwide. On the other hand, published methods of characterization have delineated up to 8 different genomic groups and 36 genotypes. However, all these methodologies, with the exception of one that exhibited limited discriminatory power (3 genotypes, rely on performing between 10 and 20 PCR amplifications or sequencing long fragments of DNA, which make their direct application to clinical samples impracticable and leads to a scarce accessibility of data on the circulation of C. burnetii genotypes. Results To assess the variability of this organism in Spain, we have developed a novel method that consists of a multiplex (8 targets PCR and hybridization with specific probes that reproduce the previous classification of this organism into 8 genomic groups, and up to 16 genotypes. It allows for a direct characterization from clinical and environmental samples in a single run, which will help in the study of the different genotypes circulating in wild and domestic cycles as well as from sporadic human cases and outbreaks. The method has been validated with reference isolates. A high variability of C. burnetii has been found in Spain among 90 samples tested, detecting 10 different genotypes, being those adaA negative associated with acute Q fever cases presenting as fever of intermediate duration with liver involvement and with chronic cases. Genotypes infecting humans are also found in sheep, goats, rats, wild boar and ticks, and the only genotype found in cattle has never been found among our clinical samples. Conclusions This newly developed methodology has permitted to demonstrate that C. burnetii is highly variable in Spain. With the data presented here, cattle seem not to participate in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans in the samples studied

  8. Dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs in Saudi Arabia: A call for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Alkattan, Wael; Alkattan, Khaled; Obeidat, Akef S

    2016-01-01

    Engaging medical students in scholarly research activities and producing clinically competent and research-oriented medical workforces are essential demands, particularly in developing countries. Dual-degree MD-PhD programs offer simultaneous rigorous education in medicine and research, and train its graduates (physician-scientists) to successfully catalyze translational research evolutions. Literature fundamentally identifies dual-degree MD-PhD programs as the single most important, well-established, popular and influential programs toward commencing physician-scientist professions. While the physician-scientist population is alarmingly vanishing in the West with ongoing efforts to reverse this undesired trend, such population is largely nonexisting, unfortunately to start with, in Saudi Arabia. This is simply because no single dual-degree MBBS-PhD program is yet established in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we call on the Saudi Higher Education bodies to implement dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs with anticipated generation of competent physician-scientists in Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report to call for such innovative implementation. PMID:26984038

  9. Differences in clinical variables and risk factors between patients with osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda Roda, Rafael; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente; Sanchís Bielsa, José María

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in risk factors and clinical variables between a group of patients with osteoarthritis and a group with osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients (32 women and 3 men) (mean age 53±18 years), 21 (60%) with a diagnosis of osteoarthrosis (mean age 54.7±20.2 years) and 14 (40%) with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (mean age 51.7±16.9 years), were studied. The two groups were compared with each o...

  10. CREATION OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LOCAL EXTENT OF THE BLADDER CANCER BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Mirylenka; O. G. Sukonko; A. V. Pravorov; A. I. Rolevich; A. S. Mavrichev

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological local extent of the bladder cancer рТ3-рТ4 (рТ3+).Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. For prediction of pT3+ on preoperative data were used mono- and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Coefficients from logistic regression equalization were used to construct nom...

  11. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well as...... changes as indicative of less serious fetal stress than did their junior colleagues, explaining why junior residents 30% more frequently than their older colleagues found an indication for Cesarean section. Relatively low regional inter-observer agreement scores were primarily due to low agreement between...

  12. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well as...... pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline and the...

  13. Domestic water conservation potential in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzak, Mohammed J.; Khan, Muhammad Z. A.

    1990-03-01

    Domestic water conservation in arid climates can result in efficient utilization of existing water supplies. The impacts of conservation measures such as the installation of water-saving devices, water metering and pricing schemes, water rationing and public awareness programs, strict plumbing codes, penalties for wasting water, programs designed to reduce leakage from public water lines and within the home, water-efficient landscaping, economic and ethical incentives are addressed in detail. Cost savings in arid climates, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia, in relation to some conservation techniques, are presented. Water conservation technology and tentative demonstration and implementation of water conservation programs are discussed.

  14. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  15. Tau PET patterns mirror clinical and neuroanatomical variability in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Schonhaut, Daniel R; Schöll, Michael; Lockhart, Samuel N; Ayakta, Nagehan; Baker, Suzanne L; O'Neil, James P; Janabi, Mustafa; Lazaris, Andreas; Cantwell, Averill; Vogel, Jacob; Santos, Miguel; Miller, Zachary A; Bettcher, Brianne M; Vossel, Keith A; Kramer, Joel H; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-05-01

    SEE SARAZIN ET AL DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW041 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: The advent of the positron emission tomography tracer (18)F-AV1451 provides the unique opportunity to visualize the regional distribution of tau pathology in the living human brain. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tau pathology is closely linked to symptomatology and patterns of glucose hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease, in contrast to the more diffuse distribution of amyloid-β pathology. We included 20 patients meeting criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, presenting with a variety of clinical phenotypes, and 15 amyloid-β-negative cognitively normal individuals, who underwent (18)F-AV1451 (tau), (11)C-PiB (amyloid-β) and (18)F-FDG (glucose metabolism) positron emission tomography, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and neuropsychological testing. Voxel-wise contrasts against controls (at P memory (medial temporal lobes), visuospatial function (occipital, right temporoparietal cortex) and language (left > right temporoparietal cortex). In conclusion, tau imaging-contrary to amyloid-β imaging-shows a strong regional association with clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease. Although preliminary, these results are consistent with and expand upon findings from post-mortem, animal and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and suggest that the pathological aggregation of tau is closely linked to patterns of neurodegeneration and clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26962052

  16. CLINICAL VARIABLES RELATED TO PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION RESULTS IN MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanier Coll Muñoz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La identificación de las variables clínicas que influyen en los resultados del intervencionismo coronario percutáneo, constituye un elemento de gran valor en el manejo de los pacientes con isquemia miocárdica. Objetivo: Describir la relación entre las variables clínicas, positividad del estudio coronariográfico y la implantación de endoprótesis vascular convencional en pacientes con síndrome coronario. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, con 200 pacientes de la provincia de Cienfuegos sometidos a coronariografía en el Cardiocentro de la Ciudad de Santa Clara, durante el año 2009. La edad, sexo, morbilidad asociada y resultados del estudio coronariográfico, se tomaron como variables clínicas, y fueron analizadas en relación con la realización del intervencionismo terapéutico. Se identificó la relación entre las variables clínicas y los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: El principal resultado obtenido en el estudio coronariográfico fueron los pacientes con lesiones coronarias significativas en el 47 %, con predominio de la afectación de la arteria descendente anterior (35,5 % siendo posible el intervencionismo terapéutico en el 47,8 % de estos pacientes. Se encontró relación significativa entre el sexo (p=0,002, antecedentes de fumador (p=0,004, diabetes mellitus (p=0,000 y dislipidemia (p=0,000 con la positividad del estudio, y de la diabetes mellitus (OR=4,2, p=0,000 y la dislipidemia (OR=3,7, p=0,000 con relación a la realización del intervencionismo terapéutico. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la importancia del estudio coronariográfico, principalmente en los pacientes diabéticos y dislipidémicos, por su relación con la positividad del estudio y la realización de intervencionismo terapéutico.

  17. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined. PMID:27374774

  18. The clinical structure of phobia: Lacan's reformulation of the variables and its treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Jennifer A,

    2010-01-01

    Phobias have been understood and treated in many different ways by history, but mainstream have overlooked a possibly crucial modality in its treatment as proposed by Lacan. By viewing phobia as a symptom modern day treatments miss out why phobia may exist. Both Freud and Lacan see phobia as symptom and structure, but Lacan has gone further in order to provide the clinic with a deeper comprehension of what a phobia is and how it can be treated. By first understanding where the phobia ste...

  19. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958

  20. Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author).

  1. Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

  2. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control. PMID:27037630

  3. Gas Exchange, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Antioxidants as Bioindicators of Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, I. A.; J.M. Basahi; I.M. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romaine) plants were exposed to different levels of urbanization in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. They showed different degrees of visible injury symptoms and dramatic changes in enzymatic activities as well as net photosynthetic rates (PN), variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and stomatal conductance (gs).Visual symptoms of phytotoxicity of heavy metals were observed on plants grown at industrial and urban areas, where the concentrations of metals...

  4. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Hamad Al Bu Ali; Magdy Hassan Balaha; Mohammed Saleh Al Moghannum; Ibrahim Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism are related to variable poor perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Our aim was to explore the pattern and prevalence of birth defects and metabolic birth errors in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods This retrospective case control study was done from April 2006 to 2009. Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control g...

  5. Clinical NECR in 18F-FDG PET scans: optimization of injected activity and variable acquisition time. Relationship with SNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injected activity and the acquisition time per bed position for 18F-FDG PET scans are usually optimized by using metrics obtained from phantom experiments. However, optimal activity and time duration can significantly vary from a phantom set-up and from patient to patient. An approach using a patient-specific noise equivalent count rate (NECR) modelling has been previously proposed for optimizing clinical scanning protocols. We propose using the clinical NECR on a large population as a function of the body mass index (BMI) for deriving the optimal injected activity and acquisition duration per bed position. The relationship between the NEC and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was assessed both in a phantom and in a clinical setting. 491 consecutive patients were retrospectively evaluated and divided into 4 BMI subgroups. Two criteria were used to optimize the injected activity and the time per bed position was adjusted using the NECR value while keeping the total acquisition time constant. Finally, the relationship between NEC and SNR was investigated using an anthropomorphic phantom and a population of 507 other patients. While the first dose regimen suggested a unique injected activity (665 MBq) regardless of the BMI, the second dose regimen proposed a variable activity and a total acquisition time according to the BMI. The NEC improvement was around 35% as compared with the local current injection rule. Variable time per bed position was derived according to BMI and anatomical region. NEC and number of true events were found to be highly correlated with SNR for the phantom set-up and partially confirmed in the patient study for the BMI subgroup under 28 kg m−2 suggesting that for the scanner, the nonlinear reconstruction algorithm used in this study and BMI < 28 kg m−2, NEC, or the number of true events linearly correlated with SNR2. (paper)

  6. Marked variability in clinical presentation and outcome of patients with C1q immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Schejbel, Lone; Truedsson, Lennart;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can be...... restored by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current literature lacks information on disease progression and quality of life of C1q deficient persons which is of major importance to guide clinicians taking care of patients with this rare disease. METHODS: We performed an international...... survey, of clinicians treating C1q deficient patients. A high response rate of >70% of the contacted clinicians yielded information on 45 patients with C1q deficiency of which 25 are published. RESULTS: Follow-up data of 45 patients from 31 families was obtained for a median of 11 years after diagnosis...

  7. Characterization of certain inflammatory variables in the peripheral blood of clinically healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, R; Donahy, C; Jones, B R; Bloomfield, F J

    2006-01-01

    Many laboratory techniques have been developed to study and quantify the inflammatory response, including the release of acid hydrolase enzymes, leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and complement conversion studies. Although extensively studied in human health and disease, the relevance of such tests in the dog is largely unknown. After isolation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) fractions from the peripheral blood of 38 clinically healthy dogs, values for ROS production were similar for both cell fractions when measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (17,853+/-9,695 U/10(6) cells versus 19,138+/-14,569 U/10(6) cells for the PBMC (n=38) and PMN (n=18) fractions, respectively). However, the mean time taken to reach maximum chemiluminescence was noticeably shorter in the PBMC fraction (5.1+/-3.3 versus 10.7+/-2.5 min for PBMCs (n=36) and PMNs (n=18), respectively). Intracellular concentrations of beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase were assayed by spectrofluorometry. Mean values for all three enzymes were higher in PBMCs (n=31-35) than in PMNs (n=10-14). Both cell fractions released 20% of the intracellular enzyme concentration when stimulated with opsonized zymosan. Following incubation with A23187 (1 microM), mean LTB(4) production was higher in PBMCs (4.45+/-2.92 ng/10(6) cells; n=27) than in PMNs (0.96+/-2.22 ng/10(6) cells; n=13) using a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the mean percentage conversion of C3 to C3b following stimulation with opsonized zymosan was 57.3+/-13.4% (n=36). The results provide normal values for clinically healthy dogs that may subsequently be used in future studies investigating dogs with various inflammatory disorders. PMID:16427586

  8. CREATION OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LOCAL EXTENT OF THE BLADDER CANCER BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirylenka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological local extent of the bladder cancer рТ3-рТ4 (рТ3+.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. For prediction of pT3+ on preoperative data were used mono- and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Coefficients from logistic regression equalization were used to construct nomogram. Nomogram accuracy was evaluated with concordance index (с-index and by building the calibration plot. Internal validation by bootstrap method with 200 variants of dataset was performed.Results: We developed nomogram, that include: clinical stage сТ, tumor grade, tumor macroscopic appearance, presence of upper tract dilatation, prostatic urethra and/or prostatic lobe(s involvement, 3 or more bladder walls involvement, ESR and creatinine level. Bootstrapcorrected prognostic accuracy of nomogram was 81,4%, that 12,6% better than clinical stage accuracy.Conclusion: developed nomogram can significantly improve pathologic tumor stage prediction accuracy that may be used to select patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  9. Clinical and hormonal variables related to bone mass loss in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Soto, María Luisa; González-Jiménez, Amalia; Chamorro-Fernández, Marta; Leyva-Martínez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the prognostic factors of low bone mass in anorexia nervosa (AN) and development of effective therapeutic strategies is critical. In order to determine which clinical, biochemical, and/or hormonal parameters could be related to bone mineral density (BMD), 47 female AN patients were classified according to the WHO osteoporosis criteria at lumbar spine (LS). This was a cross-sectional study of 16 AN women with osteoporosis criteria and 31without. Control group was 25 healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. We assessed BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the LS and body composition. We measured serum fasting cortisol, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, sex hormone-binding globulin, albumin and retinol binding protein levels. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 34% and osteopenia 19% at the LS. The AN group with osteoporosis had lower IGF-1 and estradiol levels (both posteoporosis. The BMD and T-score at LS was inversely related to the duration of amenorrhea (posteoporosis. A low BMD is a consequence of hormonal alterations which include hypoestrogenism, hypoleptinemia, hypercortisolism, and decreases in IGF-1 levels, as well as a low BMI and fat mass. PMID:23601428

  10. Variability of intraductal papillomas of the mammary gland: Clinical, roentgenologic and morphologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiodiagnostical method of choice is the galactographic technique. However, a specific X-ray image of the papilloma does not exist. The galactographic technique has to be adapted to the surgical and histologic one. Only by combining these three techniques good results can be achieved. It is not possible to draw conclusions from the colour of the pathologic discharge about the type and character of the pathologic process. Contrary to the findings documented in the literature, we were able to diagnose with our technique not only small tumours, but also tumours situated in the periphery of the lactiferous duct. Because of our investigations it is no longer possible to maintain and keep the strict division of the proliferative changes occurring at the lactiferous duct walls. In this study, the most significant morphologic results are described in detail. In all patients with pathologic discharge of the mammary gland, the so-called papillo-carcinoma was found only in one case. As clinical consequence it has therefore to be demanded that in all women with the symptom of pathologic mamillary discharge first of all the origin of this discharge has to be localised by means of galactography. Only the individual morphologic picture of a proliferative change of the lactiferous duct provides some prognostic value. The prerequisites for such an individual assessment are differentiated roentgenologic, surgical and histological techniques. (orig./MG)

  11. Correlation between genetic variability and virulence factors in clinical strains of Malassezia pachydermatis of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Parisi, Annamaria; Rizzo, Antonietta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Mallardo, Karina; Fiorito, Filomena; Baroni, Adone; De Martino, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast belonging to the microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of dog and cat, but it can also act as pathogen, causing dermatitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats and determine a correlation between genotype and phenotype. For this purpose eleven strains of M. pachydermatis were molecularly classified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions, specific for fungal rRNA genes. Furthermore, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates identifying four different genotypes. Strains belonging to genotype 1 produced the highest amount of biofilm and phospholipase activity. The inflammatory response induced by M. pachydermatis strains in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat cells) was significantly different when we compared the results obtained from each strain. In particular, HaCat cells infected with the strains belonging to genotypes 1 and 2 triggered the highest levels of increase in TLR-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and MMP-9 expression. By contrast, cells infected with the strains of genotype 3 and those of genotype 4 did not significantly induce TLR-2 and cytokines. The results obtained might suggest a possible association between genotype and virulence factors expressed by M. pachydermatis strains. This highlights the need for a more accurate identification of the yeast to improve the therapeutic approach and to monitor the onset of human infections caused by this emergent zoonotic pathogen. PMID:27602421

  12. Prediction of municipal water production in touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.

  13. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... universities. Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's... architecture, engineering, design and construction firms. Saudi Arabia's transport sector--including...

  14. Requirements of the endodontic board certifications and master′s degrees inSaudi Arabia and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alshehri; Hadi M Alamri; Bader Alshammari; Saad Alnazhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the regulations and clinical requirements of the endodontic board certifications and master's degrees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United States of America (USA). Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the year 2012. Documents from the American Board of Endodontics (ABE) and the Saudi Specialty Certificate in Endodontics (SSC-Dent [Endo]) were collected from their official websites. Fifty-two American and 3 S...

  15. The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in the adult population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- a community-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bahijri, Suhad M; Jambi, Hanan A.; Al Raddadi, Rajaa M.; FERNS, Gordon; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 (T2DM) is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420). Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose ...

  16. Hepatitis B virus sero-prevalence among pregnant females in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alrowaily Mohammed; Abolfotouh Mostafa; Ferwanah Mazen

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim : Since selective screening for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant women has failed to identify a high proportion of HBV-infected mothers, pre-natal HBsAg testing of all pregnant women is now recommended. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women at the ante-natal clinic of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia and to identify the target group for postpartum immunization. Materials and Methods : A total of 755 pregnant females who attended th...

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL VARIABLES IN COPD AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity of illness and steroid medication. It is found that psychopathology in bronchial asthma patients are more than those of healthy controls but there is no significant difference. The psychopathology is significantly related to relate to age, marital status, occupational status, and smoking. Duration severity of illness and steroid medication.

  18. Clinical Variables Affecting The Pregnancy Rate of Intracervical Insemination Using Cryopreserved Donor Spermatozoa:A Retrospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether several clinical variables can affectthe pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination (ICI using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, age, years of infertility, cervicitis, urinaryluteinizing hormone (LH surge, insemination number, uterus position, endometrial thickness andmorphology, maximal follicle diameter, and the number of dominant follicles on the day of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG administration were retrospectively analyzed in 501 women whounderwent their first ICI cycle using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa.Results: Increased age, length of infertility (>5 years, retroverted uterine position, and endometrialthickness (14 mm were associated with lower rates of pregnancy.Conclusion: In older women with infertile periods longer than five years, especially those with aretroverted uterus, intrauterine insemination (IUI combined with ovarian stimulation should berecommended. In vitro fertilization with donor spermatozoa (IVFD should be offered earlier toachieve a much higher success rate.

  19. Distribution And Mineralogy Of The Clay Deposits In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس

    1993-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the mineral clay deposits in Saudi Arabia; especially their mineral composition, deposit size, geological setting and possible uses. Different published reports and papers on clay deposits of Saudi Arabia have been reviewed. Three major clay deposits have been studied by XRD, DTA and chemical analyses. Saudi clay deposits consist generally of kaolinite as a major mineral, and small amounts other clay minerals, such as montmorillonite and illite. ...

  20. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan (Rahatullah, M, K.,)

    2013-01-01

    Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Sau...

  1. Counter-Terrorism in Saudi Arabia: Narratives, Practices and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    AlMaawi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Since 9/11, both in the Middle East and worldwide, the academic, political and religious focus on extreme radicalisation has intensified. The attacks carried out in Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by Al-Qaeda in 2003, motivated a succession of bombings within and outside of the Kingdom. These events have led to a plethora of general and specific studies to understand the phenomenon of extremism. This thesis investigates radicalisation in Saudi Arabia since 2001, focus...

  2. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hani A

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and q...

  3. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaffi A Shaik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....

  4. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Baghli, Nadira A.; Al-Ghamdi, Aqeel J.; Khalid A Al-Turki; Ahmad G El-Zubaier; Al-Mostafa, Bader A.; Fadel A Al-Baghli; Al-Ameer, Mahmood M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect d...

  5. Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

  6. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  7. Multi Plumes and Their Flows beneath Arabia and East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; van der Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    The three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa is estimated down to the lower mantle to investigate vertical and horizontal extension of low-velocity anomalies that bear out the presence of mantle plumes and their flows beneath lithosphere. We estimated this model through joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. With the unprecedented resolution in our S-velocity model, we found different flow patterns of hot materials upwelling beneath Afar beneath the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. While the low-velocity anomaly from Afar is well confined beneath the Gulf of Aden, inferring mantle flow along the gulf, N-S channel of low velocity is found beneath Arabia, not along the Red Sea. The Afar plume is distinctively separate from the Kenya plume, showing its origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identified another low-velocity extension to the lower mantle beneath Jordan and northern Arabia, which is thought to have caused volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirmed horizontal plume flow from Afar in NS direction beneath Arabia and in NE-SW direction beneath Ethiopia as a likely cause of the observed seismic anisotropy.

  8. An overview of nursing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Saleh AlYami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.

  9. Clinical variability and novel mutations in the NHEJ1 gene in patients with a Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrannoy, Véronique; Demuth, Ilja; Baumann, Ulrich; Schindler, Detlev; Konrat, Kateryna; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Radszewski, Janina; Rothe, Susanne; Schellenberger, Mario T; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Teik, Keng Wee; Nallusamy, Revathy; Reis, André; Sperling, Karl; Digweed, Martin; Varon, Raymonda

    2010-09-01

    We have previously shown that mutations in the genes encoding DNA Ligase IV (LIGIV) and RAD50, involved in DNA repair by nonhomologous-end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination, respectively, lead to clinical and cellular features similar to those of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS). Very recently, a new member of the NHEJ repair pathway, NHEJ1, was discovered, and mutations in patients with features resembling NBS were described. Here we report on five patients from four families of different ethnic origin with the NBS-like phenotype. Sequence analysis of the NHEJ1 gene in a patient of Spanish and in a patient of Turkish origin identified homozygous, previously reported mutations, c.168C>G (p.Arg57Gly) and c.532C>T (p.Arg178Ter), respectively. Two novel, paternally inherited truncating mutations, c.495dupA (p.Asp166ArgfsTer20) and c.526C>T (p.Arg176Ter) and two novel, maternal genomic deletions of 1.9 and 6.9 kb of the NHEJ1 gene, were found in a compound heterozygous state in two siblings of German origin and in one Malaysian patient, respectively. Our findings confirm that patients with NBS-like phenotypes may have mutations in the NHEJ1 gene including multiexon deletions, and show that considerable clinical variability could be observed even within the same family. PMID:20597108

  10. Mutation screening of familial Mediterranean fever in the Azeri Turkish population: Genotype-phenotype correlation and the clinical profile variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharesouran Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever is known as a most frequent hereditary autoin-Xammatory among the autoinflammatory syndromes characterized by fever, arthritis and serosal inflammation. Clinically, the foremost severe symptom of the disease is amyloidosis, which may cause to renal failure. MEFV renal failure consists of ten exons and conservative mutations clustered in exon ten (M694V, V726A, M680I, M694I and exon two (E148Q are considered more common mutations within this coding region and that they are detected with a distinct frequency changes in line with ethnicity. The aim of this study was to research the spectrum of mutations in Azeri Turkish population. We evaluated the molecular test results of 82 patients and their parents from eighty families identified as having FMF clinical symptoms referred to Molecular Genetics Laboratory of the Department of Medical Genetics. Patients were referred by their physicians for MEFV mutation detection. The most frequent mutations were M694V respectively followed by M680I (G/C, V726A, M694I and E148Q mutations. A phenotypic variability was also ascertained between patients with different mutations and it must be considered within the daily management of FMF patients.

  11. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop an optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. For instance, by decarbonizing half of its generation mix, Saudi Arabia can release around 0.5 Mb/d barrels of oil equivalent per day from 2020. Moreover, total power generation cost reduction can reach up to around 28% per year from 2030 if Saudi Arabia manages to attain the most optimal generation mix structure introduced in the model (50% of power from renewables and nuclear power plants and 50% from the fossil power plants). - Highlights: • We model the current and future power generation situation of Saudi Arabia. • We take into account the integration of the other alternative resources. • We consider different scenarios of power generation structure for the country. • Optimal generation mix can release considerable amount of oil for export

  12. Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Khouzaie Thamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital′s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

  13. Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension & Associated Factor’s among students of Jazan in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Hasan Hobani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related issues has been one of the major factor of concern for the death since the last three decades in Saudi Arabia which includes diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other associated factors are considered as major risk factors. The investigation on the prevalence of Diabetes, Hypertension and associated factors among students of Jazan, Saudi Arabia is an alarm for the hidden possible health threat among the students in the younger age. Methods: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Diabetes, Hypertension and associated factors in fifty students of Jazan in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through interview using a structured questionnaire followed by clinical examination. Clinical practice methods were followed to estimate Cholesterol, Body Mass Index (BMI, weight, Diabetes and Hypertension from the sample. Results: A high percentage of participants i.e. 70% are pre diabetes, which is partly due to a more sedentary lifestyle and smoking and weight gain. 62% of participants reported no physical exercise in daily life. Habit of smoking is present among 44% of the participants over weight and obesity showed as 24% and 16% respectively. The high blood pressure among the participants was 36% and 64% were prehypertensive. Obesity and weight assessed by using Body Mass Index. The result showed 52% among the participants were in normal weight, 24% were overweight and 16% were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and cholesterol level were associated with the risk of Pre-hypertension, hypertension, pre-diabetics and diabetics.

  14. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...

  15. Retrospective analysis of keratoconus at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdelmoneam M

    2012-01-01

    Mussaed AlabdelmoneamFaculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra University, Saudi ArabiaBackground: This work was a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary eye care hospital to evaluate the putative prevalence and referral patterns for keratoconus by gender, age, and region of Saudi Arabia.Methods: Files from 1638 keratoconus patients from different regions of Saudi Arabia referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1999 and ...

  16. SVARAP and aSVARAP: simple tools for quantitative analysis of nucleotide and amino acid variability and primer selection for clinical microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Tamalet Catherine; Colson Philippe; Raoult Didier

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Simple computerized methods that analyse variability along alignments of nucleotide or amino acid sequences can be very useful in a clinical microbiology laboratory for two main purposes. First, to optimize primer selection, which is critical for the identification of infectious pathogens based on gene sequencing: primers must target conserved nucleotide regions bordering highly variable areas to ensure discrimination of species. Second, it can be of interest to reveal mut...

  17. Identification of clinical and simple laboratory variables predicting responsible gastrointestinal lesions in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Serefhanoglu, Yahya Buyukasik, Hakan Emmungil, Nilgun Sayinalp, Ibrahim Celalettin Haznedaroglu, Hakan Goker, Salih Aksu, Osman Ilhami Ozcebe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is a frequent disorder. Also, it may be a sign of underlying serious diseases. Iron deficiency points to an occult or frank bleeding lesion when occurred in men or postmenopausal women. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of endoscopy in patients with IDA and to define predictive factors of gastrointestinal (GI lesions causing IDA. Ninety-one patients (77 women, 14 men; mean age: 43 years who were decided to have esophago-duodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy for iron deficiency anemia were interviewed and responded to a questionnaire that included clinical and biochemical variables. The endoscopic findings were recorded as GI lesions causing IDA or not causing IDA. Endoscopy revealed a source of IDA in 18.6 % of cases. The risk factors for finding GI lesions causing IDA were as follows: male gender (p= 0.004, advanced age (> 50 years (p= 0.010, weight loss (over 20% of total body weight lost in last 6 month (p= 0.020, chronic diarrhea (p= 0.006, change of bowel habits (p= 0.043, epigastric tenderness (p= 0.037, raised carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level (normal range: 0-7 ng/mL (p= 0.039, < 10 gr/dl hemoglobin (Hb level (p=0.054. None of these risk factors had been present in 21 (23% women younger than 51 years. In this group, no patient had any GI lesion likely to cause IDA (negative predictive value= 100%. In multivariate analysis, advanced age (p=0.017, male gender (p< 0.01 and weight lost (p=0.012 found that associated with GI lesions in all patients. It may be an appropriate clinical approach to consider these risk factors when deciding for gastrointestinal endoscopic evaluation in iron deficiency anemia.

  18. Hemoglobin H disease in the Al-Qatif region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al-Qatif region in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has thehighest prevalence of alpha-thalassemia genes in the Kingdom. Hemoglobin H(Hb H) disease, however, has been rarely reported. We decided therefore toverify the rarity of disease and characterize the presenting features incases identified. All patients seen in Qatif Central Hospital betweenSeptember 1988 and November 1990 with low red cell indices were screened forHb H disease and those found positive had clinical data compiled from theirhospital records and analyzed. Thirty-nine cases of Hb H were diagnosed. Themean age of patients was 18 years. The mean hemoglobin was 13.5 g/dL forneonates and 7.6 g/dL for others. The mean Hb Bart's level was 27.5% inneonates and the mean Hb H level in others was 11.1%. In addition to low redcell indices, all patients had a high red cell distribution width (RDW) meanof 25.6%. The main clinical signs were jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly.Concurrent glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was seen in28.2% of patients. Hemoglobin H disease is not uncommon in the Al-Qatifregion of Saudi Arabia. The red cell indices may mimic iron deficiency, whichshould be excluded by the presence of jaundice and organomegaly. Thecondition often co-exists with G6PD deficiency. (author)

  19. Learning strategies of medical students in the surgery department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Alzahrani HA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasan A Alzahrani,1 Owiss H Alzahrani21Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: To identify medical students' perceptions of their learning strategies including, learning habits, resources, and preferred teaching methods, in the Department of Surgery (DOS of the King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FoM, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study which was designed to identify students' perceptions of their learning in the DOS of the KAU-FoM. A questionnaire was administered to a random group of 549 medical students, to explore student perceptions of their learning strategies including methods of learning and learning resources.Results: The majority believed that clinical session attendance is always important compared with lectures (88.9% vs 21.9%. Nevertheless, clinical sessions were selected as the third source of learning after learning from assigned textbooks and previous examination model answers. The majority (74.1% believed that self-instruction at home is the preferred method of learning.Conclusion: Student perspectives should be taken into consideration prior to any future reforms of curriculum. Reforms should adopt a “think globally; act locally” educational strategy based on learner needs.Keywords: education, medical, learning, surgery, developing countries

  20. Investigating the Implications of a Variable RBE on Proton Dose Fractionation Across a Clinical Pencil Beam Scanned Spread-Out Bragg Peak

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Thomas; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Michaelidesova, Anna; Vachelova, Jana; Davidkova, Marie; Vondracek, Vladimir; SCHETTINO, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical implications of a variable relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on proton dose fractionation. Using acute exposures, the current clinical adoption of a generic, constant cell killing RBE has been shown to underestimate the effect of the sharp increase in linear energy transfer (LET) in the distal regions of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). However, experimental data for the impact of dose fractionation in such scenarios are still limited.Methods and Ma...

  1. Mantle plumes and associated flow beneath Arabia and East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Van der Lee, Suzan

    2011-02-01

    We investigate mantle plumes and associated flow beneath the lithosphere by imaging the three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa. This image shows elongated vertical and horizontal low-velocity anomalies down to at least mid mantle depths. This three-dimensional S-velocity model is obtained through the joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. In the resolved parts of our S-velocity model we find that the Afar plume is distinctly separate from the Kenya plume, showing the Afar plume's origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identify another quasi-vertical low-velocity anomaly beneath Jordan and northern Arabia which extends into the lower mantle and may be related to volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirm horizontal mantle flow radially away from Afar. Low-velocity channels in our model support southwestward flow beneath Ethiopia, eastward flow beneath the Gulf of Aden, but not northwestwards beneath the entire Red Sea. Instead, northward mantle flow from Afar appears to be channeled beneath Arabia.

  2. Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

  3. MR spectroscopy of cerebral white matter in type 2 diabetes; no association with clinical variables and cognitive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehuis, Audrey; Meer, Femke van der; Mali, Willem; Luijten, Peter [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E01.332), PO Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pleizier, Marc; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, Jaap [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with cognitive decline, but the pathogenesis of this important complication remains unclear. We investigated whether abnormalities in neuronal metabolism or membrane integrity in normal appearing cerebral white matter are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with DM2. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1.5 T), aimed at N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cr), was performed in the cerebral white matter (centrum semiovale) of 72 patients with DM2 and 40 control subjects. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Patients with DM2 performed worse with respect to global neuropsychological functioning than controls (p < 0.05), in particular on memory and information processing speed. We observed no differences in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratio's between patients with DM2 and controls. Cognitive performance in patients with DM2 was not correlated with any of these brain metabolites, neither were the clinical variables. We conclude that disturbances in neuronal viability and cellular membrane status assessed by NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho ratios cannot explain cognitive decline in patients with DM2. (orig.)

  4. Variable tellurite resistance profiles of clinically-relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) influence their recovery from foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerangart, Stéphane; Douëllou, Thomas; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar; Sergentet-Thévenot, Delphine; Cournoyer, Benoit; Loukiadis, Estelle

    2016-10-01

    Tellurite (Tel)-amended selective media and resistance (Tel-R) are widely used for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from foodstuffs. Tel-R of 81 O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from animal, food and human was thus investigated. Variations of STEC tellurite minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been observed and suggest a multifactorial and variable tellurite resistome between strains. Some clinically-relevant STEC were found highly susceptible and could not be recovered using a tellurite-based detection scheme. The ter operon was highly prevalent among highly Tel-R STEC but was not always detected among intermediately-resistant strains. Many STEC serogroup strains were found to harbor sublines showing a gradient of MIC values. These Tel-R sublines showed statistically significant log negative correlations with increasing tellurite concentration. Whatever the tellurite concentration, the highest number of resistant sublines was observed for STEC belonging to the O26 serogroup. Variations in the number of these Tel-R sublines could explain the poor recovery of some STEC serogroups on tellurite-amended media especially from food products with low levels of contamination. Comparison of tellurite MIC values and distribution of virulence-related genes showed Tel-R and virulence to be related. PMID:27375242

  5. MR spectroscopy of cerebral white matter in type 2 diabetes; no association with clinical variables and cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with cognitive decline, but the pathogenesis of this important complication remains unclear. We investigated whether abnormalities in neuronal metabolism or membrane integrity in normal appearing cerebral white matter are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with DM2. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1.5 T), aimed at N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cr), was performed in the cerebral white matter (centrum semiovale) of 72 patients with DM2 and 40 control subjects. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Patients with DM2 performed worse with respect to global neuropsychological functioning than controls (p < 0.05), in particular on memory and information processing speed. We observed no differences in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratio's between patients with DM2 and controls. Cognitive performance in patients with DM2 was not correlated with any of these brain metabolites, neither were the clinical variables. We conclude that disturbances in neuronal viability and cellular membrane status assessed by NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho ratios cannot explain cognitive decline in patients with DM2. (orig.)

  6. Quality of hypertension care in the family practice center, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia M Al-Khaldi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is a common health problem in Saudi Arabia. Good control depends on the quality of care, which should be supervised and monitored regularly through clinical audit. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of HTN care at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Settings and Design: This study was conductedin 2009 at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Medical records of all hypertensive patients were extracted and reviewed using master sheets. Assessment of processes and outcomes of HTN care were based on the standards of quality assurance manual issuedby the Ministry of Health. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed by SPPS, version 15. Relevant statistical tests were used accordingly and the P-value was considered significant when it was less than 0.05. Results: A total of 295 medical records were reviewed and assessed. Most patients were Saudi, married, and about 50% were educated. Two-hundred and thirty-one records were assessed for processes and outcomes of HTN care. Weight measurement and physical examination were carried out for 99% and 97% of the patients, respectively. For 53% of the patients, blood was checked for glucose and kidney function and a lipid profile was done. More than two-thirds of the patients were overweight and obese while 46% had diabetes. Less than one half of the patients had good control of HTN. Conclusions: By most standards, quality of HTN care in Al-Manhal Family Practice was unsatisfactory. Most of the patients had comorbidities and poor HTN control. Essential facilities should be provided to the practice to optimize HTN care and to improve the degree of control.

  7. Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

    Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

  8. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  9. Study of Aerosols’ Characteristics and Dynamics over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using a Multisensor Approach Combined with Ground Observations

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    Ashraf Farahat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers various aspects of the aerosol distribution and characteristics, namely, optical depth climatology, absorption characteristics, and their microphysical properties over four regions in Saudi Arabia using satellite and ground observations including MODIS/Terra and Aqua, OMI, MISR/Terra, AERONET, and CALIPSO for the period April 2003–January 2013. The study includes cities in the North Western, Western, Eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia and in the Rub al Khali desert or Empty Quarter. Satellite and ground observations showed that the dust season extends from April to August with prominent peaks yet with high anthropogenic contribution late summer and early fall. Analysis shows an increase in the aerosol concentration during March 2009 which could be attributed to a major dust storm during that time. Comparing the AOD time series over regions 1–3 and region 4 (desert we observe monthly and annual variability with no recurrence pattern over the years. The Aqua Deep Blue AOD550 data shows a single peak pattern that occurs over region 4 during the spring season known for its frequent dust events. OMI data shed the light on the presence of higher air pollution levels over region 3, representing the oil rich eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

  10. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

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    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  11. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

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    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  12. Introducing SMART Table Technology in Saudi Arabia Education System

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    Gafar Almalki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Education remains one of the most important economic development indicators in Saudi Arabia. This is evident in the continuous priority of the development and enhancement of education. The application of technology is crucial to the growth and improvement of the educational system in Saudi Arabia. Introducing SMART Table technology in the Saudi Arabian education system is argued in this paper as being able to assist teachers and students in the process of accommodating both technological changes and new knowledge. SMART Tables also can enhance the level of flexibility in the educational system, thus improving the quality of education within a modern Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to integrate technology effectively and efficiently within the educational system to improve the quality of student outcomes. This study will consider the potential benefits and recommendations associated with the adoption of SMART Tables in Saudi Arabian education system.

  13. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  14. Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Reactivity in Infertile Women: The Contribution of The Dyadic Functioning and Clinical Variables

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    Anna Czyżkowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a factor which has been linked to higher prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in women; however, ambiguous results have been reported about the impact of infertility on women’s sexual satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to compare sexual and dyadic functioning in infertile and fertile women. Furthermore, the associations between sexual variables and clinical variables (depressive symptoms, period trying to conceive, and treatment period were assessed in infertile women sample. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 50 women with the history of infertility and 50 fertile women recruited from the general population. The Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS, Mell-Krat Scale (women’s version, Family Assessment Measure (FAM-III, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were administered to all participants. Results: Infertile women reported lower sexual satisfaction and more maladaptive patterns of dyadic functioning in comparison to the control group. As many as 45 (90% of infertile women, compared to 13 (26% of the control group, reported the scores on the Mell-Krat Scale indicative of the presence of dysfunctions in sexual reactivity (P≤0.001. Infertile women reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than the women from the control group (P≤0.001. Negative correlations were observed between sexual satisfaction and dyadic functioning in both groups (P≤0.05; however, the patterns of these associations were different in infertile and fertile women. For example, negative correlations were found between satisfaction with control and task accomplishment, role performance, affective involvement, and values and norms in infertile women. However, these relationships were not observed in the control group. No correlations were revealed between sexual reactivity and dyadic functioning in infertile women and the control group. Negative correlations were observed between satisfaction with

  15. Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Reactivity in Infertile Women: The Contribution of The Dyadic Functioning and Clinical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyżkowska, Anna; Awruk, Katarzyna; Janowski, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a factor which has been linked to higher prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in women; however, ambiguous results have been reported about the impact of infertility on women’s sexual satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to compare sexual and dyadic functioning in infertile and fertile women. Furthermore, the associations between sexual variables and clinical variables (depressive symptoms, period trying to conceive, and treatment period) were assessed in infertile women sample. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study involved 50 women with the history of infertility and 50 fertile women recruited from the general population. The Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS), Mell-Krat Scale (women’s version), Family Assessment Measure (FAM-III), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to all participants. Results Infertile women reported lower sexual satisfaction and more maladaptive patterns of dyadic functioning in comparison to the control group. As many as 45 (90%) of infertile women, compared to 13 (26%) of the control group, reported the scores on the Mell-Krat Scale indicative of the presence of dysfunctions in sexual reactivity (P≤0.001). Infertile women reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than the women from the control group (P≤0.001). Negative correlations were observed between sexual satisfaction and dyadic functioning in both groups (P≤0.05); however, the patterns of these associations were different in infertile and fertile women. For example, negative correlations were found between satisfaction with control and task accomplishment, role performance, affective involvement, and values and norms in infertile women. However, these relationships were not observed in the control group. No correlations were revealed between sexual reactivity and dyadic functioning in infertile women and the control group. Negative correlations were observed between satisfaction with control and

  16. Clinico-epidemiologicalfeatures of dengue fever in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.

  17. Assessment of nutritional rickets in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the role of radiological examination and certain biochemichal values in diagnosing and assessing severity of nutritional rickets. There were cases of nutritional rickets (age range between 3-36 months) seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period 1997-1999 were studied. Determinatin of calcium (Ca), phosphate(PO4),alkaline phosphate(ALP),hand and wrist x-rays,were performed for all cases. 60 cases of nutritional rickets were dignosed within 2 years,38.3% of the patients presented with swollen wristand 28.3% with bowleg.The bone profile at the time of diagnosis: Ca=2.33+-0.23,PO4=1.47+-0.40 and ALP=925+-418. Approximately 81.7% of the patients had a normal of Ca level, 18.3% had low serum PO4 level, 98.3%high value of ALP. X-ray studies indicated that,58.3% of patients have active rickets, 35% had minimal changes, and 6.7% showed healed rickets. Among those having active rickets 20% had low PO4 level ,83% had normal Ca vlaue , and 100% had high ALP.The mean value +- Sd of biochemical values in this group : Ca=2.34+-0.24, PO4= 1.45+-0.42,ALP=1067+-452. The later was significantly higher compared to other groups (P=0.004). Radiological examination and ALP remains essential to confirm clinical diagnosis of rickets and assessment of severity. (author)

  18. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  19. SECONDARY SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: THE RESULTS OF A MIXED METHODS APPROACH

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    AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  20. State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sinaa A Al-AqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles.Methods: A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years.Results: The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions.Conclusion: This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the

  1. The clinical immunological and long-term follow-up of pediatric patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahzade S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID is a primary immunodeficiency disease, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and heterogeneous clinical manifestations. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical and immunological features of pediatric patients with CVID. "n"nMethods: We reviewed the records of 69 children diagnosed under age of 16 years with CVID (35 males and 34 females."n"nResults: By the year 2008, 15 patients (21% had died. The total follow-up period was 333 patient-years. The mean diagnostic time between onset and diagnosis in our patient group was 4.40 years. The overall rate of consanguineous marriages was 58%. 10 patients had a positive family history of immunodeficiency. At the time of diagnosis, the mean levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, and IgA levels were 286.86, 39.92, and 18.39 mg/dl, respectively which were below the normal levels for age. All of the patients presented with infectious diseases at the time of onset, the most common of which were pneumonia, diarrhea and sinusitis. Acute and recurrent infections were also found in almost all of the patients, particularly involving respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. The most common infections during follow-up period were pneumonia (31.9%, acute diarrhea (18.8%, acute sinusitis (18.8%, and otitis media (14.5%. Post-diagnosis survival was estimated to be 79% during the first five years. The survival rate was not shown to be influenced by delayed diagnosis, serum levels of IgG and B

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mokdad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietar...

  3. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

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    Röder Christoph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studies focusing on the locomotor system. Yet current sleep assessment tools are either too long or too specific for general use. Methods Based on a literature review and subsequent patient-based rating of items, an expert panel designed a four-item questionnaire about sleep. Construct validation of the questionnaire in a random sample of the German-speaking Swiss population was performed in 2003. Reliability, correlation, and tests for internal consistency and validity were analyzed. Results Overall, 16,634 (70% out of 23,763 eligible individuals participated in the study. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 indicates good internal consistency. Results show a moderate to good correlation between sleep disturbances and health perception, and between sleep disturbances and overall pain. Conclusions The Sleep Standard Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ-Sleep is a reliable and short tool with confirmed construct validity for sleep assessment in population-based observational studies. It is easy to administer and therefore suitable for postal surveys of the general population. Criterion validity remains to be determined.

  4. Clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus in Guangzhou area most possibly from the environmental infection showed variable susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Feng-lin; SUN Zhao-gang; LI Chuan-you; LIU Zhi-hui; CAI Lin; ZHOU Cheng; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) can cause a variety of human infections,involving the lung,skin and soft tissues,and is generally believed to be acquired from environmental sources.The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of M.abscessus isolates as the basis for strategies to improve control and management of infection.Methods Seventy M.abscessus isolates from patients attending the Guangzhou Thoracic Hospital were identified from 2003 to 2005 by biochemical tests,gas chromatography,polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction analysis (PRA) of heat shock protein gene hsp65,and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA.Susceptibilities to six antibiotics were determined by micro-broth dilution.Isolates were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.Results Most isolates (63/70; 90%) were susceptible to amikacin but rates of susceptibility to other antibiotics varied from moderate,clarithromycin (60%) and imipenem (43%),to low for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (3%),and 87% of isolates had intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin.RAPD analysis showed that the 70 clinical isolates displayed 69 unique RAPD patterns.Conclusions The high genetic diversity of isolates suggests that they are not transmitted from person to person but,presumably,are acquired independently from environmental sources.M.abscessus isolates displayed variable levels of susceptibility to all antibiotics tested,other than amikacin,indicating a need for routine susceptibility testing to guide treatment.

  5. Endosialin expression in relation to clinicopathological and biological variables in rectal cancers with a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of changes in tumour-associated stroma for tumour initiation and progression has been established. Endosialin is expressed in fibroblasts and pericytes of blood vessels in several types of tumours, and is involved in the progression of colorectal cancer. In order to see whether endosialin was related to radiotherapy (RT) response, and clinicopathological and biological variables, we investigated endosialin expression in rectal cancers from the patients who participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative RT. Endosialin was immunohistochemically examined in normal mucosa, including distant (n = 72) and adjacent (n = 112) normal mucosa, and primary tumours (n = 135). Seventy-three of 135 patients received surgery alone and 62 received additional preoperative RT. Endosialin expression in the stroma increased from normal mucosa to tumour (p < 0.0001) both in RT and non-RT group. In the RT group, endosialin expression in the stroma was positively associated with expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) (p = 0.03), p73 (p = 0.01) and phosphates of regenerating liver (PRL) (p = 0.002). Endosialin expression in the tumour cells of both in the RT group (p = 0.01) and the non-RT group (p = 0.06) was observed more often in tumours with an infiltrative growth pattern than in tumours with an expansive growth pattern. In the RT group, endosialin expression in tumour cells was positively related to PRL expression (p = 0.02), whereas in the non-RT group, endosialin expression in tumour cells was positively related to p73 expression (p = 0.01). Endosialin expression may be involved in the progression of rectal cancers, and was related to Cox-2, p73 and PRL expression. However, a direct relationship between endosialin expression and RT responses in patients was not found

  6. Characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis relative to HLA-DR in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia in relation to human leukocyte antigen type. A group of 91 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 72 females and 19 males were studied for the various clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters along with human leukocyte antigen-DR phenotypes. Since human leukocyte antigen-DR10 was most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis in our population, we compared those patients with human leukocyte antigen-DR10 to those without. The comparison yielded differences in the presence of rheumatoid nodules, erosions, corticosteroid treatment, and joint involvement at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and white cell count. Only the last 3 parameters showed a statistical significance. Human leukocyte antigen type of Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis influenced the course of the disease but only to a limited extent. (author)

  7. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

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    Sharifa A. Alsibiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM, rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6% were immune (IgG positive; the remaining 866 (8.4% were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years and the oldest age group (40–49 years (P=0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7. Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6% but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection.

  8. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

  9. Limited genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparium isolates using nested PCR in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omima; M.Eida; Amany; M.Eida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Jazan Area of Saudi Arabia measured with highly polymorphic genetic marker, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 2(MSP 2).Methods: Blood samples were collected from 128 clinically suspected patients attending both Jazan and Sabia hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both hospitals reflected urban and rural settings respectively. Analysis of central polymorphic region of MSP 2(3D7 and FC27 allelic families) was performed using nested PCR for malaria patients.Results: For MSP 2 allelic families of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 cases(53.3%) carried FC27 type and 14 cases(46.7%) carried 3D7 type, whereas no malaria cases harbored both allelic types. The present study showed that in urban area, 80% of FC27 fragments were 500 bp while in rural area it was 45.5%(P = 0.08). The FC27 400 bp allele was more prevalent in patients from rural than those from the urban area(P = 0.08). The most prevalent infecting 3D7 allele was the 3D7 300 bp in both areas. In the present study, there were no multiple infections.Conclusions: The limited genetic diversity which was observed in Jazan(considered as an endemic area) may be attributed to the small sample size or sustained malaria control program.

  10. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  11. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

  13. Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Dallol, Ashraf; Pushparaj, Peter; Ahmed, Farid; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25951871

  14. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Priehodová, E.; Abdelsawy, A.; Heyer, E.; Černý, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-18. ISSN 0018-7143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : lactase persistence * Arabia * Africa * migration Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2014

  15. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  16. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  17. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  18. Genetic stratigraphy of key demographic events in Arabia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandes, V.; Triska, P.; Pereira, J. B.; Alshamali, F.; Rito, T.; Machado, A.; Fajkošová, Zuzana; Cavadas, B.; Černý, Viktor; Soares, P.; Richards, M. B.; Pereira, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), e0118625. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Arabia * archaeogenetics * migrations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  19. Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

  20. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  1. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  2. Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

  3. Libraries of Two Women's Colleges in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)

  4. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  5. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... introduce suppliers of information technology (IT) and communication products and services to potential..., estimated at $3.7 billion in 2010. The Communication and Information Technology Commission (CITC), the......

  6. Influence of age, gender, and prodromal symptoms on sudden death in a tertiary care hospital, eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssien Kamal Nofal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden death (SD remains an important worldwide public health problem. The incidence of SD and causes vary in different societies, and these differences are influenced also by demographic and clinical factors such as age, gender and prodromal symptoms and signs. This six-year study describes the influence of these factors on SD. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of SD in all age groups undertaken in King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU, Eastern Saudi Arabia. All cases of death (1273 total, 1050 expected death and 223 cases of sudden unexpected death that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005 were investigated and subsequently analyzed on demographic and clinical parameters of the deceased patients. The statistical analysis was performed as appropriate to illustrate any possible association between different demographic variables and SD. Results: There were 223 cases of SD (17.5% out of 1273 total deaths in KFHU in the 6-year study period. There was a definite influence of age on the incidence of sudden death (SD as it increased clearly at the two ends of the age spectrum, 32.2% of the cases were infants (from birth to 12 months, and 31.4% were elderly (> 60 year-old. However, among infantile age group, the highest frequency of SD (22.2% of the cases was among the neonates. There was also a significant trend of gender influence on the incidence of SD which was higher in men than women (56% vs. 42%. The influence of prodromal symptoms and signs on SD was variable. Dyspnea and cough as major symptoms of cardiovascular and respiratory disease were the most frequent presenting symptoms in 32.3% of the cases, followed by fever as a sign of infections in 11.7%, premature infants in 10.8%, circulatory collapse in 9.4%, and angina in 7.6% of the cases. Conclusion: The current study indicated a definite influence of age, gender and prodromal symptoms on the incidence of SD. The highest incidence

  7. Genetic stratigraphy of key demographic events in Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Verónica; Triska, Petr; Pereira, Joana B; Alshamali, Farida; Rito, Teresa; Machado, Alison; Fajkošová, Zuzana; Cavadas, Bruno; Černý, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (~8-37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30-90 generations for "back-to-Africa" migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ~2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ~8 ka. The main "back-to-Africa" migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa. PMID:25738654

  8. Otofaciocervical syndrome and metachondromatosis in a girl: Presentation of a novel association and remarks on clinical variability of branchial-arch disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Torres, Victor M; Salinas-Torres, Rafael A

    2016-06-01

    Otofaciocervical syndrome (OFCS) is a rare disorder characterized by facial, ear, branchial, and musculoskeletal anomalies, along with hearing loss and mild intellectual disability. Clinically, its distinction from branchiootorenal syndrome can be difficult. To date, the coexistence of OFCS and metachondromatosis has not been reported. Here, we describe a sporadic patient with both OFCS and metachondromatosis. This novel association prompts us to do some remarks on the clinical variability of branchial-arch disorders; in fact, our observations are consistent with the highly variable expressivity of OFCS and illustrate the need of a more accurate characterization of these branchial-arch disorders. In the meantime, involvement of clavicles, scapulae and shoulders remains a distinctive feature of OFCS. PMID:27240490

  9. Incidental Breast Lesions Identified by 18F-FDG PET/CT: Which Clinical Variables Differentiate between Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions?

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kyung Min; Kim, Hye Jung; Jung, Su Jin; Lim, Hyo Soon; Lee, Sang Woo; Cho, Seung Hyun; Jang, Yun-Jin; Lee, Hui Joong; Kim, Gab Chul; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk of malignancy and to determine which clinical variables differentiate between benign and malignant focal breast lesions found incidentally on 18F-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). Methods From March 2005 to October 2011, 21,224 women with no history of breast cancer underwent FDG PET/CT at three university-affiliated hospitals. We retrospectively identified 214 patients with incidental fo...

  10. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY INDEXES DERIVED FROM 5-MINUTE AND 24-HOUR ECG RECORDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Anichkov; A. A. Platonova

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To estimate heart rate variability (HRV) from 5-min and 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients of control group, to analyze association between HRV indexes and cardiovascular risk factors and RA-related clinical characteristics.Material and Methods. 90 female patients with RA and 30 healthy subjects matching for age were included in the study. The baseline evaluation included a physical examination, assessment of the cardiov...

  11. Nucleotide Variability and Translation Efficiency of the 5′ Untranslated Region of Hepatitis A Virus: Update from Clinical Isolates Associated with Mild and Severe Hepatitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. A...

  12. Intraplate Harrat Volcanism and Neogene Evolution of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary beneath Western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A. J.; Duncan, R. A.; Graham, D. W.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Alshalntoni, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continental extension is a fundamental plate tectonic process, and extensional environments are associated with significant production of basaltic magmas. Although tholeiitic magmatism produced by mantle decompression is common, dispersed, less voluminous and compositionally variable basaltic and related magmas also occur in association with continental extension. One of the most voluminous, best-preserved and least studied examples of the latter is the volcanic harrats of western Saudi Arabia. Uplift, crustal erosion and harrat volcanism occurred from ~15 Ma to recent over a considerable region of western Arabia. Volcanism trends north from the Red Sea along the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) line as a number of discrete harrats, and geophysical evidence suggests this region is underlain by hot upwelling asthenosphere. Larger harrats occur along the central axis of the MMN line, with smaller fields on the periphery. We present initial results of an ongoing study of harrat volcanism, including more than 50 new 40Ar-39Ar ages together with geochemical and isotopic data. Magma storage and fractionation appears to have occurred at a range of crustal levels, including deep storage and transport sufficiently rapid to preserve a range of lithospheric and crustal xenoliths. Melting commenced within the garnet peridotite field, however modeling of REE element abundances suggest that considerable differences exist in the thickness of the overlying lithospheric lid. Thinner lithosphere (line, whereas harrats peripheral to the MMN line have thicker lithosphere (>60-80 km) and magmas result from lower degree melts. The observed variability can be explained by a process of progressively thinning lithosphere along the main axis of the MMN line, as a result of regional lithospheric extension and mantle decompression melting, coupled with northward asthenospheric flow from the Red Sea and/or Afar hot spot.

  13. SVARAP and aSVARAP: simple tools for quantitative analysis of nucleotide and amino acid variability and primer selection for clinical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamalet Catherine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple computerized methods that analyse variability along alignments of nucleotide or amino acid sequences can be very useful in a clinical microbiology laboratory for two main purposes. First, to optimize primer selection, which is critical for the identification of infectious pathogens based on gene sequencing: primers must target conserved nucleotide regions bordering highly variable areas to ensure discrimination of species. Second, it can be of interest to reveal mutations associated with drug resistance of pathogen agents. Our aim was therefore to test easy and cost-free tools (SVARAP and aSVARAP that require short hands-on work, little expertise, and which allow visual interpretation and statistical analysis of results. Results We first tested SVARAP to improve a strategy of identification of streptococci species of the Viridans Group targeting the groESL gene. Two regions with p -3. Secondly, aSVARAP was tested on reverse transcriptase (RT sequences from 129 HIV-1 clinical strains to identify natural polymorphisms and drug-selected mutations emerging under nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI-selective pressure. It revealed eleven of the 18 RT mutations considered in a reference HIV-1 genotypic NRTI-resistance interpretation algorithm. Conclusion SVARAP and aSVARAP are simple, versatile and helpful tools for analysis of sequence variability, and are currently being used in real practice in our clinical microbiology laboratory.

  14. Knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dyes among females visiting a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; Moussa, Noura A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary re...

  15. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals w...

  16. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategie...

  17. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

  18. Sociodemographic variables, clinical features, and the role of preassessment cross-sex hormones in older trans people

    OpenAIRE

    Bouman, Walter Pierre; Claes, Laurence; Marshall, Ellen; Pinner, Gill T.; Longworth, Julia; Maddox, Victoria; Witcomb, Gemma; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: As referrals to gender identity clinics have increased dramatically over the last few years, no studies focusing on older trans people seeking treatment are available. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of older trans people attending a national service and to investigate the influence of cross-sex hormones (CHT) on psychopathology. Methods: Individuals over the age of 50 years old referred to a national gender ...

  19. Understanding data in clinical research: a simple graphical display for plotting data (up to four independent variables) after binary logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    In clinical research, suitable visualization techniques of data after statistical analysis are crucial for the researches' and physicians' understanding. Common statistical techniques to analyze data in clinical research are logistic regression models. Among these, the application of binary logistic regression analysis (LRA) has greatly increased during past years, due to its diagnostic accuracy and because scientists often want to analyze in a dichotomous way whether some event will occur or not. Such an analysis lacks a suitable, understandable, and widely used graphical display, instead providing an understandable logit function based on a linear model for the natural logarithm of the odds in favor of the occurrence of the dependent variable, Y. By simple exponential transformation, such a logit equation can be transformed into a logistic function, resulting in predicted probabilities for the presence of the dependent variable, P(Y-1/X). This model can be used to generate a simple graphical display for binary LRA. For the case of a single predictor or explanatory (independent) variable, X, a plot can be generated with X represented by the abscissa (i.e., horizontal axis) and P(Y-1/X) represented by the ordinate (i.e., vertical axis). For the case of multiple predictor models, I propose here a relief 3D surface graphic in order to plot up to four independent variables (two continuous and two discrete). By using this technique, any researcher or physician would be able to transform a lesser understandable logit function into a figure easier to grasp, thus leading to a better knowledge and interpretation of data in clinical research. For this, a sophisticated statistical package is not necessary, because the graphical display may be generated by using any 2D or 3D surface plotter. PMID:14962632

  20. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ≤ 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The

  1. Profiling E-buyers in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, Experiential, and Attitudinal Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moudi Almousa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to develop profiles of adopters and non-adopters of internet shopping in Saudi Arabia based on their demographic variables and internet usage patrons and to investigate consumers’ attitude towards online shopping and perception and formation of attitude by using Fishbein and Ajzin (1980 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA. A profile of internet shopping adopter and non-adapters was drawn. Among the investigated demographic variablesand internet usage patterns, only educational level and previous experience on online purchase were found to differ significantly among consumers. Therefore, demographic variables and internet usage patterns are of limited use to profile Saudi Arabian consumers in terms of attitude towards internet shopping.
    Key words: Profile; Internet Shopping; E-Commerce; Saudi Arabia; Consumer Behavior

    Resumé: Le but de cette étude est d'élaborer des profils d'adoptants et de non-adoptants des achats sur Internet en Arabie Saoudite en fonction des variables démographiques et des modèles d'utilisation d'Internet et d'étudier l'attitude des consommateurs envers les achats en ligne, leur perception et la formation de l'attitude, en utilisant la Théorie de l'action raisonnée (TAR de Fishbein et Ajzin (1980. Un profile des adoptants des achats sur Internet et des non-adoptants a été tiré. Parmi les variables démographiques étudiés et les modèles d'utilisation d'Internet, il n'y a que le niveau d'éducation et l'expérience précédente de l'achat en ligne sont avérés très différents chez les consommateurs. Par conséquent, les variables démographiques et les habitudes d'utilisation d'Internet sont d'un usage limité pour définir le profile des consommateurs de l'Arabie Saoudite en termes d'attitude envers les achats sur Internet.
    Mots-clés: Profile; Achat Sur Internet; E-Commerce; Arabie Saoudite

  2. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  3. Functional variables associated with the clinical grade of dyspnoea in coal miners with pneumoconiosis and mild bronchial obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, T.T.; Schultze-Werninghaus, G.; Kollmeier, J.; Weber, A.; Eibel, R.; Lemke, B.; Schmidt, E.W. [Berufsgenossen Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Dyspnoea is a common symptom in coal miners with pneumoconiosis. Among others, gas exchange disturbances due to airway obstruction or mismatch between ventilation and perfusion may be underlying mechanisms. The validation of dyspnoea by the degree of airway obstruction is controversial, because the extent of airway obstruction often does not correlate with the clinical grade of breathlessness. The association was investigated between breathlessness (self reported, on a six point scale) and indices of submaximal spiroergometry in 66 coal workers with radiographically confirmed pneumoconiosis. The clinical degree of breathlessness was independently associated with minute ventilation/oxygen consumption ratio and smoking in a multiple linear regression analysis. It is concluded that the given minute ventilation/oxygen consumption ratio as a measurement of mismatch between ventilation and perfusion predicted the clinical grade of breathlessness better than measurements of bronchial obstruction at rest in coal workers with pneumoconiosis.

  4. Puberty Onset Among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Felimban, Naila; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Al Mutair, Angham; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamimi, Waleed

    2010-01-01

    Background: The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims: The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods: Cross-sectional study among male school chi...

  5. Saudi Arabia; Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    KEY ISSUES Context. Saudi Arabia’s economy has grown very strongly in recent years, benefitting from high oil prices and output, strong private sector activity, and government spending. It has played a systemic and stabilizing role in the global oil market. The economy has not been affected by the recent global financial market volatility. The Saudi population is young, growing, and increasingly well educated. Outlook and risks. The near term economic outlook is positive. Oil production is ...

  6. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Intakhab Alam Khan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and E...

  7. Leadership Role of School Superintendents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Almannie

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the practice of school superintendents in Saudi Arabia in five roles as seen by education supervisors within school district offices. The purpose of the study is to examine the leadership of school superintendents in these five roles: work environment, rules and regulations, implementation of technology, accountability, and professional development of the education supervisors in school districts. The study sample consists of 276 education supervisors working in 30 school ...

  8. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Moujahid A. Kao; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of J...

  9. Estimating preference change in meat demand in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kahtani, Safer H.; Sofian, Badr El-din E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the preference change in the demand for meat subject to random coefficients in Saudi Arabia. A Fortran 77 program has been designed to estimate the demand function for meat using Kalman filtering techniques and maximum likelihood approach. The initial values of the coefficient and covariance estimates are an essential prior information in the Kalman filtering techniques. Results provide substantial random coefficients in red meat, implying important...

  10. Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, G; Holm, S A; Fattah, R; Basset, S; Nasser, C

    1987-06-01

    The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis. PMID:3474099

  11. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Abdalla A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Sa...

  12. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and the World Bank Knowledge Index (KI) and Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) and other indicators often used in the international literature to examine progress in transition to a knowledge-based economy ...

  13. Managerial efficiency under risk for broiler producers in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif, Sherin A.; Al-Kahtani, Safer H.

    1999-01-01

    Managerial efficiency for broiler producers in Saudi Arabia is generally difficult to achieve. High investment costs coupled with relatively high average production costs and the consequent incompetent market prices, have resulted in projects either working at less than full capacity or being shut down completely. The aim here is to determine the most efficient production alternatives (actions) available to managers under business risk considerations. The ordinary stochastic dominance approac...

  14. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Belloumi; Atef Saad Alshehry

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). Additionally, to test the ro...

  15. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-01-01

    The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia) was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80) moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minut...

  16. WATER IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig

    2011-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating p...

  17. Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Haifa Abdulaziz Al-Turki

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social S...

  18. Nucleotide variability and translation efficiency of the 5' untranslated region of hepatitis A virus: update from clinical isolates associated with mild and severe hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. Activity was higher in HuH7 than in HeLa cells, except for an infrequently isolated genotype IIA strain. Though globally low, significant variation in IRES-dependent translation efficiency was observed between field isolates, reflecting the low but significant genetic variability of this region (94.2% +/- 0.5% nucleotide identity). No mutation was exclusive of benign or severe hepatitis, and variations in IRES activity were not associated with a clinical phenotype, indirectly supporting the preponderance of host factors in determining the clinical presentation. PMID:20631141

  19. Nucleotide Variability and Translation Efficiency of the 5′ Untranslated Region of Hepatitis A Virus: Update from Clinical Isolates Associated with Mild and Severe Hepatitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. Activity was higher in HuH7 than in HeLa cells, except for an infrequently isolated genotype IIA strain. Though globally low, significant variation in IRES-dependent translation efficiency was observed between field isolates, reflecting the low but significant genetic variability of this region (94.2% ± 0.5% nucleotide identity). No mutation was exclusive of benign or severe hepatitis, and variations in IRES activity were not associated with a clinical phenotype, indirectly supporting the preponderance of host factors in determining the clinical presentation. PMID:20631141

  20. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  1. EFFECTS OF SELF-HELP BOOK READING ON SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN A NON-CLINIC SAMPLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MARTÍNEZ SERRANO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades there has been an important increase in the use of self-help literature. The present researchevaluates the effect of self-help books on anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, dysfunctional attitudes and assertivebehaviour. These variables were assessed in a 20 healthy volunteers before and after reading the self-help book(experimental group and in a 20 healthy volunteers who did not read any self-help book (control group. While theexperimental group improved their scores in anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and dysfunctional attitudes, thecontrol group did not show any statistically significant differences between pre- and post-scores, except in fear ofnegative evaluation. In general, the effect size (Cohen’s d and the percentage of change was higher in the experimentalgroup than in the control group. These results show the therapeutic benefits of this sort of literature in non-clinicalpopulation. Implications for the improvement of psychological variables are discussed.

  2. Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition on self-reported health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health researchers ideally integrate social, environmental, and clinical measures to identify predictors of poor health. Chemicals measured in human tissues are often evaluated in relation to intangible or rare health outcomes, or are studied one chemical at a time. Using ...

  3. EFFECTS OF SELF-HELP BOOK READING ON SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN A NON-CLINIC SAMPLE.

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIA MARTÍNEZ SERRANO; JUAN CARLOS SIERRA

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades there has been an important increase in the use of self-help literature. The present researchevaluates the effect of self-help books on anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, dysfunctional attitudes and assertivebehaviour. These variables were assessed in a 20 healthy volunteers before and after reading the self-help book(experimental group) and in a 20 healthy volunteers who did not read any self-help book (control group). While theexperimental group improved their score...

  4. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: Narrative review of recent literature

    OpenAIRE

    Harris PR; Sommargren CE; Stein PK; Fung GL; Drew BJ

    2014-01-01

    Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory,...

  5. Clinical and multiple gene expression variables in survival analysis of breast cancer: Analysis with the hypertabastic survival model

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai Mohammad A; Eby Wayne M; Nimeh Nadim; Li Hong; Singh Karan P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We explore the benefits of applying a new proportional hazard model to analyze survival of breast cancer patients. As a parametric model, the hypertabastic survival model offers a closer fit to experimental data than Cox regression, and furthermore provides explicit survival and hazard functions which can be used as additional tools in the survival analysis. In addition, one of our main concerns is utilization of multiple gene expression variables. Our analysis treats the ...

  6. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) from clinical samples: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Pailhoriès; Rodolphe Buzelé; Mathieu Picardeau; Sylvie Robert; Emmanuelle Mercier; Laurent Mereghetti; Philippe Lanotte

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection for which diagnosis is difficult. It has appeared as a global emerging infectious disease over recent years. Genotype determination often requires a Leptospira strain obtained by culture, which is a long and fastidious technique. A method based on multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to determine the genotype of Leptospira interrogans, performed directly on blood or urine samples, is proposed. This method was applied to a fatal case of...

  7. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen and...... tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  8. Personal power-frequency magnetic field exposure in women recruited at an infertility clinic: association with physical activity and temporal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current epidemiologic approaches for studying exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of miscarriage are potentially biased due to lack of attention to the relationship of exposure with physical activity and within-individual variability in exposures over time. This analysis examines these two issues using data from a longitudinal pilot study of 40 women recruited from an infertility clinic that contributed data for up to three 24-h periods separated by a median of 3.6 weeks. Physical activity was positively associated with peak exposure metrics. Higher physical activity within environments did not necessarily lead to higher peak exposures, suggesting that movement between and not within environments increases one's probability of encountering a high field source. Peak compared with central tendency metrics were more variable over time. Future epidemiology studies associated with peak exposure metrics should adjust for physical activity and collect more than 1 d of exposure measurement to reduce bias. (authors)

  9. Personal power-frequency magnetic field exposure in women recruited at an infertility clinic: association with physical activity and temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Hauser, Russ; Wang, Lu; Kavet, Robert; Meeker, John D

    2016-03-01

    Current epidemiologic approaches for studying exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of miscarriage are potentially biased due to lack of attention to the relationship of exposure with physical activity and within-individual variability in exposures over time. This analysis examines these two issues using data from a longitudinal pilot study of 40 women recruited from an infertility clinic that contributed data for up to three 24-h periods separated by a median of 3.6 weeks. Physical activity was positively associated with peak exposure metrics. Higher physical activity within environments did not necessarily lead to higher peak exposures, suggesting that movement between and not within environments increases one's probability of encountering a high field source. Peak compared with central tendency metrics were more variable over time. Future epidemiology studies associated with peak exposure metrics should adjust for physical activity and collect more than 1 d of exposure measurement to reduce bias. PMID:26152565

  10. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen and...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  11. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor

  12. Analysis of hemoglobin electrophoresis results and physicians investigative practices in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Syed Riaz; Al Dahmash, Badr Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Riyadh and central province falls in a moderate prevalent zone of hemoglobinopathies in Saudi Arabia. However, it has been observed that the physicians working in Saudi Arabia invariably advise all cases of anemia for hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE). The present work was carried out to study the yield of the HE in Riyadh and the investigative practices of the physicians advising HE. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was carried out in the hospitals of King Saud University from 2009 to 2011 in order to assess the yield of HE in referred cases of clinical anemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1073 cases divided in two groups of males and females had undergone complete blood count and red blood cell morphology. Cellulose acetate HE was performed and all the positive results were reconfirmed on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results were analyzed for the type of hemoglobinopathies. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used. RESULTS: A total of 405 males and 668 females blood samples were included in the present study. 116 (28.5%) males and 167 (25%) females showed an abnormal pattern on HE. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait was higher in females while sickle cell trait was predominantly seen in males. Red cell indices were reduced considerably in thalassemias, but were unaffected in sickle cell disorders, except those which had concurrent alpha trait. The total yield of HE was 26.6% which was much less than expected. CONCLUSION: The physicians are advised to rule out iron deficiency and other common causes of anemia before investigating the cases for hemoglobinopathies, which employs time consuming and expensive tests of HE and HPLC. PMID:24339548

  13. Aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Najran region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saeed Zayed AlAyed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of bacterial, viral and parasitic aetiology of gastroenteritis in children aged < 5 years in the Najran region, south-western Saudi Arabia, to determine the contribution of these enteropathogens in childhood diarrhoeal diseases and to put forward effective preventive measures for controlling the disease in the future. Design and Setting: A descriptive study conducted at Najran Maternity and Children′s Hospital and the Microbiology Department of the Najran University College of Applied Medical Sciences from October 2011 to June 2012. Patients and Methods: Stool samples were collected from 326 children aged ≤ 5 years with diarrhoea and examined for bacterial, viral and parasitic enteropathogens. Results: Seventy-two (22.1% samples were positive for viral pathogens, including 56 (17.2%, 12 (3.7% and 4 (1.2% samples for rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus, respectively. Thirty-five (10.7% samples were positive for bacterial pathogens, including 28 (8.6% and 7 (2.1% samples for Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates, respectively. Pathogenic parasites were detected in only 4 (1.2% samples, including 3 (0.9% Giardia lamblia and 1 (0.3% Entamoeba histolytica isolates. Conclusions: Rotavirus is the most common pathogen in paediatric acute gastroenteritis in the Najran region. This fact, in combination with the severity of the infections, warrants consideration of a rotavirus vaccine in the childhood immunization program in Saudi Arabia. On the basis of clinical and laboratory parameters, it appears possible to distinguish between the different causative agents of acute gastroenteritis.

  14. Pediatric retinal detachment in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: Experience of a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because no previous studies have addressed the issue, we describe clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in a pediatric population of the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive cases of pediatric RRD (0-18 years) patients presenting at Dhahran Eye Specialist Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia over a period of 3 years. Twenty patients were included in the study, accounting for 9.4% of all retinal detachment surgery cases performed over a period of 3 years (January 2006 to December 2008). The median age was 11.0 years, (range, birth to 18 years). Trauma, (45%) myopia/vitreoretinal degeneration (10%) and prior ocular surgery (25%) were significant risk factors for RRD. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) more than grade C was present in 14/20 (70%) of cases. Most patients (15/20, 75%) were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and placement of an encircling buckle, while silicone oil or gas was used as tamponade in 13/20 (65%) patients. Surgery was successful in 17/20 (85%) cases in achieving retinal re-attachment. Visual acuity improved significantly following surgery (Mean preop 2.146 LogMAR, Mean postop 1.497 LogMAR) ( P= .014). Longer duration of RRD ( P =.007) and macular involvement ( P =.05) were associated with worse anatomical outcomes following surgery. Pediatric RRD in the Eastern province is often associated with predisposing pathology. Surgery is successful in achieving anatomical reattachment of the retina in a majority of cases with improvement of visual acuity. (author)

  15. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects. PMID:24568491

  16. Analysis of hemoglobin electrophoresis results and physicians investigative practices in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Riaz Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Riyadh and central province falls in a moderate prevalent zone of hemoglobinopathies in Saudi Arabia. However, it has been observed that the physicians working in Saudi Arabia invariably advise all cases of anemia for hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE. The present work was carried out to study the yield of the HE in Riyadh and the investigative practices of the physicians advising HE. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in the hospitals of King Saud University from 2009 to 2011 in order to assess the yield of HE in referred cases of clinical anemia. Materials and Methods: A total of 1073 cases divided in two groups of males and females had undergone complete blood count and red blood cell morphology. Cellulose acetate HE was performed and all the positive results were reconfirmed on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results were analyzed for the type of hemoglobinopathies. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was used. Results: A total of 405 males and 668 females blood samples were included in the present study. 116 (28.5% males and 167 (25% females showed an abnormal pattern on HE. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait was higher in females while sickle cell trait was predominantly seen in males. Red cell indices were reduced considerably in thalassemias, but were unaffected in sickle cell disorders, except those which had concurrent alpha trait. The total yield of HE was 26.6% which was much less than expected. Conclusion: The physicians are advised to rule out iron deficiency and other common causes of anemia before investigating the cases for hemoglobinopathies, which employs time consuming and expensive tests of HE and HPLC.

  17. Pediatric retinal detachment in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: Experience of a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema Rizwan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Because no previous studies have addressed the issue, we describe clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD in a pediatric population of the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive cases of pediatric RRD (0-18 years patients presenting at Dhahran Eye Specialist Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia over a period of 3 years. Results: Twenty patients were included in the study, accounting for 9.4% of all retinal detachment surgery cases performed over a period of 3 years (January 2006 to December 2008. The median age was 11.0 years, (range, birth to 18 years. Trauma, (45% myopia/vitreoretinal degeneration (10% and prior ocular surgery (25% were significant risk factors for RRD. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR more than grade C was present in 14/20 (70% of cases. Most patients (15/20, 75% were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and placement of an encircling buckle, while silicone oil or gas was used as tamponade in 13/20 (65% patients. Surgery was successful in 17/20 (85% cases in achieving retinal re-attachment. Visual acuity improved significantly following surgery (Mean preop 2.146 LogMAR, Mean postop 1.497 LogMAR ( P= .014. Longer duration of RRD ( P =.007 and macular involvement ( P =.05 were associated with worse anatomical outcomes following surgery. Conclusion: Pediatric RRD in the Eastern province is often associated with predisposing pathology. Surgery is successful in achieving anatomical reattachment of the retina in a majority of cases with improvement of visual acuity.

  18. Socioeconomic factors affecting patients′ utilization of primary care services at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Alsubaie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary care services utilization is dependent on socioeconomic factors. It is proven that variation in socioeconomic factors result in discrepancies in the use of such services. Admittedly, research is limited on the socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services in Saudi Arabia. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the effect of the main socioeconomic factors affecting patients′ utilization of primary care services at a tertiary teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2014 in a primary care clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital in Riyadh city; subjects selected using a random consecutive sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire in Arabic was given to the participants to collect the data which comprised sociodemographic data, utilization measures, and health needs. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 358 subjects participated in the study. The main factors that best determine the utilization of primary health care clinic in a tertiary teaching hospital were the possession of a health insurance (P = 0.046, odds ratio [OR] = 8.333, and bad self-health-perception (P < 0.014, OR: 2.088. Chronic illness was also associated with higher utilization (OR = 2.003. Conclusion: Our results reveal that chronic health problems, self-health-perception, and health insurance are the most significant socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services.

  19. Clinical variability of cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in adult and pediatric patients after renal, cardiac, hepatic, and bone-marrow transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, C W; Schroeder, T J; Myre, S A; Wadhwa, N K; Pesce, A J; First, M R; McEnery, P T; Balistreri, W F; Harris, R E; Melvin, D B

    1988-10-01

    The most important limitation associated with the clinical use of cyclosporine is the narrow therapeutic range between its efficacy and toxicity. Effective treatment is further complicated by significant variation in intrapatient and interpatient pharmacokinetics of the drug. We describe a practical approach to pharmacokinetic analysis that does not interfere with the cyclosporine dosage regimen or with clinical management of the patient. To optimize therapy, we individualized patient management by using noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean residence time (MRT) and volume of distribution at steady-state were calculated from data on concentration vs time after dose. We applied this approach to 24 kidney, 12 heart, 8 bone-marrow, 7 liver, and 5 pancreas transplants. Individualized requirements for cyclosporine dose and dosage interval can be predicted from these parameters. MRT is the most useful pharmacokinetic parameter, because it allows prediction of the optimal dosage interval. PMID:3048779

  20. Clinical Variability and Novel Mutations in the NHEJ1 Gene in Patients with a Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome-like Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Varon, Raymonda; Dutrannoy, Véronique; Demuth, Ilja; Konrat, Kateryna; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Radszewski, Janina; Rothe, Susanne; Sperling, Karl; Digweed, Martin; Baumann, Ulrich; Schindler, Detlev; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Schellenberger, Mario T; Keng, Wee Teik; Nallusamy, Revathy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We have previously shown that mutations in the genes encoding DNA Ligase IV (LIGIV) and RAD50, involved in DNA repair by non-homologous-end joining (NHEJ), lead to clinical and cellular features similar to those of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS). Very recently, a new member of the NHEJ repair pathway, NHEJ1, was discovered and mutations in patients with features resembling NBS were described. Here we report on 5 patients from 4 families of different ethnic origin with th...

  1. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA from clinical samples: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Pailhoriès

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection for which diagnosis is difficult. It has appeared as a global emerging infectious disease over recent years. Genotype determination often requires a Leptospira strain obtained by culture, which is a long and fastidious technique. A method based on multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to determine the genotype of Leptospira interrogans, performed directly on blood or urine samples, is proposed. This method was applied to a fatal case of leptospirosis for which the geographical origin of infection was unknown. This technique will allow a genotype to be obtained for L. interrogans, even when cultures remain negative.

  2. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all

  3. Influence of clinical and laboratory variables on faecal antigen ELISA results in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2015-06-01

    False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. PMID:25920770

  4. The Role and Responsibility of the National Regulator of Radiation Sources and Materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are neither nuclear power reactors nor are there research reactors in Saudi Arabia. However, the country imports a lot of radioactive sources that are used in different fields such as medicine, hydrology, industry and research. Usage of radioactive material is governed by national and the IAEA regulations for the safe usage and transport of radioactive materials. KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) is an independent scientific organization established in 1977. It is the national competent authority that sets the rules of transporting, using and disposing of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia.. This paper discusses the role of KACST and other authorities in the country regarding the 1) licensing and evaluation of the importing and exporting applications of radioactive sources and/or devices in Saudi Arabia, 2) The regulatory framework of radiation protection in Saudi Arabia, 3) the management of radioactive wastes in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  5. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  6. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  7. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop a optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  8. Explaining variability in first grazing season heifer growth combining individually measured parasitological and clinical indicators with exposure to gastrointestinal nematode infection based on grazing management practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Aurélie; Chauvin, Alain; Madouasse, Aurélien; Froger, Sébastien; Bareille, Nathalie; Chartier, Christophe

    2016-07-30

    The objective of our study was to explain the variability of average daily weight gain (ADWG) due to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection for 291 non treated first grazing season (FGS) heifers, from 12 independent groups in the western part of France, by combining parasitological and clinical indicators at individual level and grazing management indicators at group level. Parasitological indicators were faecal egg count (FEC), anti Ostertagia ostertagi antibody level (Ostertagia ODR), and pepsinogen level. Clinical indicators were diarrhea score (DISCO) and breech soiling score (BSS). At group level, grazing management practice (GMP), based on three variables (supplementation, month of turnout, grazing season duration), was clustered into three categories reflecting low, medium or high exposure (EXP) to GIN. Depending on the groups, turnout was from mid-March to early July and housing was from mid-October to late November, with a FGS duration ranging from 4 to 8.4 months. At turnout, the mean age of heifers was 8 months (range: 6-16 months) and they weighed between 175 and 268kg. In each GMP category, FEC significantly decreased between the mid-season and the housing, while Ostertagia ODR and pepsinogen level increased gradually throughout the grazing season. In contrast, clinical indicators did not show any seasonal variation. In a multivariate linear model, 22% of the ADWG variability was significantly explained by two individual indicators (Ostertagia ODR: 12.6%, DISCO: 4.8%) and by the group indicator (GMP category: 4.8%). ADWG losses due to GIN exposure (Ostertagia ODR) were estimated up to 39kg per heifer for the overall grazing season. For groups within the low EXP category the difference between animals with low (697g/day) ADWG was explained by the clinical indicator DISCO. In contrast, for groups within the medium and high EXP categories this difference was explained by a parasitological indicator (Ostertagia ODR). This study highlighted the value of

  9. Variable clinical expression in patients with a germline MEN1 disease gene mutation: clues to a genotype-phenotype correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis J. Lips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an inherited endocrine tumor syndrome, predominantly characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumors, pituitary adenomas, adrenal adenomas, and neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus, lungs or stomach. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is caused by germline mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumor suppressor gene. The initial germline mutation, loss of the wild-type allele, and modifying genetic and possibly epigenetic and environmental events eventually result in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumors. Our understanding of the function of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene product, menin, has increased significantly over the years. However, to date, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established. In this review we discuss reports on exceptional clinical presentations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which may provide more insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder and offer clues for a possible genotype-phenotype correlation.

  10. Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam L; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Devlin, Joanne M; Sansom, Fiona M

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15 %) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular swab. Nucleotide sequencing of the molecular marker C. pecorum ompA revealed that the majority (90/114) of C. pecorum samples typed were genotype B. This genotype has not been reported in northern koalas. In general, Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas is associated with milder clinical signs compared with infection in koalas in northern populations. Although disease pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, the high prevalence of genotype B in Victoria may suggest it is less pathogenic. All but three koalas had C. pecorum genotypes unique to southern koala populations (i.e. Victoria and South Australia). These included a novel C. pecorum ompA genotype and two genotypes associated with livestock. Regression analysis determined that significant factors for the presence of C. pecorum infection were sex and geographical location. The presence of 'wet bottom' in males and the presence of reproductive tract pathology in females were significantly associated with C. pecorum infection, suggesting variation in clinical disease manifestations between sexes. PMID:26932792

  11. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, O.

    2014-07-28

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions. 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average of less than 50 mm yr−1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions

  13. The clinical significance of detection to heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-rong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the change of heart rate deceleration capacity ( DC and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and its relationship with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods: DC, LVEF, time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were measured in 66 patients with CHF and 34 healthy adults (control group by using 24h Holter recordings and Echocardiography. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals( SDNN, squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals ( RMSSD,low frequency power( LFn and high frequency power( HFn and the changes of LVEF were compared between  the two groups,the relationship between DC,LVEF and HRV were studied in patients with CHF. Results: The median value of DC in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than that in control group( 3.1 ± 2.4 ms vs 7.2 ± 1.3 ms,P <0.01.Incidence of abnormal DC in the CHF group was 57.5%,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01.The HRV index, including SDNN、RMSSD、LFn、HFn, in the CHF group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P < 0.01. Significant positive correlation between HRV index and LVEF were confirmed (P < 0.01. Conclusions: DC and HRV index are lower in patients with CHF and have a good correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  14. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  15. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  16. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance. PMID:26984034

  17. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Khowailed, Mohammad S; Suliman, Wijdan E; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Al-Bluwi, Eman; Al-Kahtani, Hassan S

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06), followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40) and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75). After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.003), rural origin (P = 0.03), positive family history of the same lesion(s) (P = 0.01), shorter duration of ≤6 months (P = 0.02), generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02), and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02). Conclusion . The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the

  18. Sex Differences in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Insights From the Heart Function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFaleh, Hussam F; Thalib, Lukman; Kashour, Tarek; Hersi, Ahmad; Mimish, Layth; Elasfar, Abdelfatah A; Almasood, Ali; Al Ghamdi, Saleh; Ghabashi, Abdullah; Malik, Asif; Hussein, Gamal A; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Abuosa, Ahmed; Al Habeeb, Waleed; Al Habib, Khalid F

    2016-08-01

    We assessed sex-specific differences in clinical features and outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The Heart function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia (HEARTS), a prospective registry, enrolled 2609 patients with AHF (34.2% women) between 2009 and 2010. Women were older and more likely to have risk factors for atherosclerosis, history of heart failure (HF), and rheumatic heart and valve disease. Ischemic heart disease was the prime cause for HF in men and women but more so in men (P Women had higher rates of hypertensive heart disease and primary valve disease (P women and higher ventricular arrhythmias in men, no differences were observed in hospital outcomes. The overall survival did not differ between men and women (hazard ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.2, P = .981). Men and women with AHF differ significantly in baseline clinical characteristics and management but not in adverse outcomes. PMID:26438635

  19. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-03-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards. PMID:26984027

  20. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  1. Diffusion of the Adoption of Online Retailing in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia is a leading producer of oil and natural gas, a member of G-20, has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, and is very wealthy, online retailing activities are not progressing at the same speed as its growing ICT marketplace. For this reason, the attitudes of retailers in companies at different stages of e-commerce maturity were investigated to determine what factors are causing this problem. The data collection included two s...

  2. The Ablah succession of Saudi Arabia (dating and geological significance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ablah sedimentary succession represents a molasse basin in the Neo-Proterozoic Shield of Saudi Arabia. A rhyolite flow interbedded in the succession has been dated by the Pb/Pb method at 641± 1 Ma, indicating that the basin is a local expression of Panafrican tectonism in the south of the shield. Consequently, the Panafrican phase that has previously been described in the north can now be extrapolated to the south of the shield. This age determination also enables post-Panafrican events, which differ between the south and the north, to be analysed over the entire shield. (authors)

  3. Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri HM; Madkhali A; Al-Kadi MT; Bakhsh H; Alruwaili NN; Tamim HM

    2014-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...

  4. Gene variability and degree of expression of vaccine candidate factor H binding protein in clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anne; Jacobsson, Susanne; Hussain, Shahida; Olcén, Per; Mölling, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The factor H binding protein (fHbp) is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as a vaccine candidate for a meningococcal group B vaccine. We have previously described the prevalence and sequence variation of fHbp (Jacobsson et al., 2009) and here we investigate the expression of the antigen. The present study includes isolates from carriers (n = 62) and patients with invasive Neisseria meningitidis infections (n = 146), of which 62 had a fatal outcome. Among the invasive isolates from patients with fatal and non-fatal infections fHbp allele 1 was most common (42% and 29% respectively), but it was only identified in 3% of the carrier isolates, where allele 16 was most frequent (13%). The Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis identified fHbp expression in all except seven isolates and further analysis by Western blot showed that five of these seven samples were indeed negative using a polyclonal anti-fHbp serum. The negative isolates belonged to serogroup B fHbp allele 24, Y allele 104, and W-135 allele 16 (all invasive). Two were non-serogroupable carrier isolates (allele 21 and 101). An interesting finding is that isolates from invasive infections with fatal outcome had lower expression of fHbp or lower affinity for the fHbp antibody compared to isolates from non-fatal invasive infections and carriers. PMID:23030708

  5. Some clinical and laboratory variables in adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with recombinant alpha interferon + cytosine arabinoside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is the most frequent myeloproliferative syndrome in adults. In a longitudinal retrospective study performed between January 1985 - December 2009, 46 patients in chronic phase diagnosed at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology were evaluated. They received cytoreductor agent as first treatment followed by interferon α2 + cytosar. Forty one percent showed high risk Sokal prognosis score. The most frequent clinical manifestations at diagnosis were asthenia (37 %), splenomegaly (31 %) and weigh lost (28.3 %). The partial and complete hematological response was of 26,8 % and 65.9 % after 6 months and the complete cytogenetic and molecular response was of 9.1 % and 16.3 %. The most frequent adverse reactions were: fever (34.9 %), thrombocytopenia (26.3 %) and general syndrome (23.8 %). Resistance or intolerance to INFα2 was found in 47.8 % of the patients and 90.0 % died due to progression of the disease. The 5 year overall survival was of 63.8 % and the 3 years free event survival was of 68.9 %. According to Sokal prognosis score the overall survival showed significant difference between groups (p= 0.005) but there was no significant difference for free event survival (p= 0.165). The INFα2 treatment in our patients showed better results than those obtained in different developed countries and is an effective therapeutic option in Cuba

  6. Inter-observer variability of clinical target volume delineation in radiotherapy treatment of pancreatic cancer: a multi-institutional contouring experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An observational multi-institutional study has been conducted aimed to evaluate the inter-observer variability in clinical target volume (CTV) delineation among different radiation oncologists in radiotherapy treatment of pancreatic cancer. A multi-institutional contouring dummy-run of two different cases of pancreatic cancer treated by postoperative and preoperative radiotherapy (RT) was performed. Clinical history, diagnostics, and planning CT imaging were available on AIRO website. Participants were requested to delineate CTVs according to their skills and knowledge. Aiming to quantify interobserver variability of CTVs delineations, the total volume, craniocaudal, laterolateral, and anteroposterior diameters were calculated. Descriptive statistic was calculated. The 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) for coefficient of variation (CV) was estimated. The Dice Similarity Index (DSI) was used to evaluate the spatial overlap accuracy of the different CTVs compared with the CTVs of a national reference Centre considered as a benchmark. The mean DSI (mDSI) was calculated and reported. A total of 18 radiation oncologists from different Institutes submitted the targets. Less variability was observed for the Elective CTV rather than the Boost CTV, in both cases. The estimated CV were 28.8% (95% CI: 21.2 - 45.0%) and 20.0% (95% CI: 14.9 - 30.6%) for the Elective CTV, in adjuvant (Case 1) and neoadjuvant (Case 2) case, respectively. The mDSI value was 0.68 for the Elective CTVs in both cases (range 0.19 - 0.79 in postoperative vs range 0.35 - 0.79 in preoperative case). The mDSI was increased to 0.71 (Case 1) and 0.72 (Case 2) if the observers with a worse agreement have been excluded. On the other hand, a CV of 42.4% (95% CI: 30.1 - 72.4%) and 63.8% (95% CI: 43.9 - 119.2%) with a mDSI value of 0.44 and 0.52, were calculated for the Boost CTV in Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. The CV and mDSI obtained values for Elective CTVs showed an acceptable agreement among participants

  7. A novel Bayesian approach to quantify clinical variables and to determine their spectroscopic counterparts in 1H NMR metabonomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaski Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge in metabonomics is to uncover quantitative associations between multidimensional spectroscopic data and biochemical measures used for disease risk assessment and diagnostics. Here we focus on clinically relevant estimation of lipoprotein lipids by 1H NMR spectroscopy of serum. Results A Bayesian methodology, with a biochemical motivation, is presented for a real 1H NMR metabonomics data set of 75 serum samples. Lipoprotein lipid concentrations were independently obtained for these samples via ultracentrifugation and specific biochemical assays. The Bayesian models were constructed by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC and they showed remarkably good quantitative performance, the predictive R-values being 0.985 for the very low density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG, 0.787 for the intermediate, 0.943 for the low, and 0.933 for the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. The modelling produced a kernel-based reformulation of the data, the parameters of which coincided with the well-known biochemical characteristics of the 1H NMR spectra; particularly for VLDL-TG and HDL-C the Bayesian methodology was able to clearly identify the most characteristic resonances within the heavily overlapping information in the spectra. For IDL-C and LDL-C the resulting model kernels were more complex than those for VLDL-TG and HDL-C, probably reflecting the severe overlap of the IDL and LDL resonances in the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusion The systematic use of Bayesian MCMC analysis is computationally demanding. Nevertheless, the combination of high-quality quantification and the biochemical rationale of the resulting models is expected to be useful in the field of metabonomics.

  8. Psycho-social Features of Chronic Dialysis Patients in Saudi Arabia: Experience of one Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Homrany Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of chronic dialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients include restoration of the highest achievable state of personal physical health and preservation as well as restoration and development of the highest level of psychological and social functions. We conducted this study to evaluate factors influencing the process of adaptation such as religious faith, economic status and extended family-tribal system. It was hoped that studying these factors might provide further dimension to our understanding of the psychopathology of ESRD patients, and to help offer new ideas to improve the quality of their lives. A sample comprising 54 patients with ESRD was studied in Abha hemodialysis centre in Southern Saudi Arabia. The socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data were collected. The psychiatric status of the patients was evaluated using a structured "The Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale" (CPRS clinical interview. The result indicated that the major co-morbidity (in 60% of these patients was a depressive illness due to renal failure diagnosable according to DSM-IV criteria. Our study suggests the need for specific anti-depressant treatment in order to ameliorate many distressing symptoms, which may affect the quality of these patients′ life. Concomitant social problems of poverty, absence of spouse and illiteracy, dictate a more prompt attitude in initiating support systems and attention to providing leisure activities.

  9. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism does not affect clopidogrel response variability but is associated with clinical outcome after PCI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase (PON is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation. METHODS: A total of 1676 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled in the prospective CROSS-VERIFY cohort from June 2006 to June 2010. We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR, and analyzed lipid profiles. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 12 months. RESULTS: PON-1 genotyping data were available in 1336 patients. Since the Q-allele is associated with decreased PON-activity, we analyzed the outcome between patients with QQ/QR (815 patients, 61% and those with RR-genotype (521 patients, 39%. After adjustment for common cardiac risk factors, the QQ/QR-genotype was an independent predictor of the primary thrombotic endpoint with an 11-fold increased risk (HR 11.6, 95% CI: 1.55-87.0, but not repeat revascularization (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78-1.61. The QQ/QR-genotype was not associated with OPR (QQ/QR: 231±86 PRU vs. RR 236±82 PRU, p = 0.342 but higher small-dense LDL levels (1.20±0.12 mg/dL vs. 0.76±0.15 mg/dL, p = 0.027. The increased risk of thrombotic outcomes was more profound in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients compared with non-ACS patients. CONCLUSION: PON1 Q-allele is an independent predictor of worse cardiovascular outcome independent of platelet function and is associated with significantly higher levels of small dense LDL-C.

  10. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  11. Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

  12. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  13. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080

  14. Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

  15. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

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    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  16. Holocene and Pleistocene pluvial periods in Yemen, southern Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitmann, Dominik; Burns, Stephen J.; Pekala, Marek; Mangini, Augusto; Al-Subbary, Abdulkarim; Al-Aowah, Mohammad; Kramers, Jan; Matter, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Arabia is an important potential pathway for the dispersal of Homo sapiens ("out of Africa"). Yet, because of its arid to hyper-arid climate humans could only migrate across southern Arabia during pluvial periods when environmental conditions were favorable. However, knowledge on the timing of Arabian pluvial periods prior to the Holocene is mainly based on a single and possibly incomplete speleothem record from Hoti Cave in Northern Oman. Additional terrestrial records from the Arabian Peninsula are needed to confirm the Hoti Cave record. Here we present a new speleothem record from Mukalla Cave in southern Yemen. The Mukalla Cave and Hoti Cave records clearly reveal that speleothems growth occurred solely during peak interglacial periods, corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 (early to mid-Holocene), 5.1, 5.3, 5.5 (Eemian), 7.1, 7.5 and 9. Of these humid periods, highest precipitation occurred during MIS 5.5 and lowest during early to middle Holocene.

  17. Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

  18. Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Direct and total radiation measurements carried out over several years in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in support of the Research Institute's solar energy programs have indicated a relatively large diffuse radiation component. This is primarily due to airborne particulates carried aloft by the prevailing winds in a desert environment and occurs particularly during the Shamal (north wind) sandstorm season. As a first step in quantifying the nature of this atmospheric turbidity, spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26/sup 0/ 23', Long. 50/sup 0/ 00'), using broad-band filter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and RG8) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angstroem Coefficient of Turbidity, ..beta.., were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ..cap alpha.. = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. values for each month. The 12-month average values of ..beta.. and ..cap alpha.. were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Prospect of Neem Plantation at Arafat, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. U Mridha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indicaA.Juss. is a multipurpose agroforestry tree that is well adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions and has gained worldwide recognition for its pharmaceutical and pesticidal properties.The world's largest pure Neem plantations are available in the plains of Arafat, Saudi Arabia where 50,000 thousands Neem trees were planted to provide shade from the blazing summer sun for the millions of Hajis (Muslim pilgrims. Sporadic mature Neem trees are also found in Medinah, Taif and elsewhereof the Kingdom. The Neem tree is adapted to Arafat under harsh climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia and the plantation may be extended to other parts of the Kingdom as a avenue tree and also to minimize the desertification under changing climatic conditions and to improve the environmental condition of the country. At Arafat mixed plantations may be advocated to save the present plantation which may come from climate change as well as pest and diseases problems. So care must be taken to monitor the diseases of Neem tree at Arafat on a regularbasis. Because of insufficient growth of Neem at Arafat the methods of green cultivation with microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, mycotrophic green manure plants may be practiced for successful plantation.

  20. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

  1. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

  2. A Retrospective Study of Causes of Low Vision in Saud Arabia, A Case of Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z Alotaibi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation. PMID:26652071

  3. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars located at the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands and classically dominated by heavily cratered terrain. Unlike the rest of the topographic dichotomy on the planet, in Arabia Terra the elevation transition is very gentle, falling of 4 km over a distance of 2500 km (average slope = 0.0016°). Most of the impact craters within the region display a central bulge, bearing a well preserved stratification and a wide range of smaller morphologies like pitted cones, mounds and knobs (Franchi et al. 2013). Images acquired by HiRISE and CTX cameras on board MRO provided a comprehensive dataset in which also these small features can be easily recognized. These are tens of meters of diameter and tens of meters high, and many of them show an apical orifice. They are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid flow (e.g. Pondrelli et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2008). Indeed an active underground fluid flow activity in Arabia Terra It has been recently hypothesized (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al, 2011) , being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation, due to local water table emergence (e.g. Franchi et al., 2013). To date, there is no clear explanation for occurrence of central bulges surrounded by prominent depressions in Arabia craters. In addition, in Firsoff and Crommelin craters it is possible to recognize folds and outward dipping strata on the central bulges and their surroundings. Interestingly, a few craters with a prominent bulged floor elsewhere in Arabia Terra do not display stratification and are not explainable as impact related structures as their expected pristine central peak derived by hydrocode modelling is ~2km lower and one third the diameter than the actual topography (Pozzobon et al., 2013). All these evidences are not consistent with a typical lacustrine stratigraphic environment, whether interested by sulfate precipitation or not, and suggest active deformation after or

  4. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  5. Classification and Evaluation of Commercial Bottled Drinking Waters in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Ghrefat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an evaluation on the quality of 54 brands of bottled drinking waters currently consumed in Saudi Arabia. The relationships among eight selected major chemical ion variables (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate and nitrate were examined by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Principal component analysis identified three factors, which are responsible for the data structure explaining ~64% of the total variance of the data set and allowed to group the selected parameters according to common features. Hierarchical cluster analysis classified the evaluated water brands into different groups based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. The results demonstrated that the water brands have a diverse character reflected by their chemical compositions and are dominated by Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl type water. Total hardness values classified most of the studied brands into soft to moderately hard water. Generally, the physical and chemical constituents lie within the acceptable boundaries established by Saudi Arabian Standards Organization, International Bottled Water Association, Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization for drinking water.

  6. STUDIES ON AEDES AEGYPTI RESISTANCE TO SOME INSECTICIDES IN THE JAZAN DISTRICT, SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheikh, Adel A; Mohammed, W S; Noureldin, E M; Daffalla, O M; Shrwani, Y A; Hobani, K J; Alsheikh, F A; Alzahrani, M H; Binsaeed, A A

    2016-04-01

    The present study provided information on the susceptibility status of the adult and larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Bioassay tests were performed on adults and larvae by using WHO recommended concentrations and test kits. Adults of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to test papers impregnated with Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), Cyfluthrin (0.15%), Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), Fenitrothion (1%), Bendiocarb (0.1%) and DDT (4%) insecticides. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found to be susceptible only to Cyfluthrin; (mortality rate was 100%), whereas variable resistances were observed from the rest of the other insecticides tested (mortality rates ranged between 93.6 and 17%). Larvae were subjected to different concentrations of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene (IGRs) and Temephos (Organophosphate). Adult emergence inhibition (IE₅₀ & IE₉₅) values for the IGRs and the (LC₅₀ & LC₉₅) for Temephos were determined by log-probit regression analysis. Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant to Temephos (LC₅₀ 61.8-LC₉₅ 35600.1 mg/l) and showed high susceptibility to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron (IE₅₀ 0.49-IE₉₅ 10.9 mg/l) and (IE₅₀ 0.86 and IE₉₅ 93.8 mg/l), respectively. Larvae were more susceptible to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron by 1.8 folds. PMID:27363057

  7. A preliminary study on HTGR with air-cooled condenser at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N GNP reactor plant adopted a Rank in steam cycle for early deployment and for reducing R and D risk and cost. Original plant design is based on a wet cooling tower with wet bulb temperature of 34 .deg. C. This cooling environment may be sufficient for most area in North America. However, we should consider air temperature of 45 .deg. C and no available cooling water for any site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A plausible option in such arid area is using an air-cooled condenser(ACC) which is widely used in a combined cycle plant in arid region. ACC is also suitable for freezing area such as northern territory or high elevation remote area. We have studied impact of the cooling method on the power generation efficiency and the annual average power production referencing N GNP steam turbine. Even though condenser split is assumed to be the same between ACC and wet cooling tower, large difference in air temperature and wet bulb temperature makes large efficiency loss in the ACC. The ACC efficiency is lower than that of the wet cooling tower by 1.12%. To make up this loss, we proposed the variable steam extraction rates operation. An air cooled condenser is a practical

  8. Hydrogeological and quantitative groundwater assessment of the Basaltic Aquifer, Northern Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northern Harrat Rahat consists of 300m basalt lavas covering some 2000 km2 to the south-east of Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia. Like many basalt sequences, the Rahat basalts form an important aquifer and groundwater resource. The aquifer has a saturated thickness of up to 60m and made up of the weathered upper part of underlying basement, pre-basalt sands and gravels and the fractured basalts. Since 1992, groundwater has been abstracted from the aquifer as part of the Al-Madinah water supply. To assess the potential of the aquifer an assessment has been made based on pumping tests of 70 wells. The hydraulic parameters have been shown to be highly variable typical of the fractured domain. The aquifer contains good-quality water in storage, but receives limited recharge. Groundwater temperature anomalies indicate remnant volcanic activity locally. A numerical groundwater model has been constructed, which has been calibrated using limited groundwater head measurements, but with good abstraction records. Prediction of groundwater heads and the examination of several abstraction scenarios indicate that the aquifer can continue to support part of the Al-Madinah demand for the next several years, if certain well distributions are adopted. The predictions also show that the aquifer can only support the total demand of the city for a few days as a contingency resource. (author)

  9. Establishing a National Medical Device Registry in Saudi Arabia: Lessons Learned and Future Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa; Almohandis, Essam; Alshagathrh, Fahd

    2015-01-01

    Medical device evaluation presents several unique challenges due to the great diversity and complexity of medical devices and their rapid technological evolution. There has been a variety of work conducted on the development of disease based registries and health surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia. However, the progress of medical device registry systems and post-market medical device surveillance systems remains in its infancy in Saudi Arabia and within the region. In 2007, a royal decree assigned the responsibility for regulating medical devices to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA). Soon afterwards, the SFDA established the Medical Devices National Registry (MDNR) to house medical device information relating to manufacturers, agents, suppliers and end-users. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the Medical Device National Registry (MDNR) in Saudi Arabia and describe the current experience and future work of establishing a comprehensive medical device registry and post-market surveillance system in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26152943

  10. Testing Formation Theories of NW Arabia Terra, Mars: New Clues from Old Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2008-03-01

    Northwest Arabia Terra has topography and crater populations indicating a unique history. We directly tested two proposed formation mechanisms. Crater size-frequency and d/D ratios suggest neither scenario is easily reconcilable with the new datasets.

  11. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  12. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  13. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  14. Evaluation of hospital-learning environment for pediatric residency in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed H. BuAli; Abdul Sattar Khan; Mohammad Hussain Al-Qahtani; Shaikha aldossary

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals’ environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. Methods: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. Results: The number of respondents was 104 (86.7%) ou...

  15. A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four...

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P

  17. Prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy in Southern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hajar, Saad; Hazmi, Ali Al; Wasli, Mustafa; Mousa, Ahmed; Rabiu, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Jazan district, Southern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using the standardized Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) and DR cross-sectional methodology, 3800 subjects were randomly selected from the population of ≥50 years of age in Jazan, Saudi Arabia between November 2011 and January 2012. Participants underwent screening comprised of interview, random blood glucose test, and ophthalmic assess...

  18. The Use of Software Project Management Tools in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nouf AlMobarak; Rawan AlAbdulrahman; Shahad AlHarbi; Wea’am AlRashed

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an online survey study, which was conducted to investigate the use of software project management tools in Saudi Arabia. The survey provides insights of project management in the local context of Saudi Arabia from ten different companies which participated in this study. The aim is to explore and specify the project management tools used by software project management teams and their managers, to understand the supported features that might influence their se...

  19. Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AL Anazi, Abdullah D.; Alyousif, Mohamed S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were...

  20. Perception of self-medication among university students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa S Saeed; Ali S Alkhoshaiban; Yaser Mohammed Ali Al-Worafi; Chiau Ming Long

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS ...

  1. The utilization of Arabic online drug information among adults in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abanmy, Norah O.; Al-quait, Nouf A.; Alami, Amani H.; Al-Juhani, Meshaal H.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2012-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items...

  2. E-Commerce Adoption in Saudi Arabia: an Assessment of International, Regional and Domestic Web Presence

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two...

  3. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qurashi, Faisal O.; Abdullah A Yousef; Awary, Bassam H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and...

  4. Learning strategies of medical students in the surgery department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahrani, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Hasan A Alzahrani,1 Owiss H Alzahrani21Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: To identify medical students' perceptions of their learning strategies including, learning habits, resources, and preferred teaching methods, in the Department of Surgery (DOS) of the King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FoM), in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study which was designed to identify stude...

  5. Economic Efficiency Modelling of Water Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam Hamdar; Hussin Hejase; Tamar Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources in the world generally and in Saudi Arabia specially. Situated in the tropical and sub-tropical desert region with arid climate, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is exposed to dry winds and limited water resources .Therefore, the scarcity of fresh water resources poses a major challenge and affects the Saudi development plans since they realized that their supply of freshwater cannot be taken for granted. Moreover, the demand for fresh...

  6. Atherosclerotic disease and risk factor modification in Saudi Arabia: a call to action

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Omran M

    2012-01-01

    Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general inte...

  7. Stress, shift duty, and eating behavior among nurses in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The que...

  8. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender an...

  9. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour the case of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent....

  10. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour among students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure student gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 234-respondent sample consists of 61.5% women and 38.5% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent. Th...

  11. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Gender differences and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose — This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. Design/Methodology — The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Findings — Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male...

  12. A SOCIO-CULTURAL OVERVIEW OF E-LEARNING IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Many regard Saudi Arabia as a conservative and religious nation with a perception of some degree of neglect or discrimination towards its female population. This deters many to realize the kind of revolution this nation is going through, especially in the field of education. Many might not realize that the kingdom of Saudi Arabia has state of art educational institutions with best possible equipment and infrastructure in the world. In addition, the government is providing very lucrative schol...

  13. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Nora Sahly; Dana Sawan; Souzan Kafy; Faten Alzaban

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for th...

  14. Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Roula Baki

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by cons...

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal Papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S.; Omair, Aamir A.; Bamefleh, Hana S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III...

  16. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  17. Body mass index and obstetric outcomes in Saudi Arabia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Hammad, Sabry

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. RESULTS: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight women (n=307), overweight (n...

  18. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Regional and behavioral differences among women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure regional differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Women in the eastern, western, and central region groups are equivalent. T...

  19. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Nizar, F. Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. Conclusion: An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined. PMID:27052287

  20. Patterns of radiographic changes in hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a general intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing infections in patients at the intensive care units (ICUs) of Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns for one year. A retrospective, cohort investigation was performed. Laboratory records from January to December 2009 were studied for the prevalence of MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients from RMH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1210 isolates were collected from various specimens such as: respiratory (469), blood (400), wound/tissue (235), urinary (56), nasal swabs (35), and cerebro-spinal fluid (15). Regardless of the specimen, there was a high rate of nosocomial MDR organisms isolated from patients enrolled in the General ICU (GICU) in Riyadh. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) comprised 40.9%, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) - 19.4%, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) formed 16.3% of these isolates. The P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (methycillin sensitive and methycillin resistant), and Staphylococccus coagulase negative are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in the GICU of RMH. Respiratory tract specimens represented nearly 39% of all the specimens collected in the ICU. The most common MDR organisms isolated in this unit were A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae (Author).

  2. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  3. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  4. Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

  5. Financial Analysis for Replacement of Construction Equipment in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shash

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study report results of a survey conducted in the EasternProvince of Saudi Arabia to explore the procedures and financialtechniques that large-size contractors utilise in replacingequipment. The results indicated that contractors set severalreplacement alternatives that they evaluate by using a set ofvarious qualitative and quantitative factors. The contractors’business objectives, employee safety and morale, and, contractors’image in the industry were found to be the most influentialqualitative factors affecting the decision of equipment replacement.Inflation, downtime, obsolescence, salvage value, and depreciationare among the top quantitative factors that contractors considerwhile making a decision to replace equipment. Because of theirsimplicity and practicality, the net present value, payback period,and the economic life are the most popular techniques that areutilised for analysing the financial issues of proposed replacementalternatives.

  6. Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

  7. Radiation balance of an alfalfa crop in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-wave reflectivity or albedo is an important component of net radiation which represents the major determinant of radiation balance of crop surface. This study was conducted on an irrigated alfalfa crop field at Al-Kharj agricultural area in Saudi Arabia, grown according to normal agricultural practices. Data on radiation balance and crop cover were collected over a number of days from March to October 1986, crop albedo varying from 0–4 in early morning to 0–20 at noon, the overall mean value of the crop albedo being estimated at 0–26. The relation between the individual components of radiation balance was studied, and a significant correlation between incident radiation and net radiation was found. Possible causes responsible for changes in crop albedo were discussed. (author)

  8. Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: Association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    Most victims of child abuse have experienced more than one type of maltreatment, yet there is a lack of understanding of the impact of specific combinations of types of maltreatment. This study aimed to identify meaningful classes of maltreatment profiles and to associate them with short-term clinical outcomes. A total of 358 German children and adolescents aged 4-17 with a known history of child maltreatment were included in the study. Through interviews and questionnaires, information was obtained from participants and their primary caregivers on history of maltreatment, sociodemographics, psychopathology, level of psychosocial functioning, and health-related quality of life. Types of abuse were categorized into six major groups: sexual abuse in general, sexual abuse with penetration, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to determine distinct multi-type maltreatment profiles, which were then assessed for their associations with the sociodemographic and clinical outcome variables. The LCA revealed that participants could be categorized into three meaningful classes according to history of maltreatment: (1) experience of multiple types of maltreatment excluding sexual abuse (63.1%), (2) experience of multiple types of maltreatment including sexual abuse (26.5%), and (3) experience of predominantly sexual abuse (10.3%). Members of Class 2 showed significantly worse short-term outcomes on psychopathology, level of functioning, and quality of life compared to the other classes. Three distinct profiles of multiple types of maltreatment were empirically identified in this sample. Exposure to multiple types of abuse was associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:27254375

  9. Parasuicide and drug self-poisoning: analysis of the epidemiological and clinical variables of the patients admitted to the Poisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfré Sergio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological knowledge of parasuicides and drug self-poisoning is still limited by a lack of data. A number of preliminary studies, which require further analysis, evidenced that parasuicidal acts occur more often among females, that the peak rate is generally recorded between the ages of 15 and 34 years and psychotropic medications seems to be the most frequently used. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical variables of a sample of subjects admitted to the Posisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, following drug self-poisoning. Furthermore, this study is aimed to identify the risk factors associated to parasuicidal gestures, with special care for the used drugs, the presence of psychiatric or organic disorders, alcoholism and drug addiction. The study included the 201 patients attending the CAV in 1999 and 2000 who satisfied the criteria of self-poisoning attempts: 106 cases in 1999 and 95 in 2000. The sample had a prevalence of females (64%. The peak rates of parasuicides from drug self-poisoning were reached between 21 and 30 years among the females, and 31 and 40 years among the males. 81.6% of the patients used one or more psychoactive drugs, the most frequent being the benzodiazepines (58.7%, classic neuroleptics (16.9% and new-generation antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs, NARIs (12.9%. The prevalence of mood disorders was higher among females (64% vs 42%, whereas schizophrenia was more frequently diagnosed in males (22% vs 10%. 61% (33% had a history of previous attempted suicides. The presence of clinically relevant organic diseases was observed in 24.9% of the sample.

  10. Coregistration of Prechemotherapy PET-CT for Planning Pediatric Hodgkin's Disease Radiotherapy Significantly Diminishes Interobserver Variability of Clinical Target Volume Definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the interobserver variability in clinical target volume (CTV) definitions when using registered 18F-labeled deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET-CT) versus side-by-side image sets in pediatric Hodgkin's disease (HD). Methods and Materials: Prechemotherapy FDG-PET-CT scans performed in the treatment position were acquired from 20 children (median age, 14 years old) with HD (stages 2A to 4B) and registered with postchemotherapy planning CT scans. The patients had a median age of 14 years and stages of disease ranging between 2A and 4B. Image sets were coregistered using a semiautomatic coregistration system. The biological target volume was defined on all the coregistered images as a guide to defining the initial site of involvement and to avoid false-positive or negative results. Five radiation oncologists independently defined the CTV for all 20 patients: once using separate FDG-PET-CT images as a guide (not registered) to define CTVa and once using the registered FDG-PET-CT data to define CTVb. The total volumes were compared, as well as their coefficients of variation (COV). To assess the interobserver variability, the percentages of intersection between contours drawn by all observers for each patient were calculated for CTVa and for CTVb. Results: The registration of a prechemotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan caused a change in the CTV for all patients. Comparing CTVa with CTVb showed that the mean CTVb increased in 14 patients (range, 0.61%-101.96%) and decreased in 6 patients (range, 2.97%-37.26%). The COV for CTVb significantly decreased for each patient; the mean COVs for CTVa and CTVb were 45% (21%-65%) and 32% (13%-57%), respectively (p = 0.0004). The percentage of intersection among all CTVbs for the five observers increased significantly by 89.77% (1.99%-256.41%) compared to that of CTVa (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: High observer variability can occur during CT-based definition of CTVs for children diagnosed with HD. Registration

  11. Centro de Conferencias, Hotel y Mezquita Riyadh - Arabia Saudita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannatt, Trevor

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.

    El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.

  12. Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Suaad S. Alwakeel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

  13. Drowning in children: Aseer Central Hospital experience, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the reasons, magnitude and outcome of drowning following submersion in water of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients (0-13 years old who drowned and were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, between January 1st 1999 and December 31st 2009. Results: A total of 19 cases were admitted following submersion in water. The mean age was 5.2 years ±3.8. Majority of victims (94.1% were from the highland areas. Events most frequently occurred in the summer (46.7%, followed by spring and winter, 33.3% and 20%, respectively. Home events constituted 44.4% of submersion cases. Of these, 55.6% drowned in a washing container, While 53.4% submersed in swimming pools. Twenty-two percent of these accidents occurred in the sea and in wells while 11.1% occurred in a lake. The mean duration of submersion was 4.04 minutes ± 5.35. Cardiac arrest was reported upon arrival at hospital in 42.1% of the victims. There were seven deaths (36.8 % and in one patient (5.2 % there was severe brain injury. In all deceased cases, no adults were watching the children when the accidents occurred. Conclusion: Drowning is a significant risk factor facing our children and can claim lives. The media as well as the authority should play a major role in increasing the public awareness to minimize or prevent such a problem.

  14. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. PMID:27354384

  15. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  16. Clinico pathological pattern of malignant parotid gland tumors in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to report our experience of varied presentations and diverse histopathological spectrum of parotid gland malignancies. This retrospective analysis incorporated patients with histological evidence of malignant parotid tumors at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 20-year period from 1984 through 2004. The medical records of these patients were analyzed for their demographic characteristics, clinical features, operations performed and pathological diversity. Thirty-two patients comprised this study group. There is a male preponderance over females with a ratio of 2.2:1 (22 men and 10 women) and mean age of 51.8 (range 28-81 years). A painless lump was the most frequent clinical manifestation observed in 23(71.8%) patients followed by facial nerve dysfunction in 14 (43.7%) patients. Parotidectomy was performed in 22 (68.7%) patients: 16 superficial and 6 totals. A partial facial nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice in 9 (28.1%) patients. Four (12.5%) patients presented with cervical lymph node metastases necessitating radical neck dissection. Nine (28.1%) patients had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 8(25%) adenoid cystic carcinoma, 6 (18.7%) adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified and 2 (6.2%) were reported to have carcinoma in plemorphic adenoma. Twenty (62.5%) specimens revealed high grade aggressive lesions and out of these 19 (59.3%) patients presented with stage III/IV disease. Malignant parotid tumors are exceedingly rare, occurring at earlier group with male preponderance and invariably declare at a late clinical stage in our community. Histopathological features hallmark a locally advanced disease with an aggressive behavior. (author)

  17. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Obeidat Sadek A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  18. Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Magzoub ME; Zamakhshary M

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...

  19. Sino-European Transcontinental Basic and Clinical High-Tech Acupuncture Studies—Part 2: Acute Stimulation Effects on Heart Rate and Its Variability in Patients with Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This second part of a series of Sino-European high-tech acupuncture studies describes the first clinical transcontinental teleacupuncture measurements in patients with insomnia. Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV measurements in 28 patients (mean age ± SD: 41.9 ± 14.6 years were performed under standardized conditions in Harbin, China, and the data analysis was performed in Graz, Austria. Similar to the first part of the series, the electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded by an HRV Medilog AR12 system during acupuncture of the Shenmen point (HT7 on the left hand. HR decreased significantly (P<0.001 during and after acupuncture stimulation of the HT7 acupuncture point. Total HRV increased significantly (P<0.05 immediately after acupuncture stimulation, but there was no long-lasting effect. The values of the low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF band increased significantly after the stimulation compared to baseline values; however, the LF/HF ratio showed no significant changes. Together with the results of previous studies, the present results can serve as a solid basis for further development of acupressure or acupuncture stimulation equipment for complementary use in treating insomnia.

  20. Multi-decadal classification of synoptic weather types, observed trends and links to rainfall characteristics over Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-09-15

    An automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was employed to characterize daily circulation conditions in Saudi Arabia from 1960 to 2005. Daily gridded fields of sea level pressure (SLP) from both the NCEP/NCAR and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA40) were used as input data for this classification. The output catalog included 10 basic types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the region (i.e., cyclonic, anti-cyclonic, and directional). In general, our findings indicate that cyclonic (C) days represent the most frequent type among all days, with 69.2% of the annual count of days from 1960 to 2005, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also determined that airflows originating from the Indian Ocean (i.e., S, SE, and E) are more frequent than those from the Mediterranean and Red Seas (i.e., W, NW, and SW). The defined weather types were assessed for the presence of inter-annual and intra-annual trends using the Mann–Kendall tau statistic. The trend analysis suggests statistically significant changes in the frequencies of a majority of the weather types from 1960 to 2005. The relationship between the daily occurrence of rainfall and the frequency of individual weather types was also described using daily rainfall data from a network of 87 weather observatories. Results demonstrate that increasing frequencies of weather types connected to easterly inflows support higher precipitation amounts over the study domain. Characterizing the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in Saudi Arabia is important for understanding potential impacts related to climate variability and also for developing circulation-based downscaling methods.

  1. Behaviour of Clinical, Anthropometric and Laboratory Variables in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Comportamiento de variables clínicas, antropométricas y de laboratorio en pacientes con síndrome metabólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Peña Pérez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing patients with metabolic syndrome is important because of the high prevalence and risk they present. Objective: to determine the behaviour of some clinical, anthropometric and laboratory variables in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. The sample included 161 patients selected at random in different research stages from a universe including all the patients who attended six different consultations in Urbano Noris municipality, Holguín, from September 2008 to June 2009. Diagnosis was performed according to the ATP-III. Variance analysis and Fisher's exact test in SPSS (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 103: 63.97% presented values over average weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and glucose. Their HDL levels were lower. A significant association between metabolic syndrome and CRP, microalbuminuria, alterations in blood sugar levels and hypertension was proved. Conclusions: The importance of characterizing the metabolic syndrome for future interventions was determined.Fundamento: la detección de pacientes con síndrome metabólico es importante debido a la elevada prevalencia y riesgo que presentan. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de algunas variables clínicas, antropométricas y de laboratorio en pacientes con síndrome metabólico. Métodos: estudio descriptivo que incluyó 161 pacientes seleccionados por un muestreo polietápico aleatorio por conglomerados, de un universo comprendido por los pacientes atendidos desde septiembre del 2008 hasta junio del 2009 en seis consultorios de los municipios Urbano Noris y Holguín. El diagnóstico del síndrome se realizó de acuerdo al ATP-III. Se aplicó el análisis de varianza y

  2. Variable expression levels of keratin and vimentin reveal differential EMT status of circulating tumor cells and correlation with clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTCs expressing variable levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in breast cancer have previously been reported. However, no information exists for keratin expression levels of CTCs in association with disease status, whereas assays for the characterization of transitional EMT phenotypes of CTCs in breast cancer are rather lacking. We investigated the correlation between keratin expression of CTCs and patients’ outcome and characterized the EMT status of CTCs via the establishment of a numerical “ratio” value of keratin and vimentin expression levels on a single cell basis. Keratin expression was evaluated in 1262 CTCs from 61 CTC-positive patients with metastatic breast cancer, using analysis of images obtained through the CellSearch System. For the determination of vimentin/keratin (vim/K) ratios, expression levels of keratin and vimentin were measured in cytospin preparations of luminal (MCF-7 and T47D) and basal (MDA.MB231 and Hs578T) breast cancer cell lines and 110 CTCs from 5 CTC-positive patients using triple immunofluorescence laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. MCF-7 and T47D displayed lower vim/K ratios compared to MDA.MB231 and Hs578T cells, while MCF-7 cells that had experimentally undergone EMT were characterized by varying intermediate vim/K ratios. CTCs were consisted of an heterogeneous population presenting variable vim/K values with 46% of them being in the range of luminal breast cancer cell lines. Keratin expression levels of CTCs detected by the CellSearch System correlated with triple negative (p = 0.039) and ER-negative (p = 0.025) breast cancer, and overall survival (p = 0.038). Keratin expression levels of CTCs correlate with tumor characteristics and clinical outcome. Moreover, CTCs display significant heterogeneity in terms of the degree of EMT phenotype that probably reflects differential invasive potential. The assessment of the vim/K ratios as a surrogate marker for the EMT status of CTCs merits further

  3. Breast cancer screening in Saudi Arabia: free but almost no takers.

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    Charbel El Bcheraoui

    Full Text Available Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs.The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health-care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. Female respondents were asked about knowledge and practices of self and clinical breast exams, as well as mammography.Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Among respondents, 1,135 were women aged 50 years or older and were included in this analysis. About 89% of women reported not having a clinical breast exam in the past year, and 92% reported never having a mammogram. Women living in Al Sharqia had the highest rate of mammography use. Women who were educated, those who had received a routine medical exam within the last two years, and those who were diagnosed with hypertension were more likely to have had a mammogram in the past two years.Our results show very low rates of breast cancer screening in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country with free health services. This calls for educational campaigns to improve breast cancer screening. Addressing the barriers for breast cancer screening is a public health imperative.

  4. Hepatitis B virus sero-prevalence among pregnant females in Saudi Arabia

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    Alrowaily Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim : Since selective screening for Hepatitis B virus (HBV in pregnant women has failed to identify a high proportion of HBV-infected mothers, pre-natal HBsAg testing of all pregnant women is now recommended. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women at the ante-natal clinic of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia and to identify the target group for postpartum immunization. Materials and Methods : A total of 755 pregnant females who attended the antenatal clinic from June 2005 to June 2006 for the first time - before 38 weeks of gestation - constituted the target of the present study. Blood samples 30-39 were drawn from all subjects and sera were tested for HBV serologic markers including Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc using ELISA technique (third generation. Results : The overall prevalence of sero-positive HBsAg among pregnant women was 1.6%. As age increased, the prevalence of sero-positive HBsAg significantly increased (χ2 = 116.43, P < 0.001, 30-39 were women aged ≥40 were five times more likely to be positive for HBsAg as compared to those < 30 years (OR = 4.78. On the other hand, women aged 40 and over were five times more likely to be susceptible to infection with hepatitis as compared to young women aged < 20 (OR = 5.15. Women susceptible to HBV infection constituted about 80% of all pregnant females. Conclusion : These findings reflect that the full impact of the Hepatitis B vaccination program that was conducted in 1989 for all Saudi children has not yet reached all pregnant women, with the majority (79.9% being nonimmune and thus liable to HBV infection. Postpartum HB immunization should be recommended in such cases.

  5. A multi-decadal assessment of the performance of gauge- and model-based rainfall products over Saudi Arabia: Climatology, anomalies and trends

    KAUST Repository

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohammed Hussain El Kenawy

    2015-05-01

    Many arid and semi-arid regions have sparse precipitation observing networks, which limits the capacity for detailed hydrological modelling, water resources management and flood forecasting efforts. The objective of this work is to evaluate the utility of relatively high-spatial resolution rainfall products to reproduce observed multi-decadal rainfall characteristics such as climatologies, anomalies and trends over Saudi Arabia. Our study compares the statistical characteristics of rainfall from 53 observatories over the reference period 1965-2005, with rainfall data from six widely used gauge-based products, including APHRODITE, GPCC, PRINCETON, UDEL, CRU and PREC/L. In addition, the performance of three global climate models (GCMs), including CCSM4, EC-EARTH and MRI-I-CGCM3, integrated as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), was also evaluated. Results indicate that the gauge-based products were generally skillful in reproducing rainfall characteristics in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the gauge-based products were also able to capture the annual cycle, anomalies and climatologies of observed data, although significant inter-product variability was observed, depending on the assessment metric being used. In comparison, the GCM-based products generally exhibited poor performance, with larger biases and very weak correlations, particularly during the summertime. Importantly, all products generally failed to reproduce the observed long-term seasonal and annual trends in the region, particularly during the dry seasons (summer and autumn). Overall, this work suggests that selected gauge-based products with daily (APHRODITE and PRINCETON) and monthly (GPCC and CRU) resolutions show superior performance relative to other products, implying that they may be the most appropriate data source from which multi-decadal variations of rainfall can be investigated at the regional scale over Saudi Arabia. Discriminating these skillful products is

  6. Detection of restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty: Improved clinical decision making with use of a logistic model combining procedural and follow-up variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study of 111 patients who underwent repeat coronary angiography and exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy 6 +/- 2 months after complete revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was performed to assess whether clinical, procedure-related and postangioplasty exercise variables yield independent information for the prediction of angiographic restenosis after angioplasty. Complete revascularization was defined as successful angioplasty of one or more vessels that resulted in no residual coronary lesion with greater than 50% diameter stenosis. Restenosis was defined as a residual stenosis at the time of repeat angiography of greater than 50% of luminal diameter. Restenosis occurred in 40% of the patients. The 111 patients were randomly subdivided into a learning group (n = 84) and a testing group (n = 27). A logistic discriminant analysis was performed in the learning group and the logistic model was used to estimate a logistic probability of restenosis. This probability of restenosis was validated in the testing group. In the learning group of 84 patients univariate analysis of 39 factors revealed 8 factors related to restenosis: recurrence of angina (p less than 0.0001), postangioplasty abnormal finding on exercise thallium-201 scintigram (p less than 0.0001), exercise thallium-201 scintigram score (p less than 0.0001), difference between exercise and rest ST segment depression (p less than 0.001), postangioplasty exercise ST segment depression (p less than 0.001), absolute postangioplasty stenosis diameter (p less than 0.003), postangioplasty exercise work load (p less than 0.03) and postangioplasty exercise heart rate (p less than 0.05)

  7. A comparative study of hematological parameters of α and β thalassemias in a high prevalence zone: Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Syed Riaz; Al Dahmash, Badr Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Saudi Arabia falls in the high prevalent zone of αα and β thalassemias. Early screening for the type of thalassemia is essential for further investigations and management. The study was carried out to differentiate the type of thalassemia based on red cell indices and other hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 991 clinically suspected cases of thalassemias in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The hematological parameters were studied on Coulter STKS. Cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed on all the blood samples. Gene deletion studies were carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique using the restriction endonucleases Bam HI. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 11.5 version. RESULTS: The hemoglobin electrophoresis and gene studies revealed that there were 406 (40.96%) and 59 (5.95 %) cases of β thalassemia trait and β thalassemia major respectively including adults and children. 426 cases of various deletion forms of α thalassemias were seen. Microcytosis was a common feature in β thalassemias trait and (-α/-α) and (--/αα) types of α thalassemias. MCH was a more significant distinguishing feature among thalassemias. β thalassemia major and α thalassemia (-α/αα) had almost normal hematological parameters. CONCLUSION: MCV and RBC counts are not statistically significant features for discriminating between α and β thalassemias. There is need for development of a discrimination index to differentiate between α and β thalassemias traits on the lines of discriminatory Indices available for distinguishing β thalassemias trait from iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22345994

  8. Deficiencies under plenty of sun: Vitamin D status among adults in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Tuffaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  9. Prevalence and pattern of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among edentulous patients of Saudi Arabia

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    AlZarea BK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bader K AlZarea Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Al Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: The most remarkable exostoses of the human jaws are torus palatinus (TP and torus mandibularis (TM. The aim of the present study was to actuate the prevalence of TP and TM in relation to age and sex among the edentulous patients of Saudi Arabia.  Methods: The present study included 847 edentulous subjects (458 men and 389 women aged between 51 and 79 years. The subjects were examined for the existence of tori by clinical inspection and palpation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version.  Results: Among the 847 subjects, 149 (17.59% had either TP or TM. Sixty six (7.79% subjects had TP, whereas 83 (9.80% had TM. The maximum percentage (36.36% of tori was observed in the age-group of 60–69 years. The percentage of males with either tori was higher (19.0% when compared to females (15.94%. According to shape, the occurrence of flat-shaped TP (57.58% and bilateral solitary TM (39.76% was more common.  Conclusion: No significant difference in the presence of tori with respect to sex and age was observed. A comparatively increased prevalence of TP and TM was however observed, and this should be taken into consideration while planning for prosthodontic and periodontal therapy in these patients. Keywords: edentulous, prevalence, torus mandibularis, torus palatinus

  10. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  11. Too costly to matter: Economics of nuclear power for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: • Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. • A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. • There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. • Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation

  12. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April 14-18, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice....

  13. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  14. Customer Satisfaction and Brand Switching Intention: A Study of Mobile Services in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ABDEL HAMID SALEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate first, the relationship between the customer satisfaction and brand switching intention into the Saudi Arabian mobile-service market, and second, the association of service quality, customer service, service pricing, and value-added services with the customer satisfaction. Because of the difficulty of having a frame for the mobile-service customers from their providers, a convenience sample of 350 online respondents with the proper surveying techniques was used in data analysis and testing of the research hypotheses. The findings of the study confirm a significant negative relationship between customer satisfaction and brand switching intention. A 4% percent of the change in brand switching intention could be explained by the change in the customer satisfaction. Only three variables; customer service, service pricing, and service quality are critical determinants for mobile-service customer satisfaction. Customer service explained about 22%, whereas service pricing and service quality explained about 5% and 1% of the change in customer satisfaction respectively. The practical value of this study could be enabling the mobile-service providers in Saudi Arabia to well understand the determinants of the customer satisfaction and its negative relationship with brand switching intention. They may take these findings into account when setting marketing strategies to differentiate their brands to satisfy the customer needs and wants, to retain the existing customers and to attract new customers. These strategies have a positive effect on the company’s customer satisfaction that deter brand switching intention, hence increase the company’s competitiveness, market share and profitability.

  15. Improvement critical care patient safety: using nursing staff development strategies, at Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuni, Enas M; Bayoumi, Magda M

    2015-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) provide lifesaving care for the critically ill patients and are associated with significant risks. Moreover complexity of care within ICUs requires that the health care professionals exhibit a trans-disciplinary level of competency to improve patient safety. This study aimed at using staff development strategies through implementing patient safety educational program that may minimize the medical errors and improve patient outcome in hospital. The study was carried out using a quasi experimental design. The settings included the intensive care units at General Mohail Hospital and National Mohail Hospital, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from March to June 2012. A convenience sample of all prevalent nurses at three shifts in the aforementioned settings during the study period was recruited. The program was implemented on 50 staff nurses in different ICUs. Their age ranged between 25-40 years. Statistically significant relation was revealed between safety climate and job satisfaction among nurses in the study sample (p=0.001). The years of experiences in ICU ranged between one year 11 (16.4) to 10 years 20 (29.8), most of them (68%) were working in variable shift, while 32% were day shift only. Improvements were observed in safety climate, teamwork climate, and nurse turnover rates on ICUs after implementing a safety program. On the heels of this improvement; nurses' total knowledge, skills and attitude were enhanced regarding patient safety dimensions. Continuous educational program for ICUs nursing staff through organized in-service training is needed to increase their knowledge and skills about the importance of improving patient safety measure. Emphasizing on effective collaborative system also will improve patient safety measures in ICUS. PMID:25716409

  16. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  17. Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

  18. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  19. Prevalence of α-1-Antitrypsin gene mutations in Saudi Arabia

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    Badr Aljarallah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: α-1 antitrypsin (AAT deficiency results from mutations of the protease inhibitor (PI. The AAT gene is mapped on chromosome 14 and has been associated with chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Objective: To determine the frequency of AAT mutations on S and Z carrier alleles in healthy Saudi individuals from Qassim Province in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods : A total of 158 healthy, unrelated participants from Qassim Province were recruited. They were genotyped for the two AAT-deficiency alleles, PIFNx01S and PIFNx01Z, using polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed throughout to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Of the 158 subjects, 11.39% were carriers for the S mutation (i.e., had the MS genotype, whereas 2.53% were carriers for the Z mutation (i.e., had the MZ genotype. The SZ genotype was present in 3.8% of subjects, while the homozygous genotype SS was present in 1.9% of subjects. No subjects showed the ZZ mutant genotype. Accordingly, frequency of the mutant S and Z alleles of AAT gene was 9.49% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained showed a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency allele in the Saudi population. This probably warrants adoption of a screening program for at-risk individuals, so that they might initiate adequate prophylactic measures.

  20. Influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m−3, with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m−3, the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m−3. The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems

  1. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  2. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document

  3. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  4. ADELOYE-ODEKU DISEASE IN ASSER REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak Ali AlGahtany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeloye-Odeku disease, also known as congenital inclusion dermoid cyst (CIDC of the anterior fontanelle was first described by Adeloye A and Odeku EL, as a solitary congenital subgaleal inclusion dermoid cyst of the anterior fontanelle. This rare lesion was initially thought to be confined to Africans . The universal distribution of this cyst has subsequently been shown in accumulated literature of other ethnic distribution ,Caucasian, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Turkish and others. This is the first published report that we know of Adeloye-Odeku disease in Arab-Saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Four patients with Adeloye-Odeku disease, two boys and two girls, Saudi patients with ages ranging from 3months to 9 years are presented. Successful surgical excision of the cyst was achieved in each of the three patients who consented for surgery with no recurrence. The oldest patient did not go for surgery due to parental refusal but the lesion proved to be stable on follow up.

  5. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  6. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  7. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A Saeed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Saudi adults aged 15- 64 years selected by stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling technique. Lipid profiles (cholesterol categories and triglycerides were determined spectrophotometrically by colorimetric biochemical methods. Obesity was determined by calculation of body mass index (BMI=Kg/m2, waist and hip circumferences and ratio and waist to height ratio.Results: the overall prevalence of obesity ranged from 33.8 to 44.4 % and the overall dyslipidemia prevalence ranged from about 25 to 44% depending on type of dyslipidemia and anthropometrics used. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and mean concentration of lipids profile were generally significantly higher in obese than non obese. The indicator waist/height ratio was the significant predictor for all types of dyslipidemia and all levels of serum lipids.Conclusions: the prevalence dyslipidemia and obesity are high and they are positively associated. Waist/height ratio was the most important predictor of dyslipidemia among adults.

  8. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  9. Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Zarah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.

  10. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  11. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  12. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  13. Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm-3 whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm-3. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors

  14. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  15. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Alsayeqh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

  16. A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayed AlGhamdi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four stages. The outcomes of the studypoint to distrust in the online retailing environment in Saudi Arabia as a key inhibitory factor for growth. As such,a five-part model is proposed to promote trust in the online shopping environment in the KSA.

  17. Agreement between the DAS28-CRP assessed with 3 and 4 variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents in the daily clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2013-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score-28-C-reactive Protein 4 [DAS28-CRP(4)] composite measure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on 4 variables: tender and swollen joint counts, CRP, and patient global assessment. DAS28-CRP(3) includes only 3 variables, because patient global assessment has been omitted...

  18. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care. PMID:26510270

  19. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  20. Organ Donation From Deceased Donors: A Proactive Detection Program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad; Attar, Besher; Ibrahim, Amal; Alsayyari, Abdulla

    2015-11-01

    Several challenging obstacles remain to increasing the number of organ donations from deceased patients in a hospital setting. These include medical, administrative, and ethical issues. Possible medical obstacles include the failure of early recognition of possible donors and inadequate care of potential and actual donors. To maximize the use of donated organs, proper care of the donors and expedited donor consent cannot be overemphasized. The care rendered to patients should ensure appropriate perfusion and nutrition of the organs, with meticulous follow-up until organ recovery. For example, patients involved in accidents are presumed to be healthy, but many have no available medical history on file. At the time of organ recovery, unexpected infections or malignancies can be minimized by raising the index of suspicion of the presence of serious conditions in donors, especially in donors with unknown medical history. A careful physical examination and an appropriate and aggressive laboratory investigation may disclose the cause of suspected clinical conditions in these potential donors. Individuals who work in intensive care units are the main group of health care providers directly involved in the process of organ donation. Appointing a donor coordinator in each intensive care unit could improve all aspects of organ donation. Such coordination could harmonize efforts toward the goals mentioned above and surmount the obstacles encountered during deceased-donor organ donation. Here, we describe the preliminary results of the Proactive Detection Program, a collaboration between the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation (the national organ donation and transplant supervising center) and intensive care units of donating hospitals. With its success in Saudi Arabia, it is hoped that it will be widely adopted in other regions. PMID:26640899

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome among nurses working in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Khamis Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that can cause disability and economic burden. Nurses are a vital part of the medical team and their well-being is an important issue. Yet, few studies have been done concerning IBS among nurses. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of IBS among nurses working at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 229 nurses who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. They were selected by stratified random sampling during 2014–2015. A validated, confidential, self-administered data collection sheet was used for collection of personal and sociodemographic data. Rome III Criteria, IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were done. A multiple logistic regression analysis was done to determine the predictors of IBS. Results: The prevalence of IBS among nurses was 14.4%, and IBS-Mixed type was the commonest variety (54.5%. Positive family history of IBS, working in outpatient clinics, having day shift, poor sleep quality, and high anxiety and depression scale scores were significantly associated with IBS. After controlling for confounding factors in regression analysis, the predictors of IBS were food hypersensitivity (aOR=4.52; 95% CI: 1.80−11.33, morbid anxiety (aOR=4.34; 95% CI: 1.49–12.67, and positive family history of IBS (aOR=3.38; 95% CI: 1.12–13.23. Conclusion: The prevalence of IBS was 14.4%. Food hypersensitivity, morbid anxiety, and family history were the predictors of IBS. Screening and management of IBS, food hypersensitivity, and psychological problems among nurses are recommended.

  2. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p meat was reported frequently and only slight risk was associated with sheep/goat meat (OR = 1.39, p = 0.15). Eating outside the home at restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age. PMID:26924348

  3. Seasonal changes in group size and composition of Arabian sand gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica Thomas, 1897 during a period of drought in central western Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Low CUNNINGHAM; Torsten WRONSKI

    2011-01-01

    Group size variations of the Arabian sand gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica were studied during a period of drought at the Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area in central western Saudi Arabia. Significant differences in median group sizes were observed between all seasons except summer. Single animals were observed mainly during summer while group sizes exceeding 10 individuals were observed mainly during winter. Solitary male and female groups were typically observed during winter and mixed groups mainly during the autumn rutting period. Most mixed groups were two to four times larger during winter than summer. The adult sex ratio (male: female) for all seasons combined was in parity and highest during autumn (1:1.23),probably as a result of prolonged drought conditions. The variability in group structure related to environmental conditions may be one factor permitting G s. Marica to adapt to hyper-arid habitats and climatic regimes in central western Saudi Arabia. The value of continuous monitoring of the gazelle population is emphasised for this drought prone region.

  4. The association of human leukocyte antigen B27 with anterior uveitis in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawazeer AM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Bawazeer,1,2 Heba Ismail Joharjy1 1Uveitis Services, Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University, 2Magrabi Eye and Ear Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: The association of human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27 with anterior uveitis is well known. The prevalence of HLA-B27 and its relation to anterior uveitis is related to race and geographic location. The association is strongest in Western countries and weakest in Eastern countries. Data regarding this association from Middle Eastern countries are limited. Thus, we undertook the study reported here to evaluate the association of HLA-B27 with anterior uveitis in patients in a tertiary center in the western region of the Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of patients with anterior uveitis, referred to the uveitis clinic in Magrabi Eye and Ear Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from 1999 to 2010. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing was analyzed. Results: Among the 587 cases of uveitis, 335 (57.1%; mean age 37.56±12.82 years; 203 male and 132 female cases were of anterior uveitis. All patients with anterior uveitis were investigated for HLA-B27 positivity. Idiopathic anterior uveitis was the most common (80%, followed by Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis (7.45% and ankylosing spondylitis (3.8%. Only two patients were HLA-B27 positive. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing was found to be 165,000 Saudi riyals (44,594 US dollars per positive case. Conclusion: HLA-B27-related uveitis appears to be very rare in our part of the world. Idiopathic uveitis is the most common type of anterior uveitis. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing is low for patients with anterior uveitis in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: HLA-B27, Saudi population, cost-effectiveness, idiopathic anterior uveitis, Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis, ankylosing spondylitis

  5. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Alsayeqh; shawkat mohamed fathi

    2012-01-01

    There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3), most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 %) suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and...

  6. Prevalence of stress and its determinants among residents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Kazim, Sana N.; Almufleh, Auroabah S.; Aladwani, Bandar S.; Alsubaie, Abdullah S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine perceived stress among residents in Saudi Arabia and its associated risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of all residents registered at the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was conducted between May and October 2012. We assessed the likelihood of stress using the perceived stress scale (PSS). Results: Out of the 4000 residents contacted, 1035 responded and 938 were included. The mean (±standard deviation) PSS score was 22.0±5.1 (m...

  7. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  8. Prevalence and Pattern of Refractive Errors among Primary School Children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah Al; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Ataur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5–15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were sel...

  9. New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A

    2014-11-01

    Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

  10. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  11. Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Almushait, Mona A.; Dajem, Saad M. Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M.; Eskandar, Mamdoh A.; Al Azraqi, Tarik A.; Makhlouf, Laila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent...

  13. Increased cesarean section rate in Central Saudi Arabia: a change in practice or different maternal characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri HM; Al-Anazi SA; Tamim HM

    2015-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Sultana A Al-Anazi,1 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, 2College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Cesarean section (CS) rate has shown creepy increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. T...

  14. Standard of Practice Specific to Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Radiopharmaceuticals in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals are essential tools for understanding human physiology and biochemistry, and subsequently, for the diagnosis and therapy of an extensive variety of diseases. Of the various cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals are being increasingly utilized in nuclear medicine imaging for both research and routine clinical diagnosis. The non-invasive PET imaging modality is unique in its ability to measure functional and metabolic activities of the body organs or tissues. These images are not available with other imaging technologies, such as CT, MRI or X-ray. With the aim of providing quality clinical service for the patients, acquiring most up-to-date imaging modality, PET has advanced exceptionally in the developed countries and with limited prevalence in developing countries. This must be attributed to the cost and complexity of such practice, in addition to the requirement of cyclotron and a radiochemistry laboratory on site for radiopharmaceuticals production. Our vision is to make the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its requirements of radiopharmaceutical products as well as supplying the neighboring countries with such products for a comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic care of the population. The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (C and R) at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center is a unique combination of advanced accelerator technology, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, and radiopharmaceuticals research. A diverse staff composed of engineers, chemists, pharmacists and scientists work jointly with an aim to develop and manufacture SPECT and PET radioisotopes and their radiopharmaceutical products for on-demand availability in the clinical care of patients. The C and R Department ensures that it manufactures PET radiopharmaceutical products according to the international guidelines of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Radiopharmacy

  15. Shared clinical decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  16. Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Qassem

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

  17. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath Africa and Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed Abdalla

    In spite of numerous studies, the mechanisms for the rifting, uplifting, and volcanism on the African plate remain enigmatic. The most popular hypotheses proposed for explaining these tectonic phenomena involve edge-driven small-scale mantle convection and the thermal or dynamic effects of one or more mantle plumes. In this study we use continental scale shear-wave splitting (SWS) measurements to provide additional constraints on the various models of rifting, uplifting, and volcanism of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the Arabian plate. The splitting of P-to-S converted phases at the core-mantle boundary on the receiver side (XKS including PKS, SKKS, and SKS) is one of the most effective approaches to constrain convective mantle flow patterns. A robust procedure involving automatic and manual batch processing to reliably assess and objectively rank shear-wave splitting parameters were used. The resulting 1532 pairs of splitting parameters show a NNE dominated fast direction. Spatial distribution of the splitting parameters in the CVL and Arabia is not consistent with the edge-driven small-scale mantle convection hypothesis, the mantle plume hypothesis, fossil fabrics formed by past tectonic events, or the fabric-forming process due to the absolute plate motion relative to the deep mantle. The research suggests that the progressive thinning of the lithosphere through basal erosion by the flow leads to decompression melting is responsible for the formation of the CVL, and olivine lattice preferred orientation in the upper asthenosphere associated with the northward motion of the African plate since 150 Ma, most likely causes the observed anisotropy across the Red Sea.

  18. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms

  19. From Arabia to Iberia: A Y chromosome perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, María; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Álvarez, Joseph; Herrera, Rene J

    2015-06-15

    At different times during recent human evolution, northern Africa has served as a conduit for migrations from the Arabian Peninsula. Although previous researchers have investigated the possibility of the Strait of Gibraltar as a pathway of migration from North Africa to Iberia, we now revisit this issue and theorize that although the Strait of Gibraltar, at the west end of this corridor, has acted as a barrier for human dispersal into Southwest Europe, it has not provided an absolute seal to gene flow. To test this hypothesis, here we use the spatial frequency distributions, STR diversity and expansion time estimates of Y chromosome haplogroups J1-P58 and E-M81 to investigate the genetic imprints left by the Arabian and Berber expansions into the Iberian Peninsula, respectively. The data generated indicate that Arabian and Berber genetic markers are detected in Iberia. We present evidence that suggest that Iberia has received gene flow from Northwest Africa during and prior to the Islamic colonization of 711A.D. It is interesting that the highest frequencies of Arabia and Berber markers are not found in southern Spain, where Islam remained the longest and was culturally most influential, but in Northwest Iberia, specifically Galicia. We propose that Moriscos' relocations to the north during the Reconquista, the migration of cryptic Muslims seeking refuge in a more lenient society and/or more geographic extensive pre-Islamic incursions may explain the higher frequencies and older time estimates of mutations in the north of the Peninsula. These scenarios are congruent with the higher diversities of some diagnostic makers observed in Northwest Iberia. PMID:25701402

  20. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  1. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, pempathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  2. Differences in Rate and Variability of Intracellular Growth of a Panel of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates within a Human Monocyte Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Whalen, Christopher C.; Albert, Jeffrey M.; Larkin, Rhonda; Zukowski, Lynn; Cave, M. Donald; Silver, Richard F.

    2002-01-01

    Significant differences were observed in the capacities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates to grow within human monocytes. Genotyping indicated that the four most rapidly growing isolates were members of the Beijing strain family. M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv provided more reproducible infection than the clinical isolates or M. tuberculosis Erdman.

  3. Numerical simulation diagnostics of a flash flood event in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Ahmad

    On 26 January 2011, a severe storm hit the city of Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The storm resulted in heavy rainfall, which produced a flash flood in a short period of time. This event caused at least eleven fatalities and more than 114 injuries. Unfortunately, the observed rainfall data are limited to the weather station at King Abdul Aziz International airport, which is north of the city, while the most extreme precipitation occurred over the southern part of the city. This observation was useful to compare simulation result even though it does not reflect the severity of the event. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University was used to study this storm event. RAMS simulations indicted that a quasi-stationary Mesoscale convective system developed over the city of Jeddah and lasted for several hours. It was the source of the huge amount of rainfall. The model computed a total rainfall of more than 110 mm in the southern part of the city, where the flash flood occurred. This precipitation estimation was confirmed by the actual observation of the weather radar. While the annual rainfall in Jeddah during the winter varies from 50 to 100 mm, the amount of the rainfall resulting from this storm event exceeded the climatological total annual rainfall. The simulation of this event showed that warm sea surface temperature, combined with high humidity in the lower atmosphere and a large amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) provided a favorable environment for convection. It also showed the presence of a cyclonic system over the north and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, and a subtropical anti-cyclone over Northeastern Africa that contributed to cold air advection bringing cold air to the Jeddah area. In addition, an anti-cyclone (blocking) centered over east and southeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Arabian Sea produced a low level jet over the southern

  4. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  6. Education Context and English Teaching and Learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…

  7. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  8. Amphimela raydahensis sp. nov. from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkey, Ashraf M El; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Amphimela raydahensis sp. nov. is described from Garf Raydah Nature Reserve (Abha, Asir Province), southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This species was collected using black light traps at different elevations dominated by cacti and wild olive trees. This is the first confirmed species of Amphimela known from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:26624320

  9. Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth…

  10. Metadata in Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : An Applied Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zain A.Hady

    2005-01-01

    An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.

  11. Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

  12. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  13. Barriers for setting up a pulmonary rehabilitation program in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed E Alsubaiei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a worrisome lack of knowledge regarding content and benefits of PR programs among Saudi health care providers treating COPD patients. These findings imply that improving awareness and increasing education of the health care providers regarding PR will be required before PR can be more widely implemented as an integral treatment modality for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  15. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  16. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  17. An Exploration of E-Learning Benefits for Saudi Arabia: Toward Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…

  18. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems. PMID:26807884

  19. Barriers to Accountability Implementation in the Education Directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the barriers to accountability implementation in the education directorates and to know the suggestions for applying accountability in the education directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the study members' point of view. For the purpose of achieving the objectives and procedures of the study, the descriptive…

  20. Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)