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Sample records for arabia clinical variables

  1. Cerebral venous thrombosis in Saudi Arabia. Clinical variables, response to treatment, and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVTR) clinical presentations, risk factors, and response to treatment in Saudi Arabia. Retrospective analysis of the King Farad Medical City, Riyadh, acute stroke database from April 2005 through February 2008 revealed 22 patients with CVTR. Hyper coagulable work-up and neuroimaging were performed. Sixteen patients were female (72.7%), and the median age was 35 years. Clinical presentations included: headache (77.3%), seizures (54.5%), focal neurological signs (54.5%), and decreased level of consciousness (50%). Over two-thirds (n=11; 69%) of female patients had a history of oral contraceptive use, which was the most common risk factor. Protein S deficiency (n=3), anti phospholipid antibody syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n=1), rhinocerebral mucormycosis (n=1), leukemia (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1), sepsis (n=1), and unknown (n=6) were causes. Affected areas included superior sagittal (n=13), transverse (n=16), sigmoid (n=14), straight (n=6), and cavernous sinus (n=1); internal cerebral vein (n=2); vein of Galen (n=3); cortical veins (n=10); and internal jugular vein (n=12). Two patients had quadriparesis, and 2 patients died. The remainder (n=18, 81.8%) improved. Bilateral hemorrhagic presentation or venous infarction, deep venous system thrombosis, and underlying malignancy had less favorable results. Presentations in our series were similar to those in other reports, although altered consciousness and seizures were more common. Cortical vein involvement was also higher than commonly reported. Oral contraceptive use was a primary risk factor in female patients. Outcomes were favorable in 81.8% of patients. (author)

  2. JOB BURNOUT AS A FUNCTION OF DEMOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES: WHAT DO SAUDI ARABIA BANKING EMPLOYEES REFLECT?

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Nasser Saad Al-Kahtani

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been postulates that the productivity of an organization depends on lower level of employees’ burnout and stress at workplace. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of certain demographical variables such as position in the current job, age, experience and marital status on job burnout among banking employees in Saudi Arabia. Keeping the objectives of the present study four null hypotheses was formulated. The sample consisted of 274 employees work...

  3. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  4. Use of dental clinics and oral hygiene practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Kravitz, Hannah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Memish, Ziad A.; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a large household survey in 2013 to determine the current status of oral health practices and use of oral health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods The Saudi Health Information Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals ≥ 15 years of age. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure the association between having been to a dental clinic during the last year, and sex, age, marital status, education, time...

  5. A clinical study of mentally retarded children with fragile X syndrome inSaudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)

  6. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Waleed I Albaker; Ahmed Badar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculate...

  7. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Ali M. Somily; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate gro...

  8. Patient's awareness of their medical conditions in multi-specialtyoutpatient clinics in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess the patient's awareness of their medicalconditions, identify the factors affecting their awareness and assesspatient's satisfaction with their doctor's explanations of medicalconditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2005 in theoutpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.The statistical package for Social Science was used for analysis. Fivehundred and one patients were included in the study. The mean age was45.6+-16.8. Fifty-five percent were female and 29% were highly educated. Mostof the patients (64.1%) knew their diagnoses. This was significantlyassociated with educational level; chronicity of the disease and theawareness of other issues related to their illness such as complications andname of their medications (p>0.05). Few patients (20%) knew complications oftheir diseases. Seventy percent of the patients were satisfied with theirdoctor's explanation of their disease. Knowing the diagnosis (p=0.001) andthe disease complications (p=0.014) were associated significantly withpatient's satisfaction. These figures are less than what they should be.Physicians must be advised of the importance of proper patient education. Inaddition, the lack of proper education by physicians demonstrated in thisstudy should be compensated for by an increase in non-physician basededucation tools. (author)

  9. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud H. A. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA. Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences, whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas.

  10. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mahmoud H. A.; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M.; Al-Habeeb, Malik A.; Al-Hammady, Yousef M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA). Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq) were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences), whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas. PMID:27397979

  11. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from outpatient clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the recovered strains phenotypically, by conventional methods and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) gene (which serves as an internal control) and mecA gene. Secondly, introduce multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type 4. Thirty-seven strains of S. aureus collected in 2007 from outpatient clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were tested in the College of Pharmacy phenotypically by conventional methods and genotypically by PCR for direct detection of S. aureus 16S rRNA and mecA genes. All the 37 strains, were tested also by multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, PVL, and (SCCmec) type 4. Polymerase chain reaction detected all the 37 bacteriologically positive S. aureus (100%) and the mecA gene in all strains phenotypically resistant to methicillin (100%), at the same time it detected the mecA gene in 2 strains phenotypically sensitive to methicillin. Only 3 strains (8.1%) recovered from skin and soft tissue infections were positive for PVL and SCCmec type 4. The PCR assay can be used for rapid detection of S. aureus and mecA gene. At the same time the multiplex PCR assay explained in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable test for direct detection of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (author)

  12. Hepatitis B genotypes: Relation to clinical outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayman A Abdo; Badr M Al-Jarallah; Faisal M Sanai; Ahmad S Hersi; Khalid Al-Swat; Nahla A Azzam; Manal Al-Dukhayil; Amira Al-Maarik; Faleh Z Al-Faleh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify the most common hepatitis B virus (HBV)genotype in Saudi Arabia, and correlate the prevailing genotypes with the clinical outcome of patients.METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the hepatology clinics of two tertiary care referral centers. Patients were categorized into 4 different groups:group 1, patients with hepatitis B and normal liver enzymes; group 2, patients with hepatitis B and abnormal liver enzymes but without cirrhosis; group 3, patients with hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis; group 4, patients with hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients had a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Genotyping of HBV was performed by nested PCR-mediated amplification of the target sequence and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotides.RESULTS: Seventy patients were enrolled in this study.They were predominantly male (72.9%) in their midforty's (mean age 47 years). Forty-nine (70%) patients were hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) negative.The majority of patients (64%) acquired HBV through unknown risk factors. Hepatitis B genotyping revealed that 57 patients (81.4%) were genotype D, 1 patient (1.4%) had genotype A, 1 patient (1.4%) had genotype C, and 4 patients (5.7%) had genotype E, while 7 patients (10%) had mixed genotype (4 patients ADG, 1 patient DE, 1 patient DF, and 1 patient ADFG). Based on univariate analysis of genotype D patients, significant predictors of advanced liver disease were age, gender,aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, albumin,bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (all P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis decreased hemoglobin (r = -0.05;95% CI: -0.08 to -0.03; P = 0.001) and albumin levels (r = -0.004; 95% CI: -0.007 to -0.001; P = 0.002) were highly significant predictors of advanced liver disease.In patients with HBV genotype D, HBeAg negativity was found to increase across advancing stages of liver disease (P = 0.024).CONCLUSION: This study highlights that the vast

  13. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Alsunni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12, moderate (13-24 and high (25-36 scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56% subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%, while 122 (61% had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%, 124 (62% were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56% were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5% before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5% subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.

  14. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abdulkader F; Alswailem, Abdulaziz M; Shibl, Atef M; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H M

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence and genetic basis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Klebsiella pneumoniae remains unclear in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was devoted to determine the prevalence and characterize ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Al-Qassim area, Saudi Arabia. A total of 430 isolates of K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples were collected over 6 months from January to June 2008. These isolates were screened for the presence of ESBLs by double-disk synergy test and re-evaluated by E-test ESBL method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15 antibiotics against ESBL-positive strains were determined by E-test strips. The β-lactamases involved were characterized by polymerase chain reaction assays and DNA sequencing. Conjugation experiments were done and ISEcp1 elements were tested among CTX-M positive isolates. The prevalence of ESBL was 25.6% (110/430) and all ESBL-positive isolates were sensitive to imipenem and tigecycline; however, the resistance rate to gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin was 87.3%, 10%, and 9.1%, respectively. Of these, 89.1% produced SHV, 70.9% produced TEM, and 36.4% were CTX-M-producing strains. The prevalence of ESBL SHV SHV-12 and SHV-5 was of 60% and 18.2%, respectively, and various non-ESBL SHV, including SHV-1 (5.5%), -11 (3.6%), and -85 (1.8%), was detected. However, the prevalence of CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 was 34.5% and 1.8%, respectively. ISEcp1 element was detected in 60% of bla(CTX-M-15) genes. All bla(CTX-M) genes were transferable; however, most of bla(SHV-12) and bla(SHV-5) were not transferable. TEM-type ESBLs were not detected in any of the isolates. This is the first description of CTX-M-14, SHV-5, SHV-11, and SHV-85 in Saudi Arabia. We have documented the dominance of K. pneumoniae SHV-12 and highlighted the emergence of CTX-M-15 in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21612509

  15. What variables can influence clinical reasoning?

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    Vahid Ashoorion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is one of the most important competencies that a physician should achieve. Many medical schools and licensing bodies try to predict it based on some general measures such as critical thinking, personality, and emotional intelligence. This study aimed at providing a model to design the relationship between the constructs. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine medical students participated in this study. A battery test devised that consist four parts: Clinical reasoning measures, personality NEO inventory, Bar-On EQ inventory, and California critical thinking questionnaire. All participants completed the tests. Correlation and multiple regression analysis consumed for data analysis. Results: There is low to moderate correlations between clinical reasoning and other variables. Emotional intelligence is the only variable that contributes clinical reasoning construct (r=0.17-0.34 (R 2 chnage = 0.46, P Value = 0.000. Conclusion: Although, clinical reasoning can be considered as a kind of thinking, no significant correlation detected between it and other constructs. Emotional intelligence (and its subscales is the only variable that can be used for clinical reasoning prediction.

  16. Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)

  17. Eliciting students′ perceptions of integrated clinical dental education in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al-Dajani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In the integrated curriculum, our study highlights the importance of clinical training not only in making dental students competent but also in increasing their confidence in performing clinical procedures.

  18. Awareness and Perceptions of Clinical Trials in Cancer Patients and Their Families in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Hassan, Anees; Eldin, Ahmed Mohi; Soudy, Hussein; Hussain, Fazal

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of medical articles being published from the Middle East, clinical research is still lagging behind compared to other regions. Enrolling participants into clinical trials presents an important challenge. We wanted to explore the perception, knowledge, and willingness of cancer patients to participate in oncology clinical trials and to recommend strategies to overcome these challenges. A 31-item questionnaire was administered to cancer patients and their family members in an outpatient clinic. Two hundred four patients and family members were enrolled between December 2011 and February 2013. Fifty-eight percent of the participants were aware of clinical trials. Some misconceptions included the following: 22% believed that no clinical trials were conducted in the Arab world, 19% believed that clinical trials in the Arab world were not under any regulatory authority supervision, and 15% believed that local clinical trials are conducted on subjects without their consent. One third of patients assumed that clinical trials are executed on animals instead of humans, and greater than 40% believed that clinical trials are performed for new medications only. Finally, 61% of the survey participants who were aware of clinical trials expressed their willingness to participate in trials. This large cohort survey demonstrated that a relatively significant number of Saudi cancer patients and their families are aware of clinical trials and a similarly high number of participants are willing to participate in clinical trials. This leads us to believe that patients' awareness and perception of clinical trials are not a significant limiting factor in clinical trial recruitment in our region.

  19. In vitro ciprofloxacin resistance patterns of gram positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few decades the ever-increasing level of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has been a cause of worldwide concern. Fluoroquinolones, particularly ciprofloxacin has been used indiscriminately for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. The increased use of ciprofloxacin has led to a progressive loss of bacterial susceptibility to this antibiotic. Therefore it is necessary to have update knowledge of resistance pattern of bacteria to this antibiotic so that alternate appropriate antibiotics can be used for ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial infections. Objective: To evaluate the trends of ciprofloxacin resistance pattern in commonly isolated gram positive bacteria over time in a Saudi Arabian teaching hospital. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out for ciprofloxacin susceptibility patterns of 5534 isolates of gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratories at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 to August 2005. Results: Increase in ciprofloxacin resistance rates with some fluctuations, among these isolates, were observed. For Staphylococcus aureus, it varied from 4.62, 1.83, 7.01 and 3.98%, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 97.92, 97.75, 87.01 and 88.26%, Streptococcus pyogenes 5.35, 4.47, 14.44 and 3.53% during the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively. Cirprofloxacin resistance during the years 2002, 2004 and 2005 for other isolates was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 30.23, 23.02 and 26.47%; enterococcus group D, 43.05, 20.68 and 57.03% and non-enterococcus group D, 62.96, 76.92 and 87.50% respectively. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin resistance in gram positive bacterial clinical isolates particularly Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enterococcus group D, and non-enterococcus group D, has greatly increased and ciprofloxacin no more remains

  20. Clinical profile of bronchiolitis in infants younger than 90 days in Saudi Arabia

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    Syed Amir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile at presentation, disease course and outcome of bronchiolitis in <3-month-old infants who presented to our Pediatric Emergency Department (PED during one disease season. Settings: Retrospective chart review during one bronchiolitis season, from November 1, 2011 to April 20, 2012. Subjects: All <90-day-old infants presenting with clinical bronchiolitis presenting to Urban PED of a tertiary care university hospital during one bronchiolitis season. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review based on computer records of all emergency department visits of infants less than 90 days with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis, covering the period between November 1, 2011 and April 30, 2012. Results: Out of the total of 1895 infants <90 days of age, 141 had a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis and 35 needed admission to hospital. Blood for culture was obtained from 47 infants, urine for culture was obtained from 46 infants and cerebrospinal fluid for culture was obtained from eight infants. One case of bacteremia was documented, but this was found to be a contaminant. No cases of meningitis occurred among these infants. However, one infant had a positive urine culture consistent with infection (Escherichia coli . Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be conclude that the risk of bacteremia or meningitis among infants <90 days of age with fever and bronchiolitis is low. The

  1. The etiology and symptoms of endodontic cases treated in a university clinic in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endodontic patients treated at a University Dental Clinic over a two year period were studied. A total of 281 patients seen in a beginning endodontic course were analyzed to determine (1) the etiology of the pulpal disease presenting and (2) the signs and symptoms of pulpal disease. Results indicated that caries was the most prevalent reason for endodontic treatment. Most cases (40.6%) were asymptomatic. Lower molars were the most commonly affected and there was no significant difference in endodontic treatment distribution between males and females in the patient population studied. (author)

  2. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

  3. Mycetoma at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: correlation of histopathological and clinical findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shagufta; Tahir; Mufti; Hessa; Aljhdali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the histopathological and clinical correlation of mycetoma among patients attending King Abdulaziz University Hospital between 1998-2013.Methods: The data of all histopathologically diagnosed mycetomas in the period between January 1998 and January 2013 were collected through a computerized database search of the anatomic pathology archives at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. The collected data were analysed. Identification of species were performed for five patients using 16 S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer 2.Results: There were 19 patients with mycetoma with an average age of 44.26 years and male: female ratio of 4:1. Actinomycetoma were 63.15% and eumycetoma were 36.84%. All patients presented with the classic lesions; presenting as painless subcutaneous mass, sinuses and discharge containing grains. The swellings were of slow evolution, with preferential foot localization. Species specification performed for samples from five patients with active lesions revealed species of Actinomyces israelii and Madurella mycetomatis in respective cases.Conclusions: Actinomycetoma is more common than eumycetoma in this region. The fact that one of the patients with eumycetoma was a Saudi national raises the possibility of an indigenous species similar to Maduraella mycetomatis to be further explored for characteristics and pathogenesis. The disease has to be prioritized again and more robust and quick molecular diagnostic tools should be made available in order to save patients form disfiguring amputations.

  4. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  5. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal...

  6. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlDughaither A; AlMutairy H; AlAteeq M

    2015-01-01

    Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their ...

  7. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  8. Variability of clinical features in attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in the clinical presentation of migraine, both among patients, and between attacks in an individual patient. We examined clinical features of migraine with aura in a large group of patients enrolled in a clinical trial, and compared retrospective...... migraine attack characteristics reported upon enrollment in the trial with those recorded prospectively in the trial. METHODS: Patients with migraine (n = 267) with typical visual aura in more than 30% of their attacks were enrolled from 16 centers for a clinical trial. Upon enrollment, patients provided...... a detailed retrospective description of the clinical features of their attacks of migraine. During the trial, clinical symptoms in migraine attacks starting with aura were recorded prospectively in 861 attacks. RESULTS: Retrospectively reported visual aura symptoms were variable and often overlapping...

  9. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Raquel; Malki, Karim; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Henigsberg, Neven; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Souery, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; Dobson, Richard; Aitchison, Katherine J; Farmer, Anne; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder. A combination of demographic and clinical variables, with strong contributions from symptoms of depressed mood, reduced interest, decreased activity, indecisiveness, pessimism and anxiety significantly predicted treatment outcomes, explaining 5-10% of variance in symptom improvement with escitalopram. Similar combinations of variables predicted remission with area under the curve 0.72, explaining approximately 15% of variance (pseudo R(2)) in who achieves remission, with strong contributions from body mass index, appetite, interest-activity symptom dimension and anxious-somatizing depression subtype. Escitalopram-specific outcome prediction was more accurate than generic outcome prediction, and reached effect sizes that were near or above a previously established benchmark for clinical significance. Outcome prediction on the nortriptyline arm did not significantly differ from chance. These results suggest that easily obtained demographic and clinical variables can predict therapeutic response to escitalopram with clinically meaningful accuracy, suggesting a potential for individualized prescription of this antidepressant drug. PMID:27089522

  10. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  11. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  12. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  13. Lead - a preanalytical/analytical variable in clinical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić-Mišić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is one of the most studied clinically important metals due its high toxicity and a high number of workers exposed to it. The interest toward Pb is elevated by the fact that children are especially susceptible to lead poisoning. Research regarding lead poisoning requires a complex, multi-disciplinary (clinical medical and clinical chemical approach. Monitoring human exposure to lead (intake, i.e. poisoning may be achieved by quantification of Pb in tissues and body fluids. For that reason, a number of accurate and reliable analytical methods for the determination of Pb (analytical/preanalytical variable were developed. An objective of this review paper is to provide key information necessary for proper interpretation of results of lead related clinical/laboratory tests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061

  14. Nonpain symptoms of new and follow-up cancer patients attending a palliative care outpatient clinic in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zafir Al-Shahri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Epidemiology of cancer-related nonpain symptoms receives less attention in literature as compared with cancer pain. Objective : This paper aims at exploring the prevalence and severity of nonpain symptoms in cancer patients attending a palliative care (PC outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods : Over a 5 months period, consecutive adult cancer patients attending PC outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital were evaluated for the presence and severity of 10 nonpain symptoms. Patients were grouped to new or follow-up cases and were also grouped according to performance status and cancer type. Prevalence and severity of symptoms were compared between groups using t test or analysis of variance as appropriate. Results : Fifty-one males and 73 females were interviewed. The most common cancer is female breast (27.4% followed by head and neck (15.3%. Majority of patients (67% were new to PC clinic. Patients had 5.1 nonpain symptoms on average, with most common symptoms being tiredness (79.8%, loss of appetite (71.8%, dry mouth (69.4%, anxiety (60.5%, and depression (50.8%. The least common symptoms were confusion and nausea (22.6% each. The median scores of severity were highest for tiredness, loss of appetite, dry mouth, and insomnia (5 points each. Symptoms were fewer among patients with good performance status (P = 0.002, whereas age, gender, cancer type, and encounter type were not associated with difference in symptom prevalence. Younger patients, females and those with poor performance status have shown a tendency toward higher severity scores for several symptoms. Conclusion : The significant prevalence and severity of nonpain symptoms among new and follow-up cancer patients seen in a PC outpatient clinic emphasizes the need for comprehensive assessment and routinely audited symptom management plans.

  15. Evaluation of resistance of commonly used antibiotics on clinical case of Staphylococcus capitis from Assir region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar M Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus capitis is a coagulase-negative species (CoNS of Staphylococcus. It causes antimicrobial resistance for nosocomial infections as well as for community-acquired infections. This case report involves a 51-year-old, married Saudi patient. He got admitted to the male medical ward of Aseer Central Hospital, with severe chest infection. Clinical examination, X-ray, and laboratory investigations were performed which involved bactech, culture media, antibiotic sensitivity test using disk diffusion [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC] and molecular [polymerase chain reaction (PCR] for detection of CoNS of Staphylococcus species and detection of the mecA gene. Laboratory data were recorded in special formats and analyzed by statistical computer program (SPSS. Results showed the resistance of isolated S. capitis to many commonly used antibiotics.

  16. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  17. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zaben, Faten N.; Sehlo, Mohammad G.; Harold G. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index f...

  18. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  19. Latent class instrumental variables: a clinical and biostatistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S; Lindeman, Karen S

    2016-01-15

    In some two-arm randomized trials, some participants receive the treatment assigned to the other arm as a result of technical problems, refusal of a treatment invitation, or a choice of treatment in an encouragement design. In some before-and-after studies, the availability of a new treatment changes from one time period to this next. Under assumptions that are often reasonable, the latent class instrumental variable (IV) method estimates the effect of treatment received in the aforementioned scenarios involving all-or-none compliance and all-or-none availability. Key aspects are four initial latent classes (sometimes called principal strata) based on treatment received if in each randomization group or time period, the exclusion restriction assumption (in which randomization group or time period is an instrumental variable), the monotonicity assumption (which drops an implausible latent class from the analysis), and the estimated effect of receiving treatment in one latent class (sometimes called efficacy, the local average treatment effect, or the complier average causal effect). Since its independent formulations in the biostatistics and econometrics literatures, the latent class IV method (which has no well-established name) has gained increasing popularity. We review the latent class IV method from a clinical and biostatistical perspective, focusing on underlying assumptions, methodological extensions, and applications in our fields of obstetrics and cancer research.

  20. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  1. Clinical Characteristics and Genetic Variability of Human Rhinovirus in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Montero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI in young children and infants worldwide and has a high impact on morbidity and mortality in this population. Initially, HRV was classified into two species: HRV-A and HRV-B. Recently, a species called HRV-C and possibly another species, HRV-D, were identified. In Mexico, there is little information about the role of HRV as a cause of ARI, and the presence and importance of species such as HRV-C are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and genetic variability of HRV in Mexican children. Genetic characterization was carried out by phylogenetic analysis of the 5′-nontranslated region (5′-NTR of the HRV genome. The results show that the newly identified HRV-C is circulating in Mexican children more frequently than HRV-B but not as frequently as HRV-A, which was the most frequent species. Most of the cases of the three species of HRV were in children under 2 years of age, and all species were associated with very mild and moderate ARI.

  2. Clinical and Immunological Features of Common Variable Immunodeficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Jun Lin; Yu-Chuan Wang; Xin-Min Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency syndromes.The purpose of this article was to broaden our knowledge about CVID for better diagnosis and treatment.Methods:Clinical and immunological features of 40 Chinese patients with CVID were analyzed retrospectively.Results:The median age at onset was 11-year-old (range 4-51 years).The median age at diagnosis was 14.5-year-old (range 5-66 years).The average time of delay in diagnosis was 5.3 years (range 1-41 years).The most common main complaint was fever due to infections (35 cases,87.5%).Pneumonia (28 cases,70%) was the most common type of infections.Bronchiectasis was present in 6 patients (15%).Autoimmune disease was detected in 6 cases of CVID,and malignancy in 2 cases.The median total serum levels of IgG,IgA,and IgM at diagnosis were 1.07 g/L,0.07 g/L,and 0.28 g/L,respectively.The percentages ofCD3/CD19+ B-cells were 1%-3.14%.Conclusions:Infection is the most frequent presentation of CVID.Patients with unexplainable infections should receive further examination including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and lymphocyte subset analysis.Regular and sufficient substitution with Ig is recommended.

  3. The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Lim Byun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were the clinical variables: leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, positive urine nitrite, positive urine culture, and fever duration both before and after treatment. We evaluated the relationships between clinical variables and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG results. Results : VCUG was performed in 148 patients; of them, 37 (25.0% had VUR: 18 (12.2% had low-grade (I-II VUR, and 19 (10.5% had high-grade (III-V VUR. Of the 95 patients who underwent DMSA scanning, 29 (30.5% had cortical defects, of which 21 (63.6% had VUR: 10 (30.3%, low-grade (I-II VUR; and 11 (33.3%, high-grade VUR. Of the 57 patients who were normal on DMSA scan, 8 (14.0% had low-grade VUR and 6 (10.5% had high-grade VUR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DMSA scan in predicting high-grade VUR were 64.7%, 69.9%, 33.3%, and 89.5%, respectively. Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and prolonged fever (?#243;6 hours after treatment were significantly correlated with the cortical defects on DMSA scans and high-grade VUR. Conclusion : Clinical signs, including prolonged fever after treatment, elevated CRP, and leukocytosis, are positive predictors of acute pyelonephritis and high-grade VUR.

  4. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  7. EEC syndrome sans clefting: Variable clinical presentations in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakkar Sejal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft palate/lip syndrome (EEC is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome with varied presentation and is actually a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome leading to intra- and interfamilial differences in severity because of its variable expression and reduced penetrance. The cardinal features include ectrodactyly, sparse, wiry, hypopigmented hair, peg-shaped teeth with defective enamel and cleft palate/lip. A family comprising father, daughter and son presented to us with split hand-split foot deformity (ectrodactyly, epiphora, hair changes and deafness with variable involvement in each family member.

  8. Variable Clinical Phenotypes of α-Thalassemia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Titi Singer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations of the α genes are common worldwide. In Asia and particularly Southeast Asia, they can result in clinically significant types of α-thalassemia, namely hemoglobin (Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. The latter is generally a fatal intrauterine condition, while Hb H disease results in clinical complications that are frequently overlooked. The high prevalence of the carrier state and the burden of these diseases (and other α-thalassemia variants call for more attention for improved screening methods and better care.

  9. Variability of chromatic sensitivity: fundamental studies and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, M. L. R.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation involved a number of related studies with the principal aim of assessing the variability in chromatic sensitivity in "normal" trichromats and colour deficient observers. An important outcome was the development of a new method for accurate and efficient measurement of chromatic sensitivity and the establishment of reliable statistical limits that describe the distribution of redgreen(RG) and yellow-blue (YB) chromatic sensitivity in normal trichromats. Chromatic sensitivity...

  10. [Orofacial clinical manifestations in adult patients with variable common immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-García, Aurora Alejandra; Moreno-Alba, Miguel Ángel; Elizalde-Monroy, Martín; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda; Romero-Flores, Jovita; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; López-Pérez, Patricia; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficienci primaria más común en adultos. Su prevalencia se estima en 1 por cada 25,000 a 75,000 recién nacidos vivos; existen variaciones por grupos étnicos, se estima en 50 a 70% en pacientes de raza caucásica. Las lesiones de la cavidad oral raramente se describen en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, en niños con esta enfermedad existen informes de lesiones principalmente de origen infeccioso. Objetivo: describir las lesiones orofaciales (cavidad oral, macizo facial y cuello) en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio transversal, prospectivo, efectuado en todos los adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable adscritos a la Clínica de inmunodeficiencias primarias, del Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, que fueron examinados por un cirujano maxilofacial; se realizó el reporte de hallazgos en lista de cotejo y, posteriormente, el análisis descriptivo de las lesiones. Resultados: se incluyeron 26 pacientes, 16 mujeres y 10 hombres, con edad promedio de 38.6 años. En 18 de 26 pacientes estudiados se observaron lesiones orales, con siete lesiones diferentes y predominio en el sexo femenino 2:1. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron: hiperplasia de glándulas salivales menores (19/26), petequias (12/26) y úlceras herpetiformes (7/26). En la cara y el cuello se observaron cuatro lesiones distintas, las adenopatías cavidad oral, la cara y el cuello.

  11. EEC syndrome sans clefting: Variable clinical presentations in a family

    OpenAIRE

    Thakkar Sejal; Marfatia Yogesh

    2007-01-01

    Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft palate/lip syndrome (EEC) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome with varied presentation and is actually a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome leading to intra- and interfamilial differences in severity because of its variable expression and reduced penetrance. The cardinal features include ectrodactyly, sparse, wiry, hypopigmented hair, peg-shaped teeth with defective enamel and cleft palate/lip. A family comprising father, daughter and son prese...

  12. Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

  13. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  14. Joubert syndrome: large clinical variability and a unique neuroimaging aspect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Emilia Katiane Embirucu; Lima, Marcilia Martyn; Kok, Fernando; Parizotto, Juliana [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Clinical Hospital. Dept. of Child Neurology; Maia Junior, Otacilio de Oliveira [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Clinical Hospital. Dept. of Child Ophthalmology

    2010-04-15

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypotonia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (e.g. pigmentary retinopathy, oculomotor apraxia and nystagmus), renal cysts and hepatic fibrosis. Respiratory abnormalities, as apnoea and hyperpnoea, may be present, as well as mental retardation. At least seven JS loci have been determined and five genes identified. Herein, we report five children, belonging to independent families, with JS: they shared the same typical MRI abnormality, known as molar tooth sign, but had an otherwise quite variable phenotype, regarding mostly their cognitive performance, visual abilities and extra-neurological compromise. (author)

  15. Prognosis after Acute Myocardial Infarction as Predicted by C-reactive Protein and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Modica MD, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Raised concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP have been reported to be strongly related to an adverse long term prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. However, adjustments for clinical variables as well as interaction between variables have been incomplete. The aims of this study were to examine the predictive value of baseline concentrations of CRP for mortality after adjustment for important clinical variables and to compare the clinical usefulness of CRP with easily available clinical variables in the prediction of long term survival.Methods:Five hundred and thirty-one patients with AMI were included. A blood sample for CRP was obtained on admission. All patients were followed for a minimum of two years and death of any cause was recorded as the study end point.Results:In logistic regression analysis, the interaction term Age by Killip class > 1, the variable glomerular filtration rate as well as the interaction term Age by Atrial fibrillation were retained. The resulting model correctly predicted death or not in 81% of the patients. CRP did not contribute to the final model.Conclusions:CRP does not independently predict long-term mortality after an AMI after adjustments for clinical variables and interaction. CRP has no value beyond clinical variables in predicting death after AMI.

  16. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  17. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel RM

    2013-01-01

    Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sa...

  18. Clinical and Immunological Spectrum of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony David B. Webster

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed data from 150 patients initially classified as having CVID. About 10% had laboratory abnormalities suggesting known single gene disorders (eg: hyper-IgM syndrome, and in a few a genetic defect has been confirmed. We have attempted to sub-classify the remaining patients by analysis of their circulating lymphocytes. B lymphocyte markers have been used to estimate the numbers of circulating immature and class switched B cells; there is an association between the presence of high relative numbers of immature circulating B cells, splenomegaly and autoimmune disease. About 25% of CVID patients have a moderate CD4+ T lymphopenia, sometimes with a relative expansion of CD8+ T cells. About 30% of CVID patients have persistent relatively high levels of circulating CD8+ T cells binding immunogenic peptides from EBV or CMV. Many of these patients also have high relative numbers of circulating CD8+ perforin positive T cells, and there is evidence that these cells may be responsible for neutropenia or inflammatory bowel disease in some patients. The clinical spectrum of CVID is diverse, with some patients suffering from few infections, and over 50% have evidence of structural lung damage. About 25% of UK patients have chronic inflammation in various organs, particularly the lungs, liver and spleen, often with granulomatous changes. Steroids are used to treat many of the patients with chronic inflammatory complications, although trials are in progress with anti-TNF agents. The incidence of these inflammatory complications is different between countries, being rare in Sweden. Attempts to correlate clinical phenotypes with the laboratory abnormalities described above have been disappointing, suggesting that unknown genetic factors unrelated to the cause of the immunodeficiency determine the complications; attempts to identify some of these factors will be discussed. Finally a provisional scheme to sub classify CVID patients according to

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT MOTIVATION: PERCEPTION OF PRE-CLINICAL STUDENTS IN THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY, DAMMAM, SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bamosa, Abdullah O.; Ali, Basil A.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To study the relationship between student motivation for learning and 38 factors related to teaching, curriculum and administration. Method: A total of 231 male and female medical students in the first three pre-clinical years participated in the study by completing a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Factors that have been rated as strong promoters of motivation include: injecting relevant clinical information into lectures, encouraging student participation, revising previ...

  20. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  1. Building prognostic models for breast cancer patients using clinical variables and hundreds of gene expression signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yufeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple breast cancer gene expression profiles have been developed that appear to provide similar abilities to predict outcome and may outperform clinical-pathologic criteria; however, the extent to which seemingly disparate profiles provide additive prognostic information is not known, nor do we know whether prognostic profiles perform equally across clinically defined breast cancer subtypes. We evaluated whether combining the prognostic powers of standard breast cancer clinical variables with a large set of gene expression signatures could improve on our ability to predict patient outcomes. Methods Using clinical-pathological variables and a collection of 323 gene expression "modules", including 115 previously published signatures, we build multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using a dataset of 550 node-negative systemically untreated breast cancer patients. Models predictive of pathological complete response (pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were also built using this approach. Results We identified statistically significant prognostic models for relapse-free survival (RFS at 7 years for the entire population, and for the subgroups of patients with ER-positive, or Luminal tumors. Furthermore, we found that combined models that included both clinical and genomic parameters improved prognostication compared with models with either clinical or genomic variables alone. Finally, we were able to build statistically significant combined models for pathological complete response (pCR predictions for the entire population. Conclusions Integration of gene expression signatures and clinical-pathological factors is an improved method over either variable type alone. Highly prognostic models could be created when using all patients, and for the subset of patients with lymph node-negative and ER-positive breast cancers. Other variables beyond gene expression and clinical-pathological variables, like gene mutation status or DNA

  2. VARIABILITY OF ORIGIN OF OBTURATOR ARTERY AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

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    Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obturator artery is a branch of anterior division of internal iliac artery. It normally runs anteroinferiorly on the lateral wall of pelvis to the upper part of the obturator foramen and leaves the pelvis by passing through the obturator canal. On its course, the artery is accompanied by the obturator nerve and vein. It supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh. A severe and potentially lethal complication in pelvic injuries is arterial bleeding commonly involving the branches of the internal iliac artery, namely the lateral sacral, iliolumbar, obturator, vesical and inferior gluteal arteries. A sound knowledge of retro-pubic pelvic vascular anatomy is pivotal for successful performance of endoscopic procedures such as total extra-peritoneal inguinal hernioplasty or laparoscopic herniorraphy. The context and purpose of the study: This study is an attempt to analyse the origin, course, distribution of obturator artery in pelvis and their clinical implication. Result: out of 60 formalin fixed pelvic halves 36.6% of the specimens, (26.67% in males and 10% in females the origin of obturator artery was found to be normal from anterior division of internal iliac artery. About 63.63% from various other sources. Conclusion: This knowledge of variation in the origin of obturator artery is important while doing pelvic and groin surgeries requiring appropriate ligation. Such aberrant origins may be a significant source for persistent bleeding in the setting of acute trauma. Knowledge regarding the variations of obturator artery is useful during surgeries of fracture and direct or indirect inguinal, femoral and obturator hernias.

  3. Distal arthrogryposis with variable clinical expression caused by TNNI2 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulić, Vida; Miyake, Noriko; Janković, Sunčana; Petrović, Davor; Šimunović, Marko; Đapić, Tomislav; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-01-01

    Distal arthrogryposis (DA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder with multiple joint contractures. We describe a female DA patient with hand and foot deformities, and right-sided torticollis. Using exome sequencing, we identified a novel TNNI2 mutation (c.485>A, p.Arg162Lys) in the patient and her father. The father has no typical DA but hip dysplasia. This may explain the clinical features of DA2B in this family, but with variable clinical expression. PMID:27790376

  4. Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Jumah K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder

  5. Sex and Gender: Critical Variables in Pre-Clinical and Clinical Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Frank, Aaron P; Santos, Roberta S; Fátima, Luciana A; Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this Essay, we discuss the critical need to incorporate sex and gender in pre-clinical and clinical research to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which metabolic processes differ by sex and gender. This knowledge will allow for development of personalized medicine which will optimize therapies specific for individuals. PMID:27508869

  6. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Clinical variables and implications of the personality on the outcome of bipolar illness: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Barquero, Nieves; García-López, Olga; Fernández-Argüelles, Pedro; Camacho-Laraña, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients is affected by comorbidity. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. This pilot study examined a series of 40 euthymic bipolar patients (DSM-IV criteria) (bipolar I disorder 31, bipolar II disorder 9) to assess the effect of clinical variables and the influence of comorbid personality on the clinical course of bipolar illness. Bipolar patients with a diagnosis of comorbid personality disorder (n = 30) were compar...

  8. Clinical presentation and management of acute gastro-enteritis in in-patient children at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A M

    1990-01-01

    In a retrospective survey, case notes of all children with acute gastro-enteritis (AGE) admitted to our hospital between 1984 and 1988 were reviewed. The total number of cases was 300. The mean age was 14 months (range 1-60 mths): 67% of cases were boys and 33% girls. Eleven per cent were exclusively breastfed. The clinical presentation was diarrhoea and vomiting in 81%, diarrhoea alone in 15%, and vomiting primarily in 4%. All children had good nutritional status, i.e. both their height and weight were between the 5th and 90th percentile for their age and none showed signs of marasmus or kwashiorkor. Forty-six per cent of the children had AGE without dehydration. Mild, moderate and severe dehydration was present in 41%, 10% and 3% of cases, respectively. Isotonic, hypotonic and hypernatraemic dehydration was present in 95%, 3% and 2% of cases of dehydration, respectively. Sixty-five per cent of cases were given intravenous (IV) fluids. The mean duration of IV administration was 1 day, with a range of 1-7 days. Twenty-two per cent of the children were given oral rehydration solution (ORS) initially, and 13% were given IV plus ORS. None of the children died of gastro-enteritis. It is concluded that there was excessive use of IV fluids, and that there is an urgent need to encourage the use of ORS.

  9. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

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    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  10. Health Education in Saudi Arabia; Historical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Al-Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mahmoud Abdullah

    1986-01-01

    The history of higher education in Saudi Arabia is outlined, especially as it relates to Islamic religion and educational philosophy, and its rapid growth is chronicled. These aspects are examined: Saudi students studying abroad, foreign students in Saudi Arabia, women's education, the Ministry of Higher Education's role, and financing. (MSE)

  12. Associations of benzodiazepine craving with other clinical variables in a population of general practice patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Voshaar, R.C. Oude; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, van A.J.L.M.; Lisdonk, van de E.H.; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to (1) describe the characteristics of patients reporting craving for benzodiazepines (BZs) and (2) to search for associations between BZ craving and other clinical variables in a population of general practice (GP) patients who have made an attempt to discontin

  13. Associations of benzodiazepine craving with other clinical variables in a population of general practice patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to (1) describe the characteristics of patients reporting craving for benzodiazepines (BZs) and (2) to search for associations between BZ craving and other clinical variables in a population of general practice (GP) patients who have made an attempt to discontin

  14. Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.

    1993-01-01

    Drug-induced improvement of depression may be mediated by changes in sleep physiology. The aim of this study was to relate changes in sleep polygraphic variables to clinical state during treatment with citalopram, a highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. Sixteen patients took part. The study wa

  15. Variability of Spirometry in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Results from Two Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Herpel, Laura B.; Kanner, Richard E.; Lee, Shing M.; Fessler, Henry E.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Connett, John E.; Wise, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to determine short-term intraindividual biologic and measurement variability in spirometry of patients with a wide range of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity, using datasets from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and the Lung Health Study (LHS). This may be applied to determine criteria that can be used to assess a clinically meaningful change in spirometry.

  16. Undergraduate Nurse Variables that Predict Academic Achievement and Clinical Competence in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ian; Hall, Margaret; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for undergraduate nursing students. Sixteen latent variables were considered including the students' background, gender, type of first language, age, their previous successes with their undergraduate nursing studies and status given for…

  17. [Phenotypic variability in 47, XXX patients: Clinical report of four new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Ernesto; Márquez, Marisa; Solari, Andrea; Ziembar, María I; Laudicina, Alejandro

    2010-08-01

    The 47, XXX karyotype has a frequency of 1 in 1000 female newborns. However, this karyotype is not usually suspected at birth or childhood. These patients are usually diagnosed during adulthood when they develop premature ovarian failure or infertility, because the early phenotype doesn t have any specific features. The study describes four cases and the clinical variability of the 47, XXX karyotype.

  18. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  19. Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

  20. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  1. Mapping the epidemiology and trends of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Bright; Al-Hajoj, Sahal

    2015-12-01

    An extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) infection rate of 30% in Saudi Arabia remains above the global rate. A variable rate of infection in each province has been reported and the involvement of most organs has been cited. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce and the factors behind the increased rate of EPTB are perplexing. This review endeavors to shed light into the epidemiology of EPTB, various types of infections sites, geographical differences in the infection rate, known risk factors, and challenges in the diagnosis and management of EPTB in Saudi Arabia.

  2. Implications of Variability in Clinical Bedside Swallowing Assessment Practices by Speech Language Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sue; Kruger, Samantha; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Tyler-Boltrek, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Speech language pathology (SLP) clinical bedside swallowing assessments (CBSA) are a cornerstone of quality care for patients in acute hospitals who have dysphagia. The CBSA informs clinical diagnosis and decisions regarding further instrumental assessment, and is used to develop a management plan and monitor progress. However, self-report and retrospective research shows that SLPs are highly variable in their use of assessment components considered by experts to be important for quality CBSA, casting doubt on the validity and reliability of CBSA. This prospective study describes the components included by SLPs when designing a standardised evidence based dysphagia assessment protocol for acute care patients and observed patterns of component use. The findings confirm that SLPs use the CBSA for multiple purposes beyond diagnosis of aspiration risk and dysphagia presence/severity. They are highly variable in their use of certain components, but also demonstrate consistent use of a core set. It is apparent that SLPs prioritise the application of clinical reasoning to tailor their CBSA to the patient over following a highly structured item-based protocol. The variability in component use likely reflects a complex clinical reasoning process that draws on a wide variety of information combined with expert knowledge as is also observed in many other medical specialties. Rather than promoting the standardisation of CBSA protocols that constrain SLP practice to strict item-based assessment protocols, consideration should be given to promoting the value and facilitating the clinical reasoning process that supports the utility of the CBSA for diagnosis, patient centred management and treatment planning. PMID:27405423

  3. Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajhoj, Hassan

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    . These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y;

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  6. Factor analysis of the interrelationships between clinical variables in horses with colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoefner, M B; Ersbøll, A K; Jensen, A L; Hesselholt, M

    2001-02-16

    A prospective survey of horses with colic referred to the Large Animal Hospital at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Copenhagen, Denmark, was undertaken between August 1994 and December 1997. The interrelationships between 17 clinical variables were analysed using factor analysis. Factor analysis uncovers the structure of the variability in data and therefore detects multicollinearity. A total of 528 horses were admitted in the study period. Of these, 16 were excluded from the analysis as a result of miscellaneous conditions. Only 205 horses had observations for all 17 variables. Because no major change occurred in the main diagnostic categories, this population was considered as a representative subset. Factor analysis confirmed the clinical impression of correlation between variables, but the multicollinearity turned out not to be strong. Four factors were extracted, and these accounted for 51% of the total variance. The retained factors were interpreted by integrating previously reported clinical research. The first factor, which was interpreted as endotoxaemia, had high loadings on capillary refill time, mucous-membrane colour, degree of pain, heart rate, packed-cell volume and abdominal sounds. In the second factor, cecal decompression, admission month and gastric reflux had the predominant influence, and this factor was explained as cecal tympany. The third factor was simply interpreted as age because it had high loadings on gender, age and temperature. In the fourth factor, the interpretation was not straightforward, although breed had the greatest influence in the formation of this factor. Subsequently, the extracted factors were used in a logistic-regression analysis to determine their association with outcome (survival/death). The two factors interpreted as endotoxaemia and age were related to the outcome.

  7. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING RICE CONSUMPTION IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Duwais, Abdul-Aziz M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has undergone rapid economic growth and development. This expansion stems from the increase in the Kingdom's production of petroleum--oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues. However, despite this growth, Saudi Arabia is one of the top foodstuff importers among developing countries. It has been estimated that the value of Saudi agriculture imports in 1981 increased about 33 percent to ...

  9. Sequence variability of human cytomegalovirus UL143 in low-passage clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Rong; RUAN Qiang; QI Ying; MA Yan-ping; HUANG Yu-jing; SUN Zheng-rong; JI Yao-hua

    2006-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects a number of organs and tissues in vivo. The different symptoms and tissue tropisms of HCMV infection perhaps result from genetic polymorphism. A new region of DNA containing at least 19 open reading frames(ORFs) (denoted UL133 to 151) was found in the low-passage HCMV clinical strain, Toledo, and several other low-passage clinical isolates, but not present in the HCMV laboratory strain, AD169. One of these genes, UL143, was studied to explore the sequence variability of UL143 ORF in HCMV clinical isolates and examine the possible association between gene variability and the outcome of HCMV infection.Methods The UL143 gene of the strains obtained from suspected congenitally HCMV-infected infants was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced.Results Nineteen sequences of the strains were divided into 2 major groups, G1(n=16) and G2(n=3). All of the sequences had frame-shift mutation compared to Toledo. Nucleotide polymorphisms conferred substantial amino acid substitutions when compared with Toledo. All 16 UL143 putative proteins of the strains in G1 had a new myristylation site and loss of two PKC sites owing to missense mutations. No convincing relationships were observed between the presence of HCMV disease and the UL 143 sequence group.Conclusions HCMV-UL143 existed in low passage isolates. Sequence variability caused by frame-shift mutation was found in all HCMV clinical strains. No obvious linkage was observed between UL143 polymorphisms and the outcome of suspected congenital HCMV infection.

  10. Variability of clinical CT perfusion measurements in patients with carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Aquilla S. [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Neurosurgery, Madison, WI (United States); Grayev, Allison; Turski, Patrick; Pulfer, Kari; Haughton, Victor [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Rowley, Howard A. [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Neurosurgery, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Neurology, Madison, WI (United States); Field, Aaron S. [University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Mukherjee, Rajat [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-11-15

    CT perfusion imaging (pCT) may be used to detect and monitor hemodynamic abnormalities due to cerebrovascular disease. The magnitude of variability in clinical measurements has been insufficiently evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the long-term variability of clinical pCT measurements in patients with cerebrovascular disease. pCT parameters were calculated for the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to a carotid stenosis before and after stent treatment of stenosis in 33 consecutive patients. Mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) calculated from pCT data from both a small and large region of interest (ROI) using both manual and automated methods were compared before and after stent treatment. Differences between the first and second measurement were tested for statistical significance with at-test. Variability was calculated as the standard deviation of the differences divided by the mean of the pre- and post-stent treatment values. To adjust for proportional bias, the Bland-Altman analysis was applied. The differences between the two measurements of MTT, CBF, and CBV averaged 2.5 to 7.7% when a manual method was used and was higher with automatic methods (p > 0.07). The variability of the values was 18% for MTT, 19% for CBV, and 25% for CBF with the large ROI and the manual method of calculation. The magnitude was larger when the small ROI and automatic methods were employed. Longitudinal measurements of MTT, CBV, or CBF by pCT may vary by 20-25%. To detect changes in treatment-related changes in perfusion, pCT studies must be designed to achieve statistical significance based on this variability. (orig.)

  11. Episiotomy and its relationship to various clinical variables that influence its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Meseguer, Carmen; Carrillo-García, César; Meseguer-de-Pedro, Mariano; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel; Martínez-Roche, Mª Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand the episiotomy rate and its relationship with various clinical variables. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytic study of 12,093 births in a tertiary hospital. Variables: Parity, gestational age, start of labor, use of epidural analgesia, oxytocin usage, position during fetal explusion, weight of neonate, and completion of birth. The analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: the global percentage of episiotomies was 50%. The clinical variables that presented a significant association were primiparity (RR=2.98), gestational age >41 weeks (RR=1.2), augmented or induced labor (RR=1.33), epidural analgesia use (RR=1,95), oxytocin use (RR=1.58), lithotomy position during fetal expulsion (RR=6.4), and instrumentation (RR=1.84). Furthermore, maternal age ≥35 years (RR=0.85) and neonatal weight <2500 g (RR=0.8) were associated with a lower incidence of episiotomy. Conclusions: episiotomy is dependent on obstetric interventions performed during labor. If we wish to reduce the episiotomy rate, it will be necessary to bear in mind these risk factors when establishing policies for reducing this procedure. PMID:27224064

  12. Episiotomy and its relationship to various clinical variables that influence its performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ballesteros-Meseguer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the episiotomy rate and its relationship with various clinical variables. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytic study of 12,093 births in a tertiary hospital. Variables: Parity, gestational age, start of labor, use of epidural analgesia, oxytocin usage, position during fetal explusion, weight of neonate, and completion of birth. The analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: the global percentage of episiotomies was 50%. The clinical variables that presented a significant association were primiparity (RR=2.98, gestational age >41 weeks (RR=1.2, augmented or induced labor (RR=1.33, epidural analgesia use (RR=1,95, oxytocin use (RR=1.58, lithotomy position during fetal expulsion (RR=6.4, and instrumentation (RR=1.84. Furthermore, maternal age ≥35 years (RR=0.85 and neonatal weight <2500 g (RR=0.8 were associated with a lower incidence of episiotomy. Conclusions: episiotomy is dependent on obstetric interventions performed during labor. If we wish to reduce the episiotomy rate, it will be necessary to bear in mind these risk factors when establishing policies for reducing this procedure.

  13. Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

  14. IL8 gene as modifier of cystic fibrosis: unraveling the factors which influence clinical variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Larissa Lazzarini; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Salomão Junior, João Batista; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2016-08-01

    The severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with classes of mutations in the CFTR gene (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator), physical environment and modifier genes interaction. The IL8 gene (interleukin 8), according to its respective polymorphisms, influences inflammatory responses. This study analyzed IL8 gene polymorphisms (rs4073, rs2227306 and rs2227307), by means of PCR/RFLP, and their association with pulmonary function markers and clinical severity scores in 186 patients with CF, considering the CFTR genotype. There was an association between rs2227307 and precocity of the disease. The severity of lung disease was associated with the following markers: transcutaneous arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) (regardless of CFTR genotype, for the polymorphisms rs4073, rs2227306 and rs2227307); mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (regardless of CFTR genotype, for the polymorphisms rs2227306 and rs2227307). Pulmonary function markers (SaO2 and spirometric variables) and clinical severity scores were also associated with IL8 gene polymorphisms. This study identified the IL8 gene, represented by rs4073 and rs2227306 polymorphisms, and particularly the rs2227307 polymorphism, as potentiating factors for the degree of variability in the severity of CF, especially in pulmonary clinical manifestation correlated with increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:27209008

  15. Clinical variables associated with leprosy reactions and persistence of physical impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Teles de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leprosy is a chronic disease that affects skin and peripheral nerves. Disease complications include reactional episodes and physical impairment. One World Health Organization (WHO goal of leprosy programs is to decrease the number of grade 2 impairment diagnoses by 2015. This study aims to evaluate clinical factors associated with the occurrence of leprosy reactions and physical impairment in leprosy patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of data from medical records of patients followed in two important centers for the treatment of leprosy in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, from 2005 to 2011. We used the chi-square test to analyze associations between the following categorical variables: gender, age, operational classification, clinical forms, leprosy reactions, corticosteroid treatment, and physical impairment at the diagnosis and after cure. Clinical variables associated with multibacillary leprosy and/or reactional episodes and the presence of any grade of physical impairment after cure were evaluated using the logistic regression model. Results We found that men were more affected by multibacillary forms, reactional episodes, and grade 2 physical impairment at diagnosis. Leprosy reactions were detected in a total of 40% of patients and all were treated with corticosteroids. However, physical impairment was observed in 29.8% of the patients analyzed at the end of the treatment and our multivariate analysis associated a low dose and short period of corticosteroid treatment with persistence of physical impairments. Conclusions Physical impairment should receive an increased attention before and after treatment, and adequate treatment should be emphasized.

  16. Preoperative Cardiac Variables of Diastolic Dysfunction and Clinical Outcomes in Lung Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Yadlapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orthotopic lung transplantation is now widely performed in patients with advanced lung disease. Patients with moderate or severe ventricular systolic dysfunction are typically excluded from lung transplantation; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the prognostic significance of abnormal left ventricular diastolic function and elevated pretransplant pulmonary pressures. Methods. We reviewed the characteristics of 111 patients who underwent bilateral and unilateral lung transplants from 200 to 2009 in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative markers of diastolic function, including invasively measured pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP and echocardiographic variables of diastolic dysfunction including mitral A>E and A′>E′. Results. Out of 111 patients, 62 were male (56% and average age was 54.0 ± 10.5 years. Traditional echocardiographic Doppler variables of abnormal diastolic function, including A′>E′ and A>E, did not predict adverse events (P=0.49. Mildly elevated pretransplant PCWP (16–20 mmHg and moderately/severely elevated PCWP (>20 mmHg were not associated with adverse clinical events after transplant (P=0.30. Additionally, all clinical endpoints did not show any statistical significance between the two groups. Conclusions. Pre-lung transplant invasive and echocardiographic findings of elevated pulmonary pressures and abnormal left ventricular diastolic function are not predictive of adverse posttransplant clinical events.

  17. Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

  18. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Koch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 162 clinicians at 15 substance abuse treatment clinics in Michigan. Measures: Environmental scanning was measured by frequency of use of the Internet, journals, seminars or conferences, and people at other treatment clinics for new substance abuse treatment information. Clinicians were asked for their perceptions of their clinic’s openness to new treatment techniques and support for acquiring new information, access to and satisfaction with information sources at work, as well as if they feel it is their job to keep up to date with current treatment research. Additional measures included whether they intended to quit their jobs and whether they were emotionally drained from work. Findings: We found positive associations between environmental scanning and perceived clinic support for acquiring new information, perceived clinic openness to new treatment techniques, access to e-mail and Internet at work, and satisfaction with resources. Turnover intention and being emotionally drained were negatively associated with environmental scanning. Conclusion. : Individual and organizational level variables were found to be associated with higher levels of environmental scanning activity. Although the causal directions of these associations are not known, the findings suggest ways to increase environmental scanning among clinicians.

  19. SEQUENCE VARIABILITY OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS UL144 OPEN READING FRAME IN LOW-PASSAGE CLINICAL ISOLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong He; Yao-hua Ji; Qiang Ruan; Chang Xia; Lan-qing Liu; Sheng-min Lü; Ying Lu; Ying Qi; Yan-ping Ma; Qing Liu

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL144 sequence variability and clinical disease.Methods HCMV UL144 open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by PCR assay in 72 lowpassage isolates [65 congenitally infective children and 7 healthy children who were HCMV-DNA positive by quantitative PCR (qPCR)]. All positive PCR products were analyzed by heteroduplex mobility assay and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (HMA-SSCP) and 32 of them were sequenced.Resuits Fifty-five patient isolates and five healthy children isolates were HCMV-UL144 positive by PCR. Sequencing and HMA-SSCP analysis showed that significant strain-specific variability was present in the UL144 ORF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequences could be separated into 3 major genotypes. Comparing between UL144 sequences and the corresponding symptoms showed that genotype 2 did not exist in megacolon isolates. And genotype 1 and 3 were the major types among microcephaly and jaundice isolates respectively.Conclusions HCMV-UL144 existed in most of low passage isolates and sequences were hypervariable. The UL144ORF and its predicted product with the high level of sequence variability in different kinds of isolates suggest that UL144ORF might play a role in HCMV infectivity and subsequent diseases.

  20. HIGH VARIABILITY OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS UL150 OPEN READING FRAME IN LOW-PASSAGED CLINICAL ISOLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the polymorphism of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL150 open reading frame(ORF) in low-passaged clinical isolates, and to study the relationship between the polymorphism and different pathogenesis of congenital HCMV infection.Methods PCR was performed to amplify the entire HCMV UL150 ORF region of 29 clinical isolates, which hadbeen proven containing detectable HCMV-DNA using fluorescence quantitative PCR. PCR amplifcation products weresequenced directly, and the data were analyzed.Results Totally 25 among 29 isolates were amplified, and 18 isolates were sequenced successfully. HCMVUL150 ORF sequences derived from congenitally infected infants were high variability. The UL150 ORF in all 18 clinical isolates shifted backward by 8 nucleotides leading to frame-shift, and contained a single nucleotide deletion at nucleotide position 226 compared with that of Toledo strain. The nucleotide diversity was 0. 1% to 6. 8% and the amino acid diversity was 0. 2% to 19. 2% related to Toledo strain. However, the nucleotide diversity was 0. 1% to 6.4% and amino acid diversity was 0. 2% to 8.3% by compared with Merlin strain. Compared with Toledo, 4 new cysteine residues and 13 additional posttranslational modification sites were observed in UL150 putative proteins of clinical isolates. Moreover, the UL150 putative protein contained an additional transmembrane helix at position of 4-17 amino acid related to Toledo.Conclusion HCMV UL150 ORF and deduced amino acid sequences of clinical strains are hypervariability. No obvious linkage between the polymorphism and different pathogenesis of congenital HCMV infection is found.

  1. Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies Supports the Pharmacokinetic Variability Hypothesis for Acquired Drug Resistance and Failure of Antituberculosis Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Srivastava, Shashikant; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory studies have questioned nonadherence as a cause of antituberculosis drug failure and propose that between-patient pharmacokinetic variability may be the cause. This meta-analysis provides clinical evidence that pharmacokinetic variability of isoniazid alone leads to worse microbiological failure, relapse, and acquired drug resistance.

  2. Variable clinical course in acute necrotizing encephalopathy and identification of a novel RANBP2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Katharina; Storch, Katja; Hahn, Gabriele; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Ramantani, Georgia; Jackson, Sandra; Neilson, Derek; von der Hagen, Maja; Hehr, Ute; Smitka, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare disease presenting with rapidly progressing encephalopathy. It usually occurs in otherwise healthy children after common viral infections. The hallmarks of ANE are the neuroradiological findings of multiple symmetric lesions in the thalami, midbrain, pons and brainstem. Most cases are sporadic and non recurrent. However, recurrent or familial forms of ANE due to mutations in RANBP2 gene have been reported. It has been suggested to give these cases the term ANE1. We report the clinical course in two male infants (P1, P2) with ANE1 and a variable clinical course and outcome. One patient is heterozygous for the most common RANBP2 missense mutation p.Thr585Met. In the other patient we observed a novel de novo missense mutation p.Trp681Cys in the RANBP2 gene causing recurrent ANE. Clinical and radiological features are presented and differential diagnoses are discussed. This report adds to the current knowledge of the phenotype in ANE, caused by mutations in RANBP2 gene. PMID:26923722

  3. Variability amongst radiographers in the categorization of clinical acceptability for digital trauma radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Robin; Toomey, Rachel; Smits, Dirk; Mol, Harrie; Verhelle, Filip; Butler, Marie-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Radiographers evaluate anatomical structures to judge clinical acceptability of a radiograph. Whether a radiograph is deemed acceptable for diagnosis or not depends on the individual decision of the radiographer. Individual decisions cause variation in the accepted image quality. To minimise these variations definitions of acceptability, such as in RadLex, were developed. On which criteria radiographers attribute a RadLex categories to radiographs is unknown. Insight into these criteria helps to further optimise definitions and reduce variability in acceptance between radiographers. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the correlation between the RadLex classification and the evaluation of anatomical structures, using a Visual Grading Analysis (VGA) Methods: Four radiographers evaluated the visibility of five anatomical structures of 25 lateral cervical spine radiographs on a secondary class display with a VGA. They judged clinical acceptability of each radiograph using RadLex. Relations between VGAS and RadLex category were analysed with Kendall's Tau correlation and Nagelkerke pseudo-R². Results: The overall VGA score (VGAS) and the RadLex score correlate (rτ= 0.62, pConclusion: RadLex scores and VGAS correlate positively, strongly and significantly. The predictive value of bony structures may support the use of these in the judgement of clinical acceptability. Considerable inter-observer variations in the VGAS within a certain RadLex category, suggest that observers use of observer specific cut-off values.

  4. Understanding registered nurses’ and student nurses’ positive mentorship experiences in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) using appreciative inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Alharazi, Ruba

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work conducted for a structured doctorate consisting of four main components. The first element is a case study investigating the current practice of mentorship in a clinical setting in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The qualitative case study was conducted in a government nursing college and its associated government hospital. Data were collected through individual interviews (2) with nursing coordinators; semi-structured focus groups (8) with mentees (n=3), mentors and clinical ...

  5. Children with language problems in a speech and hearing clinic : Background variables and extent of language problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, A.L.; Knijff, W.A.; Post, W.J.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of a clinical population referred for language analysis in terms of background variables and extent of language problems. Design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: Children referred to a speech and hearing clinic because of assumed language problems were analyzed with sta

  6. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  7. Clinical variability in hereditary optic neuropathies: Two novel mutations in two patients with dominant optic atrophy and Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Dominant optic atrophy (DOA) and Wolfram syndrome share a great deal of clinical variability, including an association with hearing loss and the presence of optic atrophy at similar ages. The objective of this paper was to discuss the phenotypic variability of these syndromes with respect to the presentation of two clinical cases. We present two patients, each with either DOA or Wolfram syndrome, and contribute to the research literature through our findings of two novel mutations. The overlapping of several clinical characteristics in hereditary optic neuropathies can complicate the differential diagnosis. Future studies are needed to better determine the genotype-phenotype correlation for these diseases.

  8. CLINICAL VARIABILITY IN TWO SISTERS WITH KEUTEL SYNDROME DUE TO A HOMOZYGOUS MUTATION IN MGP GENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, B; Cinar, B; Laçiner, S; Onay, H; Mittaz-Crettol, L

    2015-01-01

    Keutel syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by abnormal cartilage calcification, brachytelephalangism, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, hearing loss and midface retrusion. KS is caused by homozygous mutations in MGP, a gene encoding Matrix Gla protein which acts as a calcification inhibitor in extracellular matrix. We present two Turkish sisters (22 and 13 years old) who had abnormal cartilage calcification, brachytelephalangism, congenital heart defect and chronic asthmatic bronchitis. The patients were homozygous for c.62-2A>G (IVS1-2 A>G) mutation in MGP gene. Abnormal cartilage calcification, brachytelephalangism and midfacial retrusion are the hallmarks of KS. It was observed that the younger sister had striking cartilaginous calcifications, midfacial retrusion and severe brachytelephalangism while her older sister had mild costal cartilaginous calcifications and brachytelephalangism without any midfacial retrusion. Intrafamiliar clinical variability for KS has not been described previously. PMID:26349188

  9. Myocardial Architecture and Patient Variability in Clinical Patterns of Atrial Fibrillation

    CERN Document Server

    Manani, Kishan A; Peters, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of four to five and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF. We use a simple model of activation wavefront propagation on an anisotropic structure, mimicking heart muscle tissue, to show how variation in AF behaviour arises naturally from microstructural differences between individuals. We show that the stochastic nature of progressive transversal uncoupling of muscle strands (e.g., due to fibrosis or gap junctional remodelling), as occurs with age, results in variability in AF episode onset time, frequency, duration, burden ...

  10. Variability of Creatinine Measurements in Clinical Laboratories: Results from the CRIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Marshall; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Feldman, Harold I.; Weir, Matthew; Landis, J.R.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Estimating equations using serum creatinine (SCr) are often used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Such creatinine (Cr)-based formulae may produce biased estimates of GFR when using Cr measurements that have not been calibrated to reference laboratories. In this paper, we sought to examine the degree of this variation in Cr assays in several laboratories associated with academic medical centers affiliated with the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study; to consider how best to correct for this variation, and to quantify the impact of such corrections on eligibility for participation in CRIC. Variability of Cr is of particular concern in the conduct of CRIC, a large multicenter study of subjects with chronic renal disease, because eligibility for the study depends on Cr-based assessment of GFR. Methods A library of 5 large volume plasma specimens from apheresis patients was assembled, representing levels of plasma Cr from 0.8 to 2.4 mg/dl. Samples from this library were used for measurement of Cr at each of the 14 CRIC laboratories repetitively over time. We used graphical displays and linear regression methods to examine the variability in Cr, and used linear regression to develop calibration equations. We also examined the impact of the various calibration equations on the proportion of subjects screened as potential participants who were actually eligible for the study. Results There was substantial variability in Cr assays across laboratories and over time. We developed calibration equations for each laboratory; these equations varied substantially among laboratories and somewhat over time in some laboratories. The laboratory site contributed the most to variability (51% of the variance unexplained by the specimen) and variation with time accounted for another 15%. In some laboratories, calibration equations resulted in differences in eligibility for CRIC of as much as 20%. Conclusions The substantial variability in SCr assays

  11. Myocardial architecture and patient variability in clinical patterns of atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manani, Kishan A.; Christensen, Kim; Peters, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4–5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF. We use a simple model of activation wave-front propagation on an anisotropic structure, mimicking heart muscle tissue, to show how variation in AF behavior arises naturally from microstructural differences between individuals. We show that the stochastic nature of progressive transversal uncoupling of muscle strands (e.g., due to fibrosis or gap junctional remodeling), as occurs with age, results in variability in AF episode onset time, frequency, duration, burden, and progression between individuals. This is consistent with clinical observations. The uncoupling of muscle strands can cause critical architectural patterns in the myocardium. These critical patterns anchor microreentrant wave fronts and thereby trigger AF. It is the number of local critical patterns of uncoupling as opposed to global uncoupling that determines AF progression. This insight may eventually lead to patient-specific therapy when it becomes possible to observe the cellular structure of a patient’s heart.

  12. Myocardial architecture and patient variability in clinical patterns of atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manani, Kishan A.; Christensen, Kim; Peters, Nicholas S.

    2016-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF. We use a simple model of activation wave-front propagation on an anisotropic structure, mimicking heart muscle tissue, to show how variation in AF behavior arises naturally from microstructural differences between individuals. We show that the stochastic nature of progressive transversal uncoupling of muscle strands (e.g., due to fibrosis or gap junctional remodeling), as occurs with age, results in variability in AF episode onset time, frequency, duration, burden, and progression between individuals. This is consistent with clinical observations. The uncoupling of muscle strands can cause critical architectural patterns in the myocardium. These critical patterns anchor microreentrant wave fronts and thereby trigger AF. It is the number of local critical patterns of uncoupling as opposed to global uncoupling that determines AF progression. This insight may eventually lead to patient-specific therapy when it becomes possible to observe the cellular structure of a patient's heart.

  13. Thermochemoradiotherapy for advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer. Analysis of clinical results and background variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, Hideyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo; Nagashima, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Hajime; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Sohma, Yoh; Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Imai, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Masaki [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Dentistry

    2001-03-01

    Eighteen patients with 25 unresectable advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers (squamous cell carcinomas) received thermochemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy. The total radiation dose ranged from 50 to 82 Gy (mean, 65.6 Gy). Patients received thermochemotherapy twice a week, for a total number of 8.8 sessions, on average. The temperature in the tumor, as a result of the hyperthermia, was over 42 deg C in 185 (84.5%) of the 219 treatments. Three kinds of heating systems were used: a 13.56-MHz radiofrequency system, a 2450-MHz microwave system, and a radiofrequency interstitial system. The total amount of administered CDDP ranged from 40 to 300 mg (mean, 110 mg), combined with PEP and/or 5FU. Background factors (tumor factors and treatment factors) were investigated in detail, and the clinical results (tumor response and the 5-year cumulative focal control rate) were evaluated. The relationship between these two results was then analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. The clinical results of patients with a WHO histological classification of grade 3 were poor compared with patients with a classification of grade 1 or 2. The difference between these two results was significant when analyzed using univariate statistics, but not significant when analyzed using multivariate statistics. The clinical results of patients with primary lesions surrounded by bony tissues were slightly poor compared with those of patients whose lesions were surrounded by soft tissues, but the difference between these two results was not significant. Successful treatment of refractory recurrent tumors, large tumor masses, and diffuse invasive carcinomas was not affected by the treatment factors (heating systems, heating sessions, radiation dose, and CDDP dose and drug combination). These results suggest that refractory recurrence, proximity to bony tissues, tumor size, and histological malignancy might not be prognostic variables for thermochemoradiotherapy strategy

  14. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  15. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  16. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Meijer; P. Aarts; J. Wagemakers; M. Kanie; A. Geel

    2012-01-01

    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features o

  17. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  18. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  19. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy; Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E. A.; Syam Mohan; Sara Taha; Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Maged El-Setouhy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10) to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, r...

  20. BR 06-1 CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF VISIT TO VISIT BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jinho

    2016-09-01

    Since the introduction of visit to visit blood pressure variability (VVBPV) for cardiovascular outcome, it has long been awaited for prospective intervention trial to reduce VVBPV for evidence based medicine. But because of several hurdles, most importantly, pending measure to reduce VVBPV, such trial may not be available in the near future. It means that current understanding on the VVBPV is not casual but related to the cardiovascular outcome.Waiting for more sound evidence, which can be remained in a clinician's mind struggling not to be indifferent for potential benefit? Firstly, the most important potential confounder in spite of the strict statistical analyses to be published may be the mean blood pressure. Secondly, the population candidate for monitoring VVBPV needs to be understood. In general, the higher the risk, the more the value of considering the VVBPV. Thirdly, understanding the biological confounders for VVBPV such as arterial stiffness, low grade systemic inflammation, and sympathetic over-reactivity may inspire the clinician and/or patient the importance of the well-known lifestyle modification such as physical activity. Lastly, therapeutic aspects previously drawing less attention such as the class of drug with less inter-individual blood pressure variability, the relationship between the class of a drug and the volume status, adherence in general, the clinic protocol for the timing of drug intake with or without exercise and office visit, and the general conditions which can affect the volume status and thereby blood pressure level.Even without evidence of direct intervention on VVBPV, by monitoring and understanding VVPBV, a clinician can be developed to a new level of blood pressure management which is not only simply prescribing antihypertensive drugs but also more comprehensive understanding of the patient factors closely related to the blood pressure. PMID:27643152

  1. Variability in clinical phenotypes of heterozygous and homozygous cases of Parkin-related Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Amanda J.; Sonja W. Scholz; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardwick, Angela; McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Parkin mutations are a common cause of early-onset Parkinson’s disease. To study the clinical features and treatment responses of patients with homozygous or heterozygous Parkin mutations, we performed a retrospective chart review in six early-onset parkinsonism patients with pathogenic Parkin mutations. The clinical phenotypes observed in this cohort, all drawn from different families, were variable. All patients had a slowly progressive form of parkinsonism that responded well to dopaminerg...

  2. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  3. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Anastasia,1 Chiara Colletti,1 Valentina Cuoco,1 Adele Quartini,1 Stefania Urso,2 Raffaella Rinaldi,2 Giuseppe Bersani1 1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Anatomical, Istological, Forensic and Locomotor System Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Introduction: Although adjustment disorder (AD is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD.Methods: A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy, was performed.Results: The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females, aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%, a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%, was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%, family problems (23.70%, and/or somatic disease (22.60% with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records.Conclusion: Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results

  4. Clinical variability in neurohepatic syndrome due to combined mitochondrial DNA depletion and Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Harvengt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old girl born to consanguineous parents presented with unexplained liver failure, leading to transplantation at 19 months. Subsequent partial splenectomy for persistent cytopenia showed the presence of foamy cells, and Gaucher disease was confirmed by homozygosity for the p.Leu483Pro mutation in the GBA gene. She was treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. Clinical follow-up showed mild developmental delay, strabismus, nystagmus and oculomotor apraxia. Biochemical studies revealed multiple respiratory chain deficiencies and a mosaic pattern of deficient complex IV immunostaining in liver and fibroblast. Molecular analysis identified a mtDNA depletion syndrome due to the homozygous p.Pro98Leu mutation in MPV17. A younger sister unaffected by mtDNA depletion, presented with pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. ERT for Gaucher disease resulted in visceral normalization without any neurological symptom. A third sister, affected by both conditions, had marked developmental delay, strabismus and ophthalmoplegia but no liver cirrhosis. In conclusion, intrafamilal variability occurs in MPV17-related disease. The combined pathological effect of Gaucher and mitochondrial diseases can negatively impact neurological and liver functions and influence the outcome in consanguineous families. The immunocytochemical staining of OXPHOS protein in tissues and cultured cells is a powerful tool revealing mosaic pattern of deficiency pointing to mtDNA-related mitochondrial disorders.

  5. Behaviour of Clinical, Anthropometric and Laboratory Variables in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Hernández Tamayo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing patients with metabolic syndrome is important because of the high prevalence and risk they present. Objective: to determine the behaviour of some clinical, anthropometric and laboratory variables in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. The sample included 161 patients selected at random in different research stages from a universe including all the patients who attended six different consultations in Urbano Noris municipality, Holguín, from September 2008 to June 2009. Diagnosis was performed according to the ATP-III. Variance analysis and Fisher's exact test in SPSS (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 103: 63.97% presented values over average weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and glucose. Their HDL levels were lower. A significant association between metabolic syndrome and CRP, microalbuminuria, alterations in blood sugar levels and hypertension was proved. Conclusions: The importance of characterizing the metabolic syndrome for future interventions was determined.

  6. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Obeidat Sadek A; Aldossary Oweida F; Marei Mohammed A; Onazi Atallah S; Almohaya Mohammed S; Almansor Mohammed A; Altannir Mohamad A; Bin Abdulhak Aref A; Obeidat Mustafa A; Riaz Muhammad S; Tleyjeh Imad M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacie...

  7. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortio...

  8. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Afify AR; Zawawi KH; Othman HI; Al-Dharrab AA

    2013-01-01

    Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected fo...

  9. Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

  10. Retinal vein occlusion in Saudi Arabia: possible role of dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadyan, A A

    1993-10-01

    The medical records of 90 patients with a clinical diagnosis of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) who were seen at two referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Sixty-eight (75.6%) were men. Central RVO was present in 50 patients (55.6%); branch RVO, in 35 patients (38.9%); and hemiretinal occlusion, in five patients (5.6%). Arterial hypertension was present in 43 patients (47.8%); diabetes mellitus, in 28 patients (31%); and preexisting glaucoma, in 26 patients (28.9%). The date of onset of RVO was available in 61 patients. Eighteen attacks (29.5%) had occurred during the month of Ramadan. The Student's t test of paired samples indicated that the incidence of RVO during the month of Ramadan was significantly higher than that of the other months of the Gregorian year. These findings suggest that dehydration may play a role in the pathogenesis of RVO. PMID:8304694

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPORT OF WHEAT IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Goosi, Adbullah I.

    1980-01-01

    The modern economy of Saudi Arabia depends primarily on oil exports. Oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues, it follows that the oil sector affects the economy rather than the economy affecting the oil sector. Saudi Arabia lacks natural resources for most of its essential goods and because of sudden high income, it has become necessary to introduce new strategies for producing necessary goods and services. Since Saudi Arabia depends mo...

  12. The epidemiology of Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaeli, Alaa; Bahkali, Salwa; Ali, Anna; Househ, Mowafa S; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. DF is an acute febrile illness caused by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are endemic in certain cities of Saudi Arabia, such as Jeddah and Makkah (Mecca). An online literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve DF studies conducted in Saudi Arabia. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of 10 articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional, and three observed a seroprevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9%, either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting the hospital for other reasons. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies indicated that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leukopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study concerning an educational program for DF demonstrated that a positive family history of DF, literate mothers, and age over 17 years were the predictors of a high DF knowledge score. However, the paucity of large epidemiological studies limits the generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon the expansion of DF to other cities in the Kingdom. Larger epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of DF in the Saudi population, as they are limited to seroprevalence among clinically suspected cases and hospital-based patients. PMID:26106040

  13. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel RM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  14. Clinical variables impacting on the estimation of utilities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miravitlles M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles,1,2 Alicia Huerta,3 Manuel Valle,4 Patricia García-Sidro,5 Carles Forné,6 Carlos Crespo,6,7 José Luis López-Campos2,8 1Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 2CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES; 3Market Access Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain; 4Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain; 5Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario de la Plana, Vila-real, Castellón, Spain; 6Health Economics and Outcome Strategies Department, Oblikue Consulting, Barcelona, Spain; 7Statistics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 8Unidad Médico Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain Purpose: Health utilities are widely used in health economics as a measurement of an individual’s preference and show the value placed on different health states over a specific period. Thus, health utilities are used as a measure of the benefits of health interventions in terms of quality-adjusted life years. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical variables significantly associated with health utilities for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. Patients and methods: This was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013. Patients were aged ≥40 years, with spirometrically confirmed COPD. Utility values were derived from the preference-based generic questionnaire EQ-5D-3L applying weighted Spanish societal preferences. Demographic and clinical variables associated with utilities were assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression models. Results: Three hundred and forty-six patients were included, of whom 85.5% were male. The mean age was 67.9 (standard deviation [SD] =9.7 years and the mean forced

  15. Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)

  16. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  17. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  18. ERP Implementation Success Factors in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik F. Saleh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on successful implementation of ERP reveals that there are many case studies undertaken by researches, but very few have empirically examined the success factors of ERP implementation. While most of those empirical studies were undertaken in Western countries, very few had examined the implementations in Middle Eastern countries and none in Saudi Arabia. Factors and challenges of ERP implementation in developing countries differ from those of Western countries. Hence a gap in the literature that examines Middle Eastern countries exists. This study is motivated to fill such gap by going beyond case study and boundaries of Western counties to empirically examine the determinants of successful ERP implementation in Saudi Arabia. The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of some critical factors on successful implementation of ERP.

  19. Developing a Test Battery to assess Determinants of Marital Relationship Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Al Tamimi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.

  20. Regional Security Issues in Contemporary Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge

    2014-01-01

    In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understandi...

  1. ERP Implementation Success Factors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Malik F. Saleh; Muneer Abbad; Mohammed Al-Shehri

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature on successful implementation of ERP reveals that there are many case studies undertaken by researches, but very few have empirically examined the success factors of ERP implementation. While most of those empirical studies were undertaken in Western countries, very few had examined the implementations in Middle Eastern countries and none in Saudi Arabia. Factors and challenges of ERP implementation in developing countries differ from those of Western countries. Henc...

  2. Orogenic plateau magmatism of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Kheirkhah, M.; van Hunen, J.; Davidson, J. P.; Meliksetian, Kh.; Emami, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatism is a common feature of high plateaux created during continental collision, but the causes remain enigmatic. Here we study Pliocene-Quaternary volcanics from the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, to determine the chemistry of these rocks and their relations to faulting and deeper lithospheric structure. The great majority of the centres lie within the overriding Eurasian plate in Iran, eastern Turkey and Armenia , implying that mantle fertilised by pre-collision subduction processes plays a significant role in magma generation. The composition of the Pliocene-Quaternary centres is extremely variable, ranging from OIB-like alkali basalts, to intermediate types resembling mature continental arc lavas, to potassic and even ultrapotassic lavas. These centres are erupted across a mosaic of pre-Cenozoic suture zones and heterogeneous lithospheric blocks. The chemical diversity implies a range of partial melting conditions operating on lithospheric and perhaps sub-lithospheric sources. Published data show a thick (>200 km) lithospheric keel beneath the Arabia-Eurasia suture, thinning to near normal thicknesses (~120 km) across much of central and northern Iran. Thin mantle lithosphere under eastern Turkey (max. ~30 km) may relate to the region's juvenile, accretionary lithosphere. These variable thicknesses are constraints on the cause of the melting in each area, and the degree of variation suggests that no one mechanism applies across the plateau. Various melting models have been suggested. Break-off of the subducted Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab is supported by tomographic data, which may have permitted melting related to adiabatic ascent of hot asthenosphere under areas where the lithosphere is thin. This seems a less plausible mechanism where the lithosphere is at normal or greater than normal thickness. The same problem applies to postulated lower lithosphere delamination. Isolated pull-aparts may account for the location of some centres, but are not

  3. The Parent Mealtime Action Scale revised (PMAS-R): Psychometric characteristics and associations with variables of clinical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen; Harclerode, Whitney; Williams, Keith E

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a revised and more psychometrically-examined version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS-R), then to examine how well the PMAS-R subscales explained variance for four variables relevant in clinical settings. Study participants included 238 parents of children referred to a hospital-based feeding program (72.3% male children; mean age = 72.2 months; 80 with autism spectrum disorder, 77 with other special needs, 81 with no special needs). Parents completed questionnaires to report child demographics and diet habits. Parents also used a five-point rating instead of the original three-point rating to report their usage of the 31 PMAS feeding practices. Using five-point ratings, the nine subscales of the PMAS-R demonstrated improved internal reliability and test-retest reliability compared to those published for the original PMAS. ANCOVA indicated that special needs status was the child demographic variable most associated with PMAS-R feeding practices. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that after controlling for child demographics, the nine PMAS-R subscales explained 26-49% of the variance for four variables of clinical interest (fruit and vegetable consumption, snack consumption, total food variety, and weight status). These variables of clinical interest were most often associated with "permissive" feeding practices including low Daily Fruit and Vegetable (FV) Availability, rarely using Insistence on Eating during meals, often using Many Food Choices, and often using Child-Selected Meals. The present study provides a more psychometrically-sound measure of child feeding practices, documents the association between "permissive feeding" and variables of clinical interest, and identifies specific parent practices included in "permissive feeding". PMID:27221356

  4. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  5. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  6. Highly variable clinical phenotype of carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 deficiency in one family: an effect of allelic variation in gene expression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaus, V; Vermeulen, T; Minassian, B;

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) causes hyperammonemia with a vast range of clinical severity from neonatal onset with early lethality to onset after age 40 with rare episodes of hyperammonemic confusion. The cause for this variability is not understood. We...... report two patients from one family with highly divergent clinical course, one presenting neonatally with a fatal form and the other at age 45 with benign diet-responsive disease. The patients are compound heterozygous for two mutations of the CPS1 gene, c.3558 + 1G > C and c.4101 + 2T > C...

  7. Characteristics of pregnant Women admitted with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in a referral maternity hospital at Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Taha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date there has been no study done in Saudi Arabia to identify the risk factors for poor outcome of H1N1 infection in pregnancy. Objectives: we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological data, clinical course, treatment modalities, and maternal and fetal outcomes of 33 pregnant women diagnosed with H1N1 Influenza A in a referral maternity and children hospital at Al- Madinah Saudi Arabia on the period from June 2009 till February 2010.Methods: This retrospective cohort study reported 33 pregnant women (9.1% primigravida aged 27.7±5.6 years who were laboratory-confirmed cases diagnosed with H1N1 Influenza A in a referral maternity and children hospital at Al- Madinah Saudi Arabia on the period from June 2009 till February 2010. Their mean gestation age was 23.5±10.9 weeks with history of bronchial asthma in 45.5%.Results: The mean duration between symptoms’ onset and hospital presentation was 5.0±2.2 days with late presentation in 10 cases (30,3%. Large number of cases presented with fever more than 39 (24 (72.7%, sore-throat (24 (72.7% and cough (29 (87.9% while 19 patients presented with dyspnea (57.6%. Pregnant patients with H1N1 received Tamiflu (oseltamivir from 2 to 7 days with a mean of 4.7±1.3 days. They stayed at hospital for variable periods from 2 to 28 days with a mean of 7.9±6.6 days (Table 4. Most patients (31(93.9% received antibiotics. Maternal poor outcome included hypoxia in 6 patients (18.2%, ICU admission for 2-3 days with mechanical ventilation in 4(12.1%. The main fetal poor outcome was intrauterine fetal death in 2 (6.1% babies .Conclusion:The main presentation of H1N1 among pregnant women was typical influenza-like illness. Considerable percentage of patients presented late (30.3%. The duration of hospital admission is variable up to 28 days. Bronchial asthma was prevalent (45.5% among pregnant women with H1N1 infection. The main poor outcomes were maternal respiratory failure (18.2% and intrauterine fetal

  8. Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children in southwestern Saudi Arabia using multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ayed, Mohamed S.; Asaad, Ahmed M; Qureshi, Mohamed A.; Ameen, Mohammed S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate 15 respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) using multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and to analyze the clinical and epidemiological features of these viruses. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 135 children, ≤5 years of age who presented with ARTIs in Najran Maternity and Children Hospital, Najran, Saudi Arabia between October 2012 and July 2013 were included. The clinical and sociodemographi...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LYMPH NODE INVOLVEMENT IN BLADDER CANCER PATIENTS BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Mirylenko; O. G. Sukonko; A. V. Pravorov; A. I. Rolevich; A. S. Mavrichev

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological lymph node involvement (рN+) in bladder cancer patients.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. Mono- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for pN+ prediction on preoperative data. Coefficients from logistic regression equation were used to construct the n...

  10. A Virtual Clinical Trial of FDG-PET Imaging of Breast Cancer: Effect of Variability on Response Assessment1

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Robert L.; Elston, Brian F.; Doot, Robert K.; Lewellen, Thomas K.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in using positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUVs) to assess tumor response to therapy. However, many error sources compromise the ability to detect SUV changes. We explore relationships between these errors and overall SUV variability. METHODS: We used simulations in a virtual clinical trial framework to study impacts of error sources from scanning and analysis effects on assessment of SUV changes. We varied tumor diameter, s...

  11. Clinical Variables Affecting The Pregnancy Rate of Intracervical Insemination Using Cryopreserved Donor Spermatozoa: A Retrospective Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Jun Chen; Li-Ping Wu; Hai-Lian Lan; Li Zhang; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether several clinical variables can affect the pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination (ICI) using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, age, years of infertility, cervicitis, urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, insemination number, uterus position, endometrial thickness and morphology, maximal follicle diameter, and the number of dominant follicles on the day of human chorionic gon...

  12. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  13. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunt, Fabian van de [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pearl, Michael L.; Lee, Eric K.; Peng, Lauren; Didomenico, Paul [Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  14. Clinical Malaria Transmission Trends and Its Association with Climatic Variables in Tubu Village, Botswana: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimbari, Moses John; Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi; Sartorius, Benn

    2016-01-01

    Good knowledge on the interactions between climatic variables and malaria can be very useful for predicting outbreaks and preparedness interventions. We investigated clinical malaria transmission patterns and its temporal relationship with climatic variables in Tubu village, Botswana. A 5-year retrospective time series data analysis was conducted to determine the transmission patterns of clinical malaria cases at Tubu Health Post and its relationship with rainfall, flood discharge, flood extent, mean minimum, maximum and average temperatures. Data was obtained from clinical records and respective institutions for the period July 2005 to June 2010, presented graphically and analysed using the Univariate ANOVA and Pearson cross-correlation coefficient tests. Peak malaria season occurred between October and May with the highest cumulative incidence of clinical malaria cases being recorded in February. Most of the cases were individuals aged >5 years. Associations between the incidence of clinical malaria cases and several factors were strong at lag periods of 1 month; rainfall (r = 0.417), mean minimum temperature (r = 0.537), mean average temperature (r = 0.493); and at lag period of 6 months for flood extent (r = 0.467) and zero month for flood discharge (r = 0.497). The effect of mean maximum temperature was strongest at 2-month lag period (r = 0.328). Although malaria transmission patterns varied from year to year the trends were similar to those observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Age group >5 years experienced the greatest burden of clinical malaria probably due to the effects of the national malaria elimination programme. Rainfall, flood discharge and extent, mean minimum and mean average temperatures showed some correlation with the incidence of clinical malaria cases. PMID:26983035

  15. Wind power potential of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ph.

    1985-01-01

    Wind data for 20 locations in Saudi Arabia have been analysed. Monthly and annual mean wind speeds and wind powers have been determined. The latter range from 2.5 to 4.4 m s/sup -1/, and from 21.8 to 77.7 W m/sup -2/, respectively. Specific outputs from two hypothetical aerogenerators with rated wind speeds of 5 and 7 m s/sup -1/ have been estimated. Examples of monthly mean wind speed and wind power temporal variations are given. Results suggest that wind power would be more profitably used for local small-scale applications. (author).

  16. Dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs in Saudi Arabia: A call for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Alkattan, Wael; Alkattan, Khaled; Obeidat, Akef S

    2016-01-01

    Engaging medical students in scholarly research activities and producing clinically competent and research-oriented medical workforces are essential demands, particularly in developing countries. Dual-degree MD-PhD programs offer simultaneous rigorous education in medicine and research, and train its graduates (physician-scientists) to successfully catalyze translational research evolutions. Literature fundamentally identifies dual-degree MD-PhD programs as the single most important, well-established, popular and influential programs toward commencing physician-scientist professions. While the physician-scientist population is alarmingly vanishing in the West with ongoing efforts to reverse this undesired trend, such population is largely nonexisting, unfortunately to start with, in Saudi Arabia. This is simply because no single dual-degree MBBS-PhD program is yet established in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we call on the Saudi Higher Education bodies to implement dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs with anticipated generation of competent physician-scientists in Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report to call for such innovative implementation. PMID:26984038

  17. Effect of octreotide on the prevention of hyperamylasemia after ERCP in Saudi Arabia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Awad Naif

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Acute pancreatitis is a serious complication of ERCP. Octreotide as prophylaxis against ERCP-induced hyperamylasemia has produced conflicting results. A review article has called for additional controlled studies. This work was undertaken to see the effect of octreotide in ERCP-induced enzyme changes in a predominantly Saudi population. Subjects &methods: The setting was a university teaching hospital, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The study was prospective, randomized and controlled and the subjects were 50 consecutive adult in-patients. Octreotide, 200 tg subcutaneous, was used in the study group (27 patients. Levels of serum amylase and lipase were estimated three times post-ERCP; mean values were compared with the control group (23 patients using student t test. Results: A total of 50 patients were studied. Their mean age was 43 (range 19 to 70; 30 were female, a male:female ratio of 1:1.5. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, sex and nationality as well as clinical, haematological and biochemical variables. In both groups, the serum levels of amylase and lipase 4 hours post-ERCP were significantly higher compared with base line levels. However, there were no statistical differences between the mean post-ERCP values within as well as between the two groups of patient studied. However, the pattern of response appeared to be different when amylase was compared with lipase. Conclusion: Prophylactic octreotide, in the regimen used in this study, does not protect against post-ERCP hyperamylasemia and hyperlipasemia. The observed apparent difference in the pattern of serum amylase and lipase remains to be confirmed.

  18. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory, and The Enhanced External Counterpulsation Unit, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, 6Division of Cardiology, 7Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Aim: We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background: Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results: Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The

  19. Correlation Between UpToDate Searches and Reported Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome During Outbreaks in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, Anna R; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Terrence; Warner, Amy J; Bonis, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  UpToDate is an online clinical decision support resource that is used extensively by clinicians around the world. Digital surveillance techniques have shown promise to aid with the detection and monitoring of infectious disease outbreaks. We sought to determine whether UpToDate searches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) could be used to detect and monitor MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Methods.  We analyzed daily searches related to MERS in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 3 outbreaks in these cities in 2014 and 2015 and compared them with reported cases during the same periods. We also compared UpToDate MERS searches in the affected cities to those in a composite of 4 negative control cities for the 2 outbreaks in 2014. Results.  UpToDate MERS searches during all 3 MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia showed a correlation to reported cases. In addition, UpToDate MERS search volume in Jeddah and Riyadh during the outbreak periods in 2014 was significantly higher than the concurrent search volume in the 4 negative control cities. In contrast, during the baseline periods, there was no difference between UpToDate searches for MERS in the affected cities compared with the negative control cities. Conclusions.  UpToDate search activity seems to be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of MERS in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Flexible designs for phase II comparative clinical trials involving two response variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersimis, S; Sachlas, A; Papaioannou, T

    2015-01-30

    The aim of phase II clinical trials is to determine whether an experimental treatment is sufficiently promising and safe to justify further testing. The need for reduced sample size arises naturally in phase II clinical trials owing to both technical and ethical reasons, motivating a significant part of research in the field during recent years, while another significant part of the research effort is aimed at more complex therapeutic schemes that demand the consideration of multiple endpoints to make decisions. In this paper, our attention is restricted to phase II clinical trials in which two treatments are compared with respect to two dependent dichotomous responses proposing some flexible designs. These designs permit the researcher to terminate the clinical trial when high rates of favorable or unfavorable outcomes are observed early enough requiring in this way a small number of patients. From the mathematical point of view, the proposed designs are defined on bivariate sequences of multi-state trials, and the corresponding stopping rules are based on various distributions related to the waiting time until a certain number of events appear in these sequences. The exact distributions of interest, under a unified framework, are studied using the Markov chain embedding technique, which appears to be very useful in clinical trials for the sample size determination. Tables of expected sample size and power are presented. The numerical illustration showed a very good performance for these new designs.

  1. Phenotypic variability of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA: clinical, molecular and biochemical delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariminejad Ariana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA (OMIM 225400 is a rare inheritable connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1; EC 1.14.11.4 due to mutations in PLOD1. Biochemically this results in underhydroxylation of collagen lysyl residues and, hence, an abnormal pattern of lysyl pyridinoline (LP and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP crosslinks excreted in the urine. Clinically the disorder is characterized by hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis at birth, joint hypermobility, and skin hyperelasticity and fragility. Severe hypotonia usually leads to delay in gross motor development, whereas cognitive development is reported to be normal. Methods We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular characterisation, as well as electron microscopy findings of skin, in 15 patients newly diagnosed with this rare type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Results Age at diagnosis ranged from 5 months to 27 years, with only 1/3 of the patients been diagnosed correctly in the first year of life. A similar disease frequency was found in females and males, however a broad disease severity spectrum (intra- and interfamilial, independent of molecular background or biochemical phenotype, was observed. Kyphoscoliosis, one of the main clinical features was not present at birth in 4 patients. Importantly we also noted the occurrence of vascular rupture antenatally and postnatally, as well as developmental delay in 5 patients. Conclusion In view of these findings we propose that EDS VIA is a highly variable clinical entity, presenting with a broad clinical spectrum, which may also be associated with cognitive delay and an increased risk for vascular events. Genotype/phenotype association studies and additional molecular investigations in more extended EDS VIA populations will be necessary to further elucidate the cause of the variability of the disease severity.

  2. Neurobiological and clinical variables associated with alcohol abuse in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Flores-Mateos, Isabel S; Franco-Zambrano, Andrés; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Beato-Fernández, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed at analysing the reciprocal relationships of several clinical and neurobiological items in order to predict alcohol misuse in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Seventy BN patients and 70 healthy controls were assessed for depression, impulsivity, borderline personality traits and self-defeating behaviours using specific scales; serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxiindolacetic acid were also assessed. The study confirmed the implications of these clinical factors for alcohol misuse in BN patients, but the results suggested that depressive symptoms and hypercortisolism could lie behind these relationships.

  3. Neurobiological and clinical variables associated with alcohol abuse in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Flores-Mateos, Isabel S; Franco-Zambrano, Andrés; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Beato-Fernández, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed at analysing the reciprocal relationships of several clinical and neurobiological items in order to predict alcohol misuse in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Seventy BN patients and 70 healthy controls were assessed for depression, impulsivity, borderline personality traits and self-defeating behaviours using specific scales; serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxiindolacetic acid were also assessed. The study confirmed the implications of these clinical factors for alcohol misuse in BN patients, but the results suggested that depressive symptoms and hypercortisolism could lie behind these relationships. PMID:25766414

  4. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Dickson, Marcus W.; Elizabeth Agius; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administ...

  5. Variable Origin of the Superior Laryngeal Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Soubhagya R. Nayak1*, Ashwin Krishnamurthy2, Latha V. Prabhu2, Bhagath Kumar Potu3, Ishwar B. Bagoji4, Jiji PJ2 and Ganesh Kumar Chettiar2

    2011-01-01

    The superior laryngeal artery (SLA) is the dominant arterial supply of the laryngeal muscles, mucosa and glands. The purpose of the present study was to document the variable origin of the SLA in the carotid triangle. Although the variation in the SLA origin and morphology is important during the partial laryngectomy and reconstruction surgery of the larynx, the description of the SLA in modern literature is vague. The anatomy of SLA was studied in 37 adult South Indian preserved cadavers age...

  6. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tite Minga Mikobi

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia.The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA were selected as a control group.The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001. The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001. The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 * between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *, and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *. A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease.

  7. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikobi, Tite Minga; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Mvumbi Lelo, Georges; Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean Jacques; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; Mbuyi Mwamba, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA) were selected as a control group. Results The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 *) between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *), and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *). A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease. PMID:25946088

  8. Clinical and molecular variability in childhood periodic fever with hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J; Houten, SM; Waterham, HR; Rijkers, GT; Duran, M; Kuijpers, TW; van Luijk, W; Poll-The, BT; Kuis, W

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. The hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) was found recently to be caused by a deficiency of mevalonate kinase (MK). The aim of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between the clinical expression of HIDS and the extent of MK deficiency. Methods

  9. Variables influencing presenting symptoms of patients with eating disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-04-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) have been underdiagnosed in many clinical settings. This study investigates the influence of clinical characteristics on presenting symptoms of patients with EDs. Psychiatric outpatients, aged 18-45, were enrolled sequentially and received a two-phase survey for EDs in August 2010-January 2013. Their primary reasons for seeking psychiatric help were obtained at their first encounter with outpatient psychiatrists. Patients' clinical and demographic characteristics were compared according to presenting symptoms with or without eating/weight problems. Of 2140 patients, 348 (16.3%) were diagnosed with an ED (22.6% of women and 6.3% of men). The three most common reasons for seeking psychiatric help were eating/weight problems (46.0%), emotional problems (41.3%), and sleep disturbances (19.3%). The multivariate analyses suggest that when patients with EDs presented symptoms that were less related to eating/weight problems, they were significantly more likely to be those having diagnoses other than anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa and less severe degree of binge-eating. Further, patients with EDs who demonstrated more impulsive behaviors and poorer functioning were less likely to report their eating problems when visiting psychiatric clinics. Thus, ED should be assessed routinely in patients with complex psychopathology to facilitate comprehensive treatment. PMID:27086254

  10. Spectral analysis of systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities in preterm infants: relationship with clinical risk index for babies (CRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency spectrum analysis of circulatory signals has been proposed as a potential method for clinical risk assessment of preterm infants by previous studies. In this study, we examined the relationships between various spectral measures derived from systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities and the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB II). Physiological data collected from 17 early low birth weight infants within 1–3 h after birth were analysed. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses were performed on heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measures such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobins (HbO2 and HHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI). In addition, indices related to cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and cerebral autoregulation were derived from the very low, low- and mid-frequency ranges (VLF, LF and MF). Moderate correlations with CRIB II were identified from mean arterial pressure (MAP) normalized MF power (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), LF MAP–HHb coherence (r = 0.64, P = 0.006), TOI VLF percentage power (r = 0.55, P = 0.023) and LF baroreflex gain (r = −0.61, P = 0.01 after logarithmic transformation), with the latter two parameters also highly correlated with gestational age (r = −0.75, P = 0.0005 and r = 0.70, P = 0.002, respectively). The relationships between CRIB II and various spectral measures of arterial baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation functions have provided further justification for these measures as possible markers of clinical risks and predictors of adverse outcome in preterm infants

  11. Molecular method for the characterization of Coxiella burnetii from clinical and environmental samples: variability of genotypes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jado Isabel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is a highly clonal microorganism which is difficult to culture, requiring BSL3 conditions for its propagation. This leads to a scarce availability of isolates worldwide. On the other hand, published methods of characterization have delineated up to 8 different genomic groups and 36 genotypes. However, all these methodologies, with the exception of one that exhibited limited discriminatory power (3 genotypes, rely on performing between 10 and 20 PCR amplifications or sequencing long fragments of DNA, which make their direct application to clinical samples impracticable and leads to a scarce accessibility of data on the circulation of C. burnetii genotypes. Results To assess the variability of this organism in Spain, we have developed a novel method that consists of a multiplex (8 targets PCR and hybridization with specific probes that reproduce the previous classification of this organism into 8 genomic groups, and up to 16 genotypes. It allows for a direct characterization from clinical and environmental samples in a single run, which will help in the study of the different genotypes circulating in wild and domestic cycles as well as from sporadic human cases and outbreaks. The method has been validated with reference isolates. A high variability of C. burnetii has been found in Spain among 90 samples tested, detecting 10 different genotypes, being those adaA negative associated with acute Q fever cases presenting as fever of intermediate duration with liver involvement and with chronic cases. Genotypes infecting humans are also found in sheep, goats, rats, wild boar and ticks, and the only genotype found in cattle has never been found among our clinical samples. Conclusions This newly developed methodology has permitted to demonstrate that C. burnetii is highly variable in Spain. With the data presented here, cattle seem not to participate in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans in the samples studied

  12. Differences in clinical variables and risk factors between patients with osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda Roda, Rafael; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente; Sanchís Bielsa, José María

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in risk factors and clinical variables between a group of patients with osteoarthritis and a group with osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients (32 women and 3 men) (mean age 53±18 years), 21 (60%) with a diagnosis of osteoarthrosis (mean age 54.7±20.2 years) and 14 (40%) with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (mean age 51.7±16.9 years), were studied. The two groups were compared with each o...

  13. CREATION OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LOCAL EXTENT OF THE BLADDER CANCER BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Mirylenka; O. G. Sukonko; A. V. Pravorov; A. I. Rolevich; A. S. Mavrichev

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological local extent of the bladder cancer рТ3-рТ4 (рТ3+).Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. For prediction of pT3+ on preoperative data were used mono- and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Coefficients from logistic regression equalization were used to construct nom...

  14. The Impact of Clinical and Cognitive Variables on Social Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Patient versus Examiner Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life.

  15. Measurement variability and sincerity of effort: clinical utility of isokinetic strength coefficient of variation scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, T B; Kramer, J F; Speechley, M; Chesworth, B M; MacDermid, J

    1998-06-01

    Although the use of measures of strength variability as a means of judging sincerity of effort is becoming common practice, the accuracy of doing so has been questioned. Coefficient of variation (CV) cut-off points, indicating the upper limit of variability for repeated maximal efforts, are routinely used to identify workers providing submaximal efforts during various strength tests. However, the stability of the CV itself has not been considered when comparing an individual's observed CV score to these cut-off points. The purpose of the present study was to examine the day-to-day variability of the CV calculated from maximal isokinetic knee extension efforts, and to describe how this measurement error affects the accuracy of the CV as a distinguishing criterion between maximal and submaximal efforts. Thirty-one healthy males (mean age 25 +/- 4.5 years) completed three maximal and three submaximal isokinetic knee extension efforts on two separate occasions. Although submaximal CVs were significantly greater than maximal CVs (15.6 versus 3.7%; p < 0.01), there was considerable overlap between submaximal and maximal CV frequency distributions. More importantly, an individual observed CV could vary +/- 3.1% as a result of day-to-day variation or measurement error. This range in possible CV scores should be considered when comparing an individual's score to proposed cut-off points. Since individual CVs vary considerably from day-to-day, and since precise cut-off values distinguishing between maximal and submaximal conditions cannot be identified, CV scores must be interpreted cautiously, and the potential errors in relying extensively on this approach to identifying insincere efforts should be recognised.

  16. CLINICAL VARIABLES RELATED TO PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION RESULTS IN MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanier Coll Muñoz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La identificación de las variables clínicas que influyen en los resultados del intervencionismo coronario percutáneo, constituye un elemento de gran valor en el manejo de los pacientes con isquemia miocárdica. Objetivo: Describir la relación entre las variables clínicas, positividad del estudio coronariográfico y la implantación de endoprótesis vascular convencional en pacientes con síndrome coronario. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, con 200 pacientes de la provincia de Cienfuegos sometidos a coronariografía en el Cardiocentro de la Ciudad de Santa Clara, durante el año 2009. La edad, sexo, morbilidad asociada y resultados del estudio coronariográfico, se tomaron como variables clínicas, y fueron analizadas en relación con la realización del intervencionismo terapéutico. Se identificó la relación entre las variables clínicas y los resultados obtenidos. Resultados: El principal resultado obtenido en el estudio coronariográfico fueron los pacientes con lesiones coronarias significativas en el 47 %, con predominio de la afectación de la arteria descendente anterior (35,5 % siendo posible el intervencionismo terapéutico en el 47,8 % de estos pacientes. Se encontró relación significativa entre el sexo (p=0,002, antecedentes de fumador (p=0,004, diabetes mellitus (p=0,000 y dislipidemia (p=0,000 con la positividad del estudio, y de la diabetes mellitus (OR=4,2, p=0,000 y la dislipidemia (OR=3,7, p=0,000 con relación a la realización del intervencionismo terapéutico. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la importancia del estudio coronariográfico, principalmente en los pacientes diabéticos y dislipidémicos, por su relación con la positividad del estudio y la realización de intervencionismo terapéutico.

  17. Tau PET patterns mirror clinical and neuroanatomical variability in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Schonhaut, Daniel R; Schöll, Michael; Lockhart, Samuel N; Ayakta, Nagehan; Baker, Suzanne L; O'Neil, James P; Janabi, Mustafa; Lazaris, Andreas; Cantwell, Averill; Vogel, Jacob; Santos, Miguel; Miller, Zachary A; Bettcher, Brianne M; Vossel, Keith A; Kramer, Joel H; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-05-01

    SEE SARAZIN ET AL DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW041 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: The advent of the positron emission tomography tracer (18)F-AV1451 provides the unique opportunity to visualize the regional distribution of tau pathology in the living human brain. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tau pathology is closely linked to symptomatology and patterns of glucose hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease, in contrast to the more diffuse distribution of amyloid-β pathology. We included 20 patients meeting criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, presenting with a variety of clinical phenotypes, and 15 amyloid-β-negative cognitively normal individuals, who underwent (18)F-AV1451 (tau), (11)C-PiB (amyloid-β) and (18)F-FDG (glucose metabolism) positron emission tomography, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and neuropsychological testing. Voxel-wise contrasts against controls (at P memory (medial temporal lobes), visuospatial function (occipital, right temporoparietal cortex) and language (left > right temporoparietal cortex). In conclusion, tau imaging-contrary to amyloid-β imaging-shows a strong regional association with clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease. Although preliminary, these results are consistent with and expand upon findings from post-mortem, animal and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and suggest that the pathological aggregation of tau is closely linked to patterns of neurodegeneration and clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26962052

  18. Prediction of municipal water production in touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.

  19. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  20. Distribution And Mineralogy Of The Clay Deposits In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس

    1993-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the mineral clay deposits in Saudi Arabia; especially their mineral composition, deposit size, geological setting and possible uses. Different published reports and papers on clay deposits of Saudi Arabia have been reviewed. Three major clay deposits have been studied by XRD, DTA and chemical analyses. Saudi clay deposits consist generally of kaolinite as a major mineral, and small amounts other clay minerals, such as montmorillonite and illite. ...

  1. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan (Rahatullah, M, K.,)

    2013-01-01

    Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Sau...

  2. Counter-Terrorism in Saudi Arabia: Narratives, Practices and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    AlMaawi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Since 9/11, both in the Middle East and worldwide, the academic, political and religious focus on extreme radicalisation has intensified. The attacks carried out in Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by Al-Qaeda in 2003, motivated a succession of bombings within and outside of the Kingdom. These events have led to a plethora of general and specific studies to understand the phenomenon of extremism. This thesis investigates radicalisation in Saudi Arabia since 2001, focus...

  3. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaffi A Shaik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....

  4. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Baghli, Nadira A.; Al-Ghamdi, Aqeel J.; Khalid A Al-Turki; Ahmad G El-Zubaier; Al-Mostafa, Bader A.; Fadel A Al-Baghli; Al-Ameer, Mahmood M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect d...

  5. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined.

  6. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined. PMID:27374774

  7. Clinical Research in Vulnerable Populations: Variability and Focus of Institutional Review Boards’ Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Nadine; Bürger, Friederike; Luntz, Steffen; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Bendszus, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Ries, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Children and patients with cognitive deficits may find it difficult to understand the implication of research. In the European Union (EU), clinical studies outside the EU directives concerning medicinal products or medical devices, i.e., “miscellaneous clinical studies”, have no legally mandated timelines for institutional review boards’ (IRB) decisions. Goal To evaluate the review process of IRBs for two different “miscellaneous” multicenter clinical research protocols involving vulnerable subjects (children and adult stroke patients). Methods Descriptive and comparative statistics. Protocol 1 is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional screening study of a symptomatic pediatric population at risk for Fabry disease involving genetic testing (NCT02152189). Protocol 2 is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint post-market study to evaluate the effectiveness of stent retrievers (NCT02135926). After having obtained positive initial IRB votes at the main study site, both protocols were subsequently submitted to the remaining IRBs. Results Protocol 1 was submitted to 19 IRBs. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to-final vote was 34 (IQR 10–65; range 0 to 130) days. Two IRBs accepted the coordinating center’s IRB votes without re-evaluation. Changes to the informed consent documents were asked by 7/19 IRBs, amendments to the protocol by 2. Protocol 2 was submitted to 16 IRBs. Fifteen decisions were made. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to final vote was 59 (IQR 10 to 65; range 0 to 128) days, which was not statistically significantly different compared with protocol 1 (Wilcoxon test). Two IRBs accepted a previous IRB decision and did not conduct an independent review. Eight/16 IRBs required changes to the informed consent documents; two IRBs recommended an amendment of the protocol. Conclusion Both clinical research protocols involving vulnerable populations were well accepted. IRB

  8. Requirements of the endodontic board certifications and master′s degrees inSaudi Arabia and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alshehri; Hadi M Alamri; Bader Alshammari; Saad Alnazhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the regulations and clinical requirements of the endodontic board certifications and master's degrees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United States of America (USA). Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the year 2012. Documents from the American Board of Endodontics (ABE) and the Saudi Specialty Certificate in Endodontics (SSC-Dent [Endo]) were collected from their official websites. Fifty-two American and 3 S...

  9. The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in the adult population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- a community-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bahijri, Suhad M; Jambi, Hanan A.; Al Raddadi, Rajaa M.; FERNS, Gordon; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 (T2DM) is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420). Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose ...

  10. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958

  11. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  12. Hepatitis B virus sero-prevalence among pregnant females in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alrowaily Mohammed; Abolfotouh Mostafa; Ferwanah Mazen

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim : Since selective screening for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant women has failed to identify a high proportion of HBV-infected mothers, pre-natal HBsAg testing of all pregnant women is now recommended. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women at the ante-natal clinic of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia and to identify the target group for postpartum immunization. Materials and Methods : A total of 755 pregnant females who attended th...

  13. An overview of nursing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Saleh AlYami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.

  14. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  15. Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

  16. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  17. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control. PMID:27037630

  18. Marked variability in clinical presentation and outcome of patients with C1q immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Schejbel, Lone; Truedsson, Lennart;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can be...... restored by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current literature lacks information on disease progression and quality of life of C1q deficient persons which is of major importance to guide clinicians taking care of patients with this rare disease. METHODS: We performed an international...... survey, of clinicians treating C1q deficient patients. A high response rate of >70% of the contacted clinicians yielded information on 45 patients with C1q deficiency of which 25 are published. RESULTS: Follow-up data of 45 patients from 31 families was obtained for a median of 11 years after diagnosis...

  19. Characterization and genetic variability of feed-borne and clinical animal/human Aspergillus fumigatus strains using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Gabriela A; Coelho, Irene; Reynoso, María M; Soleiro, Carla; Cavaglieri, Lilia R

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, the major etiological agent of human and animal aspergillosis, is a toxigenic fungus largely regarded as a single species by macroscopic and microscopic features. However, molecular studies have demonstrated that several morphologically identified A. fumigatus strains might be genetically distinct. This work was aimed to apply PCR-restriction length fragment polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers to characterize a set of feed-borne and clinical A. fumigatus sensu lato strains isolated from Argentina and Brazil and to determine and compare their genetic variability. All A. fumigatus strains had the same band profile and those typical of A. fumigatus sensu stricto positive controls by PCR-RFLP. Moreover, all Argentinian and Brazilian strains typified by RAPD showed similar band patterns to each other and to A. fumigatus sensu stricto reference strains regardless of their isolation source (animal feeds or human/animal clinical cases) and geographic origin. Genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.61 to 1.00, but almost all isolates showed 78% of genetic similarly suggesting that genetic variability was found at intraspecific level. Finally, benA sequencing confirmed its identification as A. fumigatus sensu stricto species. These results suggest that A. fumigatus sensu stricto is a predominant species into Aspergillus section Fumigati found in animal environments as well as in human/animal clinical cases, while other species may be rarely isolated. The strains involved in human and animal aspergillosis could come from the environment where this fungus is frequently found. Rural workers and animals would be constantly exposed.

  20. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in adenocarcinoma lung in a North Indian population: Prevalence and relation with different clinical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasana, Basharat Ahmad; Dar, Waseem Raja; Aziz, Sheikh Aijaz; Lone, Abdul Rashid; Sofi, Najeeb Ullah; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Latief, Muzamil; Arshad, Faheem; Hussain, Moomin; Hussain, Mir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is taking over squamous cell lung cancer as the predominant histological subtype. Several cytotoxic drugs are available for the treatment of lung cancer, but side effects limit their use. Recently, targeted therapies for cancers have come into clinical practice. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in adenocarcinoma lung in a North Indian population and its relation with different clinical variables. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 patients who met inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. Relevant history, clinical examination and investigations were done. EGFR mutation was done in all patients. Results: A total of twenty patients tested positive for EGFR mutation. EGFR was more frequently detected in female patients (53.8%), while as only 19.4% of the male patients expressed EGFR mutation, which was statistically very significant (P = 0.007). EGFR mutation was more frequently detected in nonsmokers (52%) as compared to smokers (21.9%) which also was statistically significant (P value of 0.018). EGFR mutation was more common in Stage III and IV adenocarcinomas (48%) as compared to Stage I and II (21.4%) which was statistically significant (P value 0.034). Conclusion: EGFR mutation should be routinely done in all patients of adenocarcinoma lung particularly non-smoker females with Stage III and IV disease. PMID:27688613

  2. CREATION OF THE NOMOGRAM THAT PREDICTS PATHOLOGICAL LOCAL EXTENT OF THE BLADDER CANCER BASED ON CLINICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirylenka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop nomogram based on clinical variables, that predicts pathological local extent of the bladder cancer рТ3-рТ4 (рТ3+.Material and methods: We used data of 511 patients with bladder cancer, that have undergone radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2008 at N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre. For prediction of pT3+ on preoperative data were used mono- and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Coefficients from logistic regression equalization were used to construct nomogram. Nomogram accuracy was evaluated with concordance index (с-index and by building the calibration plot. Internal validation by bootstrap method with 200 variants of dataset was performed.Results: We developed nomogram, that include: clinical stage сТ, tumor grade, tumor macroscopic appearance, presence of upper tract dilatation, prostatic urethra and/or prostatic lobe(s involvement, 3 or more bladder walls involvement, ESR and creatinine level. Bootstrapcorrected prognostic accuracy of nomogram was 81,4%, that 12,6% better than clinical stage accuracy.Conclusion: developed nomogram can significantly improve pathologic tumor stage prediction accuracy that may be used to select patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  3. Risk estimates for hip fracture from clinical and densitometric variables and impact of database selection in Lebanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badra, Mohammad; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Zeki Al-Hazzouri, Adina; Abou Naja, Hala; Baliki, Ghassan; Salamoun, Mariana; Afeiche, Nadim; Baddoura, Omar; Bulos, Suhayl; Haidar, Rachid; Lakkis, Suhayl; Musharrafieh, Ramzi; Nsouli, Afif; Taha, Assaad; Tayim, Ahmad; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2009-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence vary greatly worldwide. The data, if any, on clinical and densitometric characteristics of patients with hip fractures from the Middle East are scarce. The objective of the study was to define risk estimates from clinical and densitometric variables and the impact of database selection on such estimates. Clinical and densitometric information were obtained in 60 hip fracture patients and 90 controls. Hip fracture subjects were 74 yr (9.4) old, were significantly taller, lighter, and more likely to be taking anxiolytics and sleeping pills than controls. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database selection resulted in a higher sensitivity and almost equal specificity in identifying patients with a hip fracture compared with the Lebanese database. The odds ratio (OR) and its confidence interval (CI) for hip fracture per standard deviation (SD) decrease in total hip BMD was 2.1 (1.45-3.05) with the NHANES database, and 2.11 (1.36-2.37) when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). Risk estimates were higher in male compared with female subjects. In Lebanese subjects, BMD- and BMI-derived hip fracture risk estimates are comparable to western standards. The study validates the universal use of the NHANES database, and the applicability of BMD- and BMI-derived risk fracture estimates in the World Health Organization (WHO) global fracture risk model, to the Lebanese. PMID:19246223

  4. Correlation between genetic variability and virulence factors in clinical strains of Malassezia pachydermatis of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Parisi, Annamaria; Rizzo, Antonietta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Mallardo, Karina; Fiorito, Filomena; Baroni, Adone; De Martino, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast belonging to the microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of dog and cat, but it can also act as pathogen, causing dermatitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats and determine a correlation between genotype and phenotype. For this purpose eleven strains of M. pachydermatis were molecularly classified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions, specific for fungal rRNA genes. Furthermore, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates identifying four different genotypes. Strains belonging to genotype 1 produced the highest amount of biofilm and phospholipase activity. The inflammatory response induced by M. pachydermatis strains in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat cells) was significantly different when we compared the results obtained from each strain. In particular, HaCat cells infected with the strains belonging to genotypes 1 and 2 triggered the highest levels of increase in TLR-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and MMP-9 expression. By contrast, cells infected with the strains of genotype 3 and those of genotype 4 did not significantly induce TLR-2 and cytokines. The results obtained might suggest a possible association between genotype and virulence factors expressed by M. pachydermatis strains. This highlights the need for a more accurate identification of the yeast to improve the therapeutic approach and to monitor the onset of human infections caused by this emergent zoonotic pathogen. PMID:27602421

  5. Variability of intraductal papillomas of the mammary gland: Clinical, roentgenologic and morphologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiodiagnostical method of choice is the galactographic technique. However, a specific X-ray image of the papilloma does not exist. The galactographic technique has to be adapted to the surgical and histologic one. Only by combining these three techniques good results can be achieved. It is not possible to draw conclusions from the colour of the pathologic discharge about the type and character of the pathologic process. Contrary to the findings documented in the literature, we were able to diagnose with our technique not only small tumours, but also tumours situated in the periphery of the lactiferous duct. Because of our investigations it is no longer possible to maintain and keep the strict division of the proliferative changes occurring at the lactiferous duct walls. In this study, the most significant morphologic results are described in detail. In all patients with pathologic discharge of the mammary gland, the so-called papillo-carcinoma was found only in one case. As clinical consequence it has therefore to be demanded that in all women with the symptom of pathologic mamillary discharge first of all the origin of this discharge has to be localised by means of galactography. Only the individual morphologic picture of a proliferative change of the lactiferous duct provides some prognostic value. The prerequisites for such an individual assessment are differentiated roentgenologic, surgical and histological techniques. (orig./MG)

  6. Projects Delay Factors of Saudi Arabia Construction Industry Using PLS-SEM Path Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RahmanIsmail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of PLS-SEM Path Model of delay factors of Saudi Arabia construction industry focussing on Mecca City. The model was developed and assessed using SmartPLS v3.0 software and it consists of 37 factors/manifests in 7 groups/independent variables and one dependent variable which is delay of the construction projects. The model was rigorously assessed at measurement and structural components and the outcomes found that the model has achieved the required threshold values. At structural level of the model, among the seven groups, the client and consultant group has the highest impact on construction delay with path coefficient β-value of 0.452 and the project management and contract administration group is having the least impact to the construction delay with β-value of 0.016. The overall model has moderate explaining power ability with R2 value of 0.197 for Saudi Arabia construction industry representation. This model will able to assist practitioners in Mecca city to pay more attention in risk analysis for potential construction delay.

  7. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop an optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. For instance, by decarbonizing half of its generation mix, Saudi Arabia can release around 0.5 Mb/d barrels of oil equivalent per day from 2020. Moreover, total power generation cost reduction can reach up to around 28% per year from 2030 if Saudi Arabia manages to attain the most optimal generation mix structure introduced in the model (50% of power from renewables and nuclear power plants and 50% from the fossil power plants). - Highlights: • We model the current and future power generation situation of Saudi Arabia. • We take into account the integration of the other alternative resources. • We consider different scenarios of power generation structure for the country. • Optimal generation mix can release considerable amount of oil for export

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL VARIABLES IN COPD AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross sectional comparative case control study assessing the Relationship between psychopathology and socio demographic and clinical variables in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Bronchial Asthma in comparison to healthy individuals. The investigation reveals that there is psychopathology in all the three groups. The psychopathology is significantly more in patients with COPD. Psychopathology in COPD patients is related to age, duration, severity of illness and steroid medication. It is found that psychopathology in bronchial asthma patients are more than those of healthy controls but there is no significant difference. The psychopathology is significantly related to relate to age, marital status, occupational status, and smoking. Duration severity of illness and steroid medication.

  9. Clinical Variables Affecting The Pregnancy Rate of Intracervical Insemination Using Cryopreserved Donor Spermatozoa:A Retrospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether several clinical variables can affectthe pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination (ICI using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, age, years of infertility, cervicitis, urinaryluteinizing hormone (LH surge, insemination number, uterus position, endometrial thickness andmorphology, maximal follicle diameter, and the number of dominant follicles on the day of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG administration were retrospectively analyzed in 501 women whounderwent their first ICI cycle using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa.Results: Increased age, length of infertility (>5 years, retroverted uterine position, and endometrialthickness (14 mm were associated with lower rates of pregnancy.Conclusion: In older women with infertile periods longer than five years, especially those with aretroverted uterus, intrauterine insemination (IUI combined with ovarian stimulation should berecommended. In vitro fertilization with donor spermatozoa (IVFD should be offered earlier toachieve a much higher success rate.

  10. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...

  11. Retrospective analysis of keratoconus at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdelmoneam M

    2012-01-01

    Mussaed AlabdelmoneamFaculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra University, Saudi ArabiaBackground: This work was a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary eye care hospital to evaluate the putative prevalence and referral patterns for keratoconus by gender, age, and region of Saudi Arabia.Methods: Files from 1638 keratoconus patients from different regions of Saudi Arabia referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1999 and ...

  12. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant RE, which is in contrast to other studies where myopia was more common. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues. PMID:27679531

  13. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues.

  14. Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

    Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

  15. Quality of hypertension care in the family practice center, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia M Al-Khaldi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is a common health problem in Saudi Arabia. Good control depends on the quality of care, which should be supervised and monitored regularly through clinical audit. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of HTN care at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Settings and Design: This study was conductedin 2009 at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Medical records of all hypertensive patients were extracted and reviewed using master sheets. Assessment of processes and outcomes of HTN care were based on the standards of quality assurance manual issuedby the Ministry of Health. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed by SPPS, version 15. Relevant statistical tests were used accordingly and the P-value was considered significant when it was less than 0.05. Results: A total of 295 medical records were reviewed and assessed. Most patients were Saudi, married, and about 50% were educated. Two-hundred and thirty-one records were assessed for processes and outcomes of HTN care. Weight measurement and physical examination were carried out for 99% and 97% of the patients, respectively. For 53% of the patients, blood was checked for glucose and kidney function and a lipid profile was done. More than two-thirds of the patients were overweight and obese while 46% had diabetes. Less than one half of the patients had good control of HTN. Conclusions: By most standards, quality of HTN care in Al-Manhal Family Practice was unsatisfactory. Most of the patients had comorbidities and poor HTN control. Essential facilities should be provided to the practice to optimize HTN care and to improve the degree of control.

  16. The role of corchorus in spreading of tomato yellow leaf curl virus on tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2016-03-01

    Corchorus (Corchorus capsularis L. and Corchorus olitorius L.) is one of the most important fiber crops grown in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Field survey was conducted and naturally infected leaf samples were collected from corchorus and tomato plants in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The causal virus was transmitted by whiteflies to tomato plants and begomovirus infection was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction. The complete viral genome and associated betasatellites were amplified, cloned and sequenced from both corchorus and tomato samples. The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships were determined for both isolates (corchorus and tomato). The complete genome sequences showed highest (99.5 % nt) similarity with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and formed closest cluster with TYLCV-Tomato reported from Jizan and Al-Qasim, Saudi Arabia and betasatellites sequences showed highest similarity (99.8 % nt) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites-Jeddah followed by Tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites and formed closed cluster with TYLCV-Tomato. On the basis of results obtained from whiteflies transmission, sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationships; it is concluded that the identified virus could be a variant of TYLCV circulating in the Kingdom. The significance of this study demonstrated that the corchorus is serving as reservoir and alternative host and playing an important role in spreading the begomovirus associated disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  17. Study of Aerosols’ Characteristics and Dynamics over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using a Multisensor Approach Combined with Ground Observations

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    Ashraf Farahat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers various aspects of the aerosol distribution and characteristics, namely, optical depth climatology, absorption characteristics, and their microphysical properties over four regions in Saudi Arabia using satellite and ground observations including MODIS/Terra and Aqua, OMI, MISR/Terra, AERONET, and CALIPSO for the period April 2003–January 2013. The study includes cities in the North Western, Western, Eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia and in the Rub al Khali desert or Empty Quarter. Satellite and ground observations showed that the dust season extends from April to August with prominent peaks yet with high anthropogenic contribution late summer and early fall. Analysis shows an increase in the aerosol concentration during March 2009 which could be attributed to a major dust storm during that time. Comparing the AOD time series over regions 1–3 and region 4 (desert we observe monthly and annual variability with no recurrence pattern over the years. The Aqua Deep Blue AOD550 data shows a single peak pattern that occurs over region 4 during the spring season known for its frequent dust events. OMI data shed the light on the presence of higher air pollution levels over region 3, representing the oil rich eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

  18. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

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    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  19. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

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    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  20. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  1. Introducing SMART Table Technology in Saudi Arabia Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafar Almalki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Education remains one of the most important economic development indicators in Saudi Arabia. This is evident in the continuous priority of the development and enhancement of education. The application of technology is crucial to the growth and improvement of the educational system in Saudi Arabia. Introducing SMART Table technology in the Saudi Arabian education system is argued in this paper as being able to assist teachers and students in the process of accommodating both technological changes and new knowledge. SMART Tables also can enhance the level of flexibility in the educational system, thus improving the quality of education within a modern Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to integrate technology effectively and efficiently within the educational system to improve the quality of student outcomes. This study will consider the potential benefits and recommendations associated with the adoption of SMART Tables in Saudi Arabian education system.

  2. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  3. Clinico-epidemiologicalfeatures of dengue fever in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.

  4. SECONDARY SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: THE RESULTS OF A MIXED METHODS APPROACH

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    AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  5. An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

  6. State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sinaa A Al-AqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles.Methods: A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years.Results: The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions.Conclusion: This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the

  7. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mokdad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietar...

  8. Identification of clinical and simple laboratory variables predicting responsible gastrointestinal lesions in patients with iron deficiency anemia

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    Songul Serefhanoglu, Yahya Buyukasik, Hakan Emmungil, Nilgun Sayinalp, Ibrahim Celalettin Haznedaroglu, Hakan Goker, Salih Aksu, Osman Ilhami Ozcebe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is a frequent disorder. Also, it may be a sign of underlying serious diseases. Iron deficiency points to an occult or frank bleeding lesion when occurred in men or postmenopausal women. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of endoscopy in patients with IDA and to define predictive factors of gastrointestinal (GI lesions causing IDA. Ninety-one patients (77 women, 14 men; mean age: 43 years who were decided to have esophago-duodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy for iron deficiency anemia were interviewed and responded to a questionnaire that included clinical and biochemical variables. The endoscopic findings were recorded as GI lesions causing IDA or not causing IDA. Endoscopy revealed a source of IDA in 18.6 % of cases. The risk factors for finding GI lesions causing IDA were as follows: male gender (p= 0.004, advanced age (> 50 years (p= 0.010, weight loss (over 20% of total body weight lost in last 6 month (p= 0.020, chronic diarrhea (p= 0.006, change of bowel habits (p= 0.043, epigastric tenderness (p= 0.037, raised carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level (normal range: 0-7 ng/mL (p= 0.039, < 10 gr/dl hemoglobin (Hb level (p=0.054. None of these risk factors had been present in 21 (23% women younger than 51 years. In this group, no patient had any GI lesion likely to cause IDA (negative predictive value= 100%. In multivariate analysis, advanced age (p=0.017, male gender (p< 0.01 and weight lost (p=0.012 found that associated with GI lesions in all patients. It may be an appropriate clinical approach to consider these risk factors when deciding for gastrointestinal endoscopic evaluation in iron deficiency anemia.

  9. Why did Arabia separate from Africa ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.; Daniel, J. M.; Jolivet, L.

    2003-04-01

    We have performed 3-D scaled lithospheric experiments to investigate the role of the gravitational force exerted by subduction slab on the deformation of the subducting plate itself. Experiments have been constructed using a dense silicone putty plate, to simulate a thin viscous lithosphere, floated in glucose syrup, simulating the upper mantle. We show different plate configuration: (i) subduction of a uniform oceanic plate, (ii) subduction of oceanic-continental plate system, and (iii) subduction of a more complex oceanic-continental system simulating the asymmetric Africa-Eurasia system at the beginning of the Tertiary. Each model has been performed including or not the presence of circular weak zone inside the subducting plate simulating the near-surface weakening effect of a plume activity. Our results show that a subducting plate can deform in its interior only if the velocity field generated by the slab varies laterally along the subduction zone, i.e. by the asymmetrical entrance of continental material at trench. The result of this study can be used to analyze the formation of the Arabian plate. We found that intraplate stresses, similar to the one that generated the Africa-Arabia break-up, can be related to the Neogene evolution of the northern convergent margin of the African plate where a lateral change from collision (Mediterranean and Bitlis) to active subduction (Makran) has been described. Second, intraplate stress and strain localization are favored by the presence of a weakness zone, such as the one generated by the Afar plume, producing a pattern of extensional deformation belts resembling to the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system.

  10. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

  11. Investigating the Implications of a Variable RBE on Proton Dose Fractionation Across a Clinical Pencil Beam Scanned Spread-Out Bragg Peak

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Thomas; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Michaelidesova, Anna; Vachelova, Jana; Davidkova, Marie; Vondracek, Vladimir; SCHETTINO, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical implications of a variable relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on proton dose fractionation. Using acute exposures, the current clinical adoption of a generic, constant cell killing RBE has been shown to underestimate the effect of the sharp increase in linear energy transfer (LET) in the distal regions of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). However, experimental data for the impact of dose fractionation in such scenarios are still limited.Methods and Ma...

  12. MR spectroscopy of cerebral white matter in type 2 diabetes; no association with clinical variables and cognitive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehuis, Audrey; Meer, Femke van der; Mali, Willem; Luijten, Peter [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E01.332), PO Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pleizier, Marc; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, Jaap [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with cognitive decline, but the pathogenesis of this important complication remains unclear. We investigated whether abnormalities in neuronal metabolism or membrane integrity in normal appearing cerebral white matter are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with DM2. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1.5 T), aimed at N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cr), was performed in the cerebral white matter (centrum semiovale) of 72 patients with DM2 and 40 control subjects. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Patients with DM2 performed worse with respect to global neuropsychological functioning than controls (p < 0.05), in particular on memory and information processing speed. We observed no differences in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratio's between patients with DM2 and controls. Cognitive performance in patients with DM2 was not correlated with any of these brain metabolites, neither were the clinical variables. We conclude that disturbances in neuronal viability and cellular membrane status assessed by NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho ratios cannot explain cognitive decline in patients with DM2. (orig.)

  13. Variable tellurite resistance profiles of clinically-relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) influence their recovery from foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerangart, Stéphane; Douëllou, Thomas; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar; Sergentet-Thévenot, Delphine; Cournoyer, Benoit; Loukiadis, Estelle

    2016-10-01

    Tellurite (Tel)-amended selective media and resistance (Tel-R) are widely used for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from foodstuffs. Tel-R of 81 O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from animal, food and human was thus investigated. Variations of STEC tellurite minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been observed and suggest a multifactorial and variable tellurite resistome between strains. Some clinically-relevant STEC were found highly susceptible and could not be recovered using a tellurite-based detection scheme. The ter operon was highly prevalent among highly Tel-R STEC but was not always detected among intermediately-resistant strains. Many STEC serogroup strains were found to harbor sublines showing a gradient of MIC values. These Tel-R sublines showed statistically significant log negative correlations with increasing tellurite concentration. Whatever the tellurite concentration, the highest number of resistant sublines was observed for STEC belonging to the O26 serogroup. Variations in the number of these Tel-R sublines could explain the poor recovery of some STEC serogroups on tellurite-amended media especially from food products with low levels of contamination. Comparison of tellurite MIC values and distribution of virulence-related genes showed Tel-R and virulence to be related.

  14. MR spectroscopy of cerebral white matter in type 2 diabetes; no association with clinical variables and cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with cognitive decline, but the pathogenesis of this important complication remains unclear. We investigated whether abnormalities in neuronal metabolism or membrane integrity in normal appearing cerebral white matter are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with DM2. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1.5 T), aimed at N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cr), was performed in the cerebral white matter (centrum semiovale) of 72 patients with DM2 and 40 control subjects. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Patients with DM2 performed worse with respect to global neuropsychological functioning than controls (p < 0.05), in particular on memory and information processing speed. We observed no differences in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratio's between patients with DM2 and controls. Cognitive performance in patients with DM2 was not correlated with any of these brain metabolites, neither were the clinical variables. We conclude that disturbances in neuronal viability and cellular membrane status assessed by NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho ratios cannot explain cognitive decline in patients with DM2. (orig.)

  15. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  16. Variable tellurite resistance profiles of clinically-relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) influence their recovery from foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerangart, Stéphane; Douëllou, Thomas; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar; Sergentet-Thévenot, Delphine; Cournoyer, Benoit; Loukiadis, Estelle

    2016-10-01

    Tellurite (Tel)-amended selective media and resistance (Tel-R) are widely used for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from foodstuffs. Tel-R of 81 O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from animal, food and human was thus investigated. Variations of STEC tellurite minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been observed and suggest a multifactorial and variable tellurite resistome between strains. Some clinically-relevant STEC were found highly susceptible and could not be recovered using a tellurite-based detection scheme. The ter operon was highly prevalent among highly Tel-R STEC but was not always detected among intermediately-resistant strains. Many STEC serogroup strains were found to harbor sublines showing a gradient of MIC values. These Tel-R sublines showed statistically significant log negative correlations with increasing tellurite concentration. Whatever the tellurite concentration, the highest number of resistant sublines was observed for STEC belonging to the O26 serogroup. Variations in the number of these Tel-R sublines could explain the poor recovery of some STEC serogroups on tellurite-amended media especially from food products with low levels of contamination. Comparison of tellurite MIC values and distribution of virulence-related genes showed Tel-R and virulence to be related. PMID:27375242

  17. Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research.

  18. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

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    Sharifa A. Alsibiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM, rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6% were immune (IgG positive; the remaining 866 (8.4% were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years and the oldest age group (40–49 years (P=0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7. Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6% but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection.

  19. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

  20. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  1. Limited genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparium isolates using nested PCR in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omima; M.Eida; Amany; M.Eida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Jazan Area of Saudi Arabia measured with highly polymorphic genetic marker, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 2(MSP 2).Methods: Blood samples were collected from 128 clinically suspected patients attending both Jazan and Sabia hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both hospitals reflected urban and rural settings respectively. Analysis of central polymorphic region of MSP 2(3D7 and FC27 allelic families) was performed using nested PCR for malaria patients.Results: For MSP 2 allelic families of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 cases(53.3%) carried FC27 type and 14 cases(46.7%) carried 3D7 type, whereas no malaria cases harbored both allelic types. The present study showed that in urban area, 80% of FC27 fragments were 500 bp while in rural area it was 45.5%(P = 0.08). The FC27 400 bp allele was more prevalent in patients from rural than those from the urban area(P = 0.08). The most prevalent infecting 3D7 allele was the 3D7 300 bp in both areas. In the present study, there were no multiple infections.Conclusions: The limited genetic diversity which was observed in Jazan(considered as an endemic area) may be attributed to the small sample size or sustained malaria control program.

  2. Aneurysmal sizing after endovascular repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm: interobserver variability of various measurement protocols and its clinical relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Hicham T.; Sapoval, Marc R.; Mousseaux, Elie; Gaux, Jean-Claude [Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris (France); Paul, Jean-Francois [Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris (France); Department of Radiology, Centre Chirugical Marie Lannelongue, 92350, Le Plessis-Robinson (France); De Maertelaer, Viviane [Statistical Unit, Interdisciplinary Research in Human Biology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Brussels, 1070, Brussels (Belgium)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the variability of various measurement protocols for measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and the clinical relevance of variability. Three radiologists performed computed tomographic angiography measurements of both the aorta and the largest portion of the aneurysm on selected axial slices. Then measurements of the largest portion of the aneurysm were performed on unselected axial slices, sagittal and coronal reformatted. Finally, aortic volume was calculated. Measurements and volume calculation were performed before and after endovascular repair and assessed: Part 1: interobserver variability for maximum anteroposterior (MAP) and maximum transverse (MTR) diameters on selected slices; part 2: interobserver variability for unselected slices considering MAP and MTR; part 3: interobserver variability considering maximum diameter in any direction (MAD); part 4: interobserver variability for sagittal (SAG) and coronal (COR) free curved multiplanar reformation (MPR); and part 5: volume calculations. We then determined which technique of measurement was the most clinically relevant for detecting changes in aneurysm size or aortic volume. Parts 1 and 2: interobserver variability was 4.1 mm for both MAP and MTR; part 3: interobserver variability was 7 mm for MAD; part 4: interobserver variability was 5.5 mm (COR) and 4.9 mm (SAG); part 5: interobserver variability for volume was 5.5 ml. A combination of MAP and MTR was the most useful for detecting aortic modification. Volume calculation was needed in only a few cases. We recommend avoiding MAD and MPR measurements and suggest instead measuring both maximum anteroposterior and maximum transverse diameters. If aneurysm size remains stable after endovascular repair, aneurysm volume should be measured. (orig.)

  3. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  4. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  5. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... its Master Gas System, building an NGL recovery plant, a new grass-roots gas plant, and enhancing capacity at an existing plant. While the global recession that began in 2008 has presented new economic... architecture, engineering, design and construction firms. Saudi Arabia's transport sector--including...

  6. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  7. Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

  8. Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

  9. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  10. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  11. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission will...'s primary ICT hubs. Trade mission participants will have the opportunity to interact with...

  12. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population.

  13. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  14. Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

  15. Libraries of Two Women's Colleges in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)

  16. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  17. Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Reactivity in Infertile Women: The Contribution of The Dyadic Functioning and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Czyżkowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a factor which has been linked to higher prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in women; however, ambiguous results have been reported about the impact of infertility on women’s sexual satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to compare sexual and dyadic functioning in infertile and fertile women. Furthermore, the associations between sexual variables and clinical variables (depressive symptoms, period trying to conceive, and treatment period were assessed in infertile women sample. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 50 women with the history of infertility and 50 fertile women recruited from the general population. The Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS, Mell-Krat Scale (women’s version, Family Assessment Measure (FAM-III, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were administered to all participants. Results: Infertile women reported lower sexual satisfaction and more maladaptive patterns of dyadic functioning in comparison to the control group. As many as 45 (90% of infertile women, compared to 13 (26% of the control group, reported the scores on the Mell-Krat Scale indicative of the presence of dysfunctions in sexual reactivity (P≤0.001. Infertile women reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than the women from the control group (P≤0.001. Negative correlations were observed between sexual satisfaction and dyadic functioning in both groups (P≤0.05; however, the patterns of these associations were different in infertile and fertile women. For example, negative correlations were found between satisfaction with control and task accomplishment, role performance, affective involvement, and values and norms in infertile women. However, these relationships were not observed in the control group. No correlations were revealed between sexual reactivity and dyadic functioning in infertile women and the control group. Negative correlations were observed between satisfaction with

  18. Correlation of delta high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with delta clinical variables in early systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euathrongchit, Juntima; Wattanawittawas, Pittaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014. All patients underwent HRCT at study entry and every 12 months thereafter. Thirty-one SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) within 12 weeks of their corresponding HRCT at baseline and last visit were identified. The extent of ground glass (GG), lung fibrosis (Fib), bronchiectasis (B), and honeycombing (HC) was scored, and then aggregated to produce a total (t) HRCT score. Results Mean ± SD age and disease duration from non-Raynaud’s phenomenon (NRP) to undergo HRCT at baseline were 52.2±8.8 years and 11.7±7.1 months, respectively. Seventeen (54.8%) patients were female and 20 (64.5%) were classified as dcSSc. The mean ± SD interval between the two HRCT tests was 16.0±7.2 months. The Δ HRCT scores [total fibrosis scores (t-Fib), total bronchiectasis scores (t-B), and total HRCT score (t-HRCT) scores] and Δ mRSS, but not Δ %pFVC, showed significant change over the observation period. We found significant correlation of Δ total honeycombing scores (t-HC) with Δ ESR (r=−0.44, P<0.05), and Δ t-Fib with Δ %SpO2 (r=−0.38, P<0.05). However, no significant correlation of any Δ HRCT scores with Δ %pFVC and Δ mRSS were observed. Conclusions In this study, the changes in the HRCT scores were greater than %pFVC; this, along with their correlations with the changes in ESR and %SpO2, suggest that HRCT

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Khan, A Sattar; Al Otaibi, F Huzam

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to collect data related to the clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, in one of the tertiary-care centers, King Fahd Hospital Al-Hasa, and to compare it with other regions of Saudi Arabia. Forty-six patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1997 criteria (ACR) were collected over a period from January 2004 to December 2008. The results showed an average age of onset of 26.17 (±9.17). The most common clinical features were nonspecific constitutional symptoms (fever, fatigue and malaise) seen in 44 patients (95.7%). Musculoskeletal features seen were mostly arthralgias (91.3%) and arthritis (76.1%). Nephritis was seen in 58.7% and hypertension in 52.2%. Mucocutaneous involvement included oral ulcers (71.7%), hair loss (65.2%), butterfly rashes (67.4%), photosensitivity (47.8%) and discoid lupus (13%). Neurologic manifestations showed psychosis in 17.4%, depression in 15.2% and headache in 28.3%. The most common hematologic presentation was leukopenia (58.7%) followed by hemolytic anemia and anemia of chronic disease (47.8%). Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 44 (95.7%), anti-dsDNA in 38 (42.6%), anti-Ro SSA and La SSB in 38 (82.6%). Anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were positive in eight (17.4%). Low complement levels (C3 and C4) were seen in 41 (89.1%) of the patients with active disease. The drugs used in treatment were NSAIDs (100%), antimalarials (97.8%), steroids (100%), intermittent cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs (71.7%). We found that the age of onset and sex distributions were different from other areas of Saudi Arabia, while clinical manifestations were the same as in other areas. The prognosis of lupus was good overall despite the multi-organ involvement. However, further studies based on larger number of patients are needed.

  20. Genetic stratigraphy of key demographic events in Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Verónica; Triska, Petr; Pereira, Joana B; Alshamali, Farida; Rito, Teresa; Machado, Alison; Fajkošová, Zuzana; Cavadas, Bruno; Černý, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (~8-37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30-90 generations for "back-to-Africa" migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ~2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ~8 ka. The main "back-to-Africa" migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa. PMID:25738654

  1. Influence of age, gender, and prodromal symptoms on sudden death in a tertiary care hospital, eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssien Kamal Nofal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden death (SD remains an important worldwide public health problem. The incidence of SD and causes vary in different societies, and these differences are influenced also by demographic and clinical factors such as age, gender and prodromal symptoms and signs. This six-year study describes the influence of these factors on SD. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of SD in all age groups undertaken in King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU, Eastern Saudi Arabia. All cases of death (1273 total, 1050 expected death and 223 cases of sudden unexpected death that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005 were investigated and subsequently analyzed on demographic and clinical parameters of the deceased patients. The statistical analysis was performed as appropriate to illustrate any possible association between different demographic variables and SD. Results: There were 223 cases of SD (17.5% out of 1273 total deaths in KFHU in the 6-year study period. There was a definite influence of age on the incidence of sudden death (SD as it increased clearly at the two ends of the age spectrum, 32.2% of the cases were infants (from birth to 12 months, and 31.4% were elderly (> 60 year-old. However, among infantile age group, the highest frequency of SD (22.2% of the cases was among the neonates. There was also a significant trend of gender influence on the incidence of SD which was higher in men than women (56% vs. 42%. The influence of prodromal symptoms and signs on SD was variable. Dyspnea and cough as major symptoms of cardiovascular and respiratory disease were the most frequent presenting symptoms in 32.3% of the cases, followed by fever as a sign of infections in 11.7%, premature infants in 10.8%, circulatory collapse in 9.4%, and angina in 7.6% of the cases. Conclusion: The current study indicated a definite influence of age, gender and prodromal symptoms on the incidence of SD. The highest incidence

  2. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Christoph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studies focusing on the locomotor system. Yet current sleep assessment tools are either too long or too specific for general use. Methods Based on a literature review and subsequent patient-based rating of items, an expert panel designed a four-item questionnaire about sleep. Construct validation of the questionnaire in a random sample of the German-speaking Swiss population was performed in 2003. Reliability, correlation, and tests for internal consistency and validity were analyzed. Results Overall, 16,634 (70% out of 23,763 eligible individuals participated in the study. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 indicates good internal consistency. Results show a moderate to good correlation between sleep disturbances and health perception, and between sleep disturbances and overall pain. Conclusions The Sleep Standard Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ-Sleep is a reliable and short tool with confirmed construct validity for sleep assessment in population-based observational studies. It is easy to administer and therefore suitable for postal surveys of the general population. Criterion validity remains to be determined.

  3. Clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus in Guangzhou area most possibly from the environmental infection showed variable susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Feng-lin; SUN Zhao-gang; LI Chuan-you; LIU Zhi-hui; CAI Lin; ZHOU Cheng; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) can cause a variety of human infections,involving the lung,skin and soft tissues,and is generally believed to be acquired from environmental sources.The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of M.abscessus isolates as the basis for strategies to improve control and management of infection.Methods Seventy M.abscessus isolates from patients attending the Guangzhou Thoracic Hospital were identified from 2003 to 2005 by biochemical tests,gas chromatography,polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction analysis (PRA) of heat shock protein gene hsp65,and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA.Susceptibilities to six antibiotics were determined by micro-broth dilution.Isolates were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.Results Most isolates (63/70; 90%) were susceptible to amikacin but rates of susceptibility to other antibiotics varied from moderate,clarithromycin (60%) and imipenem (43%),to low for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (3%),and 87% of isolates had intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin.RAPD analysis showed that the 70 clinical isolates displayed 69 unique RAPD patterns.Conclusions The high genetic diversity of isolates suggests that they are not transmitted from person to person but,presumably,are acquired independently from environmental sources.M.abscessus isolates displayed variable levels of susceptibility to all antibiotics tested,other than amikacin,indicating a need for routine susceptibility testing to guide treatment.

  4. Intraplate Harrat Volcanism and Neogene Evolution of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary beneath Western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A. J.; Duncan, R. A.; Graham, D. W.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Alshalntoni, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continental extension is a fundamental plate tectonic process, and extensional environments are associated with significant production of basaltic magmas. Although tholeiitic magmatism produced by mantle decompression is common, dispersed, less voluminous and compositionally variable basaltic and related magmas also occur in association with continental extension. One of the most voluminous, best-preserved and least studied examples of the latter is the volcanic harrats of western Saudi Arabia. Uplift, crustal erosion and harrat volcanism occurred from ~15 Ma to recent over a considerable region of western Arabia. Volcanism trends north from the Red Sea along the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) line as a number of discrete harrats, and geophysical evidence suggests this region is underlain by hot upwelling asthenosphere. Larger harrats occur along the central axis of the MMN line, with smaller fields on the periphery. We present initial results of an ongoing study of harrat volcanism, including more than 50 new 40Ar-39Ar ages together with geochemical and isotopic data. Magma storage and fractionation appears to have occurred at a range of crustal levels, including deep storage and transport sufficiently rapid to preserve a range of lithospheric and crustal xenoliths. Melting commenced within the garnet peridotite field, however modeling of REE element abundances suggest that considerable differences exist in the thickness of the overlying lithospheric lid. Thinner lithosphere (line, whereas harrats peripheral to the MMN line have thicker lithosphere (>60-80 km) and magmas result from lower degree melts. The observed variability can be explained by a process of progressively thinning lithosphere along the main axis of the MMN line, as a result of regional lithospheric extension and mantle decompression melting, coupled with northward asthenospheric flow from the Red Sea and/or Afar hot spot.

  5. Knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dyes among females visiting a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; Moussa, Noura A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary re...

  6. Prevalence and histopathological characteristics of corneal stromal dystrophies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alzuhairy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This pathological study suggested that MCD was the most common corneal stromal dystrophy that required keratoplasty in Saudi Arabia. Patient with MCD and GCD presented at a significantly younger age than LCD. The clinical diagnosis of MCD is not achieved in all cases likely due to a more severe phenotype in the Saudi population or the presence of corneal scarring that is associated with previous trachoma, which obscures the classical appearance of LCD. We believe that PKP is first-line surgical treatment, especially for MCD because it involves all corneal layers. However, deep stromal involvement and changes in Descemet′s membrane in MCD should be considered when selecting the surgical procedure.

  7. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals w...

  8. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategie...

  9. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

  10. Otofaciocervical syndrome and metachondromatosis in a girl: Presentation of a novel association and remarks on clinical variability of branchial-arch disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Torres, Victor M; Salinas-Torres, Rafael A

    2016-06-01

    Otofaciocervical syndrome (OFCS) is a rare disorder characterized by facial, ear, branchial, and musculoskeletal anomalies, along with hearing loss and mild intellectual disability. Clinically, its distinction from branchiootorenal syndrome can be difficult. To date, the coexistence of OFCS and metachondromatosis has not been reported. Here, we describe a sporadic patient with both OFCS and metachondromatosis. This novel association prompts us to do some remarks on the clinical variability of branchial-arch disorders; in fact, our observations are consistent with the highly variable expressivity of OFCS and illustrate the need of a more accurate characterization of these branchial-arch disorders. In the meantime, involvement of clavicles, scapulae and shoulders remains a distinctive feature of OFCS. PMID:27240490

  11. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ≤ 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The

  12. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  13. Nucleotide Variability and Translation Efficiency of the 5′ Untranslated Region of Hepatitis A Virus: Update from Clinical Isolates Associated with Mild and Severe Hepatitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. A...

  14. Incidental Breast Lesions Identified by 18F-FDG PET/CT: Which Clinical Variables Differentiate between Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions?

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kyung Min; Kim, Hye Jung; Jung, Su Jin; Lim, Hyo Soon; Lee, Sang Woo; Cho, Seung Hyun; Jang, Yun-Jin; Lee, Hui Joong; Kim, Gab Chul; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk of malignancy and to determine which clinical variables differentiate between benign and malignant focal breast lesions found incidentally on 18F-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). Methods From March 2005 to October 2011, 21,224 women with no history of breast cancer underwent FDG PET/CT at three university-affiliated hospitals. We retrospectively identified 214 patients with incidental fo...

  15. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY INDEXES DERIVED FROM 5-MINUTE AND 24-HOUR ECG RECORDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Anichkov; A. A. Platonova

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To estimate heart rate variability (HRV) from 5-min and 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients of control group, to analyze association between HRV indexes and cardiovascular risk factors and RA-related clinical characteristics.Material and Methods. 90 female patients with RA and 30 healthy subjects matching for age were included in the study. The baseline evaluation included a physical examination, assessment of the cardiov...

  16. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  17. Puberty Onset Among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Felimban, Naila; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Al Mutair, Angham; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamimi, Waleed

    2010-01-01

    Background: The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims: The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods: Cross-sectional study among male school chi...

  18. Saudi Arabia; Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    KEY ISSUES Context. Saudi Arabia’s economy has grown very strongly in recent years, benefitting from high oil prices and output, strong private sector activity, and government spending. It has played a systemic and stabilizing role in the global oil market. The economy has not been affected by the recent global financial market volatility. The Saudi population is young, growing, and increasingly well educated. Outlook and risks. The near term economic outlook is positive. Oil production is ...

  19. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  20. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Abdalla A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Sa...

  1. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Belloumi; Atef Saad Alshehry

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). Additionally, to test the ro...

  2. Leadership Role of School Superintendents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Almannie

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the practice of school superintendents in Saudi Arabia in five roles as seen by education supervisors within school district offices. The purpose of the study is to examine the leadership of school superintendents in these five roles: work environment, rules and regulations, implementation of technology, accountability, and professional development of the education supervisors in school districts. The study sample consists of 276 education supervisors working in 30 school ...

  3. Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, G; Holm, S A; Fattah, R; Basset, S; Nasser, C

    1987-06-01

    The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis. PMID:3474099

  4. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Moujahid A. Kao; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of J...

  5. WATER IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig

    2011-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating p...

  6. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and the World Bank Knowledge Index (KI) and Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) and other indicators often used in the international literature to examine progress in transition to a knowledge-based economy ...

  7. Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Haifa Abdulaziz Al-Turki

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social S...

  8. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.

    1995-05-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  9. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  10. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  11. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors.

  12. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor

  13. Analysis of hemoglobin electrophoresis results and physicians investigative practices in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Riaz Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Riyadh and central province falls in a moderate prevalent zone of hemoglobinopathies in Saudi Arabia. However, it has been observed that the physicians working in Saudi Arabia invariably advise all cases of anemia for hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE. The present work was carried out to study the yield of the HE in Riyadh and the investigative practices of the physicians advising HE. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in the hospitals of King Saud University from 2009 to 2011 in order to assess the yield of HE in referred cases of clinical anemia. Materials and Methods: A total of 1073 cases divided in two groups of males and females had undergone complete blood count and red blood cell morphology. Cellulose acetate HE was performed and all the positive results were reconfirmed on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results were analyzed for the type of hemoglobinopathies. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was used. Results: A total of 405 males and 668 females blood samples were included in the present study. 116 (28.5% males and 167 (25% females showed an abnormal pattern on HE. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait was higher in females while sickle cell trait was predominantly seen in males. Red cell indices were reduced considerably in thalassemias, but were unaffected in sickle cell disorders, except those which had concurrent alpha trait. The total yield of HE was 26.6% which was much less than expected. Conclusion: The physicians are advised to rule out iron deficiency and other common causes of anemia before investigating the cases for hemoglobinopathies, which employs time consuming and expensive tests of HE and HPLC.

  14. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects.

  15. Understanding data in clinical research: a simple graphical display for plotting data (up to four independent variables) after binary logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    In clinical research, suitable visualization techniques of data after statistical analysis are crucial for the researches' and physicians' understanding. Common statistical techniques to analyze data in clinical research are logistic regression models. Among these, the application of binary logistic regression analysis (LRA) has greatly increased during past years, due to its diagnostic accuracy and because scientists often want to analyze in a dichotomous way whether some event will occur or not. Such an analysis lacks a suitable, understandable, and widely used graphical display, instead providing an understandable logit function based on a linear model for the natural logarithm of the odds in favor of the occurrence of the dependent variable, Y. By simple exponential transformation, such a logit equation can be transformed into a logistic function, resulting in predicted probabilities for the presence of the dependent variable, P(Y-1/X). This model can be used to generate a simple graphical display for binary LRA. For the case of a single predictor or explanatory (independent) variable, X, a plot can be generated with X represented by the abscissa (i.e., horizontal axis) and P(Y-1/X) represented by the ordinate (i.e., vertical axis). For the case of multiple predictor models, I propose here a relief 3D surface graphic in order to plot up to four independent variables (two continuous and two discrete). By using this technique, any researcher or physician would be able to transform a lesser understandable logit function into a figure easier to grasp, thus leading to a better knowledge and interpretation of data in clinical research. For this, a sophisticated statistical package is not necessary, because the graphical display may be generated by using any 2D or 3D surface plotter. PMID:14962632

  16. Socioeconomic factors affecting patients′ utilization of primary care services at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Alsubaie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary care services utilization is dependent on socioeconomic factors. It is proven that variation in socioeconomic factors result in discrepancies in the use of such services. Admittedly, research is limited on the socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services in Saudi Arabia. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the effect of the main socioeconomic factors affecting patients′ utilization of primary care services at a tertiary teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2014 in a primary care clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital in Riyadh city; subjects selected using a random consecutive sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire in Arabic was given to the participants to collect the data which comprised sociodemographic data, utilization measures, and health needs. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 358 subjects participated in the study. The main factors that best determine the utilization of primary health care clinic in a tertiary teaching hospital were the possession of a health insurance (P = 0.046, odds ratio [OR] = 8.333, and bad self-health-perception (P < 0.014, OR: 2.088. Chronic illness was also associated with higher utilization (OR = 2.003. Conclusion: Our results reveal that chronic health problems, self-health-perception, and health insurance are the most significant socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services.

  17. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all

  18. Functional variables associated with the clinical grade of dyspnoea in coal miners with pneumoconiosis and mild bronchial obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, T.T.; Schultze-Werninghaus, G.; Kollmeier, J.; Weber, A.; Eibel, R.; Lemke, B.; Schmidt, E.W. [Berufsgenossen Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Dyspnoea is a common symptom in coal miners with pneumoconiosis. Among others, gas exchange disturbances due to airway obstruction or mismatch between ventilation and perfusion may be underlying mechanisms. The validation of dyspnoea by the degree of airway obstruction is controversial, because the extent of airway obstruction often does not correlate with the clinical grade of breathlessness. The association was investigated between breathlessness (self reported, on a six point scale) and indices of submaximal spiroergometry in 66 coal workers with radiographically confirmed pneumoconiosis. The clinical degree of breathlessness was independently associated with minute ventilation/oxygen consumption ratio and smoking in a multiple linear regression analysis. It is concluded that the given minute ventilation/oxygen consumption ratio as a measurement of mismatch between ventilation and perfusion predicted the clinical grade of breathlessness better than measurements of bronchial obstruction at rest in coal workers with pneumoconiosis.

  19. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  20. The Role and Responsibility of the National Regulator of Radiation Sources and Materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are neither nuclear power reactors nor are there research reactors in Saudi Arabia. However, the country imports a lot of radioactive sources that are used in different fields such as medicine, hydrology, industry and research. Usage of radioactive material is governed by national and the IAEA regulations for the safe usage and transport of radioactive materials. KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) is an independent scientific organization established in 1977. It is the national competent authority that sets the rules of transporting, using and disposing of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia.. This paper discusses the role of KACST and other authorities in the country regarding the 1) licensing and evaluation of the importing and exporting applications of radioactive sources and/or devices in Saudi Arabia, 2) The regulatory framework of radiation protection in Saudi Arabia, 3) the management of radioactive wastes in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  1. Nucleotide variability and translation efficiency of the 5' untranslated region of hepatitis A virus: update from clinical isolates associated with mild and severe hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. Activity was higher in HuH7 than in HeLa cells, except for an infrequently isolated genotype IIA strain. Though globally low, significant variation in IRES-dependent translation efficiency was observed between field isolates, reflecting the low but significant genetic variability of this region (94.2% +/- 0.5% nucleotide identity). No mutation was exclusive of benign or severe hepatitis, and variations in IRES activity were not associated with a clinical phenotype, indirectly supporting the preponderance of host factors in determining the clinical presentation. PMID:20631141

  2. Nucleotide Variability and Translation Efficiency of the 5′ Untranslated Region of Hepatitis A Virus: Update from Clinical Isolates Associated with Mild and Severe Hepatitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. Activity was higher in HuH7 than in HeLa cells, except for an infrequently isolated genotype IIA strain. Though globally low, significant variation in IRES-dependent translation efficiency was observed between field isolates, reflecting the low but significant genetic variability of this region (94.2% ± 0.5% nucleotide identity). No mutation was exclusive of benign or severe hepatitis, and variations in IRES activity were not associated with a clinical phenotype, indirectly supporting the preponderance of host factors in determining the clinical presentation. PMID:20631141

  3. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  4. EFFECTS OF SELF-HELP BOOK READING ON SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN A NON-CLINIC SAMPLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MARTÍNEZ SERRANO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades there has been an important increase in the use of self-help literature. The present researchevaluates the effect of self-help books on anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, dysfunctional attitudes and assertivebehaviour. These variables were assessed in a 20 healthy volunteers before and after reading the self-help book(experimental group and in a 20 healthy volunteers who did not read any self-help book (control group. While theexperimental group improved their scores in anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and dysfunctional attitudes, thecontrol group did not show any statistically significant differences between pre- and post-scores, except in fear ofnegative evaluation. In general, the effect size (Cohen’s d and the percentage of change was higher in the experimentalgroup than in the control group. These results show the therapeutic benefits of this sort of literature in non-clinicalpopulation. Implications for the improvement of psychological variables are discussed.

  5. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop a optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  6. Clinical and multiple gene expression variables in survival analysis of breast cancer: Analysis with the hypertabastic survival model

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai Mohammad A; Eby Wayne M; Nimeh Nadim; Li Hong; Singh Karan P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We explore the benefits of applying a new proportional hazard model to analyze survival of breast cancer patients. As a parametric model, the hypertabastic survival model offers a closer fit to experimental data than Cox regression, and furthermore provides explicit survival and hazard functions which can be used as additional tools in the survival analysis. In addition, one of our main concerns is utilization of multiple gene expression variables. Our analysis treats the ...

  7. Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition on self-reported health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health researchers ideally integrate social, environmental, and clinical measures to identify predictors of poor health. Chemicals measured in human tissues are often evaluated in relation to intangible or rare health outcomes, or are studied one chemical at a time. Using ...

  8. The impact of clinical and demographic variables on cognitive performance in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in rural South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; DeSantis, Stacia M; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Wagner, Mark T; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Inconsistencies in reports on methamphetamine (METH) associated cognitive dysfunction may be attributed, at least in part, to the diversity of study sample features (eg, clinical and demographic characteristics). The current study assessed cognitive function in a METH-dependent population from rural South Carolina, and the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on performance. Seventy-one male (28.2%) and female (71.8%) METH-dependent subjects were administered a battery of neurocognitive tests including the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Shipley Institute of Living Scale, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Grooved Pegboard Test, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Demographic and clinical characteristics (eg, gender, frequency of METH use) were examined as predictors of performance. Subjects scored significantly lower than expected on one test of attention and one of fine motor function, but performed adequately on all other tests. There were no predictors of performance on attention; however, more frequent METH use was associated with better performance for males and worse for females on fine motor skills. The METH-dependent individuals in this population exhibit very limited cognitive impairment. The marked differences in education, Intellectual Quotient (IQ), and gender in our sample when compared to the published literature may contribute to these findings. Characterization of the impact of clinical and/or demographic features on cognitive deficits could be important in guiding the development of treatment interventions.

  9. The challenge and importance of standardizing pre-analytical variables in surgical pathology specimens for clinical care and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D G; Boyce, B F

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of targeted cancer therapies into clinical practice, in which patients are selected for novel treatments based on results of companion molecular testing of their tumor specimens, has created significant new challenges for the surgical pathology laboratory. These include standardization of tissue handling and sample preparation with accurate documentation to ensure optimal quality of clinical samples to reduce the risk of errors in molecular biology tests. The assay of tumor tissues for biomarkers that can provide predictive data for prognosis or treatment should enable selection of the most appropriate therapies (Yaziji et al. 2008, Hicks and Kulkarni 2008). Major advances have been made in the ability to profile clinical samples for research at the DNA, RNA and protein levels. To translate this new information into the clinical setting, however, the quality of the starting material, in this case the tumor tissue, determines the accuracy and reliability of companion diagnostic assay results and therefore optimal therapeutic strategies. Inaccurate results owing to compromised tissue quality can lead to false positive or false negative results with therapeutic consequences that can harm patients and affect their eventual outcome.

  10. Variables associated with health-related quality of life in a Brazilian sample of patients from a tertiary outpatient clinic for depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schwab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL assessment tools have been broadly used in the medical context. These tools are used to measure the subjective impact of the disease on patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variables associated with HRQOL in a Brazilian sample of patients followed up in a tertiary outpatient clinic for depression and anxiety disorders. Method: Cross-sectional study. Independent variables were those included in a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS scores. Dependent variables were those included in the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF and the scores for its subdomains (overall quality of life and general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to find the variables independently associated with each outcome. Results: Seventy-five adult patients were evaluated. After multiple linear regression analysis, the HADS scores were associated with all outcomes, except social relationships (p = 0.08. Female gender was associated with poor total scores, as well as psychological health and environment. Unemployment was associated with poor physical health. Conclusion: Identifying the factors associated with HRQOL and recognizing that depression and anxiety are major factors are essential to improve the care of patients.

  11. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... and tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  12. Personal power-frequency magnetic field exposure in women recruited at an infertility clinic: association with physical activity and temporal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current epidemiologic approaches for studying exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of miscarriage are potentially biased due to lack of attention to the relationship of exposure with physical activity and within-individual variability in exposures over time. This analysis examines these two issues using data from a longitudinal pilot study of 40 women recruited from an infertility clinic that contributed data for up to three 24-h periods separated by a median of 3.6 weeks. Physical activity was positively associated with peak exposure metrics. Higher physical activity within environments did not necessarily lead to higher peak exposures, suggesting that movement between and not within environments increases one's probability of encountering a high field source. Peak compared with central tendency metrics were more variable over time. Future epidemiology studies associated with peak exposure metrics should adjust for physical activity and collect more than 1 d of exposure measurement to reduce bias. (authors)

  13. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average of less than 50 mm yr−1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions

  14. Water management during climate change using aquifer storage and recovery of stormwater in a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, O.

    2014-07-28

    An average of less than 50 mm yr-1 of rainfall occurs in the hyperarid region of central Western Saudi Arabia. Climate change is projected to create greater variation in rainfall accumulation with more intense rainfall and flood events and longer duration droughts. To manage climate change and variability in ephemeral stream basins, dams are being constructed across wadi channels to capture stormwater, but a large percentage of this stored water is lost to evaporation. A dam/reservoir system located in Wadi Al Murwani in Western Saudi Arabia was recently constructed and is expected to contain a maximum stored water volume of 150 million m3. A hydrologic assessment of a dunefield lying 45 km downstream was conducted to evaluate its potential use for aquifer storage and recovery of the reservoir water. A 110 m elevation difference between the base of the dam and the upper level of the dunefield occurs, allowing conveyance of the water from the reservoir to the dunefield storage site by gravity feed without pumping, making the recharge system extremely energy efficient. Aquifer storage and recovery coupled with dams would allow water management during extreme droughts and climate change and has widespread potential application in arid regions. 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Clinical predictors of resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid A Almadi

    2013-01-01

    pancreatic cancer. A CA 19-9 cutoff level of 166 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 75%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.6, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.15 for resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: This study describes the clinical characteristics of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma in Saudi Arabia. None of the clinical or laboratory variables that were included in our study could independently predict resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Further studies are warranted to validate these results.

  16. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  17. Variability of bio-clinical parameters in Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus: a nonhuman primate AIDS model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques (Ch RhMs infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV have been used for many years to evaluate the efficacy of AIDS vaccines and therapeutics, the bio-clinical variability of such a nonhuman primate AIDS model was so far not established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By randomizing 150 (78 male and 72 female Ch RhMs with diverse MHC class I alleles into 3 groups (50 animals per group challenged with intrarectal (i.r. SIVmac239, intravenous (i.v. SIVmac239, or i.v. SIVmac251, we evaluated variability in bio-clinical endpoints for 118 weeks. All SIV-challenged Ch RhMs became seropositive for SIV during 1-2 weeks. Plasma viral load (VL peaked at weeks 1-2 and then declined to set-point levels as from week 5. The set-point VL was 30 fold higher in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. This difference in plasma VL increased overtime (>100 fold as from week 68. The rates of progression to AIDS or death were more rapid in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. No significant difference in bio-clinical endpoints was observed in animals challenged with i.r. or i.v. SIVmac239. The variability (standard deviation in peak/set-point VL was nearly one-half lower in animals infected with SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v. than in those infected with SIVmac251 (i.v., allowing that the same treatment-related difference can be detected with one-half fewer animals using SIVmac239 than using SIVmac251. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide solid estimates of variability in bio-clinical endpoints needed when designing studies using the Ch RhM SIV model and contribute to the improving quality and standardization of preclinical studies.

  18. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  19. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  20. Clinical variability of cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in adult and pediatric patients after renal, cardiac, hepatic, and bone-marrow transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, C W; Schroeder, T J; Myre, S A; Wadhwa, N K; Pesce, A J; First, M R; McEnery, P T; Balistreri, W F; Harris, R E; Melvin, D B

    1988-10-01

    The most important limitation associated with the clinical use of cyclosporine is the narrow therapeutic range between its efficacy and toxicity. Effective treatment is further complicated by significant variation in intrapatient and interpatient pharmacokinetics of the drug. We describe a practical approach to pharmacokinetic analysis that does not interfere with the cyclosporine dosage regimen or with clinical management of the patient. To optimize therapy, we individualized patient management by using noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean residence time (MRT) and volume of distribution at steady-state were calculated from data on concentration vs time after dose. We applied this approach to 24 kidney, 12 heart, 8 bone-marrow, 7 liver, and 5 pancreas transplants. Individualized requirements for cyclosporine dose and dosage interval can be predicted from these parameters. MRT is the most useful pharmacokinetic parameter, because it allows prediction of the optimal dosage interval. PMID:3048779

  1. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA from clinical samples: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Pailhoriès

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection for which diagnosis is difficult. It has appeared as a global emerging infectious disease over recent years. Genotype determination often requires a Leptospira strain obtained by culture, which is a long and fastidious technique. A method based on multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to determine the genotype of Leptospira interrogans, performed directly on blood or urine samples, is proposed. This method was applied to a fatal case of leptospirosis for which the geographical origin of infection was unknown. This technique will allow a genotype to be obtained for L. interrogans, even when cultures remain negative.

  2. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  3. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.

  4. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  5. Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Koura, Manal R.; Ahlam F Al-Dossary; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study ...

  6. Diffusion of the Adoption of Online Retailing in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia is a leading producer of oil and natural gas, a member of G-20, has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, and is very wealthy, online retailing activities are not progressing at the same speed as its growing ICT marketplace. For this reason, the attitudes of retailers in companies at different stages of e-commerce maturity were investigated to determine what factors are causing this problem. The data collection included two s...

  7. Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri HM; Madkhali A; Al-Kadi MT; Bakhsh H; Alruwaili NN; Tamim HM

    2014-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...

  8. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Khowailed, Mohammad S; Suliman, Wijdan E; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Al-Bluwi, Eman; Al-Kahtani, Hassan S

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06), followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40) and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75). After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.003), rural origin (P = 0.03), positive family history of the same lesion(s) (P = 0.01), shorter duration of ≤6 months (P = 0.02), generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02), and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02). Conclusion . The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the

  9. Sex Differences in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Insights From the Heart Function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFaleh, Hussam F; Thalib, Lukman; Kashour, Tarek; Hersi, Ahmad; Mimish, Layth; Elasfar, Abdelfatah A; Almasood, Ali; Al Ghamdi, Saleh; Ghabashi, Abdullah; Malik, Asif; Hussein, Gamal A; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Abuosa, Ahmed; Al Habeeb, Waleed; Al Habib, Khalid F

    2016-08-01

    We assessed sex-specific differences in clinical features and outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The Heart function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia (HEARTS), a prospective registry, enrolled 2609 patients with AHF (34.2% women) between 2009 and 2010. Women were older and more likely to have risk factors for atherosclerosis, history of heart failure (HF), and rheumatic heart and valve disease. Ischemic heart disease was the prime cause for HF in men and women but more so in men (P Women had higher rates of hypertensive heart disease and primary valve disease (P women and higher ventricular arrhythmias in men, no differences were observed in hospital outcomes. The overall survival did not differ between men and women (hazard ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.2, P = .981). Men and women with AHF differ significantly in baseline clinical characteristics and management but not in adverse outcomes. PMID:26438635

  10. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising...... and the presence of silent or sinusoidal pattern (87-94% on an arbitrary 0-100% scale), and low regarding the assessment of variability and type of deceleration (50-72%). The degree of agreement in interpreting heart rate patterns was 59% (on an arbitrary 0-100% scale). Senior residents generally interpreted...... the changes as indicative of less serious fetal stress than did their junior colleagues, explaining why junior residents 30% more frequently than their older colleagues found an indication for Cesarean section. Relatively low regional inter-observer agreement scores were primarily due to low agreement between...

  11. The effect of manipulating root mean square window length and overlap on reliability, inter-individual variability, statistical significance and clinical relevance of electromyograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Burden, Adrian; Lewis, Sandra Elizabeth; Willcox, Emma

    2014-12-01

    Numerous ways exist to process raw electromyograms (EMGs). However, the effect of altering processing methods on peak and mean EMG has seldom been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using different root mean square (RMS) window lengths and overlaps on the amplitude, reliability and inter-individual variability of gluteus maximus EMGs recorded during the clam exercise, and on the statistical significance and clinical relevance of amplitude differences between two exercise conditions. Mean and peak RMS of 10 repetitions from 17 participants were obtained using processing window lengths of 0.01, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 1 s, with no overlap and overlaps of 25, 50 and 75% of window length. The effect of manipulating window length on reliability and inter-individual variability was greater for peak EMG (coefficient of variation [CV] mean EMG (CV mean EMG was affected by manipulation of window length. Statistical significance of peak EMG was more sensitive to changes in window length, with lower p-values generally being recorded for the 1 s window. As use of different window lengths has a greater effect on variability and statistical significance of the peak EMG, then clinicians should use the mean EMG. They should also be aware that use of different numbers of exercise repetitions and participants can have a greater effect on EMG parameters than length of processing window.

  12. Explaining variability in first grazing season heifer growth combining individually measured parasitological and clinical indicators with exposure to gastrointestinal nematode infection based on grazing management practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Aurélie; Chauvin, Alain; Madouasse, Aurélien; Froger, Sébastien; Bareille, Nathalie; Chartier, Christophe

    2016-07-30

    The objective of our study was to explain the variability of average daily weight gain (ADWG) due to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection for 291 non treated first grazing season (FGS) heifers, from 12 independent groups in the western part of France, by combining parasitological and clinical indicators at individual level and grazing management indicators at group level. Parasitological indicators were faecal egg count (FEC), anti Ostertagia ostertagi antibody level (Ostertagia ODR), and pepsinogen level. Clinical indicators were diarrhea score (DISCO) and breech soiling score (BSS). At group level, grazing management practice (GMP), based on three variables (supplementation, month of turnout, grazing season duration), was clustered into three categories reflecting low, medium or high exposure (EXP) to GIN. Depending on the groups, turnout was from mid-March to early July and housing was from mid-October to late November, with a FGS duration ranging from 4 to 8.4 months. At turnout, the mean age of heifers was 8 months (range: 6-16 months) and they weighed between 175 and 268kg. In each GMP category, FEC significantly decreased between the mid-season and the housing, while Ostertagia ODR and pepsinogen level increased gradually throughout the grazing season. In contrast, clinical indicators did not show any seasonal variation. In a multivariate linear model, 22% of the ADWG variability was significantly explained by two individual indicators (Ostertagia ODR: 12.6%, DISCO: 4.8%) and by the group indicator (GMP category: 4.8%). ADWG losses due to GIN exposure (Ostertagia ODR) were estimated up to 39kg per heifer for the overall grazing season. For groups within the low EXP category the difference between animals with low (697g/day) ADWG was explained by the clinical indicator DISCO. In contrast, for groups within the medium and high EXP categories this difference was explained by a parasitological indicator (Ostertagia ODR). This study highlighted the value of

  13. Psycho-social Features of Chronic Dialysis Patients in Saudi Arabia: Experience of one Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Homrany Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of chronic dialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients include restoration of the highest achievable state of personal physical health and preservation as well as restoration and development of the highest level of psychological and social functions. We conducted this study to evaluate factors influencing the process of adaptation such as religious faith, economic status and extended family-tribal system. It was hoped that studying these factors might provide further dimension to our understanding of the psychopathology of ESRD patients, and to help offer new ideas to improve the quality of their lives. A sample comprising 54 patients with ESRD was studied in Abha hemodialysis centre in Southern Saudi Arabia. The socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data were collected. The psychiatric status of the patients was evaluated using a structured "The Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale" (CPRS clinical interview. The result indicated that the major co-morbidity (in 60% of these patients was a depressive illness due to renal failure diagnosable according to DSM-IV criteria. Our study suggests the need for specific anti-depressant treatment in order to ameliorate many distressing symptoms, which may affect the quality of these patients′ life. Concomitant social problems of poverty, absence of spouse and illiteracy, dictate a more prompt attitude in initiating support systems and attention to providing leisure activities.

  14. Psycho-social Features of Chronic Dialysis Patients in Saudi Arabia: Experience of one Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homrany, M A; Bilal, A M

    2001-01-01

    The goals of chronic dialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients include restoration of the highest achievable state of personal physical health and preservation as well as restoration and development of the highest level of psychological and social functions. We conducted this study to evaluate factors influencing the process of adaptation such as religious faith, economic status and extended family-tribal system. It was hoped that studying these factors might provide further dimension to our understanding of the psychopathology of ESRD patients, and to help offer new ideas to improve the quality of their lives. A sample comprising 54 patients with ESRD was studied in Abha hemodialysis centre in Southern Saudi Arabia. The socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data were collected. The psychiatric status of the patients was evaluated using a structured "The Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale" (CPRS) clinical interview. The result indicated that the major co-morbidity (in 60% of these patients) was a depressive illness due to renal failure diagnosable according to DSM-IV criteria. Our study suggests the need for specific anti-depressant treatment in order to ameliorate many distressing symptoms, which may affect the quality of these patients' life. Concomitant social problems of poverty, absence of spouse and illiteracy, dictate a more prompt attitude in initiating support systems and attention to providing leisure activities.

  15. Detection of Toxic Metalsin Lipsticks Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia Mohamed Ahmed Al-Qahtani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Since the dawn of civilization cosmetics have constituted a part of routine body care not only by the upper strata of society but also by middle and low class people. Heavy metals contamination in cosmetic products is becoming an important health problem in both worldwide and locally at the level of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA.The aim of this study was tostudy.Quantitatively estimated heavy metals “lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic” using graphite.Methods: total of 21 popular brands used lipstick products sold in Riyadh market samples from 3 different types of lipsticks frequently used among females in Saudi Arabia was digested. The digested samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic using graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:the mercury concentration was high followed by arsenic and cadmium, finally lead. The results indicate that the toxic heavy metals in all the samples were below the US FDA and SFDA permissible limits for cosmetic products with the exception the mercury content in some lipstick samples was higher than SFDA. There was no significant difference among the lipsticks in price categories.Conclusion: Continuous use and possible unintended ingestion of these toxic heavy metals, though in low levels in the cosmetics, may pose potential health risk due to their bioaccumulation in body organs.

  16. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world.

  17. Holocene and Pleistocene pluvial periods in Yemen, southern Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitmann, Dominik; Burns, Stephen J.; Pekala, Marek; Mangini, Augusto; Al-Subbary, Abdulkarim; Al-Aowah, Mohammad; Kramers, Jan; Matter, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Arabia is an important potential pathway for the dispersal of Homo sapiens ("out of Africa"). Yet, because of its arid to hyper-arid climate humans could only migrate across southern Arabia during pluvial periods when environmental conditions were favorable. However, knowledge on the timing of Arabian pluvial periods prior to the Holocene is mainly based on a single and possibly incomplete speleothem record from Hoti Cave in Northern Oman. Additional terrestrial records from the Arabian Peninsula are needed to confirm the Hoti Cave record. Here we present a new speleothem record from Mukalla Cave in southern Yemen. The Mukalla Cave and Hoti Cave records clearly reveal that speleothems growth occurred solely during peak interglacial periods, corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 (early to mid-Holocene), 5.1, 5.3, 5.5 (Eemian), 7.1, 7.5 and 9. Of these humid periods, highest precipitation occurred during MIS 5.5 and lowest during early to middle Holocene.

  18. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  19. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  20. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  1. Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

  2. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

  3. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  4. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080

  5. Prospect of Neem Plantation at Arafat, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. U Mridha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indicaA.Juss. is a multipurpose agroforestry tree that is well adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions and has gained worldwide recognition for its pharmaceutical and pesticidal properties.The world's largest pure Neem plantations are available in the plains of Arafat, Saudi Arabia where 50,000 thousands Neem trees were planted to provide shade from the blazing summer sun for the millions of Hajis (Muslim pilgrims. Sporadic mature Neem trees are also found in Medinah, Taif and elsewhereof the Kingdom. The Neem tree is adapted to Arafat under harsh climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia and the plantation may be extended to other parts of the Kingdom as a avenue tree and also to minimize the desertification under changing climatic conditions and to improve the environmental condition of the country. At Arafat mixed plantations may be advocated to save the present plantation which may come from climate change as well as pest and diseases problems. So care must be taken to monitor the diseases of Neem tree at Arafat on a regularbasis. Because of insufficient growth of Neem at Arafat the methods of green cultivation with microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, mycotrophic green manure plants may be practiced for successful plantation.

  6. Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Direct and total radiation measurements carried out over several years in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in support of the Research Institute's solar energy programs have indicated a relatively large diffuse radiation component. This is primarily due to airborne particulates carried aloft by the prevailing winds in a desert environment and occurs particularly during the Shamal (north wind) sandstorm season. As a first step in quantifying the nature of this atmospheric turbidity, spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26/sup 0/ 23', Long. 50/sup 0/ 00'), using broad-band filter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and RG8) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angstroem Coefficient of Turbidity, ..beta.., were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ..cap alpha.. = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. values for each month. The 12-month average values of ..beta.. and ..cap alpha.. were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  8. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

  9. Variable clinical expression in patients with a germline MEN1 disease gene mutation: clues to a genotype-phenotype correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis J. Lips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an inherited endocrine tumor syndrome, predominantly characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumors, pituitary adenomas, adrenal adenomas, and neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus, lungs or stomach. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is caused by germline mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumor suppressor gene. The initial germline mutation, loss of the wild-type allele, and modifying genetic and possibly epigenetic and environmental events eventually result in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumors. Our understanding of the function of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene product, menin, has increased significantly over the years. However, to date, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established. In this review we discuss reports on exceptional clinical presentations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which may provide more insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder and offer clues for a possible genotype-phenotype correlation.

  10. The clinical significance of detection to heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-rong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the change of heart rate deceleration capacity ( DC and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and its relationship with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods: DC, LVEF, time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were measured in 66 patients with CHF and 34 healthy adults (control group by using 24h Holter recordings and Echocardiography. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals( SDNN, squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals ( RMSSD,low frequency power( LFn and high frequency power( HFn and the changes of LVEF were compared between  the two groups,the relationship between DC,LVEF and HRV were studied in patients with CHF. Results: The median value of DC in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than that in control group( 3.1 ± 2.4 ms vs 7.2 ± 1.3 ms,P <0.01.Incidence of abnormal DC in the CHF group was 57.5%,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01.The HRV index, including SDNN、RMSSD、LFn、HFn, in the CHF group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P < 0.01. Significant positive correlation between HRV index and LVEF were confirmed (P < 0.01. Conclusions: DC and HRV index are lower in patients with CHF and have a good correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  11. Genetic variability of the serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica protein gene in clinical isolates from the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBakri, Ali; Samie, Amidou; Ezzedine, Sinda; Odeh, Ra'ed Abu

    2014-06-01

    The genetic diversity of 20 Entamoeba histolytica isolates from asymptomatic individuals from the UAE was investigated by analyzing polymorphism in the serine-rich E. histolytica gene (SREHP) by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on DNA extracted directly from stool samples. The SREHP gene was successfully amplified in 15 out of 20 E. histolytica-positive samples. Four out of the remaining five isolates did not amplify for the SREHP gene. Despite successful amplification of the SREHP gene in the fifth isolate, AluI digestion of the amplified PCR product revealed no bands. As a result, all five samples were excluded from the study. Twelve different profiles were obtained from the 15 successfully amplified isolates. Thus, demonstrating extensive genetic variability and reinforcing the argument that E. histolytica has an extremely polymorphic genetic structure. Despite the sample size limitation, a finding in the study was the occurrence of one profile common to one Indian isolate while another profile common to one Pakistani isolate; indicating the possibility of clonal infection. Furthermore, we found one isolate from a Bangladeshi expatriate identical to 2 asymptomatic Bangladeshi isolates reported in an earlier study. No clear association between the different genotypes and the study population demographics was noted. The results also indicated the possibility of strains clustering by region.

  12. High Sequence Variability of the ppE18 Gene of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains Potentially Impacts Effectivity of Vaccine Candidate M72/AS01E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Susanne; Ubben, Tanja; Niemann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective vaccine is urgently needed to fight tuberculosis (TB) which is still the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. One of the promising vaccine candidates M72/AS01E consists of two proteins subunits PepA and PPE18 coded by Rv0125 and Rv1196. However, preliminary data indicate a high level of sequence variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains that might have an impact on the vaccine efficacy. To further investigate this finding, we determined ppE18 sequence variability in a well-characterized reference collection of 71 MTBC strains from 23 phylogenetic lineages representing the global MTBC diversity. In total, 100 sequence variations consisting of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three insertions and one deletion were detected resulting in 141 variable positions distributed over the entire gene. The majority of SNPs detected were non-synonymous (n = 68 vs. n = 28 synonymous). Strains from animal adapted lineages, e.g., M. bovis, showed a significant higher diversity than the human pathogens such as M. tuberculosis Haarlem. SNP patterns specific for different lineages as well as for deeper branches in the phylogeny could be identified. The results of our study demonstrate a high variability of the ppE18 gene even in the N-terminal domains that is normally highly conserved in ppe genes. As the N-terminal region interacts with TLR2 receptor inducing a protective anti-inflammatory immune response, genetic heterogeneity has a potential impact on the vaccine efficiency, however, this has to be investigated in future studies.

  13. A Retrospective Study of Causes of Low Vision in Saud Arabia, A Case of Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z Alotaibi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation.

  14. A Retrospective Study of Causes of Low Vision in Saud Arabia, A Case of Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z Alotaibi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation. PMID:26652071

  15. The effect of smoking on clinical and radiographic variables, and acute phase reactants in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Grigorios T; Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Kenanidis, Eustathios; Potoupnis, Michael; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Savvidis, Matthaios; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Sayegh, Fares E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between smoking and clinical, inflammatory and radiographic parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and six tumour necrosis factor inhibitor naïve patients with AS were included in the study. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and modified Stroke AS Spine Score (mSASSS) were assessed cross-sectionally for each patient. Smoking history was obtained, and smoking pack years were calculated. Current smokers had significantly higher BASDAI (p < 0.001) and a trend for higher BASFI (p = 0.059). Ever smokers had significantly higher BASFI (p = 0.035) and a trend for higher mSASSS (p = 0.063) compared to never smokers. Pack years (smoking intensity) were positively correlated with duration of inflammatory back pain (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), BASFI (r = 0.443, p < 0.001) and mSASSS (r = 0.683, p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analyses showed that current smoking was independently associated with a higher BASDAI score [regression coefficient (B) = 14.75, p < 0.001] and increasing pack years were independently associated with higher mSASSS (B = 0.26, p = 0.005). In patients with AS, current smoking was strongly and independently associated with higher disease activity, and cumulative smoking exposure with more radiographic spinal damage. In AS smokers, smoking cessation should be strongly recommended.

  16. A novel Bayesian approach to quantify clinical variables and to determine their spectroscopic counterparts in 1H NMR metabonomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaski Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge in metabonomics is to uncover quantitative associations between multidimensional spectroscopic data and biochemical measures used for disease risk assessment and diagnostics. Here we focus on clinically relevant estimation of lipoprotein lipids by 1H NMR spectroscopy of serum. Results A Bayesian methodology, with a biochemical motivation, is presented for a real 1H NMR metabonomics data set of 75 serum samples. Lipoprotein lipid concentrations were independently obtained for these samples via ultracentrifugation and specific biochemical assays. The Bayesian models were constructed by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC and they showed remarkably good quantitative performance, the predictive R-values being 0.985 for the very low density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG, 0.787 for the intermediate, 0.943 for the low, and 0.933 for the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. The modelling produced a kernel-based reformulation of the data, the parameters of which coincided with the well-known biochemical characteristics of the 1H NMR spectra; particularly for VLDL-TG and HDL-C the Bayesian methodology was able to clearly identify the most characteristic resonances within the heavily overlapping information in the spectra. For IDL-C and LDL-C the resulting model kernels were more complex than those for VLDL-TG and HDL-C, probably reflecting the severe overlap of the IDL and LDL resonances in the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusion The systematic use of Bayesian MCMC analysis is computationally demanding. Nevertheless, the combination of high-quality quantification and the biochemical rationale of the resulting models is expected to be useful in the field of metabonomics.

  17. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Nasr H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) resulted in the recognition of four vegetation groups representing wheat crop, orchards in winter season, orchards in summer season and watermelon crop. These results suggested the importance of both crop and season for the formation of weed community. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that these groups are clearly distinguished by the first two DCA axes. The species richness was higher in both olive and date palm orchards than in wheat and watermelon crops. This pattern of species richness could be related to farm management practices and habitat micro-heterogeneity. Soil electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture showed significant correlations with species richness and the cover values of some dominant species, suggesting the significant role of soil characteristics in weed community structure and diversity.

  18. Serologic markers of gluten sensitivity in a healthy population from the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir M Khayyat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To identify the prevalence of gluten sensitivity in a healthy adult Saudi population within a low endemic area of celiac disease using IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody. The study was conducted as a prospective pilot study for Saudi attendees of a blood donation centre at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Individuals were invited to participate in the study and screened for gluten sensitivity using immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA TTG along with serum IgA level. Descriptive data was presented and expressed as mean value; correlation between variables was estimated using Pearson correlation, and nonparametric data using Pearson rho correlation (level of P value <0.05 is considered to be statistically significant. Results: Two hundred and four individuals (122 males and 82 females, mean age 35 years attending the blood donation centre were screened. Three individuals tested positive for IgA TTG showing normal IgA level (1 female and 2 males with a 1.5% prevalence in the cohort. Conclusions: Positive celiac screening is present at a low prevalence rate in our adult population, in which the individuals′ age and their serum IgA levels are not associated with the positivity level. A study on a larger scale with the application of histologic confirmation of positive cases is needed.

  19. Classification and Evaluation of Commercial Bottled Drinking Waters in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Ghrefat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an evaluation on the quality of 54 brands of bottled drinking waters currently consumed in Saudi Arabia. The relationships among eight selected major chemical ion variables (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate and nitrate were examined by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Principal component analysis identified three factors, which are responsible for the data structure explaining ~64% of the total variance of the data set and allowed to group the selected parameters according to common features. Hierarchical cluster analysis classified the evaluated water brands into different groups based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. The results demonstrated that the water brands have a diverse character reflected by their chemical compositions and are dominated by Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl type water. Total hardness values classified most of the studied brands into soft to moderately hard water. Generally, the physical and chemical constituents lie within the acceptable boundaries established by Saudi Arabian Standards Organization, International Bottled Water Association, Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization for drinking water.

  20. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  1. STUDIES ON AEDES AEGYPTI RESISTANCE TO SOME INSECTICIDES IN THE JAZAN DISTRICT, SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheikh, Adel A; Mohammed, W S; Noureldin, E M; Daffalla, O M; Shrwani, Y A; Hobani, K J; Alsheikh, F A; Alzahrani, M H; Binsaeed, A A

    2016-04-01

    The present study provided information on the susceptibility status of the adult and larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Bioassay tests were performed on adults and larvae by using WHO recommended concentrations and test kits. Adults of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to test papers impregnated with Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), Cyfluthrin (0.15%), Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), Fenitrothion (1%), Bendiocarb (0.1%) and DDT (4%) insecticides. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found to be susceptible only to Cyfluthrin; (mortality rate was 100%), whereas variable resistances were observed from the rest of the other insecticides tested (mortality rates ranged between 93.6 and 17%). Larvae were subjected to different concentrations of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene (IGRs) and Temephos (Organophosphate). Adult emergence inhibition (IE₅₀ & IE₉₅) values for the IGRs and the (LC₅₀ & LC₉₅) for Temephos were determined by log-probit regression analysis. Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant to Temephos (LC₅₀ 61.8-LC₉₅ 35600.1 mg/l) and showed high susceptibility to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron (IE₅₀ 0.49-IE₉₅ 10.9 mg/l) and (IE₅₀ 0.86 and IE₉₅ 93.8 mg/l), respectively. Larvae were more susceptible to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron by 1.8 folds.

  2. STUDIES ON AEDES AEGYPTI RESISTANCE TO SOME INSECTICIDES IN THE JAZAN DISTRICT, SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheikh, Adel A; Mohammed, W S; Noureldin, E M; Daffalla, O M; Shrwani, Y A; Hobani, K J; Alsheikh, F A; Alzahrani, M H; Binsaeed, A A

    2016-04-01

    The present study provided information on the susceptibility status of the adult and larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Bioassay tests were performed on adults and larvae by using WHO recommended concentrations and test kits. Adults of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to test papers impregnated with Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), Cyfluthrin (0.15%), Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), Fenitrothion (1%), Bendiocarb (0.1%) and DDT (4%) insecticides. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found to be susceptible only to Cyfluthrin; (mortality rate was 100%), whereas variable resistances were observed from the rest of the other insecticides tested (mortality rates ranged between 93.6 and 17%). Larvae were subjected to different concentrations of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene (IGRs) and Temephos (Organophosphate). Adult emergence inhibition (IE₅₀ & IE₉₅) values for the IGRs and the (LC₅₀ & LC₉₅) for Temephos were determined by log-probit regression analysis. Ae. aegypti larvae were resistant to Temephos (LC₅₀ 61.8-LC₉₅ 35600.1 mg/l) and showed high susceptibility to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron (IE₅₀ 0.49-IE₉₅ 10.9 mg/l) and (IE₅₀ 0.86 and IE₉₅ 93.8 mg/l), respectively. Larvae were more susceptible to Methoprene than Diflubenzuron by 1.8 folds. PMID:27363057

  3. Sources and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Fine Particles in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebare, S. R.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Zeb, J.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution research in Saudi Arabia and the whole of Middle East is at its inception, making air pollution in the region a significant problem. This study presents the first detailed data on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations of Black Carbon (BC), ions, and trace metals at Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, and assesses their sources. Results showed several characteristic aspects of air pollution at Rabigh. Daily levels of PM2.5 and BC showed significant temporal variability ranging from 12.2 - 75.9 µg/m3 and 0.39 - 1.31 µg/m3, respectively. More than 90% of the time, the daily PM2.5 exceeded the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 µg/m3. Sulfate, NO3-, and NH4+ dominated the identifiable components. Trace metals with significantly higher concentrations included Si, S, Ca, Al, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, K, and Ti, with average concentrations of 3.1, 2.2, 1.6, 1.2, 1.1, 0.7, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.1 µg/m3, respectively. Based on the Air Quality Index (AQI), there were 44% days of moderate air quality, 33% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, and 23% days of unhealthy air quality throughout the study period. Two categories of aerosol trace metal sources were defined: anthropogenic (S, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Cd, Sb, and Pb) and naturally derived elements (Si, Al, and Fe). The extent of anthropogenic contribution was estimated by the degree of enrichment of these elements compared to the crustal composition. Soil resuspension and/or mobilization is an important source of "natural" elements, while "anthropogenic" elements originate primarily from fossil fuel combustion and industries. Ni and V correlated strongly pointing to combustion of heavy fuel oil as the likely source. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to obtain information about possible sources. Our study highlights the need for stringent laws on PM2.5 emission control to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  5. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment and... Federal Register, posting on the Commerce Department trade mission calendar (...

  6. Testing Formation Theories of NW Arabia Terra, Mars: New Clues from Old Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2008-03-01

    Northwest Arabia Terra has topography and crater populations indicating a unique history. We directly tested two proposed formation mechanisms. Crater size-frequency and d/D ratios suggest neither scenario is easily reconcilable with the new datasets.

  7. Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism does not affect clopidogrel response variability but is associated with clinical outcome after PCI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase (PON is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation. METHODS: A total of 1676 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled in the prospective CROSS-VERIFY cohort from June 2006 to June 2010. We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR, and analyzed lipid profiles. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 12 months. RESULTS: PON-1 genotyping data were available in 1336 patients. Since the Q-allele is associated with decreased PON-activity, we analyzed the outcome between patients with QQ/QR (815 patients, 61% and those with RR-genotype (521 patients, 39%. After adjustment for common cardiac risk factors, the QQ/QR-genotype was an independent predictor of the primary thrombotic endpoint with an 11-fold increased risk (HR 11.6, 95% CI: 1.55-87.0, but not repeat revascularization (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78-1.61. The QQ/QR-genotype was not associated with OPR (QQ/QR: 231±86 PRU vs. RR 236±82 PRU, p = 0.342 but higher small-dense LDL levels (1.20±0.12 mg/dL vs. 0.76±0.15 mg/dL, p = 0.027. The increased risk of thrombotic outcomes was more profound in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients compared with non-ACS patients. CONCLUSION: PON1 Q-allele is an independent predictor of worse cardiovascular outcome independent of platelet function and is associated with significantly higher levels of small dense LDL-C.

  8. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  9. A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four...

  10. Motivation for domestic tourism : a case study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogari, Naima Bakor

    2002-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...

  11. Economic Efficiency Modelling of Water Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam Hamdar; Hussin Hejase; Tamar Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources in the world generally and in Saudi Arabia specially. Situated in the tropical and sub-tropical desert region with arid climate, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is exposed to dry winds and limited water resources .Therefore, the scarcity of fresh water resources poses a major challenge and affects the Saudi development plans since they realized that their supply of freshwater cannot be taken for granted. Moreover, the demand for fresh...

  12. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour the case of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent....

  13. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour among students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure student gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 234-respondent sample consists of 61.5% women and 38.5% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent. Th...

  14. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qurashi, Faisal O.; Abdullah A Yousef; Awary, Bassam H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and...

  15. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Gender differences and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose — This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. Design/Methodology — The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Findings — Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male...

  16. A SOCIO-CULTURAL OVERVIEW OF E-LEARNING IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Many regard Saudi Arabia as a conservative and religious nation with a perception of some degree of neglect or discrimination towards its female population. This deters many to realize the kind of revolution this nation is going through, especially in the field of education. Many might not realize that the kingdom of Saudi Arabia has state of art educational institutions with best possible equipment and infrastructure in the world. In addition, the government is providing very lucrative schol...

  17. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Nora Sahly; Dana Sawan; Souzan Kafy; Faten Alzaban

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for th...

  18. Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Roula Baki

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by cons...

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal Papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S.; Omair, Aamir A.; Bamefleh, Hana S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III...

  20. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  1. Body mass index and obstetric outcomes in Saudi Arabia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Hammad, Sabry

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. RESULTS: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight women (n=307), overweight (n...

  2. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Regional and behavioral differences among women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure regional differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Women in the eastern, western, and central region groups are equivalent. T...

  3. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  4. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  5. Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dotoyhy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Methane has been measured in the Martian atmosphere at concentrations of approx. 10 ppb. Since the photochemical lifetime of this gas is approx. 300 years, it is likely that methane is currently being released from the surface. Possible sources for the methane include 1) hydrothermal activity, 2) serpentinization of basalts and other water-rock interactions, 3) thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter, and 4) metabolism of living bacteria. Any such discovery would revolutionize our understanding of Mars. Longitudinal variations in methane concentration, as measured by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on Mars Express, show the highest values over Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum, and Arcadia-Memnonia, suggesting localized areas of methane release. We are using orbital data and methodologies derived from petroleum exploration in an attempt to locate these release points.

  6. Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

  7. Analysis of Evapotranspiration Variability and Trends in the Arabian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad El-Nesr; Abdulrahman Alazba; Majed Abu-Zreig

    2010-01-01

    Abstract:  Problem statement: Climate variability is receiving much attention recently because it has significant effects on water resources and therefore on the livelihood of society especially in water scarce countries such the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Approach: The aim of this study was to explore changes in the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) using data from 27 weather stations through years 1980-2008 and to identify trend directions in the ETo as an indicator to climate var...

  8. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. PMID:27354384

  9. Centro de Conferencias, Hotel y Mezquita Riyadh - Arabia Saudita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannatt, Trevor

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.

    El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.

  10. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.

  11. Drowning in children: Aseer Central Hospital experience, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the reasons, magnitude and outcome of drowning following submersion in water of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients (0-13 years old who drowned and were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, between January 1st 1999 and December 31st 2009. Results: A total of 19 cases were admitted following submersion in water. The mean age was 5.2 years ±3.8. Majority of victims (94.1% were from the highland areas. Events most frequently occurred in the summer (46.7%, followed by spring and winter, 33.3% and 20%, respectively. Home events constituted 44.4% of submersion cases. Of these, 55.6% drowned in a washing container, While 53.4% submersed in swimming pools. Twenty-two percent of these accidents occurred in the sea and in wells while 11.1% occurred in a lake. The mean duration of submersion was 4.04 minutes ± 5.35. Cardiac arrest was reported upon arrival at hospital in 42.1% of the victims. There were seven deaths (36.8 % and in one patient (5.2 % there was severe brain injury. In all deceased cases, no adults were watching the children when the accidents occurred. Conclusion: Drowning is a significant risk factor facing our children and can claim lives. The media as well as the authority should play a major role in increasing the public awareness to minimize or prevent such a problem.

  12. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  13. Assessment of Pharmacy Information System Performance in Three Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahalli, Azza; El-Khafif, Sahar H; Yamani, Wid

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacy information system is one of the central pillars of a hospital information system. This research evaluated a pharmacy information system according to six aspects of the medication process in three hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. System administrators were interviewed to determine availability of functionalities. Then, system users within the hospital were targeted to evaluate their level of usage of these functionalities. The study was cross-sectional. Two structured surveys were designed. The overall response rate of hospital users was 31.7 percent. In all three hospitals studied, the electronic health record is hybrid, implementation has been completed and the system is running, and the systems have computerized provider order entry and clinical decision support. Also, the pharmacy information systems are integrated with the electronic health record, and computerized provider order entry and almost all prescribing and transcription functionalities are available; however, drug dispensing is a mostly manual process. However, the study hospitals do not use barcode-assisted medication administration systems to verify patient identity and electronically check dose administration, and none of them have computerized adverse drug event monitoring that uses the electronic health record. The numbers of users who used different functionalities most or all of the time was generally low. The highest frequency of utilization was for patient administration records (56.8 percent), and the lowest was for linkage of the pharmacy information system to pharmacy stock (9.1 percent). Encouraging users to use different functionalities was highly recommended.

  14. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  15. Epidemiological Pattern of Newly Diagnosed Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Taif, Saudi Arabia

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    Naglaa Mohamed Kamal Alanani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Type-1-diabetes mellitus (T1DM is the most commonly diagnosed type of DM in children and adolescents. We aim to identify the epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical features, and factors related to delayed diagnosis or mismanagement in children with newly diagnosed T1DM in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods. Ninety-nine newly diagnosed patients were included in the study along with 110 healthy controls. Patients were classified into 3 groups (I: >2 years, II: 2–>6 years, and III: 6–12 years. Both patients and controls were tested for C-peptide, TSH, and autoantibodies associated with DM and those attacking the thyroid gland. Results. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 79.8%. Delayed and missed diagnoses were recorded in 45.5%, with significant correlation to age and district of origin. Severity at presentation showed significant correlation with age and cow’s milk feeding. Group I, those with misdiagnosis or positive DM related autoantibodies, had more severe presentations. The correlation of C-peptide and TSH levels in patients and controls was significant for C-peptide and nonsignificant for TSH. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement are common and account for more severe presentation, especially in young children >2 years. Early introduction of cow’s milk appears to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM.

  16. Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Magzoub ME; Zamakhshary M

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bronchiectasis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Mansour Attar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Bronchiectasis is a pulmonary manifestation that often occurs in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Nevertheless, the prevalence of bronchiectasis in RA patients and predictors of its development/progression remain ill-defined. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of bronchiectasis in a group of RA patients and examine possible clinical or biochemical risk factors that might contribute to its development. Methods: This was an observational study analyzing 100 RA patients with no pulmonary symptoms selected from King Abdulaziz University Hospital in the Western region of Saudi Arabia from October 2013 to 2014. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information were collected for all patients. Diagnosis was based on the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR classification system, and disease activity was assessed using the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score Index with C-reactive protein; high-resolution computed tomography chest scans were performed. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was recorded and its association with different risk factors was examined using standard statistical methods. Results: All 100 patients fulfilled the ACR and EULAR classification criteria for RA diagnosis. Their mean age was 51.05 ± 13.5 years, disease duration was 6.19 ± 6.4 years and disease activity index was 4 ± 1.3 (moderate activity. A total of 35 (35% patients developed bronchiectasis. Notably, we observed significant positive associations of bronchiectasis with age, disease duration and male gender (P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P = 0.028, respectively. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bronchiectasis represents a common complication in moderately active RA patients within the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, several predictors of bronchiectasis development were identified, which can contribute to effective risk stratification in RA patients. Further prospective studies are

  18. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Obeidat Sadek A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  19. Sedentarismo e variáveis clínico-metabólicas associadas à obesidade em adolescentes Inactivity and clinical and metabolic variables associated with adolescent obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Trapp Abbes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação da obesidade com variáveis metabólicas, variáveis clínicas e sedentarismo, em adolescentes pós-púberes de escolas públicas de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle com 128 adolescentes obesos (índice de massa corporal > percentil 95 e 151 adolescentes eutróficos (índice de massa corporal entre percentis 5 e 85. Foram realizados exame físico, avaliação bioquímica e de composição corporal. Foi aplicado questionário previamente testado, que gerou um escore de sedentarismo. Na análise estatística, foi realizada a análise de variância com testes de comparações múltiplas de Bonferroni e qui-quadrado (Pearson. O modelo logístico múltiplo foi utilizado para verificar as associações entre variáveis clínicas, variáveis metabólicas, escore de sedentarismo e estado nutricional. RESULTADOS Por meio da análise de variância, foi identificado um gradiente nos valores médios das variáveis metabólicas e clínicas com piora dessas variáveis em paralelo ao aumento do grau de sedentarismo, o que foi confirmado pelo teste qui-quadrado. Na análise bivariada de riscos para obesidade, os adolescentes obesos apresentaram maiores frequências de sedentarismo, de alterações nos níveis de lipoproteína de alta densidade e triglicérides, de hiperinsulinemia e homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistence alterado, e de pressão arterial alterada (pOBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of obesity with metabolic and clinical variables and inactivity in post-pubertal adolescents attending public schools in São Paulo City. METHODS: This was a case-control study with 128 obese adolescents (body mass indices >the 95th percentile, and 151 normal weight adolescents (body mass indices between the 5th and 85th percentiles. Physical examination and biochemical and body composition assessments were done. A pretested questionnaire was administered, generating an inactivity score. Analysis

  20. Multi-decadal classification of synoptic weather types, observed trends and links to rainfall characteristics over Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-09-15

    An automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was employed to characterize daily circulation conditions in Saudi Arabia from 1960 to 2005. Daily gridded fields of sea level pressure (SLP) from both the NCEP/NCAR and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA40) were used as input data for this classification. The output catalog included 10 basic types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the region (i.e., cyclonic, anti-cyclonic, and directional). In general, our findings indicate that cyclonic (C) days represent the most frequent type among all days, with 69.2% of the annual count of days from 1960 to 2005, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also determined that airflows originating from the Indian Ocean (i.e., S, SE, and E) are more frequent than those from the Mediterranean and Red Seas (i.e., W, NW, and SW). The defined weather types were assessed for the presence of inter-annual and intra-annual trends using the Mann–Kendall tau statistic. The trend analysis suggests statistically significant changes in the frequencies of a majority of the weather types from 1960 to 2005. The relationship between the daily occurrence of rainfall and the frequency of individual weather types was also described using daily rainfall data from a network of 87 weather observatories. Results demonstrate that increasing frequencies of weather types connected to easterly inflows support higher precipitation amounts over the study domain. Characterizing the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in Saudi Arabia is important for understanding potential impacts related to climate variability and also for developing circulation-based downscaling methods.

  1. Obstetric and Gynecologic Patients' Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Medical Students in Saudi Arabia

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    Nisrin Anfinan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify patients’ attitudes, preferences and comfort levels regarding the presence and involvement of medical students during consultations and examinations. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2011 to December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants were randomly selected from the outpatient and inpatient clinics at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Emergency Department, provided they were admitted for obstetric or gynecology-related conditions. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: Of the 327 patients who were recruited, 272 (83% were elective patients who were seen at the outpatient and inpatient clinics of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (group I. The other 55 (16.8% were seen at the Emergency Department or the Labor and Delivery Ward (group II. One hundred seventy-nine participants (160 [58.8%] in group I and 19 [34.5%] in group II reported positive attitudes about the presence of female medical students during consultations. Fewer participants (115 [42.3%] were in group I and 17 [30.9%] in group II reported positive attitudes regarding the presence of male medical students during consultations (p=0.095. The gender of the medical student was the primary factor that influenced patients’ decision to accept or decline medical student involvement. No significant associations were observed between patients’ attitudes and perceptions toward medical students and the patients' age, educational level, nationality or the gender of the consultant. Conclusion: Obstetrics and Gynecology patients are typically accepting of female medical student involvement during examinations. Student gender is the primary factor that influences patient attitudes regarding student involvement during physical examinations.

  2. Breast cancer screening in Saudi Arabia: free but almost no takers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel El Bcheraoui

    Full Text Available Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs.The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health-care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. Female respondents were asked about knowledge and practices of self and clinical breast exams, as well as mammography.Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Among respondents, 1,135 were women aged 50 years or older and were included in this analysis. About 89% of women reported not having a clinical breast exam in the past year, and 92% reported never having a mammogram. Women living in Al Sharqia had the highest rate of mammography use. Women who were educated, those who had received a routine medical exam within the last two years, and those who were diagnosed with hypertension were more likely to have had a mammogram in the past two years.Our results show very low rates of breast cancer screening in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country with free health services. This calls for educational campaigns to improve breast cancer screening. Addressing the barriers for breast cancer screening is a public health imperative.

  3. Hepatitis B virus sero-prevalence among pregnant females in Saudi Arabia

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    Alrowaily Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim : Since selective screening for Hepatitis B virus (HBV in pregnant women has failed to identify a high proportion of HBV-infected mothers, pre-natal HBsAg testing of all pregnant women is now recommended. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women at the ante-natal clinic of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia and to identify the target group for postpartum immunization. Materials and Methods : A total of 755 pregnant females who attended the antenatal clinic from June 2005 to June 2006 for the first time - before 38 weeks of gestation - constituted the target of the present study. Blood samples 30-39 were drawn from all subjects and sera were tested for HBV serologic markers including Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc using ELISA technique (third generation. Results : The overall prevalence of sero-positive HBsAg among pregnant women was 1.6%. As age increased, the prevalence of sero-positive HBsAg significantly increased (χ2 = 116.43, P < 0.001, 30-39 were women aged ≥40 were five times more likely to be positive for HBsAg as compared to those < 30 years (OR = 4.78. On the other hand, women aged 40 and over were five times more likely to be susceptible to infection with hepatitis as compared to young women aged < 20 (OR = 5.15. Women susceptible to HBV infection constituted about 80% of all pregnant females. Conclusion : These findings reflect that the full impact of the Hepatitis B vaccination program that was conducted in 1989 for all Saudi children has not yet reached all pregnant women, with the majority (79.9% being nonimmune and thus liable to HBV infection. Postpartum HB immunization should be recommended in such cases.

  4. Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: Association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    Most victims of child abuse have experienced more than one type of maltreatment, yet there is a lack of understanding of the impact of specific combinations of types of maltreatment. This study aimed to identify meaningful classes of maltreatment profiles and to associate them with short-term clinical outcomes. A total of 358 German children and adolescents aged 4-17 with a known history of child maltreatment were included in the study. Through interviews and questionnaires, information was obtained from participants and their primary caregivers on history of maltreatment, sociodemographics, psychopathology, level of psychosocial functioning, and health-related quality of life. Types of abuse were categorized into six major groups: sexual abuse in general, sexual abuse with penetration, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to determine distinct multi-type maltreatment profiles, which were then assessed for their associations with the sociodemographic and clinical outcome variables. The LCA revealed that participants could be categorized into three meaningful classes according to history of maltreatment: (1) experience of multiple types of maltreatment excluding sexual abuse (63.1%), (2) experience of multiple types of maltreatment including sexual abuse (26.5%), and (3) experience of predominantly sexual abuse (10.3%). Members of Class 2 showed significantly worse short-term outcomes on psychopathology, level of functioning, and quality of life compared to the other classes. Three distinct profiles of multiple types of maltreatment were empirically identified in this sample. Exposure to multiple types of abuse was associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:27254375

  5. Parasuicide and drug self-poisoning: analysis of the epidemiological and clinical variables of the patients admitted to the Poisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfré Sergio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological knowledge of parasuicides and drug self-poisoning is still limited by a lack of data. A number of preliminary studies, which require further analysis, evidenced that parasuicidal acts occur more often among females, that the peak rate is generally recorded between the ages of 15 and 34 years and psychotropic medications seems to be the most frequently used. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical variables of a sample of subjects admitted to the Posisoning Treatment Centre (CAV, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, following drug self-poisoning. Furthermore, this study is aimed to identify the risk factors associated to parasuicidal gestures, with special care for the used drugs, the presence of psychiatric or organic disorders, alcoholism and drug addiction. The study included the 201 patients attending the CAV in 1999 and 2000 who satisfied the criteria of self-poisoning attempts: 106 cases in 1999 and 95 in 2000. The sample had a prevalence of females (64%. The peak rates of parasuicides from drug self-poisoning were reached between 21 and 30 years among the females, and 31 and 40 years among the males. 81.6% of the patients used one or more psychoactive drugs, the most frequent being the benzodiazepines (58.7%, classic neuroleptics (16.9% and new-generation antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs, NARIs (12.9%. The prevalence of mood disorders was higher among females (64% vs 42%, whereas schizophrenia was more frequently diagnosed in males (22% vs 10%. 61% (33% had a history of previous attempted suicides. The presence of clinically relevant organic diseases was observed in 24.9% of the sample.

  6. Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

    2014-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43‧N; 46° 40‧E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

  7. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

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    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context. Keywords: Adaptability, English Teaching, Intercultural Sensitivity

  8. A multi-decadal assessment of the performance of gauge- and model-based rainfall products over Saudi Arabia: Climatology, anomalies and trends

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2015-05-15

    Many arid and semi-arid regions have sparse precipitation observing networks, which limits the capacity for detailed hydrological modelling, water resources management and flood forecasting efforts. The objective of this work is to evaluate the utility of relatively high-spatial resolution rainfall products to reproduce observed multi-decadal rainfall characteristics such as climatologies, anomalies and trends over Saudi Arabia. Our study compares the statistical characteristics of rainfall from 53 observatories over the reference period 1965-2005, with rainfall data from six widely used gauge-based products, including APHRODITE, GPCC, PRINCETON, UDEL, CRU and PREC/L. In addition, the performance of three global climate models (GCMs), including CCSM4, EC-EARTH and MRI-I-CGCM3, integrated as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), was also evaluated. Results indicate that the gauge-based products were generally skillful in reproducing rainfall characteristics in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the gauge-based products were also able to capture the annual cycle, anomalies and climatologies of observed data, although significant inter-product variability was observed, depending on the assessment metric being used. In comparison, the GCM-based products generally exhibited poor performance, with larger biases and very weak correlations, particularly during the summertime. Importantly, all products generally failed to reproduce the observed long-term seasonal and annual trends in the region, particularly during the dry seasons (summer and autumn). Overall, this work suggests that selected gauge-based products with daily (APHRODITE and PRINCETON) and monthly (GPCC and CRU) resolutions show superior performance relative to other products, implying that they may be the most appropriate data source from which multi-decadal variations of rainfall can be investigated at the regional scale over Saudi Arabia. Discriminating these skillful products is

  9. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants. PMID:27613289

  10. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.

  11. Deficiencies under plenty of sun: Vitamin D status among adults in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

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    Marwa Tuffaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  12. Prevalence and pattern of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among edentulous patients of Saudi Arabia

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    AlZarea BK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bader K AlZarea Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Al Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: The most remarkable exostoses of the human jaws are torus palatinus (TP and torus mandibularis (TM. The aim of the present study was to actuate the prevalence of TP and TM in relation to age and sex among the edentulous patients of Saudi Arabia.  Methods: The present study included 847 edentulous subjects (458 men and 389 women aged between 51 and 79 years. The subjects were examined for the existence of tori by clinical inspection and palpation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version.  Results: Among the 847 subjects, 149 (17.59% had either TP or TM. Sixty six (7.79% subjects had TP, whereas 83 (9.80% had TM. The maximum percentage (36.36% of tori was observed in the age-group of 60–69 years. The percentage of males with either tori was higher (19.0% when compared to females (15.94%. According to shape, the occurrence of flat-shaped TP (57.58% and bilateral solitary TM (39.76% was more common.  Conclusion: No significant difference in the presence of tori with respect to sex and age was observed. A comparatively increased prevalence of TP and TM was however observed, and this should be taken into consideration while planning for prosthodontic and periodontal therapy in these patients. Keywords: edentulous, prevalence, torus mandibularis, torus palatinus

  13. Sino-European Transcontinental Basic and Clinical High-Tech Acupuncture Studies—Part 2: Acute Stimulation Effects on Heart Rate and Its Variability in Patients with Insomnia

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    Gerhard Litscher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This second part of a series of Sino-European high-tech acupuncture studies describes the first clinical transcontinental teleacupuncture measurements in patients with insomnia. Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV measurements in 28 patients (mean age ± SD: 41.9 ± 14.6 years were performed under standardized conditions in Harbin, China, and the data analysis was performed in Graz, Austria. Similar to the first part of the series, the electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded by an HRV Medilog AR12 system during acupuncture of the Shenmen point (HT7 on the left hand. HR decreased significantly (P<0.001 during and after acupuncture stimulation of the HT7 acupuncture point. Total HRV increased significantly (P<0.05 immediately after acupuncture stimulation, but there was no long-lasting effect. The values of the low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF band increased significantly after the stimulation compared to baseline values; however, the LF/HF ratio showed no significant changes. Together with the results of previous studies, the present results can serve as a solid basis for further development of acupressure or acupuncture stimulation equipment for complementary use in treating insomnia.

  14. Too costly to matter: Economics of nuclear power for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: • Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. • A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. • There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. • Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation

  15. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  16. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  17. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  18. Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Mahfouz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users. In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females (aOR = 3.081, 95% CI: 2.004–4.739. Similarly, parental history of tobacco use was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR = 1.540, 95% CI: 1.040–2.278. Among current users, 89.9% were interested in quitting and 66.1% tried before to quit. The prevalence of smoking among HCWs in the present study, besides being a public health problem, represents a potential barrier in involving this group as a first line for tobacco control. There is a need for a national intervention programme in the country in a tailored manner for HCWs to control tobacco use parallel to the running national program for public. These interventions should begin early in basic medical education and to be applied continually during one’s medical career.

  19. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

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    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  20. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  1. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  2. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Alhababy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.

  4. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  5. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A Saeed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Saudi adults aged 15- 64 years selected by stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling technique. Lipid profiles (cholesterol categories and triglycerides were determined spectrophotometrically by colorimetric biochemical methods. Obesity was determined by calculation of body mass index (BMI=Kg/m2, waist and hip circumferences and ratio and waist to height ratio.Results: the overall prevalence of obesity ranged from 33.8 to 44.4 % and the overall dyslipidemia prevalence ranged from about 25 to 44% depending on type of dyslipidemia and anthropometrics used. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and mean concentration of lipids profile were generally significantly higher in obese than non obese. The indicator waist/height ratio was the significant predictor for all types of dyslipidemia and all levels of serum lipids.Conclusions: the prevalence dyslipidemia and obesity are high and they are positively associated. Waist/height ratio was the most important predictor of dyslipidemia among adults.

  6. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  7. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  8. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document

  9. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, pmodel is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  10. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  11. Causes of Contractors’ Failure in Industrial Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at identifying and assessing the main causes of contractors’ failure in industrial projects in Saudi Arabia. 24 causes were identified from the literature for assessment by owners, contractors and subcontractors. These causes were classified under five categories, namely managerial causes, financial causes, growth causes, environmental causes and uncontrollable causes. A survey of 36 participants was conducted. Data was collected from 15 owners, 11 contractors and 10 subcontractors. The results indicated that lack of experience in the business field, war, poor project management, poor cost estimation, unavailability of stationed project leader at site, neglect and type of the contract are the most severe causes behind contractor’s failure in construction projects. The rank correlation coefficient indicated that there is a high level of agreement among owners, contractors and subcontractors on the severity of the different failure causes. The research provides a severity of the ranking of the different causes of failure so that mitigation measures could be developed to avoid them or lessen their effects.

  12. Behaviour of Clinical, Anthropometric and Laboratory Variables in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Comportamiento de variables clínicas, antropométricas y de laboratorio en pacientes con síndrome metabólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Peña Pérez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing patients with metabolic syndrome is important because of the high prevalence and risk they present. Objective: to determine the behaviour of some clinical, anthropometric and laboratory variables in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. The sample included 161 patients selected at random in different research stages from a universe including all the patients who attended six different consultations in Urbano Noris municipality, Holguín, from September 2008 to June 2009. Diagnosis was performed according to the ATP-III. Variance analysis and Fisher's exact test in SPSS (α = 0.05 were applied. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 103: 63.97% presented values over average weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and glucose. Their HDL levels were lower. A significant association between metabolic syndrome and CRP, microalbuminuria, alterations in blood sugar levels and hypertension was proved. Conclusions: The importance of characterizing the metabolic syndrome for future interventions was determined.Fundamento: la detección de pacientes con síndrome metabólico es importante debido a la elevada prevalencia y riesgo que presentan. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de algunas variables clínicas, antropométricas y de laboratorio en pacientes con síndrome metabólico. Métodos: estudio descriptivo que incluyó 161 pacientes seleccionados por un muestreo polietápico aleatorio por conglomerados, de un universo comprendido por los pacientes atendidos desde septiembre del 2008 hasta junio del 2009 en seis consultorios de los municipios Urbano Noris y Holguín. El diagnóstico del síndrome se realizó de acuerdo al ATP-III. Se aplicó el análisis de varianza y

  13. Improvement critical care patient safety: using nursing staff development strategies, at Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuni, Enas M; Bayoumi, Magda M

    2015-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) provide lifesaving care for the critically ill patients and are associated with significant risks. Moreover complexity of care within ICUs requires that the health care professionals exhibit a trans-disciplinary level of competency to improve patient safety. This study aimed at using staff development strategies through implementing patient safety educational program that may minimize the medical errors and improve patient outcome in hospital. The study was carried out using a quasi experimental design. The settings included the intensive care units at General Mohail Hospital and National Mohail Hospital, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from March to June 2012. A convenience sample of all prevalent nurses at three shifts in the aforementioned settings during the study period was recruited. The program was implemented on 50 staff nurses in different ICUs. Their age ranged between 25-40 years. Statistically significant relation was revealed between safety climate and job satisfaction among nurses in the study sample (p=0.001). The years of experiences in ICU ranged between one year 11 (16.4) to 10 years 20 (29.8), most of them (68%) were working in variable shift, while 32% were day shift only. Improvements were observed in safety climate, teamwork climate, and nurse turnover rates on ICUs after implementing a safety program. On the heels of this improvement; nurses' total knowledge, skills and attitude were enhanced regarding patient safety dimensions. Continuous educational program for ICUs nursing staff through organized in-service training is needed to increase their knowledge and skills about the importance of improving patient safety measure. Emphasizing on effective collaborative system also will improve patient safety measures in ICUS. PMID:25716409

  14. Customer Satisfaction and Brand Switching Intention: A Study of Mobile Services in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ABDEL HAMID SALEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate first, the relationship between the customer satisfaction and brand switching intention into the Saudi Arabian mobile-service market, and second, the association of service quality, customer service, service pricing, and value-added services with the customer satisfaction. Because of the difficulty of having a frame for the mobile-service customers from their providers, a convenience sample of 350 online respondents with the proper surveying techniques was used in data analysis and testing of the research hypotheses. The findings of the study confirm a significant negative relationship between customer satisfaction and brand switching intention. A 4% percent of the change in brand switching intention could be explained by the change in the customer satisfaction. Only three variables; customer service, service pricing, and service quality are critical determinants for mobile-service customer satisfaction. Customer service explained about 22%, whereas service pricing and service quality explained about 5% and 1% of the change in customer satisfaction respectively. The practical value of this study could be enabling the mobile-service providers in Saudi Arabia to well understand the determinants of the customer satisfaction and its negative relationship with brand switching intention. They may take these findings into account when setting marketing strategies to differentiate their brands to satisfy the customer needs and wants, to retain the existing customers and to attract new customers. These strategies have a positive effect on the company’s customer satisfaction that deter brand switching intention, hence increase the company’s competitiveness, market share and profitability.

  15. Adoption of Mobile Banking in Saudi Arabia : An Emprical Evaluation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman N. Alkhaldi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the adoption of mobile banking practices in Saudi Arabia. It focuses on the existence of sufficient infrastructure, and the possible challenges that m-banking services may face. Also, discovers the potential opportunities in the country. A sample of banks in Saudi Arabia was surveyed via questionnaire, with a particular focus on the staff in the related IT departments. The findings demonstrate that although m-banking is believed to be important, there is a general lack of awareness, and it is still not widely accepted by the public. M-banking services provided should be easier to use and offer more security to its users. Furthermore, findings reveal that cooperation among the concerned parties is currently not extensive. From this, the researcher recommends that governing regulations and policies should be properly identified and put in place, and proposes that banking decision-makers in Saudi Arabia should reevaluate their bank’s strategic plans.

  16. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Alsayeqh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

  17. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42% and 180 females (58%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of the study group was 421 μg/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 μg/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 μg/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  18. Organ Donation From Deceased Donors: A Proactive Detection Program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad; Attar, Besher; Ibrahim, Amal; Alsayyari, Abdulla

    2015-11-01

    Several challenging obstacles remain to increasing the number of organ donations from deceased patients in a hospital setting. These include medical, administrative, and ethical issues. Possible medical obstacles include the failure of early recognition of possible donors and inadequate care of potential and actual donors. To maximize the use of donated organs, proper care of the donors and expedited donor consent cannot be overemphasized. The care rendered to patients should ensure appropriate perfusion and nutrition of the organs, with meticulous follow-up until organ recovery. For example, patients involved in accidents are presumed to be healthy, but many have no available medical history on file. At the time of organ recovery, unexpected infections or malignancies can be minimized by raising the index of suspicion of the presence of serious conditions in donors, especially in donors with unknown medical history. A careful physical examination and an appropriate and aggressive laboratory investigation may disclose the cause of suspected clinical conditions in these potential donors. Individuals who work in intensive care units are the main group of health care providers directly involved in the process of organ donation. Appointing a donor coordinator in each intensive care unit could improve all aspects of organ donation. Such coordination could harmonize efforts toward the goals mentioned above and surmount the obstacles encountered during deceased-donor organ donation. Here, we describe the preliminary results of the Proactive Detection Program, a collaboration between the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation (the national organ donation and transplant supervising center) and intensive care units of donating hospitals. With its success in Saudi Arabia, it is hoped that it will be widely adopted in other regions. PMID:26640899

  19. Origin and development of forensic medicine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madani, Osama Mohamed; Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Al Moghannam, Salah Ali; Moulana, Ashraf Abdul Raheem

    2012-06-01

    The medicolegal death investigation system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unique in the world. It is exclusively derived from Islamic judiciary based on Shari'ah law, which is the definitive Islamic law or doctrine. This law is applied on Saudi citizens as well as foreigners. This is different from other Islamic countries, which have a combination of Islamic and other judiciary systems.The forensic medicine centers in KSA are related administratively to the Ministry of Health (MOH) and its subdivisions in the different governorates. They are concerned with forensic medical examination and autopsy, as well as the clinical forensic medical examination of sexual assault cases, and those injured in civil and criminal cases. The assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology, forensic chemistry) are working independently under the funding of MOH, whereas the DNA laboratory and other departments of forensic sciences, for example, counterfeiting and forgery unit are related administratively to the Ministry of Interior represented by the Administration of Criminal Evidences. Efforts concerning crime scene investigations are shared with Administration of Criminal Evidences' crime scene investigators.Forensic medicine education in KSA developed in the past few years after the foundation of Saudi specialty certificate in forensic medicine. The certificate is a postgraduation qualification equivalent to a doctorate degree in forensic medicine and requires completion of a 4-year training program in both MOH- and Ministry of Interior-related departments, as well as passing annual evaluation and examination.This review is aimed at providing in the next decade the medicolegal centers with national forensic specialists throughout the kingdom and granting skillful headships for the next generations. Moreover, this review suggests more scientific associations with the academic universities in the various fields of forensic sciences through academic

  20. The role of biobanks in elucidating prevalent genetic diseases in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeid, Adila Salih; AlAbdudlkarim, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Biobanking entails large-scale collection of human biological specimens that are linked to the donors' health and personal information, and has several applications in clinical research. Human biological specimens, such as blood, urine and tissue, have become immensely important to medical research: they offer a valuable source of genetic material that researchers can use to identify disease-associated genetic variation and to determine interactions between genes and environmental factors. Identification of genetic contributions to disease can lead to the development of new diagnostic tests and targeted treatments. Over the last decade, both common diseases and rare genetic disorders have been reported in Saudi Arabia. The need to generate extensive genetic data on these diseases has led to the establishment of several Saudi Arabian biobanks. Fortunately, these vital efforts have the support of the Saudi Government and researchers. However, the success of any biobank also requires public support and the willingness of the population to donate their biological material along with information on their medical records. Thus, the Saudi public needs to be informed of the benefits of maintaining biobanks, their participation needs to be encouraged through donation of biological material, and any public concerns regarding the confidential treatment of medical data need to be addressed. This article reviews the most common genetic diseases identified in the Saudi population, it describes biobanks and it examines how biobanks can support biomedical research in the area. Moreover, this article proposes measures that might help to increase public awareness of biobanks and the preparedness of the Saudi Arabian population to donate biological material. PMID:27594298

  1. Seasonal changes in group size and composition of Arabian sand gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica Thomas, 1897 during a period of drought in central western Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Low CUNNINGHAM; Torsten WRONSKI

    2011-01-01

    Group size variations of the Arabian sand gazelle Gazella subgutturosa marica were studied during a period of drought at the Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area in central western Saudi Arabia. Significant differences in median group sizes were observed between all seasons except summer. Single animals were observed mainly during summer while group sizes exceeding 10 individuals were observed mainly during winter. Solitary male and female groups were typically observed during winter and mixed groups mainly during the autumn rutting period. Most mixed groups were two to four times larger during winter than summer. The adult sex ratio (male: female) for all seasons combined was in parity and highest during autumn (1:1.23),probably as a result of prolonged drought conditions. The variability in group structure related to environmental conditions may be one factor permitting G s. Marica to adapt to hyper-arid habitats and climatic regimes in central western Saudi Arabia. The value of continuous monitoring of the gazelle population is emphasised for this drought prone region.

  2. Species on the rocks: Systematics and biogeography of the rock-dwelling Ptyodactylus geckos (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) in North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Červenka, Jan; Crochet, Pierre-André; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Wilms, Thomas; Geniez, Philippe; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Brito, José C; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the diversity of species in the Palearctic and the processes that have generated it is still weak for large parts of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia. Reptiles are among their most remarkable representatives, with numerous groups well adapted to the diverse environments. The Ptyodactylus geckos are a strictly rock-dwelling genus with homogeneous morphology distributed across mountain formations and rocky plateaus from the western African ranges in Mauritania and the Maghreb to the eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, with an isolated species in southern Pakistan. Here, we use a broad sampling of 378 specimens, two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (c-mos, MC1R, ACM4, RAG2) markers in order to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus and place its diversification in a temporal framework. The results reveal high levels of intraspecific variability, indicative of undescribed diversity, and they do not support the monophyly of one species (P. ragazzii). Ptyodactylus species are allopatric across most of their range, which may relate to their high preference for the same type of structural habitat. The onset of their diversification is estimated to have occurred in the Late Oligocene, while that of several deep clades in the phylogeny took place during the Late Miocene, a period when an increase in aridification in North Africa and Arabia initiated.

  3. A retrospective observational study of functional outcomes, length of stay, and discharge disposition after an inpatient stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Mawajdeh, Hussam; Vennu, Vishal; Alhaidary, Hisham

    2016-08-01

    Functional outcomes, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition have become frequent outcome measures among stroke patients after rehabilitation programs. To examine the trends of changes in functional outcomes, LOS, and discharge disposition in stroke patients discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation facility.All patients (n = 432) were admitted to a tertiary inpatient rehabilitation hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with stroke diagnoses from November 2008 to December 2014. The functional independence measure (FIM) instrument used to assess the patient's functional status. The LOS was measured as the number of days the patients spent in the hospital from the day of admission to the day of discharge. The FIM efficiency was used to measure the patient's rehabilitation progress. All of the variables of the prospectively collected data were retrospectively analyzed.There were significant changes by years in the total FIM ranging from 23 to 29 (P stroke rehabilitation program between 2008 and 2014 even with a constant LOS. Discharge disposition has remained unstable over this period. To improve the efficiency of the stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia, there is a need to decrease the LOS and emphasize a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach.

  4. Clinical and Patient-Related Variables Associated with Initiating GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Primary Care in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Qiao

    Full Text Available To investigate real-world clinical and patient-related variables associated with initiating GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA treatment relative to initiation of other glucose-lowering therapies in type 2 diabetes (T2D patients of primary care in Germany.Data for 938 T2D patients who started therapy with a GLP-1RA within 823 practices of primary care throughout Germany were retrospectively analyzed (Disease Analyser: 01/2011-03/2014. 5,197 T2D patients who initiated other non-GLP-1RA antidiabetic therapies were selected as controls. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with GLP-1RA initiation in primary care.Mean age (SD of GLP-1RA users was 57.8 (11.8 years (males: 55.5% and the average BMI was 36.1 (6.7 kg/m2. 22.8% were in diabetologist care and 12.0% had private health insurance. In multivariate regression, choice of GLP-1RA therapy instead of a different glucose-lowering drug class was associated with obesity (odds ratio: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.34-2.10, private health insurance (2.42; 1.89-3.09, younger age (0.94; 0.93-0.95 per year, male sex (0.85; 0.73-0.99, diabetologist care (2.11; 1.73-2.57, and geographic practice location (East vs. West-Germany; 1.25; 1.05-1.49. Among co-medication, angiotensin II antagonists (increased and non-steroidal antirheumatic agents (decreased were related to GLP-1RA prescriptions (both p<0.001.Consistent with German guidelines, GLP-1RA is mainly prescribed preferentially in T2D patients who are obese. GLP-1RA drugs were more frequently used than other options in privately health insured patients and in patients seeing a diabetologist.

  5. Effect of dyspnea and clinical variables on the quality of life and functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hale Karapolat; Sibel Eyigor; Alev Atasever; Mehdi Zoghi; Sanem Nalbantgil; Berrin Durmaz

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and congestive heart failure(CHF)are two chronic diseases that affect negatively the functional condition and quality of life of patients.We assessed the effect of symptoms and clinical variables on the functional capacity and quality of life in COPD and CHF patients.Methods The study included 42 COPD and 39 CHF patients.In both patient groups,dyspnea was assessed using Borg scale;functional capacity by shuttle-walk and cardiopulmonary exercise test and quailty of life by short fOrm-36 (SF36).Results No statistically significant difference was found in neither of the two disease groups regarding the dyspnea score,shuttle-walk test and the maiority of subgroup scores of SF36 (P>0.05).A statistically significant difference was obsewed in peak VO2 in favor of COPD group(P<0.05).No significant relationship was established between dyspnea score and forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1)in COPD patients,and left ventricular ejection fraction(L.VEF)in CHF patients (P>0.05).A significant negative correlation was obsewed between dyspnea score and functional capacity tests in both disease groups(P<0.05).On the other hand,no relationship was found between L-VEF and FEV1 and quailty of life and functional capacity (P>0.05),Conclusions It was revealed that symptoms have an impact on functional capacity and quality of life in both disease groups,however,objective indicators of disease severity do not show a similar relationship.Therefore,in addition to the objective data related to the disease,we recommend that symptoms should also be taken into consideration to assess cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program and during following-up.

  6. The association of human leukocyte antigen B27 with anterior uveitis in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawazeer AM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Bawazeer,1,2 Heba Ismail Joharjy1 1Uveitis Services, Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University, 2Magrabi Eye and Ear Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: The association of human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27 with anterior uveitis is well known. The prevalence of HLA-B27 and its relation to anterior uveitis is related to race and geographic location. The association is strongest in Western countries and weakest in Eastern countries. Data regarding this association from Middle Eastern countries are limited. Thus, we undertook the study reported here to evaluate the association of HLA-B27 with anterior uveitis in patients in a tertiary center in the western region of the Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of patients with anterior uveitis, referred to the uveitis clinic in Magrabi Eye and Ear Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from 1999 to 2010. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing was analyzed. Results: Among the 587 cases of uveitis, 335 (57.1%; mean age 37.56±12.82 years; 203 male and 132 female cases were of anterior uveitis. All patients with anterior uveitis were investigated for HLA-B27 positivity. Idiopathic anterior uveitis was the most common (80%, followed by Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis (7.45% and ankylosing spondylitis (3.8%. Only two patients were HLA-B27 positive. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing was found to be 165,000 Saudi riyals (44,594 US dollars per positive case. Conclusion: HLA-B27-related uveitis appears to be very rare in our part of the world. Idiopathic uveitis is the most common type of anterior uveitis. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B27 testing is low for patients with anterior uveitis in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: HLA-B27, Saudi population, cost-effectiveness, idiopathic anterior uveitis, Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis, ankylosing spondylitis

  7. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Alsayeqh; shawkat mohamed fathi

    2012-01-01

    There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3), most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 %) suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and...

  8. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  9. Prevalence and Pattern of Refractive Errors among Primary School Children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah Al; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Ataur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5–15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were sel...

  10. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  11. Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Almushait, Mona A.; Dajem, Saad M. Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M.; Eskandar, Mamdoh A.; Al Azraqi, Tarik A.; Makhlouf, Laila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent...

  13. Increased cesarean section rate in Central Saudi Arabia: a change in practice or different maternal characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri HM; Al-Anazi SA; Tamim HM

    2015-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Sultana A Al-Anazi,1 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, 2College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Cesarean section (CS) rate has shown creepy increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. T...

  14. Changed priorities in the Gulf: Saudi Arabia and the Emirates rethink their relationship with Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are likely to scale back noticeably on their generous financial gifts to Egypt under its President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. In the one year that King Salman has ruled Saudi Arabia, the kingdom has improved relations with the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization the Egyptian regime portrays as the source of all evil. Riyadh’s overriding priority is now to stem Iran’s influence in the region, particularly in Yemen and Syria. However, in Syria especial...

  15. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {10accent="true">1¯3}, and less frequently along {10accent="true">1¯1} and {10accent="true">1¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {10accent="true">1¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  16. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath Africa and Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed Abdalla

    In spite of numerous studies, the mechanisms for the rifting, uplifting, and volcanism on the African plate remain enigmatic. The most popular hypotheses proposed for explaining these tectonic phenomena involve edge-driven small-scale mantle convection and the thermal or dynamic effects of one or more mantle plumes. In this study we use continental scale shear-wave splitting (SWS) measurements to provide additional constraints on the various models of rifting, uplifting, and volcanism of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the Arabian plate. The splitting of P-to-S converted phases at the core-mantle boundary on the receiver side (XKS including PKS, SKKS, and SKS) is one of the most effective approaches to constrain convective mantle flow patterns. A robust procedure involving automatic and manual batch processing to reliably assess and objectively rank shear-wave splitting parameters were used. The resulting 1532 pairs of splitting parameters show a NNE dominated fast direction. Spatial distribution of the splitting parameters in the CVL and Arabia is not consistent with the edge-driven small-scale mantle convection hypothesis, the mantle plume hypothesis, fossil fabrics formed by past tectonic events, or the fabric-forming process due to the absolute plate motion relative to the deep mantle. The research suggests that the progressive thinning of the lithosphere through basal erosion by the flow leads to decompression melting is responsible for the formation of the CVL, and olivine lattice preferred orientation in the upper asthenosphere associated with the northward motion of the African plate since 150 Ma, most likely causes the observed anisotropy across the Red Sea.

  17. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms

  18. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p<0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  19. Numerical simulation diagnostics of a flash flood event in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Ahmad

    On 26 January 2011, a severe storm hit the city of Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The storm resulted in heavy rainfall, which produced a flash flood in a short period of time. This event caused at least eleven fatalities and more than 114 injuries. Unfortunately, the observed rainfall data are limited to the weather station at King Abdul Aziz International airport, which is north of the city, while the most extreme precipitation occurred over the southern part of the city. This observation was useful to compare simulation result even though it does not reflect the severity of the event. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University was used to study this storm event. RAMS simulations indicted that a quasi-stationary Mesoscale convective system developed over the city of Jeddah and lasted for several hours. It was the source of the huge amount of rainfall. The model computed a total rainfall of more than 110 mm in the southern part of the city, where the flash flood occurred. This precipitation estimation was confirmed by the actual observation of the weather radar. While the annual rainfall in Jeddah during the winter varies from 50 to 100 mm, the amount of the rainfall resulting from this storm event exceeded the climatological total annual rainfall. The simulation of this event showed that warm sea surface temperature, combined with high humidity in the lower atmosphere and a large amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) provided a favorable environment for convection. It also showed the presence of a cyclonic system over the north and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, and a subtropical anti-cyclone over Northeastern Africa that contributed to cold air advection bringing cold air to the Jeddah area. In addition, an anti-cyclone (blocking) centered over east and southeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Arabian Sea produced a low level jet over the southern

  20. Agreement between the DAS28-CRP assessed with 3 and 4 variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents in the daily clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2013-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score-28-C-reactive Protein 4 [DAS28-CRP(4)] composite measure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on 4 variables: tender and swollen joint counts, CRP, and patient global assessment. DAS28-CRP(3) includes only 3 variables, because patient global assessment has been omitted...

  1. The Barriers to the Use of ICT in Teaching in Saudi Arabia: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mulhim, Ensaf

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports some of the reasons behind the low use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by teachers. The paper has reviewed a number or studies from different parts of the world and paid greater attention to Saudi Arabia. The literature reveals a number of factors that hinder teachers' use of ICT. This paper will focus on lack…

  2. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  3. The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

  4. The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

  5. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems. PMID:26807884

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  7. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  8. 77 FR 53959 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Roads of Arabia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Roads of Arabia: Archaeology and the... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Roads of...

  9. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  10. An Exploration of E-Learning Benefits for Saudi Arabia: Toward Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…

  11. The costs of energy : impact on gaseous industry in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is an answer, in political terms, to the question : what are, for a petroleum and natural gas exporter country (Saudi Arabia), the data and priorities to take into consideration for the use of natural gas in electric power and industrial development ? (O.L.)

  12. Barriers for setting up a pulmonary rehabilitation program in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed E Alsubaiei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a worrisome lack of knowledge regarding content and benefits of PR programs among Saudi health care providers treating COPD patients. These findings imply that improving awareness and increasing education of the health care providers regarding PR will be required before PR can be more widely implemented as an integral treatment modality for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  14. Prevalence of the Emotional (Emo) Subculture among University Students in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…

  15. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  16. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  17. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  18. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  19. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  20. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  1. Barriers to Accountability Implementation in the Education Directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the barriers to accountability implementation in the education directorates and to know the suggestions for applying accountability in the education directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the study members' point of view. For the purpose of achieving the objectives and procedures of the study, the descriptive…

  2. Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

  3. Women in dentistry: A perspective on major universities in Saudi Arabia. Part 1: Historical background

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, Randa E.; Babgi, Amani A.

    2009-01-01

    As the works of females have been present in many fields of our lives, the history mentions little trace of these facts. The field of dentistry was among these professions. This paper will review the presence of dental practice by women world wide and will present a review of dentistry in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Clinical characteristics of common variable immunodeficiency disease%普通变异型免疫缺陷病临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林连君; 宋一楠; 王禹川; 张晓琳; 周国鹏; 宋以信

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical characteristics of common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) and enhance the awareness of this disease so as to reduce the missing diagnosis or delayed diagnosis .METHODS The clinical data of 5 patients with confirmed CVID who were treated in the Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed ,including the clinical laboratory examinations and treatment .RESULTS Of the 5 patients with confirmed CVID ,the median age of onset of the disease was 5 years old ,the conformed median age was 15 years old ,and the median age from the onset to the confirmation was 6 .5 years .The fever was the major symptom for the first diagnosis ,including 5 cases of pneumonia ,2 cases of sinusitis ,2 cases of gastrointestinal tract infec-tions ,1 case of acute otitis media ,1 case of keratitis ,1 case of viral meningitis ,and 2 cases of bronchiectasis .The median level of serum IgG was 2 .2 g/L ,the serum IgA less than 0 .1 g/L ,the serum IgM 0 .1 g/L ;the level of CD3 - /CD19 +B cell was decreased by 1 .0% to 3 .1% ,and the CD3 + T cell ranged between 86 .0% and 91 .4% .All the patients received the intravenous gamma globulin treatment and anti-inflammatory therapy ,and the clinical symptoms were improved .CONCLUSION The recurrent infection is the salient manifestation of the patients with CVID ,the respiratory system and digestive system are the common infection sites .It is of significant value for the diagnosis to detect the level of serum immunoglobulin and analyze the lymphocytes subsets .%目的:探讨普通变异型免疫缺陷病(CVID)的临床特点,增加临床医师对该病的认识,以减少漏诊和延迟诊断的发生。方法回顾性分析北京大学第一医院2000年1月-2013年11月确诊的5例CVID患者的临床资料、实验室检查和治疗。结果确诊CVID患者5例,起病中位年龄为5岁,确诊中位年龄为15岁,发病到确诊的中位时间为6.5年;首次就诊的主要症

  5. Effect of gender difference in management of heart failure patients in Aseer, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S Assiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure (HF is a common medical problem with a high impact on public health. Evidence of gender difference in management of HF is scarce. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the presence of gender difference in management of HF patients admitted to the tertiary care hospital in the Aseer region/Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A chart review was conducted at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH on consecutive patients admitted with the primary diagnosis of HF between Jun 2007 and May 2009. Data were collected on clinical and management profiles and analyzed for the presence of gender difference in HF management. Results: A total of 206 male patients and 94 female patients with HF were reviewed. Ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy etiologies were significantly higher in male patients (42.7 vs. 28.7%, P < 0.021 and (13.1% vs. 3.2%, P < 0.008, respectively. Renal failure and atrial fibrillation were significantly higher in female patients with HF (20.2 vs., 5.3% P < 0.001 and (20.2 vs. 10.2%, P < 0.018, respectively. Smoking was significantly higher in male patients (11.7 vs. 0%, P < 0.001. Echocardiography was performed equally for both genders and ejection fraction was significantly higher in female patients (38.2 ± 16.9% vs. 30.4 ± 16.6%, P < 0.001. Beta-blockers were prescribed significantly less to female patients (36.2 vs. 57.8%, P < 0.001, while ACE inhibitors and digoxin were prescribed significantly less to male patients (64.1 vs.75.5%, P < 0.049 and (24.8 vs. 36.2%, P < 0.042, respectively. Conclusion: Gender differences were detected in clinical presentation and management of HF. Female patients with HF had less ischemic etiology and smoking, but more atrial fibrillation and renal dysfunction. Female patients were under-treated by Beta-blockers while male patients were under-treated by ACE inhibitors and digoxin. Both genders were investigated equally, and female patients had a better ejection fraction.

  6. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  7. Hydrogeology of Al-Lith Sabkha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtan, Abdullah A.; Shehata, William M.

    2003-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, coastal sabkhas cover extensive areas along the coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf in addition to the continental sabkhas scattered in many places inland. Al-Lith sabkha is one of the typical coastal sabkhas located along the Red Sea coast. Sabkhas, in general, pose a number of geotechnical problems and need to be carefully investigated before being urbanized. A generalized geologic section in Al-Lith sabkha indicates a salty crust at the surface followed by yellowish brown silt and silty sand, olive gray silt and sandy silt and bottomed by coralline reefal limestone. Within this succession, there are several isolated lenticular bodies of sandy silt, silty sand and shelly silty sand. The clay minerals constituting the fine-grained portion of the soil are, in decreasing order, kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite in addition to minor chlorite. The depth to groundwater in 17 observation wells ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 m with a maximum fluctuation of 0.60 m between summer and winter. The permeability of the top silt layer was found to be very low with an average of 5.4×10 -4 m/day. A pumping test was performed in a deep well penetrating the coralline limestone. The measured permeability is 1.1×10 2 m/day and the estimated storage coefficient is 4×10 -5. Soil water evaporation was measured using a lysimeter constructed with undisturbed soil samples having different depths to the water level. The rate of evaporation ranges from 2.8 to 27.8 ml/day decreasing with an increase in depth to the water level. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their major anions and cations. Salt concentrations show a general increase toward the sea except for the calcium and carbonates that show a landward increase. The groundwater could be classified as a Cl+SO 4 brine. The salinity of the groundwater was determined at different depths in the pumping well and was found to be low in the top 4 m. It sharply increases until it reaches a value approximately 10 times

  8. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole. PMID:22639119

  9. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Khormi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%, covering a total area of 121 km², were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%, covering 133 km², were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%, covering 180 km², were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%, covering 726 km², were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  10. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  11. Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

    In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

  12. Clinical course and variability of non-Rasmussen, nonstroke motor and sensory epilepsia partialis continua: a European survey and analysis of 65 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mameniskiene, Ruta; Bast, Thomas; Bentes, Carla;

    2011-01-01

    To gain new insights into the clinical presentation, causes, treatment and prognosis of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC), and to develop hypotheses to be tested in a prospective investigation.......To gain new insights into the clinical presentation, causes, treatment and prognosis of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC), and to develop hypotheses to be tested in a prospective investigation....

  13. Comparison of the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidities in hepatitis C patients and hepatitis B patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser R AlHuthail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Hepatitis C is a major health concern world-wide and is frequently associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. The most common genotype in Saudi Arabia differs from genotypes prevalent elsewhere and thus we aimed to determine if psychiatric disturbances occur in Saudi patients infected with hepatitis C and whether these symptoms extend to those infected with hepatitis B. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients using the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 and The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaires. Tinnitus patients served as control subjects. The Chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared using the Student′s t-test or the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for skewed data, and correlations were evaluated by calculating Spearman′s rho. The odds ratio was used to determine the association between variables and the likelihood of being a psychiatric case. Results: Hepatitis C patients were twice as likely to be labeled as a psychiatric case compared with hepatitis B patients ( P = 0.01. Age and gender were not predictive factors though there was a non-significant tendency toward a higher prevalence of psychiatric cases among females. Hepatitis C patients also scored lower than hepatitis B patients in 3 domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, indicating a greater reduction in quality of life (QoL. Conclusion: We demonstrate an increased incidence of psychiatric symptoms in Saudi Arabian hepatitis C patients compared to hepatitis B patients and controls. This highlights the importance of collaboration between hepatologists and psychiatrists in order to improve the QoL in this patient group.

  14. Gas Exchange, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Antioxidants as Bioindicators of Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romaine plants were exposed to different levels of urbanization in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. They showed different degrees of visible injury symptoms and dramatic changes in enzymatic activities as well as net photosynthetic rates (PN, variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and stomatal conductance (gs.Visual symptoms of phytotoxicity of heavy metals were observed on plants grown at industrial and urban areas, where the concentrations of metals was about 36 times higher than in other sites. The decrease in chlorophyll reached 70 and 64% in plants cultivated in the industrial and urban regions, while lengths of shoots reduced by 50 and 41% in plants collected from the same locations, respectively. The reduction in chlorophyll and other physiological and biochemical parameters were correlated with the concentrations of airborne pollutants measured in the atmosphere of the locations examined. Moreover, lettuce plants cultivated in the industrial region accumulated more heavy metals than others, which can pass into the human food chain.Photosynthetic efficiency was significantly decreased and lipid peroxidation was enhanced. Antioxidant enzymes were significantly altered during exposure.The biochemical and physiological parameters measured in the present study clearly showed that they could form the basis of a plant biomarkers battery for monitoring and predicting early effects of exposure to airborne heavy metals.

  15. 75 FR 43919 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    .... While the global recession that began in 2008 has presented new economic challenges, Saudi Arabia is... 2020 at an initial cost of US$ 87.8 billion, as part of a public-private partnership strategy led...

  16. Shared clinical decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  17. Water Quality and Planktonic Communities in Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Fathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al- Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. The aim of this research was to study the water characteristics and the planktonic organisms inhibiting Al-Khadoud spring and its irrigational channels for a period of 1 year. Approach: A regular visit was monitoring the spring over a period of 1 year (June 2007 to may 2008. Physico-chemical characteristics of spring water were determined. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of Plankton (Phytoplankton or zooplankton were also investigated. Results: All the water quality variables measured showed considerable seasonal variation. The data of this study showed that there were marked seasonal differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the phytoplankton communities in Al-Khadoud spring and its irrigation canal. The changes in total algal counts throughout the investigation coincided closely with in Chlorophyceae abundance. Thirty six species were identified allover the period of the investigation. Out of these, 9 species belong to Chlorophyceae, 17 belong to Bacillariophyceae, 7 to Cyanophyceae and 3 to Euglenophyceae. Cyclotella meneghiniana Kützing, Nitzschia closterium Ehernberg, Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Surirella ovalis Breb, Actinastrum sp., Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck, Scenedesmus quadriquda Breb, Oscillatoria sp. and Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle were observed in a high rank of occurrence. The phytoplankton crop showed a remarkable increase as compared with the previous records. The data showed that the zooplanktonic fauna identified in this aquatic body is a typical of the permanent freshwater and brackish water. Eleven species were recorded, 5 belonged to Cladoceran, 4 belonged to Rotifera and 2 belonged to Chironomid. Zooplankton

  18. Mentoring Temporal and Spatial Variations in Rainfall across Wadi Ar-Rumah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, T.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-12-01

    Across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the fresh water resources are limited only to those found in aquifer systems. Those aquifers were believed to be recharged during the previous wet climatic period but still receiving modest local recharge in interleaving dry periods such as those prevailing at present. Quantifying temporal and spatial variabilities in rainfall patterns, magnitudes, durations, and frequencies is of prime importance when it comes to sustainable management of such aquifer systems. In this study, an integrated approach, using remote sensing and field data, was used to assess the past, the current, and the projected spatial and temporal variations in rainfall over one of the major watersheds in KSA, Wadi Ar-Rumah. This watershed was selected given its larger areal extent and population intensity. Rainfall data were extracted from (1) the Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP; spatial coverage: global; spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal coverage: January 1979 to April 2015; temporal resolution: monthly), and (2) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; spatial coverage: 50°N to 50°S; spatial resolution: 0.25° × 0.25°; temporal coverage: January 1998 to March 2015; temporal resolution: 3 hours) and calibrated against rainfall measurements extracted from rain gauges. Trends in rainfall patterns were examined over four main investigation periods: period I (01/1979 to 12/1985), period II (01/1986 to 12/1992), period III (01/1993 to 12/2002), and period IV (01/2003 to 12/2014). Our findings indicate: (1) a significant increase (+14.19 mm/yr) in rainfall rates were observed during period I, (2) a significant decrease in rainfall rates were observed during periods II (-5.80 mm/yr), III (-9.38 mm/yr), and IV (-2.46 mm/yr), and (3) the observed variations in rainfall rates are largely related to the temporal variations in the northerlies (also called northwesterlies) and the monsoonal wind regimes.

  19. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  20. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay

    2010-01-01

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their esti...